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3.1.1. Metal sheet for roof covering
3.1.1.1. General description of profile sheets
The sheets used for roof covering are corrugated by cold-forming production roll lines. Bundled
batches of cut-to-size sheet profiles are transported to the site of construction.
Raw material: cold-rolled and hot-dip galvanized steel strips of small thickness:
Ry Rm
Mpa
EN 10147 FeE 250G 250 330 Ry yield point
EN 10147 FeE 350G 350 420 Rm tensile strength
3.0. Roof and Wall Cladding
3.1. Roof cladding systems
Based on the intended use, on the environment of the building and any other relevant aspect,
the most appropriate roofing for a LINDAB hall building can be chosen from among the
following systems:
3.1.2.1.2. LindabEcoroof Assembled sandwich roof system
3.1.2.1.3. LindabToproof Tile-effect assembled sandwich roof system
3.1.2.1.4. LindabQualiroof Folded flat sheet sandwich roof system
3.1.2.1.5. LindabBuiltroof High profiled assembled sandwich roof system
3.1.2.1.6. LindabCasetroof Wall cassette assembled sandwich roof system
3.1.2.2. LindabFlatroof Composition (soft) roofing system
The architect engineer can choose from among options which satisfy even the most fastidious
demand, in terms of roof slope, colours, shapes, surface quality and thermal insulation.
Also the professional completion of roof penetrations (Section 3.1.4) and roof drainage
systems (Section 3.1.5) are discussed in this Chapter.
The different types of roof lights (domes, skylights, transparent sheets) can provide natural
light and/or ventilation for inner spaces (3.1.6).
The lightning protection system (3.1.7) and the roof safety systems (3.1.8) provide indispensable
contribution to the safe operation of the Lindab halls.
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3.1.1.2. Types of Profiled sheets


This chapter describes the types, profile geometry and static design of the available profile
sheets.
Using the purpose software (DIMroof v2.0) developed by Lindab and Budapest Technical
University (BME) for static calculations, roofing profiled sheets can be dimensioned in case of
changing spans and different load types (e.g. linearly changing distributed load, concentrated
load, axial tension force).
Method of corrosion protection
Zinc coat: 275 g/m
2

Plastic coat: 25 micron thick, burned-in polyester coating, designed to resist against
moderately aggressive Class 2 atmospherical effects (characteristic of
the urban areas and the industrial 1. category according to Hungarian
Standard). On the back side a 10 micron thick protective lacquer layer is
applied.
The plastic coat is available according to the following standard and special colors:
RAL 9010 1002 3000 5024 1013 Lindab 777
7035 1023 3011 5010
7011 8017 6021 5001
9005 8004 6003 9006
In addition to the above variety, the following extra colours can be produced, considering the
following conditions:
minimum quantity of order 30 tons
time of delivery 3 months after the receipt of the order
surcharge 20%
Length of the products, depending on their type:
min.: 210 mm
max.: tiled sheet 6,000 mm
LTP/LVP 20 8,000 mm
LTP/LVP 45 10,000 to 13,000 mm
SIN 7,000 mm
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3.1.1.2.1. LTP20 trapezoidal sheet
Cross-sectional parameters
Nominal thickness [mm] 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,7
Design thickness [mm] 0,324 0,417 0,509 0,602 0,602
Positive inertia in SLS [mm
4
/mm] 20 27 34 41 41
Negative inertia in SLS [mm
4
/mm] 15 21 27 32 32
Material properties
Yield point [N/mm
2
] 250 250 250 250 350
Dead weight, with overlapping [kN/m
2
] 0,04 0,05 0,05 0,06 0,06
Cross-sectional resistances (supporting length 40 mm)
Bending moment (positive) [kNm/m] 0,34 0,49 0,65 0,82 1,08
Bending moment (negative) [kNm/m] 0,33 0,48 0,66 0,80 1,09
Crippling, at intermediate support [kN/m] 7,96 12,62 18,09 24,47 28,95
Crippling, at end support [kN/m] 7,96 12,62 18,09 24,47 28,95
Shearing force [kN/m] 15,29 22,23 27,13 32,09 44,93
Walkability
Max. span in case of single span beam [m] 0 0,7 1,2 - 1,8
Max. span in case of two span beam [m] 0 0,9 2,4 - 3,2
Max. span in case of three span beam [m] 0 0,9 2,4 - 3,2
115
Fedszlessg = 1035
65 25
1
8
1.oldal
2.oldal
Data of the design table (LTP20)
Line 1: load-bearing capacity in ULS (no deflection limit)
Line 2: load-bearing capacity in SLS (deflection limit L/200)
Line 3: load-bearing capacity in SLS (deflection limit L/300)
Minimum support width: 40 mm
LTP-20 profile geometry
Covering width = 1035
Side 1
Side 2
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(m)
LTP20 design table
The values shown are load-bearing capacities in kN/m
2
(incl. dead weight)
walka-
bility
(m)
Thick-
ness
(mm)
Dead
weight
(kg/m
2
)
Span (m)
S
i
n
g
l
e

s
p
a
n

b
e
a
m
D
o
u
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l
e

s
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a
n

b
e
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T
r
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a
n

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a
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3.1.1.2.2. LLP 20 trapezoidal sheet
Cross-sectional parameters
Nominal thickness [mm] 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,7
Design thickness [mm] 0,324 0,417 0,509 0,602 0,602
Positive inertia in SLS [mm
4
/mm] 19 27 34 42 41
Negative inertia in SLS [mm
4
/mm] 19 27 34 42 41
Material properties
Yield point [N/mm
2
] 250 250 250 250 350
Dead weight with overlapping [kN/m
2
] 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,07
Cross-sectional resistances (supporting length 40 mm)
Bending moment (positive) [kNm/m] 0,39 0,56 0,76 0,97 1,26
Bending moment (negative) [kNm/m] 0,39 0,56 0,76 0,97 1,26
Crippling, at intermediate support [kN/m] 8,93 14,17 20,32 27,48 32,51
Crippling, at end support [kN/m] 8,93 14,17 20,32 27,48 32,51
Shearing force [kN/m] 16,47 25,56 31,2 36,91 51,67
Walkability
Max. span in case of single span beam [m] 0 0,7 1,2 - 1,8
Max. span in case of two span beam [m] 0 0,9 2,4 - 3,2
Max. span in case of three span beam 0 0,9 2,4 - 3,2
LLP-20 profile geometry
Covering width = 1000
Side 1
Side 2
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3.1.1.2.3. LTP45 trapezoidal sheet


Cross-sectional parameters
Nominal thickness [mm] 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,7
Design sheet thickness [mm] 0,417 0,509 0,602 0,602
Positive inertia in SLS [mm
4
/mm] 136 176 251 208
Negative inertia in SLS [mm
4
/mm] 117 152 218 179
Material properties
Yield point [N/mm
2
] 250 250 250 350
Dead weight, with overlapping [kN/m
2
] 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,07
Cross-sectional resistances (supporting length 40 mm)
Bending moment (positive) [kNm/m] 0,95 1,38 2,21 2,28
Bending moment (negative) [kNm/m] 0,96 1,40 2,15 2,32
Crippling, at intermediate support [kN/m] 8,11 11,63 15,73 18,62
Crippling, at end support [kN/m] 4,06 5,82 7,87 9,31
Shearing force [kN/m] 15,47 24,47 34,23 40,50
Walkability
Max. span in case of single span beam [m] 1,2 2,4 - 3,2
Max. span in case of two span beam [m] 1,8 3,8 - 4,5
Max. span in case of three span beam [m] 1,8 3,8 - 4,5
Fedszlessg = 900
180 77
4
3
47
2.oldal
1.oldal
LTP-45 profile geometry
Covering width = 900
Side 1
Side 2
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LTP45 design table
Data of the design table (LTP45)
Line 1: load-bearing capacity in ULS (no deflection limit)
Line 2: load-bearing capacity in SLS (deflection limit L/200)
Line 3: load-bearing capacity in SLS (deflection limit L/300)
Minimum support width: 40 mm
S
i
n
g
l
e

s
p
a
n

b
e
a
m
D
o
u
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e

s
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n

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r
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m
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Data of the design table (LTP85)


Line 1: allowable load-bearing capacity, with no deflection limit
Line 2: allowable load-bearing capacity, with deflection limit L/200
Line 3: allowable load-bearing capacity, with deflection limit L/300
Support Width: 90 mm (end support)
120 mm (intermediate support)
LTP-85 profile geometry
3.1.1.2.4. LTP85 trapezoidal corrugated sheet
Cross-sectional parameters
Nominal thickness [mm] 0,75 0,88 1,00 1,25
Material properties
Quality of material EN 10147
FeE 320 G
Yield point [N/mm
2
] 320 320 320 320
Dead weight, with overlapping [kN/m
2
] 0,079 0,093 0,105 0,131
Cross-sectional resistances (supporting length 40 mm)
Gross cross-section area A
g
(mm
2
/mm) 0,938 1,110 1,268 1,598
Effective cross-section area A
eff
(mm
2
/mm) 0,418 0,555 0,693 1,019
Moment of inertia of the gross cross-section I
g
(mm
4
/mm) 925 1094 1250 1572
Moment of inertia off the effective cross-section l
eff
, (mm
4
/mm) 849 1038 1217 1572
Walkability
Max. span in case of single span beam [m] 2,5 4,0 4,5 6,0
Max. span in case of two span beam [m] 6,5 10,0 11,5 14,5
Max. span in case of three span beam [m] 6,5 10,0 11,5 14,5
Min. production length L
min
(mm) 1,000
Max. production length L
max
(mm) 13,000
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LTP-85 design table
S
i
n
g
l
e

s
p
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n

b
e
a
m
D
o
u
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l
e

s
p
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e
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T
r
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s
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n

b
e
a
m
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3.1.1.2.5. SIN trapezoidal corrugated sheet


Cross-sectional parameters
Nominal thickness [mm] 0,5 0,6 0,7
Design thickness [mm] 0,417 0,509 0,602
Positive inertia in SLS [mm
4
/mm] 44 54 64
Negative inertia in SLS [mm
4
/mm] 44 54 64
Material properties
Yield point [N/mm
2
] 250 250 250
Dead weight, with overlapping [kN/m
2
] 0,05 0,06 0,07
Cross-sectional resistances (supporting length 40 mm)
Bending moment (positive) [kNm/m] 0,76 0,95 1,15
Bending moment (negative) [kNm/m] 0,76 0,95 1,15
Crippling, at the intermediate support [kN/m] 3,04 4,10 5,27
Crippling, at the end support [kN/m] 3,04 4,10 5,27
Shearing force [kN/m] - - -
Walkability
Max. span in case of single span beam [m] 0,5 0,8 1,5
Max. span in case of two span beam [m] 0,5 1,0 2,0
Max. span in case of three span beam [m] 0,5 1,0 2,0
SIN profile geometry
Covering width = 1000
Side 1
Side 2
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3.1.1.2.6. LPA tile effect sheet
RAL-colours
Polyester TopCoat 50
9010 9010
7035 7035
7011 7011
9005 9005
1013
1002
1023
8017 8017
8004 8004
3000
3011 3011
6021
6003 6003
5024 5024
5010
5001
9006 9006
777 777
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3.1.1.3. PLX flat sheet


The material suitable for erecting folded roofing can be used for covering halls, by fastening it
to the boarding built on the top of purlins. See installation details in Section 3.1.2.1.
The PLX sheet material is sold in coils (79 m/coil).
Sheet thickness: 0.6 mm
Sheet width: 670 mm
Corrosion protection: 275 g/m
2
+ 50 m TopCoat polyestser or alu-zinc.
Available colours: RAL 9010, 7035, 7011, 9005, 1013, 1002, 1023, 8017, 8004
3000, 3011, 6021, 6003, 5024, 5010, 5001, 9006, Lindab 777.
3.1.1.4. Sandwich-panel for roofs
The sandwich (composite) panels, consisting of two layers of metal sheets and heat insulation
infill, are manufactured on continuously operated rolling mills. Sheet bending is followed by
the PUR foam generation process. The metal sheets surface is subjected to special chemical
treatment to ensure firm adhesion of the foam.
The production length is limited by the size of the transport vehicles.
Max. length: 13,000 mm
Min. length: 2,000 mm
Normal thickness range: 25 to 120 mm
Material of roof cover: galvanized steel sheet coated with color polyester layer
The coat consists of: outside: 25 m polyester
inside: 15 m polyester; RAL 9002
Available colors: RAL 9010, 7035, 7011, 9005, 1013, 1002, 1023, 8017, 8004
3000, 3011, 6021, 6003, 5024, 5010, 5001, 9006.
Thermal insulation core: polyurethane foam or mineral wool
Thickness (mm) 30 40 50 60 80
Heat transmission coeff. (W/m
2
K) 0.59 0.46 0.38 0.33 0.25
Dead weight 0,5+0,4 9.24 9.59 9.94 10.29 10.99
(kg/m
2
) 0,6+0,4 10.20 10.55 10.90 11.25 11.95
Cross-section of the roof panel:
The coated surfaces are provided with protective foil by the manufacturer, the foil can be
removed only after installing panel on the supporting structure.
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Remarks:
The table values are derived from design values determined on the basis of laboratory loading
tests. The maximum L span (m) is related to that less value from the one for ultimate limit
state and for serviceability limit state in case of L/200 deflection limit. For use of the table, in the
load combinations the base values should be applied (without safety factors).
In each case, the adequate resistance of the support against the reaction forces and the load-
bearing capacity of the fixing elements should be verified. In the design of the screw fixings,
the temperature difference between the panel layers and the horizontal displacement of the
whole roof structure should be taken into account.
Design table
The table specifies the maximum allowable span (in meters) in the function of thickness (mm),
the applied uniform load (kN/m
2
) and the static model.
L
L L L
p (kN/m
2
) L (m)
30 40 50 60 80
0.6 4.20 4.50 4.75 5.00 5.50
0.8 3.65 3.90 4.10 4.30 4.70
1.0 3.20 3.50 3.65 3.90 4.40
1.2 2.90 3.20 3.35 3.55 3.95
1.5 2.60 2.85 3.00 3.15 3.45
2.0 2.25 2.45 2.60 2.75 3.05
2.5 2.00 2.20 2.30 2.45 2.75
0.6 4.70 5.00 5.30 5.60 6.20
0.8 4.10 4.40 4.60 4.85 5.30
1.0 3.65 3.90 4.10 4.35 4.80
1.2 3.30 3.55 3.75 3.95 4.35
1.5 2.90 3.20 3.35 3.55 3.95
2.0 2.50 2.75 2.90 3.05 3.35
2.5 2.25 2.45 2.60 2.75 3.05
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3.1.2. Heat insulated roof


Thermal insulation shall be designed to meet the requirement specified in the Hungarian
standard MSZ 04.140/2:1991 Building Industry Standards, in compliance with the required
thermal engineering, vapor diffusion and temperature moderation conditions.
Thermal engineering design
The standard specified an average k heat transmission coefficient regarding the entire
building:
The design engineers must determine the value of the k coefficients for each external
structural part that is in direct contact with the outer weather conditions, in order to calculate
the minimum thickness of the insulation layer. Also the effect produced by the heat bridges
shall be taken into consideration.
Calculation of the effects produced by heat bridges in LINDAB cladding systems
The steel structural elements, that are penetrating the heat insulation layers, constitute heat-
conductive material routes, i.e. heat bridges inside the external cladding structures of the hall
building. These highly conductive structural elements generally have very small cross-section
and are distributed along a line. According to heat analyses, the Z-beams located in an isolated
assembled sandwich-panel, shown in the following Figures, can transmit more heat energy
than any other layer of this cladding structure. This additional quantity of heat is expressed as
k
1
line heat transmission coefficient [W/mK

].
600 600
600 600
15-15p 0,147
0,159
1
2
0
2
0
0
1
5
0
20-12p
k
l
(W/mK)
where
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3. Roof and Wall Cladding
The resultant k
e
heat transmission coefficient of the examined surface can be calculated
according to the following formula:
k
e
= k
o
+ k
l
l / A
where:
k
e
= resultant heat transmission coefficient [W/m
2
K

]
k
o
= surface heat transmission coefficient of the part free from heat bridges [W/m
2
K

]
k
1
= line heat transmission coefficient of the heat bridge [W/m K

]
L = length of the heat bridge (m)
A = the surface which the resultant heat transmission coefficient applies to (m
2
)
600 600
600 600
600 600
600 600
0,231
0,152
0,259
0,234
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
5
0
2
0
0
20-12
12-12p
12-12
15-12
k
l
(W/mK)
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3.1.2.1. LindabEcoroof Assembled sandwich-panel


3.1.2.1.1. Building physics requirements
Ventilation must be provided below the upper shell made of trapezoidal or flat steel sheets of
the double-shell assembled sandwich-panel roofs because:
the upper shell acts as a sunshade during the hot summer days. The continuous flow of
air prevents overheating caused by solar radiation.
the air flow sweeps away both the vapor rising from below and any condensate from the
underside surface of the upper shell, i.e. the air flow keeps the heat insulation layer dry.
Vapor engineering design
The difference between the external and internal vapor pressure triggers vapor diffusion inside
the external cladding structures of the building. The structural components of the building
should be designed to prevent that the temperature drop below the dew point in any part of
the building structures. In other words, vapor should not be let to condensate either inside the
building structures or the inside surfaces thereof. Attention must be paid to avoid the creation
of heat bridges. The quantity of vapor penetrating through the building structure:
g =
p - p
i e
R + R + ...
v1 v2
[kg]
R =
v
d
2
mx s x Pa
kg
[ ]
p
i
vapor pressure determined on the
basis of the indoor condition of air
p
e
vapor pressure determined on the
basis of the outdoor condition of air
R
v
vapor diffusion resistance of either
individual structural layer
The vapor pressure differences arising in the layers:
p
1
= g R
v1
p
2
= g R
v2
The vapor pressure diagrams prepared on the basis of the above concept can be analyzed. The
respective standard stipulates requirements regarding the moisture content of the materials.
Capillary condensation and the consequential development of fungi and mildew must be
prevented inside the inner surface layers. The design engineer must consider and analyze the
numerous factors which influence the behavior of the building structures (moisture/humidity
load, frequency of air changes, heat insulation, heating energy demand, the temperature and
sorption characteristics of the inner surface layers) in their complexity.
Temperature attenuation
The structures meant to constitute the outer limits of the building are expected to attenuate the
fluctuation of the outdoor temperature before it radiates in the space inside. The temperature
attenuation coefficient reflects the proportion of temperature fluctuation measured on the
indoor vs. outdoor surfaces of the building. The coefficient must be calculated according to
the instructions provided in the Hungarian standard MSZ 04.140/2:1991 Building Industry
Standards.
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Before making accurate calculations, some empirical findings suggest that:
in the case of roofs whose slope angle is less than 25%, the free cross-section of the air
intake and exit openings is 16 20 cm
2
/ cm
2
per roof floor area.
efficient range of through ventilation: 12 m.
distance between the ventilation openings: 6 m.
In the case of cold roofs, neither the condensation developing on the outer layer should be
neglected. Condensate shall develop if the frequency of air change is less than necessary and
the thermal reaction delay of that layer is insignificant. Since the degree of air change can be
calculated only in respect to power driven systems and the thermal reaction delay of the sheet
profile used to assemble the outer roof shell is negligible, the heat insulation layer must be
protected by LINDAB underlayer of heat-reflecting foil.
Summary of building physics aspects
The application of standard airtight ridge and eave details, which is a very popular approach
among the design engineers and builders, can be used only if the following conditions are met:
the humidity of the internal air space is negligible;
the user permits excessive warming-up of the internal air space in summer.
Otherwise the responsible designer engineer must choose the adequate details that meet the
recommendations specified in the present description, in order to avoid a number of possible
difficulties and damages.
h
d
l
v = 0,3736 + 0,027
h m
l s
[ ]
v = air speed
Principles of vapor protecting design
From the point of view of building physics, the assembled sandwich-panel roof is considered
a double-shell cold roof provided with an air gap. The only purpose of the external shell is to
provide protection from the precipitation and the parching sun. The thermal engineering tasks
are covered by the layers affixed to the lower shell. With proper designing, this structure can
be used to cover spaces permanently subjected to extreme vapor load. The only condition is
that the relative humidity of the air leaving the vented space should not be more than 95%. The
efficiency of air change in the vented space is influenced by four factors:
the waste heat guide by the lower shell,
the difference between the height of the air intake and discharge holes,
the resistance of the air flow route, which depends on the size of the gap (d) and the
length of the route covered (l),
the resistance (i.e. the size) of the inlet and exit openings.
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Ridge ventilation
Ridge ventilation II.
Figure 32: Types of vented ridge details made of LINDAB steel sheets
Ridge ventilation III..
changes depending from
type to type
1. ridge cap
2. footing
3. stiffener / 1.5 m
4. spacer / 0.33m
5. perforated sheet or wire mesh
6. sealing profile
7. retaining strip
8. ventilation comb
< 10 roof of slope
m: 130200 mm
n: 5080 mm
> 10
roof of slope
> 10
roof of slope
r
o
o
f

p
l
a
n
e
r
o
o
f

p
l
a
n
e
r
o
o
f

p
l
a
n
e
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3.1.2.1.2. Order of layers and the materials needed
The LINDAB sheet-metal elements, selected in accordance with the respective static and
construction engineering aspects, are mounted at the site on to the purlin system supported
by primary structure (made of steel, reinforced concrete or glued wooden panels) according to
Section 2.1.4. in order to create a dual-layer sandwich-panel. The layers providing insulation
against heat and vapor and dimensioned in accordance with the building physics calculations
are laminated between the outer and the inner shell. The typical details of the system can be
arranged as shown in Figure 33.
Figure 33/a: Assembled sandwich-panel roof, with skylight near to ridge
Figure 33/b: Vented ridge
LMF
LMF
PVC foil
PVC foil
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LD3T
LL2T
LL2T
LL2T
LD3T
LD3T
LD3T
LD3T
LL2T
LD3T
LD3T
LL2T
LL2T
LD3T
LD3T
Figure 33/d: Eaves without overhang
Figure 33/c: Overhang eaves detail
(max. 500 mm)
LMF
LMF
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In general, the inner shell is made of white LVP20 trapezoidal corrugated sheet used to
build false ceiling of aesthetic appearance and to hold the insulation layers in place.
The 0.1 to 0.3 mm thick vapor-tight PVC foil is applied directly to the inner shell. It is
expedient to use the widest possible coils to create a jointless cover, extended by gluing
where needed, in order to prevent penetration of vapor inside the sandwich structure.
Heat insulation is provided by inserting a glass-wool mat (the number of its Hungarian
Certificate of Adequacy for the Building Industry: A-982/1992.
Designed values of the heat transmission coefficient ()

t
= (1+
1
+
2
+...) [W/mK
o
] where correction factor
In the case of double-shell roof structure with vented air layer, provided with no lamination at
the side of the air layer:
= 0,35 if R
V
< 0,8 10
9
m
2
sPa/kg
= 0,25 if R
V
= (0,8 5,0) 10
9
m
2
sPa/kg
= 0,15 if R
V
> 5,0 10
9
m
2
sPa/kg
When contacting with more than 80% internal relative humidity:
= 0,25 if the glass-wool contacts directly with the air inside
the room/space
= 0,10 if a watertight layer is inserted to prevent the
direct contact
LL2T
LD3T
LL2T
LD3T LD3T
LL2T
LD3T
LD3T LD3T
LL2T
LL2T
Figure 33/e: Overhang gable detail
Systemline
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding

Thermal engineering parameters:


Thermal conductance coefficient = 0,0394 W/m K
e
= 12;
i
= 8
Vapor diffusion coefficient: = (0,05 0,08) 10
-9
Thermal resistance R (m
2
K/W) Type
2,04 WDF10
2,45 WDF12
2,86 WDF14
3,27 WDF16
Flammability:
In compliance with the Hungarian standard MSZ 14800-2:1994, the material is incombustible
(Category A2), does not drip when in flame, accompanied by slight smoke generation.
The underlying foil is provided with heat-reflecting coat and is spread under the purlins.
Its bottom surface absorbs water vapor and, at the same time, vapor can diffuse through
its micro-perforated layer. Simultaneously, it constitutes a secondary system of drainage
of precipitation from the roof.
Underlying foil
The foil consists of felted artificial fiber and a plastic coat film applied to it. In accordance with the
intended use, the plastic coat film contains proper additives (e.g. light reflecting and stabilizing
components). The foil is water impermeable, helps to drain water and is, simultaneously,
permeable to air. Its micro-porous coat lets the hydrostatic pressure and vapor pressure
equalize slowly and, therefore acts like the breathing textiles used in the garment industry.
In addition to its high mechanical strength, the foil is a sound-absorbing, heat-insulating and
heat-reflecting material. Its vapor-pressure equalizing property ensures maintenance of dry
and warm climate inside the protected space. Its heat-insulating property can be attributed to
three factors:
the felt layer is an efficient insulating material
the closed air gap insulates effectively
the silvery heat-reflector prevents heat from entering or escaping.
Material properties:
Thickness 1.41 mm
Weight 213 g/m
2

Coil width 1.30 m
Coil length 50.0 m
Vapor permeability 97.8 g/(m
2
x 24 h)
WDD equivalent air layer 0.86 m
Vapor diffusion resistance 1.257 x 10
6
m
2
x h x Pa/kg
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding
a.
b.
When the underlying foil is laid perpendicularly to the line of eaves (see Drawing b), a
galvanized steel wire must be stretched along the purlins upper flange, in order to prevent
penetration of humidity or vapor in the overlapping sections.
Vapor diffusion resistance number 606; hygroscopic material: activated silicagel
Ultimate elongation 61.9 / 66.0 %
Strip test (5 cm wide) 328.7 / 420.2 N
Temperature range of applicability -40

C to +80

C
Mounting
In case of low-pitched roofs, the overlapping foil strips should be laid parallel with the line of
the eaves (see Drawing a). In order to prevent large deflections, the stretched foil must be
riveted temporarily (until the roof cover is fastened) to the purlins.
1,20 m
1,20 m
100
100
100
Altt flia (LAF)
Knnygerenda
Horg. huzal
100 100 100
c.
Altt flia (LAF)
Knnygerenda
t t t
Hegesztett tolds
Welding of the ends of the coiled foil ensures perfect sealing against penetration of air or
water (see Drawing c) and the closed air cushion increases the efficiency of heat insulation.
Upon request, the manufacturer can deliver coils whose width is 2 to 4 times bigger than the
standard width (1.3 m). The overlapping sections of the large-size foil sheets which are pre-
stressed on to the purlins can be bonded by portable foil welding equipment.
underlying foil (LAF)
light gauge beam
galvanized wire
underlying foil (LAF)
light gauge beam
welded extension
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding

Figure 34: High ridge venting system mounted on assembled sandwich-panel roof
The vented air gap
The air intake hole provided with bird-guard net or ventilation comb must be located along
the eaves. The min. 4 cm wide air gap can be vented through ridge ventilation louvers (Figure
34, 35, 36 and 37) and the fascia boards or, in certain cases, via special-purpose steel-shapes
installed near the ridge in order to improve the efficiency of ventilation (Figure 38). The point-
type LG type ventilation items can work efficiently only if a min. 4 cm wide air gap is left
between the roof sheet and the purlins upper plane. This criterion can be met by mounting
special perforated spacer pieces made of steel sections on the top of the purlins (Figure 36)
or by inserting battens of proper size. In the case of very wide roof surfaces, some blower
machine can be installed to enhance the efficiency of ventilation. The aggregate surface of the
equally distanced bottom air intake and upper venting holes should be at least 30 cm
2
per
each sq.meter of the roof surface.
LL2T
LD3T
LL2T
LL2T LL2T
LD3T
Lbazati szegly
Fedl
Tvtart
Hhdmegszakt
szalag (LPO)
ridge cap
ridge cap footing element
spacer piece
isolation strip
against heat bridge
(LPO)
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding
Figure 36: Detail of venting air gap through perforated spacer

Figure 35: Venting of a single-pitch assembled roof
perforated spacer
profile
LAF
vapor-tight foil
air gap
closed air gap
thermal
insulation
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding

Figure 37: Improved ventilation of assembled


sandwich-panel roofs
60
6
0
8
5
200
A
A
A
A
LVP45
LTP 45
LTP 135
AA
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding
Figure 38: Point-type venting items
For LG200 LTP20 profile
For LG200 LPA profile
For LG75 LTP45 profile For LG200 LTP45 profile
For LG75 LTP20 profile
For LG75 LPA profile
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding

S jel bels falsarok szegly


140
S
1
5
0
25
1
5
0
25
A jel gerinctakar
Trsszg a tethajlsnak megfelelen
1
4
0
B jel bel gerinctakar
Trsszg a tethajlsnak megfelelen
C jel als eresztakar szegly
1
0
0
C az eresztlnylsoktl fggen hatrozand meg
Trsszg a tethajlsnak megfelelen
C
F jel ablakszemldk
(sznelvlaszt szegly)
1
4
0
1
4
0
E jel bels fal-tet szegly D jel kls eresz homloktakar
1
0
0
1
0
0
D mret az ereszgeremda szerint
D
D
30
4
0
7
0
3
0
X jel als takar
X
X
K jal als oromszegly
1
0
0
K mret az oromtlnyomstl fggen
hatrozand meg
L jel lbazati szegly
1
5
0
2
0
0
4
0
Kls
2
0
Bels
25 25
M jel tetgerinc lbazat
200
K
L M
G jel ablak prknyszegly
3
0
2
0
2
0
3
0
G ablakprkny kilse szerint 75-90 mm
G
W
I jel klsoromszegly
180
2
5
I
H jel kls falsarok szegly
1
4
0
140
Negatv sarokhoz
Kls sarokhoz
N jel gerinctakar
T jel tvtart
90
4
5
2
5
2
0
1
5
0
9
0
P jel bels oromszegly
P
1
4
0
P mret az I-gerenda szerint S mret az I-gerenda szerint
List of standard flashing items
A external ridge caps B inner ridge caps C bottom eaves flashing
Angle of bending, adjusted to the roof slope
Angle of bending, adjusted
to the roof slope
The size of C shall be adjusted to the
eaves overhang
D external eaves flashing
E inner eaves flashing (wall/roof
intersection)
F window-head flashing (level
separation flashing)
D size, acc. to the size of eaves purlin ;
G window-sill flashing
To the negative corner
To the positive corner
G window flashing, 75 to 90 mm by
setting
K bottom gable flashing
L footing flashing M ridge footing
K size, to be determined acc. to the
gable overhang
Outer Inner
N vented ridge cap
T spacer piece
P inner gable flashing
P size, acc. to the adjacent I-beam S size, acc. to the adjacent I-beam
S inner wall corner flashing
X bottom cover
flashing;
H outer wall corner flashing I outer gable flashing
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3. Roof and Wall Cladding
Figure 39: Assembled sandwich-panel roof, with top shell made of tiled sheets
In general, the external shell of the sandwich-type roof structures are made of LTP45 trapezoidal
corrugated sheets, which can be fastened directly to the upper flange of the purlin system by
using self-drilling screws (LD3T) of proper size and identical color. The overlapping part of the
sheets should be joined together by self-drilling screws (LL2T), with a spacing of max. 60 cm.
The LTP45 trapezoidal sheets can be used:
by inserting water-sealing tape if the roof slope is between 6 and 10

, or
without water-sealing tape if the roof slope is more than 10

.
The LTP20 trapezoidal sheets can be used to cover arched roofs, provided that the radius of
arch is 13 m, at the least.
3.1.2.1.3. Lindab Toproof Tiled assembled sandwich roof
Hall roofing with higher aesthetic requirements can be built with the use of the Topline tiled
sheet system, provided that the roof slope is more than 14

.
Recommended areas of use:
halls for commercial purposes
sports halls
halls for social and cultural purposes.
The Lindab Toproof system is based on the following principle:
An additional supporting system, perpendicular to the line of the eaves, is fastened onto the upper flange
of the purlin system. The underlying foil and the roof battens (parallel with the eaves) can be mounted
on this additional supporting system according to the specified spacing. Finally, the tiled sheets of the
desired type should be fastened to the battens, using LWT self-drilling screws. The air gap left between
the heat insulation layer and the roof covering sheet ensures proper ventilation. In general, the bottom
shell of the assembled sandwich-panel structure is made of LVP20 trapezoidal corrugated sheet.
14
Systemline
75
Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding

350
B
B
600 600 600
B - B
7,5 / 4,8
24
48
150
40
12,5
12,5
800 800
Figure 40: Assembled sandwich-panel roof,
with external shell made of folded flat sheets
5,7
3.1.2.1.4. LindabQualiroof Assembled sandwich roof with folded upper sheet
This is a hall roofing of excellent quality and appealing appearance; this roofing system
combines the characteristics of the traditional and contemporary architecture, as well. Its use
is recommended in case of low-pitched roofs of slope angle above 6

and in case of arched


roofs whose radius of curvature is more than 5 meters (R > 5m).
Recommended areas of use:
halls for commercial purposes
sports halls
halls for social and cultural purposes.
The Lindab Qualiroof system is based on the following principle:
An additional supporting system, perpendicular to the line of the eaves, is fastened onto the
upper flange of the purlin system. To this additional supporting system a table boarding or
OSB boards is fixed which represents the required continuous supporting structure for the
PLX folded flat sheet roofing. The air gap left below the boarding ensures proper ventilation.
In general, the bottom shell of the sandwich-panel structure is made of LVP20 trapezoidal
corrugated sheet or gypsum plasterboard with own supporting battens.
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding
1. RIDGE DETAIL
2. EAVES DETAIL
3.1.2.1.5. LindabBuiltroof High-profiled assembled sandwich roof system
When the bottom shell is a secondary load-bearing corrugated sheet lying on the primary
beams, than spacer pieces made of Z-beam of smaller size substitutes the purlin system; for
the purpose of supporting the upper shell (Figure 41).
Figure 41: Details of high-profiled assembled sandwich roof (1, 2, and 3)
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding

Figure 42: Details of high-profiled assembled sandwich roof (1, 2, 3)


3. VENTED RIDGE DETAIL
5
4
2
3
1
5
4
2
3
1
A
A
AA
With the use of LTP20 trapezoidal corrugated sheets, this system is particularly suitable to
create arched roofing whose radius of curvature is more than 13 meters (R > 13m).
Figure 43: Details of the wall cassette type assembled insulated sandwich roof
1., primary beam
2., wall cassette LFK 130/600
3., heat insulation
4., LAF underyling foil
5., external trapezoidal sheet (LTP45)
3.1.2.1.6. LindabCasetroof Wall Cassette assembled roof system
The bottom shell of an assembled sandwich roof system can be also represented by properly
designed wall cassettes, providing different appearance from that of the high profiled
trapezoidal corrugated sheet. In this case, the upper shell shall be fastened directly to the
flanges of the wall cassette (Figure 43).
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding
3.1.2.2. LindabFlatroof Composition (soft) roofing system
A welded bitumen or PVC top layer laid on the walkable and non-compressible heat insulation
ensures waterproofness of the single-shell non-aerated roofs made of steel trapezoidal sheets
(Figure 44).
3.1.2.2.1. Building physics requirements
The structure and insulation of the roof must be designed with due regard to the air-tightness
conditions and the expected efficient reduction of the heat bridge effects. The parameters
of the thermal and vapor insulation can be determined in compliance with the Hungarian
standard MSZ 04.140/1 to 4. The vapor diffusion capacity of the longitudinal and transversal
overlapping sections of the solid surface of the trapezoidal corrugated sheets can not be
established accurately. The need for inserting a vapor-tight layer depends on the climatic
conditions prevailing in the indoor and outdoor space and on the structural design of the
roof. If the temperature inside the building is 20

C or less and the relative humidity of air


remains below 60% then no vapor insulation might be needed. If the above conditions are
not met or the interior of the building is under pressure (due to the presence of heating or
air-conditioning equipment), the omission of the vapor insulation layer should be justified by
proper calculations.
Principles of protection against vapor
The single-shell warm roof is a critical structure from the aspects of vapor control because
the larger part of the diffusion resistance is experienced at the outlet side. Only holes of small
cross-section are available for discharging the vapor which enters over the entire surface of
the ceiling and the length of the discharge routes is fairly different. The vapor stream is taken
off via the vapor compensation layer mounted on the warm side of the heat insulation which,
in turn, behaves as a vapor barrier protecting the subsequent layers. The dimensions of the
vapor discharging and controlling layer must be determined accurately; in the case of higher
than average air humidity, it is not sufficient to determine the location of the vapor discharge
openings using approximative computation. Despite its theoretical capacity for being used
for vapor discharging, the heat insulation layer must not be used for this purpose because
condensation shall result in the deterioration of its insulating capability. The possibility of
desiccation must be examined before permitting intermittent condensation and the structure
should be designed to withstand also the summer climatic conditions. If possible, the vapor
discharging performance should be tested because the experienced standard deviation is big
when compared to data published in the literature.
1., LTP 135
2., vapor insuation
3., thermal insulation
4., water sealing
1
2
3
4
Figure 44.
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding

3.1.2.2.2. The construction and materials of the roof structure


The load-bearing element of this roof type is made of LTP 100, LTP 115, LTP 135 or LTP 150
high profiled corrugated sheets mounted on the primary beams. The statistic of the corrugated
sheets should be determined by using the proper table in the Guide. Also the number and
type of the fixing elements (bolts, screws, rivets) can be found in the respective tables. The
roof slope must be chosen to ensure that the inclination of the floor structure should be at least
2
o
, even if the roof deflects under the maximum snow load in winter. The composite action
of the floor structure, the parapet walls and edges support should be ensured or a non-rigid
edging process ensuring equivalent flexibility must be utilized (e.g. insertion of a 45
o
wedge).
The membrane in-plane load-bearing capacity of the high profiled sheets can be taken into
account in the design of longitudinal bracing (wind-bracing, wall-bracing).
The first layer of the heat insulation is an expanded polystyrene foam block laminated at its
bottom side and spread in dry condition. The second layer consists of an expanded polystyrene
foam block glued on a bituminous sheet and provided with special vapor channels, in order
to avoid shrinking of the PS foam and to ensure proper equalization of vapor pressure and
removal of the vapor via the venting passages. The insulation layer can be made endless by
matching the overhanging flaps of the bituminous sheet. The heat insulation mat is fastened
to the high-pitched corrugated sheet mechanically (i.e. by disc-flanged dowels).
The connecting elements made of polyamide can be used to develop heavy-duty connections free
from heat bridge and capable of absorbing the stress caused by the wind pressure. At the same time,
they allow for the thermal motion of the different materials used to build and assemble the roof.
The final waterproofing coat is a seal plate which consists of a layer of glass-wool fleece and
a layer of ground slate, welded together over the entire surface.
the high-profiled corrugated sheet is covered with polyethylene foil (vapor control) or
vapor-tight layer
Material of heat insulation:
Expanded polystyrene foam made acc. to MSZ 7560 Standard (AUSTROTHERM AT-N2; AT-N3; AT-N4; AT-N5)
Type of polystyrene foam At-N2 At-N3
Density of heat insulation (kg/m
3
) 15-20 20-25
Thermal conductance coefficient (W/mK) 0,041 0,038
Compressive strength (N/mm
2
) 0,8 0,11
Vapor permeability (kg/m
2
/h) 3,36 10
-9
3,36 10
-9
Resistance to vapor diffusion (m
2
s Pa/kg) 5,92 10
11
6,20 10
-11
Horizontal vapor passage (kg/sPa) 1,02 10
-12
1,02 10
-12

Systemline

80
Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding
Figure 45: Footing detail of heat insulated warm roof and skylight window
Systemline
81
Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding

3.1.2.2.3. Special rules and principles for constructional design


All aspects related to the building structures, water drainage, structures penetrating through
the insulation layers, lightning protection (MSZ 274) and fire protection (MSZ 595/1 to 9) must
be duly taken into consideration in the appropriate design of the roof structure.
Figure 46: Detail of parapet wall at heat insulated warm roof
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding
30 0,72 1,20
40 0,56 1,62
50 0,45 2,03
60 0,38 2,44
80 0,29 3,26
100 0,24 4,07
3.1.2.3. LindabSandroof Sandwich-panel for roofs
3.1.2.3.1. Thermal engineering parameters
The rigidity and high load-bearing capacity of the sandwich-panel (composite panel) originates
from an intermediate heat insulating core which facilitates the composite action of the outer
and inner metal shell and consists of special plastic foam:
PUR 03: hard polyurethane foam, flame-retardant, environment-friendly, does not
contain freon
DIN 4102 B2-B3: medium combustibility; closed-cell non-hygroscopic material,
thermal conductance coefficient = 0.020 W/mK


heat transmission coefficient k= 0.72 to 0.24, depending on the preference
in terms of type and thickness
Thickness
mm
Heat transmission
coefficent W/m
2
K
o
Thermal
resistance
m
2
K/W
Figure 47.
1000 mm
Systemline
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding

3.1.2.3.3. Constructional aspects


At the end of the panels sealing profiles are attached to them in the manufacturing plant using
different means and methods. The panels must be fastened to the supporting structures
by stainless steel screws, which penetrate the higher ribs of the panel, and using sealed
washers.
5.5 mm stainless steel self-drilling/self-tapping screws are used to fix the panels:
Type of beam Type of screw
thin-walled beams LXC5
hot-rolled beams LXC12
Figure 48: Vented shading roof built above cold-storage rooms built of sandwich-panels
3.1.2.3.2. Building physics requirements
The roof made of sandwich-panels ensures complete impermeability to air, vapor and water.
The thermal insulation of the panels guarantees particular efficiency in energy-saving.
Quite favorable results can be achieved in a building using separately horizontal sandwich
panels for heat isolation and a sloped shading roof made of a non-isolated simple trapezoidal
sheet in order to reflect the direct solar radiation and to drain precipitation.
Thickness of insulation (mm) Steel beam Wooden beam
30 100 120
40 100 140
50 120 140
60 120 160
80 140 160
100
The length of the necessary screws shall be
selected according to the following table:
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding
Figure 49: Fixing of sandwich roof panels
39 42 5,5 x 76
48 62 5,5 x 96
5,5 x 124
5,5 x 140
62 83
81 102
5,5 x 77
5,5 x 87
5,5 x 107
5,5 x 130
39 52
49 62
59 83
76 102
6,5 x 19
6,5 x 25
6,5 x 32
6,5 x 38
6,5 x 100
6,5 x 90
6,5 x 75
6,5 x 64
6,5 x 50
6,5 x 115
6,5 x 125
6,5 x 150
6,5 x 175
6,5 x 200
6,5 x 230
Element
thickness
(mm)
Element
thickness
(mm)
Size
(mm)
d x L
Size
(mm)
d x L
Size
(mm)
d x L
Systemline
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding

in case of fixing to wooden beam, a pilot hole must be pre-drilled; its diameter is equal
to 0.7 times the diameter of the screw.
in case of longitudinal extension, the distance between the tie bolts shall not be higher
than 60 cm.
no special reinforcement is needed if the diameter of a hole penetration is <300 mm. In
that case, a high rib of the profile must be cut off (Figure 50). In case of larger openings,
an additional supporting structure must be inserted on site.
the edge flashings must be fixed with LL2 self-drilling fixing screws
the interaction between the minimum slope angle of the roof () and the panel
connections are shown below:
Figure 50.
Figure 51/a: Ridge Figure 51/b: Eaves
Slope angle Transversal connections Longitudinal connections
3 < < 5 using sealing strip
5 < < 10 using double sealing strip using sealing strip
10 < using double sealing strip without sealing strip
Some standard details of a sandwich-panel roof are shown in Figure 51:
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3.1.2.4. Heat insulated horizontal false ceiling
Aesthetic or cost saving aspects may justify implementation of the heat insulated false ceiling
in the horizontal plane. In this case the trapezoidal corrugated sheet, i.e. the bottom shell of the
assembled sandwich-panel roof can be mounted on a secondary supporting girder built at the
required level. The vapor and heat insulation layer is fastened on this girder. When enhanced
heat insulation efficiency is required (e.g. cold storage plant) the false ceiling shall be made of
heat insulated sandwich-panels.
3.1.2.4.1. Building physics requirements
The role of the external shell of the roof is being safe drainage of rainwater and providing
protection from direct solar radiation. The loft left between the horizontal false ceiling and the
roof sheets must be vented to avoid overheating of this space in summer and to reduce the
air humidity. The specific area of the air intake and exit openings shall be at least 0.2 m
2
per
each m
2
of the floor structure. The width of the openings must be min. 20 cm and they must
be located in a way which ensures efficient venting. The PE foil must be laid on the ceiling
with particular care, in order to ensure proper insulation and matching of the overlapping
sections. LINDAB underlying foil must be laid below the external roof sheets or a NonConDrop
condensate absorbing inner coat must be applied to it (Figure 52).
From building physics aspects, also this structure is considered a double-shell vented cold
roof. In fact, this is a solution implying the inclusion of a high clearance loft where the size of
the air space and the usually frequent air change helps to tolerate quite considerable vapor
load. In this case, protection of the heat insulation from the weather effects and the humidity
which tends to precipitate on the external shell is of special importance. Accordingly, LINDAB
underlying foil must be laid below the external roof shell. Since the roof slope is, in general,
more than 25% and if the difference in elevation of the air intake and exit openings is 1.5 meter
or more, than their specific area (regarding both the intake and exit openings) need not be
more than 8 to 10 cm
2
per each m
2
of the roof area.
Figure 52: Venting of sandwich-panel roof
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3. Roof and Wall Cladding

3.1.2.4.2. Constructional design


Material of the false ceiling: LVP 20/0.4 color painted trapezoidal sheet cladding
0.2 mm thick PE foil
12 to 15 cm thick glass-wool insolation
Fastening of steel ribs to support LD3 self-drilling screws
Fixing elements for overlaps, side
connectors and flashings: pop rivet or LL2 self-drilling screw
Material of suspended supporting: hollow steel sections or L profiles, provided with
structure of false ceiling: the necessary surface protection coating.
In case of primary trusses the false ceiling is fixed to the bottom flange of the truss. If the
distance between the trusses is not more than 3 meters, the trapezoidal sheet may be fastened
directly onto the lower bearing area, otherwise suspended secondary supports are needed.
When plated primary girders are used, the secondary supporting elements, made of hollow
sections or angles, are suspended to the primary beams by means of suspension rods, flat
plates or angles. The suspension structure requires static check, of course.
x x
x x
false ceiling made of heat
insulated trapezoidal
corrugated sheets
False ceiling made of heat
insulated sandwich-panels
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3. Roof and Wall Cladding
3.1.3. Single-shell roof with no heat insulation
A building clad with corrugated sheets but not provided with any space heating may only be
used for warehousing materials or machines & equipment which are insensitive to temperature
changes.
3.1.3.1. Building physics requirements
Vapor condensation particularly manifests itself in the case of single-shell roofs made of metal
sheets; the inner space below such roofs tends to heat up in summer. Therefore, adequate
ventilation is very important; the width of the vent holes must be 20 mm, at the least. The cross-
section of vent-holes (air inlet at the gutter and air outlet openings at, or near, the ridge of the
roof should be min. 0.2 m
2
/100 m
2
of roof structure. Efficient venting significantly contributes to
the elimination of condensation at the bottom surface of the sheet-metal. The vapor condensate
can be absorbed in two ways:
1. NoConDrop condensate absorbing coat must be applied to the bottom surface of the
roof cover sheets
2. LINDAB underlying foil is laid on the purlins below the roof cover sheets. The foil
drains the condensate and absorbs the vapor on its bottom surface. In addition, the
foil acts as a heat reflector.
3.1.3.2. Structural design
metal sheet: the corrugated metal sheet selected in accordance with the relevant
static and architectural aspects can be fastened directly to the purlin system of the
load-bearing framework (made of steel, reinforced concrete or timber) developed in
compliance with the aspects described in Section 2.1.4. The most frequently used
types: LTP20 and LTP45.
fastening elements: the following types of self-tapping screws are used:
fastening of the corrugated roof sheets: LD3T
overlapping connections and fixing sheet flashing: LL2
fastening to hot-rolled girders LD6T, LD8, LD12T
fastening to timber beams LW-T.
vapor control:
the NoConDrop condensate absorbing coat is applied in the manufacturing shop; no
additional work is required at the site,
the material cost of the Lindab underlying foils about 17% of that of the vapor control
coat but its proper laying requires painstaking care and much time. The installation
instructions are described in Item 3.1.2.1.2.
design of the venting system: the air inlet holes are equipped with venting combs
mounted along the eaves. Air outlet or venting holes can be created by inserting venting
openings along the roof ridge (at certain spots or along the entire length of the ridge),
or LG-75 or LG-200 plastic venting sheet-profiles can be inserted near the top line of the
ridge.
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3. Roof and Wall Cladding

Figure 53: Details of a single-shell roof made of corrugated sheet


enclosed ridge
cover
vented ridge
eaves
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3. Roof and Wall Cladding
Sealings:
sealing strip is used to seal the longitudinal extensions, if the roof slope makes it
necessary.
in general, trapezoidal sealing profiles are needed to waterproof the footing of the
ridge or the vented ridge. The sealing profiles should expediently be placed on the
sealing gel blocks formed on the sheet, in order to improve its water imperviousness
(Figure 53).
3.1.4. Design of roof penetrations and openings
The corrugated sheet of the roof must be penetrated at certain places in order to build in roof
gullies, ventilation ducts, manholes or skylight windows. Depending on the size of the opening,
penetrations of different dimensions must be prepared.

MAX
=300
m
i
n
.
6
0
0
n
x
1
2
0
min.600
3.1.4.1. Dimensions of the penetrations
No static stability calculation need
to be made if the ratio between the
weakened and the gross cross-
section of the trapezoidal corrugated
sheet is less than 0.2.
No strengthening is required up to
300 x 300 mm opening size, provided
that the following conditions are met:
a., the thickness of the strengthening
plate exceeds by min. 50% that of
the cover sheet and is 1.2 mm, at
the least.
b., the load is uniformly distributed
over the area concerned (Figure
54).
Figure 54
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3.1.4.2 Constructional aspects


Figure 55: Roof penetration completed with profile sheet edging
The possible constructional detail of an opening in a high-profiled floor structure is shown
in Figure 55.
In any other case, individual static calculations must be made. The horizontal frame
used to replace the cut-out sheet and to provide for reinforcement can be dimensioned
in accordance with the internal forces.
When the opening is in a high-profiled trapezoidal sheet, a special inflected shape made
of a 2.0 to 4.0 mm thick plain plate is used as edge strengthening.
brad
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3. Roof and Wall Cladding
Two options are recommended to complete the edge work in the case of assembled
sandwich-panel roofs resting on a purlin system:
a.) welded frame structure made of steel profiles, applied 40x40 hollow sectioned longitudinal
beams in the trapezoidal wave (Figure 56).
Figure 56: Roof penetration completed with steel rectangular frame
A-A
B-B
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3.1.4.3. Edging of penetrations cut through roofs covered with corrugated sheet
A special, non-traditional method is required because also the valley or wave trough of the
corrugated sheet must be sealed to prevent infiltration of precipitation.
The footing must be shaped to ensure perfect matching with the geometry of the
corrugated sheet where the footing joins to the roof. The special shape must be
inserted among the corrugated sheets, ensuring proper overlapping. This process is
recommended in the case of large skylight domes or rectangular transom windows
placed parallel with the ridge.
In the case of circular penetrations ( 3 to 660 mm), a rubber bellow can be used to
prepare an advanced and easy-to-complete waterproof collar which matches with any
corrugated sheet profile (Figure 58).
b.) light-gauge thin-walled steel frame structure made of C-profiles, installed between the
longitudinal purlins, with connections by self-tapping screws (Figure 57).
Figure 57: Opening frame made of light-gauge C profiles
Figure 58: Finishing of circular roof penetration
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Rectangular roof penetrations shall be closed by inserting bent metal sheet edges, as
shown in the figure, and by covering the wave troughs up to the roof ridge.
If the roof penetration is near the eaves, the footing edges should expediently be
inserted below the trapezoidal corrugated sheet. In that case, a flat sheet cover must be
laid on the wooden boards to be placed between the opening and the eaves.
Edging of roof penetration, without sealing profile, using a sheet profile of special
design.
Figure 59: Closing of a rectangular roof penetration
Figure 60: Footing collar, completed with joining profiled edge
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3. Roof and Wall Cladding

Eaves gutter
3.1.5. Drainage of precipitation from the roof
The roof must be built according to a specific slope angle, in order to ensure drainage of
precipitation under any and all circumstances. The slope angle must be determined as a
function of the intended purpose, the selected materials and the order of layers.
Rainwater shall be drained outside the building, in the case of a single-shell warm roof
or double-shell cold roof.
Minimum inclination of eaves gutters: 5 .
Minimum inclination of the valleys: 1%.
3.1.5.1. Selection of the size of eaves gutter components, based on MSZ 04-134
(Hungarian Standard)
Area of Diameter of the semi-
the rood s(m
2
) circular eaves gutter (mm)
125 160
126160 180
161196 200
Downpipe
Horizontal floor area of Diameter of the -
the roof (m
2
) downpipe (mm)
25 50
26 35 60
36 48 70
49 63 80
64 100 100
101 192 125
193 277 150
278 377 175
378 495 200
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3. Roof and Wall Cladding
MSZ 7941/1 (Hungarian Standard)
Recommended cross-section of the circular downpipe, corresponding to the horizontal
projection of the roof surface catching the water.
MSZ 7942/1 (Hungarian Standard)
Recommended cross-section of the rectangular downpipe, corresponding to the horizontal
projection of the roof surface catching the water.
Dimensioning of semicircular eaves gutter, according to MSZ 7936/1
(Hungarian Standard)
The dimensions of the downpipes (MSZ 7941/1 Hungarian Standard) must be determined to
ensure proper matching with the gutter cross-section. The eaves gutter should decline towards
the vertical downpipe by 3 to 5 .
The largest area (m
2
) allowable for drainage design is seen in the following table, related to the
horizontal projection of the roof surface catching the water, in the function of roof slope:
A roof, with horizontal projected area bigger than 300 m
2
, should have a single downpipe only
in exceptional cases. In the case of eaves flashings for inwards sloping roofs, each separate
roof section must be provided with one gully and one overflow box. The downpipe must have
1 cm
2
cross-section per each 1 m
2
of the roof surface catching the water, in order to ensure
safe drainage of precipitation.
Roof slope
Recommended downpipe
section, min.
Roof slope
Recommended downpipe
section, min.
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3. Roof and Wall Cladding

Rectangular eaves gutter + connecting bracket, REK05


A B C
D=136 mm 90 110 101
D
d
D
B
A C
L = 4 m
L (length) = 4 and 6 meters
3.1.5.2. The system of eaves gutters
The system components are made of 0.6 mm thick plastic coated galvanized steel sheet,
marketed in 6 standard and 3 special colors. The system components are attached to each
other mechanically, i.e. no soldering is required. Based on the previous tables, the most
appropriate size can be chosen from among the following standard components:
Semi-circular eaves gutter + gutter bracket, K11.
Size (mm) D d
125 123 17
150 155 17
190 192 22
Circular downpipe + pipe holder, SVHA
D = 87 mm
D = 100 mm
D = 120 mm
L = 3 and 5 m
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Figure 61/a
Figure 61/b
If the available variety of sizes and colors does not satisfy the actual demand, the following
cold-bended versions from coated sheets may be chosen (Figure 61).
In order to prevent damage caused by snow and ice accretion, the following aspects should
be deliberated during the design of the eaves gutter system:
System of snow retainers
Possibility of use of heated wire
Eaves gutter
Gutter supporting emmittenel made of
material identical with that off the sheet
LTP 45 PR. gutter
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3.1.5.3. Aspects of designing valley gutters in case of roofs made of trapezoidal sheet
A valley gutter must be incorporated above the intermediate columns of the multi-pitched hall
buildings, as to facilitate drainage of natural precipitation.
The heavy-duty eaves gutter made of 3 mm thick normal steel plate is capable of supporting
the load arising between the adjacent bays. The type of surface protection can be chosen from
the following variety:
Hot-dip galvanizing
Primary coat + weldable bituminous sheet
Application of 2 layers of katepox paint (an aggressive degreasing compound)
Additional inner zinc sheet layer
In case of long halls or if welding must be done at the site, valley gutter components closed at both
ends and provided with downpipe branch should expediently be manufactured in factory, in order
to avoid any reduction of the effective cross-section due to the shaping of the gutters slope (Figure
62). The length of the component is identical with the distance between the frame-columns (in
general, 6 meters) and it can be hoisted and placed on the pre-arranged supports by crane.
Figure 63: Cross-section of a valley gutter
< 16
Figure 62: Schematic drawing of installation of valley gutter
Frame distance
Spacer wedging
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3. Roof and Wall Cladding
Figure 64: Protector cover above the heat insulated valley gutter
In order to ensure efficient venting of the roof, the ribs of the trapezoidal corrugated sheets
fastened to the valley must not be sealed hermetically.
In order to make a low-pitched roof more rainproof, the valley must be covered by a flat sheet
cover laid on boards fastened to purlins which line up along both sides of the valley (Figure 64).
Adequate venting of the double-shell roof of heated halls is important in both summer and
winter, due to the risk of condensation. If the space formed by the trapezoidal sheets, i.e. the
passageway of venting air is clogged by snow, preventing proper circulation of air through
the sandwich-panel shell, the risk of mist and vapor condensation increases substantially.
To avoid such situations, it is recommended to use either of the following methods or their
combinations:
Applying heating cables in the valley gutter;
Building of a protective cover above the valley (Figure 64);
Mounting snow-retainers along both sides.
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Subject to alteration
3. Roof and Wall Cladding

Lindabs manufacturing program includes two standard lengths (i.e. 3,000 and 4,500 mm) but
other sizes can be delivered, as well.
3.1.6. Skylight systems
3.1.6.1. Transparent trapezoidal corrugated strip
This roof panel is permeable to light (transparent) and has profile geometry identical with that
of the standard roofing trapezoidal metal sheets (LTP45 and LTP20).
Material: glass-fiber reinforced polyester (specific density: 450 g/m
2
)
Application: fixed panel permeable to light, inserted at spots or as a strip
Advantages:
Easy installation because it can be classified to the category of trapezoidal sheets of
identical or similar profile,
Resistant to UV rays,
85% light permeability, translucent,
Temperature range of applicability: 40

C to +130

C,
Fire resistance classification: drip-proof when burning
Heat-transmission factors:
In one layer: k = 5.5 W/m
2
K


In two layers: k = 2.8 W/m
2
K


Loading values, considering L/45 deflection limit (in kN/m
2
)