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3kg & Mini Sumo

revised 03-27-12
The following changes have been made for Robothon 2014:
Events will include Mini Sumo and 3kg Sumo.
Will be using Double Elimination and not Rumble to score the

Chapter 1: Defintion of a Match Chapter 7: Violations and Penalties
Chapter 2: Dohyo Specifications Chapter 8: Injury and Accidents
Chapter 3: Robot Specifications Chapter 9: Objections
Chapter 4: Game Principles Chapter 10: Specifications of Robot Markings
Chapter 5: Game Procedure Chapter 11: Others
Chapter 6: Yuko (effective) Points

Chapter 1: Definition of a Match
Article 1 - Definition
A Sumo contest involves two contestants who operate robots, that they
have made themselves, by having the robots push their opponent out of the
sumo ring (Dohyo) according to the game rules presented here. The
individual contest continues until two Yuko points are scored by one of the
Double Elimination: Upon losing two matches, the robot is out of the
contest. Two groups will be used to determine the loss of two matches: The
set of winning robots will be pitted against other winning robots, and losing
robots against losing robots. This way a robot won't have the bad fortune to
compete against two top robots in a row. For example, robot A loses to
robot B, and robot C loses to robot D. Robot A would then play against
robot C, with the losing robot being eliminated.

Chapter 2: Dohyo Specifications
Article 2 - Definition of the Dohyo Interior
The dohyo interior is defined as the dohyo area surrounded by and
including the border line.
Article 3 - Dohyo
A dohyo is a flat cylinder which is illustrated in the image below. The
geometrical dimensions of the doyho are listed in the table below for the
different robot divisions.

Division Diameter Height
Starting Line
Starting Line
3kg (R/C and
154 cm 5 cm 5 cm 20 cm 2 cm
Mini 77 cm 2.5 cm 2.5 cm 10 cm 1 cm
Micro (pending) 38.5 cm 1.25 1.25 cm 5 cm 0.5 cm
Nano (pending) 19.25 cm 0.6 cm 0.63 cm 2.5 cm 0.25 cm

The dohyo can be made out of any material as long as the
geometrical specifications are maintained.
The top surface must be flat and smooth with no dents, indentations,
bumps, seams, creases, folds, edges, or any other defect that can
interfere with the motion of the robot.
The color of the dohyo surface will be non-glossy black.
The starting lines (Shikiri-sen) are indicated as two parallel brown
lines (color ratio = blue : red : yellow = 4 : 4 : 2). They are centered
on the dohyo and the seperation distance between them is equal to
the starting line length.
The outer edge of the dohyo, the border line, is indicated as a glossy-
white colored circular ring with a width as defined in the table above
with an outside diameter equal to the diameter of the dohyo. "On the
border" is defined as being within the interior of the dohyo.
The referee can decide, at any time during the games, whether the
dohyo can continue to be used or whether it should be replaced due
to damage.
Article 4 - Dohyo Exterior
The exterior area of a dohyo extends at least 100 cm from the border line.
The color of the exterior can be any color except white. There are no
restrictions on the type of material that can be used or the shape of the
exterior, as long as they do not violate the spirit of the rules.

Chapter 3: Robot Specifications
Article 5 - Specifications
The following table lists the size and weight limitations for both autonomous
and remote control robots for the various robot weight divisions.

Division Length Width Height Max-weight
3kg (R/C and Autonomous) 20 cm 20 cm Unlimited 3 kg
Mini 10 cm 10 cm Unlimited 500 g
Micro (pending) 5 cm 5 cm 5 cm 100 g
Nano (pending) 2.5 cm 2.5 cm 2.5 cm 25 g
The robot must be able to fit inside a square box with a length and
width as described in the table above.
The robot's weight (including accessories) must not exceed the
maximum weight for its weight division. However, the handheld
wireless remote control unit of a remote-controlled robot is excluded
from the weight limit.
Remote-control units are limited to the following manufacturers:
Futaba, Hitec, Airtronics (Sanwa), JR, and Kondo Kagaku (KO
Propo). Multiple remote-control units cannot be used.
Usable frequencies for remote control robots are 27 megahertz
(MHz) (wide bands 1-6), 50 MHz (bands 00-09), and 75 MHz (bands
A remote-controlled robot must use a frequency approved by the
tournament officials for the receiver and transmitter.
The robot's radio receiver's crystals must be detachable. Tournament
officials may require you to change your robot's transmitter and
receiver crystals due to frequency conflicts with other robots at any
time during the tournament. Depending on the number of robots
competing, the tournament officials may issue crystals prior to each
There are no restrictions on the type of control method used with
autonomous robots.
There are no restrictions on the type of microprocessor or the amount
of memory used in the robot.
An autonomous robot should be designed to begin action no earlier
than five seconds after the contestant presses the robot's start
Article 6 - Restrictions on Robot Design
The robot will not include a device that obstructs the control of the
opponent's operation, such as a jamming device or strobe light.
The robot will not include any parts that might damage or deface the
The robot will not include a device that insufflates (pour, spill, drop,
ooze, eject, fire, shoot, squirt, etc) any liquid, powder, or gas.
The robot will not include an inflaming device.
The robot will not include a throwing device.
The robot will not include any part that fixes the robot to the dohyo
surface and prevents it from moving (such as suckers, glue, and so
on). The robot must always be able to move.
The robot will not include any device that increases the apparent
weight of the robot. Examples include: using vacuum, fans, or
magnetic systems to pull/push the robot down onto the dohyo

Chapter 4: Game Principles
Article 7 - Robot Divisions
3kg Sumo Division
This division is intended for any robot weighing 3kg or less and not
exceeding the specifications listed in Article 5.
There will be two competition divisions, Remote-Control and
o Remote-Control 3 kg Sumo Division:
This division is intended for remote-controlled sumo
Autonomous robots are permitted to compete in this
o Autonomous 3kg Sumo Division:
This division is intended for autonomous (self controlled)
only robots.
Mini Sumo Division
This division is intended for any robot weighing 500g or less and not
exceeding the specifications listed in Article 5.
Only Autonomous robots compete in this division.
Micro and Nano Divisions
These divisions are pending weight divisions for future events.
Existing robots are permitted to compete in any of the above
Rumble Divisions
See Article 22.
Article 8 - Game Principles
A game consists of three matches of three minutes each. The first
contestant to win two Yuko points is the winner of the game.
The contestant who has the most Yuko points at the end of the game
will be judged as the winner.
When neither contestant receives any Yuko points, or both
contestants have one Yoko point, the winner will be decided by the
judges. The judge will select the winner based on which robot was
the most aggressive robot. However, if no obvious superiority exists
and a winner cannot be determined, an extra three-minute match can
be played.

Chapter 5: Game Procedure
Article 9 - Beginning of the Game
Before the match, the contestants greet each other outside the dohyo
following the chief referee's instructions, then enter the dohyo. After that,
the contestants put their robots on or behind their starting lines. No part of
the robot can be placed in front of the starting line before the match begins.
Prior to the start of a match, the entire robot must fit inside a square
box as defined for the weight class. At any time after the start of the
match, the robot can expand outside these dimensions.
Autonomous Sumo Robots:
o At the referee's signal, the contestant can press the start button
on the robot. The match begins five seconds after the referee's
signal. The contestant must exit the dohyo when the match
Remote Controlled Sumo Robots:
o At the referee's signal, the contestant can begin to operate the
robot with a remote-control unit.
Article 10 - End of the Game
The match ends when the referee calls the winner. Both contestants will
thank each other for a fair and competitive match after removing their
Article 11 - Game Cancellation and Rematches
A match will be stopped and a rematch will be started under the following
The robots are locked together in such a way that no more action
appears to be possible or they rotate in circles several times.
Both the robots are moving, but they don't appear they will ever
contact each other.
Both robots touch the exterior of the dohyo at the same time.
Any other conditions under which the referee judges that no winner
can be decided.
In case of a rematch, maintenance of competing robots is prohibited
until a Yuko is observed, and the robots must be immediately put
back to the location specified in Article 9.
If neither of the competing robots win nor lose after a rematch, the
referee may reposition both robots to a specified location and restart.
If even that does not yield a winner, the match may continue at any
location decided by the referee, until the time limit is reached.

Chapter 6: Yuko (Effective) Points
Article 12 - Yuko Points
Under The following conditions a Yuko (effective) point is awarded:
When a robot ejects its opponent from the dohyo with a fair action.
The robot is considered ejected the moment any part of the robot
touches any part of the exterior of the dohyo. A robot hanging over
the edge of the dohyo or touching any part of the cylindrical side of
the dohyo is not considered ejected, and the robot is still in play.
When the opponent's robot steps out of dohyo on its own (for any
When the opponent's robot is disqualified or has had more than one
violation or warning.
When two Yusei points are given.
When a Yusei point is awarded when the opponent has already been
given a warning.
Is awarded to a contestant when their opponent is given a second
Article 13 - Yusei Points
The following condition is determined as Yusei (advantage) points:
When the opponent's robot gets stuck on the border line and cannot
move off the border line on its own.

Chapter 7: Violations and Penalties
Article 14 - Warnings
A contestant who takes any of the following actions will receive a warning:
The operator or any part of the operator (remote control, for example)
enters the dohyo before the referee's call ends the match.
Preparation for the restart of a match takes more than 30 seconds.
A remote-controlled robot begins action (physical expansion or
moving) before the chief referee's start signal.
An autonomous robot begins action (physical expansion or moving)
within five seconds after the chief referee's start signal.
Any other actions that may be deemed unfair occur.
When a contestant continues to complain (verbally or non verbally)
about a referee's decision, condition of the dohyo, or environment,
after the officials have made an attempt to correct the problem.
When a contestant receives two warnings, the contestant's opponent will
be awarded one Yuko point.
Article 15-Violations
Any of the following actions is determined as a violation, and the offender's
opponent, or both robots, will get a Yuko point:
A part (or parts) of the robot that exceeds a weight of 10 grams is
separated and dropped from the robot.
The robot stops moving on the dohyo for more than 10 seconds.
The robot emits smoke.
Article 16 - Loss by Violation
A contestant who takes any of the following actions will lose the game by
A contestant does not attend the appointed dohyo when called at the
beginning of the game.
A contestant ruins the game, such as by intentionally breaking,
damaging, or defacing the dohyo.
Article 17 - Disqualification
A contestant who takes any of the following actions will be disqualified and
forced to leave the game:
A contestant's robot does not meet the robot specifications stated in
Article 5.
A contestant makes a robot using a method restricted in Article 6.
A contestant displays unsportsmanlike behavior. For example, using
violent language or slandering an opponent or a referee.
A contestant intentionally injures their opponent's operator.

Chapter 8: Injury and Accidents
Article 18 - Request for Suspension
When a contestant is injured due to the operation of the robot or the robot
has an accident, and the game cannot be continued, a suspension can be
requested by the contestant.
A referee must take immediate action necessary to take care of this

Chapter 9: Objections
Article 19 - Objections to the Referee
No objections to the judgment of the referee can be raised.
Article 20 - Objections to the Rules
A contestant who has an objection to the operating rules must express
dissent to the Tournament Committee before the end of the game.

Chapter 10: Specifications of Robot Markings
Article 21 - Marks on the Robot
The robot must not be marked with any words, symbols, or images that are
offensive to the general public.

Chapter 11: Others
Article 22 - Rumble
The rumble is a single sumo match with up to 16 different robots to
determine which robot can remain on the dohyo after all the other robots
have been pushed off the ring.
The rumble will be played on the same size, or next size larger,
dohyo for the weight class.
The maximum number of robots on the dohyo at one time is 16.
Time limit is 5 minutes.
At the start, each robot must be a minimum of one robot diameter
away from its nearest competitor.
A rumble match consists of only a single match. It is not a best 2 out
of 3 match system like regular sumo matches.
When a robot is pushed off the dohyo, the operator must immediately
remove, or turn off, the robot from the vicinity of the dohyo. The
operator must not interfere with the operation of any robots still
If more than one robot remains on the dohyo after the 5 minute time
limit, the winner will be chosen by the judge using the criteria of
which robot was the most agressive.
Remote control robots are not allowed to compete in an autonomous
robot rumble.
Autonomous robots are permitted to compete in a remote control
rumble (space permitting).
Lighter weight class robots are permitted to compete in a heavier
weight class rumble (space permitting).
Article 23 - Modifications and Abolition of the Rules
Modifications or abolition of the rules are made by the decision of a general
assembly of the Tournament Committees held according to the Rules of
Tournament Committees.

The rules presented here follow the official Japanese Robot Sumo rules as
of 7/4/2002. Main differences are the addition of different weight classes,
the changing of the radio frequencies to frequencies that meet FCC
regulations, clarifications to certain rules, and changing the material of the
Dohyo to any material.
The operating rules for all of the weight divisions are the same. The only
difference between them are the sizes of the robots and sumo ring for the
different weight classes, and starting conditions for remote-control and
autonomous robots.