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ANSI/HI 1.6-2000
American National Standard for
Centrifugal Pump Tests
Sponsor
Hydraulic Institute
www.pumps.org
Approved October 27, 1999
American National Standards Institute, Inc.
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American
National
8tandard
Published By
Approval of an American National Standard requires verification by ANSI that the
requirements for due process, consensus and other criteria for approval have been met
by the standards developer.
Consensus is established when, in the judgement of the ANSI Board of Standards
Review, substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially
interests. Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not nec-
essarily unanimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered,
and that a concerted effort be made toward their resolution.
The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their existence does
not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standards or not,
from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or proce-
dures not conforming to the standards.
The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in no
circumstances give an interpretation of any American National Standard. Moreover, no
person shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American
National Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. Requests
for interpretations should be addressed to the secretariat or sponsor whose name
appears on the title page of this standard.
CAUTION NOTICE: This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at
any time. The procedures of the American National Standards Institute require that
action be taken periodically to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard. Purchasers of
American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by call-
ing or writing the American National Standards Institute.
Hydraulic Institute
9 Sylvan Way, Parsippany, NJ 07054-3802
www.pumps.org
Copyright 2000 @ Hydraulic Institute
AII rights reserved.
No publication may be reproduced in any form,
in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without prior
written permission of the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
ISBN 1-880952-30-0
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Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. v
Page
1.6
1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.3
1.6.4
1.6.5
1.6.6
1.6.7
1.6.8
1.6.9
1.6.10
1.6.11
1.6.12
1.6.13
1.6.14
Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1
Types of tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1
Hydrostatic test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Performance test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Net positive suction head required test (optional). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Mechanical test (optional). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Priming time test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Measurement of rate of flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Head - measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Power measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 30
Speed measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Temperature measurement and instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Model tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\d
) Appendix A References.......................................... 35
Appendix B Index.............................................. 36
Figures
1.113 - Horizontal unit - (Single or double suction)
(Double suction not shown) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.114 - Vertical single suction pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
double suction pump .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Test with suction lift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11
or closed tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13
performance (all data is corrected to rated speed) . . . . . . . . .. 16
1.119 - Suppression type NPSH test with constant level sump. . . . . . . . . . .. 19
1.120 - Level control NPSH test with deep sump supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.121 - Vacuum and/or heat control NPSH test with closed loop . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.122 - NPSH test with rate of flow held constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
NPSH test with suction head held constant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.124 - NPSH test with flow rate held constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.125 - Suction line for static lift test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.126 - Pressure tap opening ..................................... 26

.
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1.127 - Welded-on pressure tap opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.128 - Single tap connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
manifold connecting pressure taps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.130 - Gauge connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Tables
2
1.19 - Subscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3
1.20 - Recommended instrument calibration interval .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12
Straight pipe required following any fitting before venturi meter
in diameters of pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Straight pipe required following any fitting before nozzle or
orifice plate meter in diameters of pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.23 - Straight pipe required following downstream pressure tap of
a nozzle or orifice plate meter before any fitting in diameters of pipe . . . . . . .. 28
IV



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Foreword (Not part of Standard)
Purpose and aims of the Hydraulic Institute
The purpose and aims of the Institute are to promote the continued growth and
well-being of pump manufacturers and further the interests of the public in such
matters as are involved in manufacturing, engineering, distribution, safety, trans-
and other problems of the and to this end, among other things:
a) To develop and publish standards for pumps;
b) To collect and disseminate information of value to its members and to the
public;
c) To appear for its members before governmental departments and agencies
and other bodies in regard to matters affecting theindustry;
increase the amount and to improve the quality of pump service to the public;
e) To and research activities;
f) To promote the business interests of its members but not to engage in busi-
ness of the kind ordinarily carried on for profit or to perform particular services
for its members or individual persons as distinguished from activities to
improve the business conditions and lawful interests of all of its members.
Purpose of 5tandards
1) Hydraulic Institute Standards are adopted in the public interest and are
designed to help eliminate misunderstandings between the manufacturer,
the purchaser and/or the user and to assist the purchaser in selecting and
obtaining the proper product for a particular need.
2) Use of Hydraulic Institute Standards is completely voluntary. Existence of
Hydraulic Institute Standards does not in any respect preclude a member
from manufacturing or selling products not conforming to the Standards.
Definition of a 5tandard of the Hydraulic Institute
Quoting from Article XV, Standards, of the By-Laws of the Institute, Section B:.
An Institute Standard defines the product, material , process or procedure with
reference to one or more of the following: nomenclature, composition, construc-
tion, dimensions, tolerances, safety, operating characteristics, performance, qual-
ity, rating, testing and service for which designed."
Comments from users
Comments from users of this Standard will be appreciated, to help the Hydraulic
Institute prepare even more useful future editions. Questions arising from the con-
tent of this Standard may be directed to the Hydraulic Institute. It will direct all
such questions to the appropriate technical committee for provision of a suitable
answer.
If a dispute arises regarding contents of an Institute publication or an answer pro-
vided by the Institute to a question such as indicated above, the point in question
shall be referred to the Executive Committee of the Hydraulic Institute, which then
shall act as a Board of Appeals.
V
Revisions
The Standards of the Hydraulic Institute are subject to constant review, and revi-
sions are undertaken whenever it is found necessary because of new develop-
ments and progress in the art. If no revisions are made for five years, the
standards are reaffirmed using the ANSI canvass procedure.
Scope
This Standard is for centrifugal , sealless centrifugal and regenerative turbine
pumps of all industrial types except vertical multistage diffuser type. It includes
detailed procedures on the setup and conduct of hydrostatic and performance
tests of such pumps.
Several methodologies to test centrifugal and vertical pump equipment are avail-
able to pump manufacturers, users and other interested parties. The United
States has two sets of pump test standards which approaches to
conducting and evaluating pump One, promulgated by the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and designated PTC 8.2, Centrifugal
Pumps, provides for two levels of tests in which the test procedures are less
restrictive. The ASME Code relies on the to the test to agree beforehand
on the Scope and Conduct of the test and does not specify how the test results
shall be used to compare with guarantee. The ASME is especially suited to highly
detailed pump testing, whereas HI Standards detail test scope, conduct and
acceptance criteria, and are thus suited to commercial test practices. ASME
Codes do not permit the use of acceptability tolerances in reporting results, while
the HI Standards do. It is recommended that the specifier of the test standard
become familiar with both the ASME Code and the HI Standards before selecting
the one best suited for the equipment to be tested, since there are a number of
other differences between the two which may the accuracy or cost of the
tests.
80th the ASME and HI Standards can be used for testing in either field or factory
installations. The detailed requirements of the ASME Test Code are intended to
reduce the effect of various installation arrangements on performance results and
are applied more to field testing. The HI Standard specifies test piping and more
controllable conditions which is more suitable to factory testing. The HI Standards
do not address field testing. Surveys have shown that both ASME and HI Stan-
dards have been applied successfully to applications from small chemical pumps
(1 hp) to large utility pumps (over 5000 hp).
Units of Measurement
Metric units of measurement are used; and corresponding US units appear in
brackets. Charts, graphs and sample calculations are also shown in both metric
and US units.
Since values given in metric units are not exact equivalents to values given in US
units, it is important that the selected units of measure to be applied be stated in
reference to this standard. If no such statement is provided, metric units shall govern.
VI

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Consensus for this standard was achieved by use of the Canvass
Method
The following organizations, recognized as having an interest in the standardiza-
tion of centrifugal pumps were contacted prior to the approval of this revision of
the standard. Inclusion in this list does not necessarily imply that the organization
concurred with the submittal of the proposed standard to ANSI.
A. R. Wilfley & Sons
ANSIMAG Inc.
Bechtel Corp
Black & Veatch
Brown & Caldwell
Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc.
Carver Pump Company
Cheng Fluid Systems, Inc.
Crane Company, Chempump Div.
Cuma S.A.
Dean Pump Div. , Metpro Corp.
DeWante & Stowell
Dow Chemical
EnviroTech Pumpsystems
Essco Pump Division
Exeter Energy Ltd. Partnership
Fairbanks Morse Pump Corp.
Fluid Sealing Association
Franklin Electric
GKO Engineering
Grundfos Pumps Corp.
lII inois Dept. of Transportation
IMC - Agrico Chemical Corp.
Ingersoll. Dresser Pump Company
ITT Fluid Handling (B & G)
ITT Fluid Technology
T Industrial Pump Group
Iwaki Walchem Corp.
J.P. Messina Pump & Hydr. Cons
John Crane, Inc.
Krebs Consulting Service
KSB, lnc.
M.W. Kellogg Company
Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.
Marine Machinery Association
Marley Pump Company
Marshall Engineered Products
Company
Montana State University
MWI , Moving Water Industries
Oxy Chem
Pacer Pumps
Paco Pumps, Inc.
Pinellas Cty, Gen. Serv. Dept.
The Process Group, LLC
Raytheon Engineers & Constructors
Reddy-Buffaloes Pump, Inc.
Robert Bein, Wm. Frost & Assoc.
Scott Process Equipment Corp.
Settler Supply Company
Skidmore
South Florida Water Mgmt. Dist.
Sta-Rite Industries, Inc.
Sterling Fluid Systems (USA), Inc.
Stone & Webster Engineering Corp.
Sulzer Bingham Pumps, Inc.
Summers Engineering, Inc.
Systecon, Inc.
Val-Matic Valve & Mfg. Corp.
Yeomans Chicago Corp.
Zoeller Engineered Products
VII
This page intentionally blank.
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1.6 Test
1.6.1 5cope
This standard is limited to the testing of centrifugal
pumps with clear water. The tests conducted under
these standards shall be made and reported by quali-
fied personnel.
This standard only applies to tests of the pump unless
stated otherwise.
The type of test(s) performed, and the auxiliary equip-
ment to be used, should be agreed upon by the pur-
chaser and manufacturer prior to the test.
It is not the intent of this standard to limit or restrict
tests to only those described herein. Variations in test
procedures may exist without violating the intent of this
standard. Exceptions may be taken if agreed upon by
the parties involved without sacrificing the validity of
the applicable parts of this standard.

This standard is intended to provide uniform proce-
dures for hydrostatic, hydraulic, and mechanical per-
formance testing of centrifugal pumps and recording of
\-./. the test results. This standard is intended to define test
procedures which may be invoked by contractual
agreement between a purchaser and manufacturer. It
is not intended to define a manufacturer's standard
practice
... /
1.6.2 Types of tests
This standard describes the following tests:
a) Performance test to demonstrate hydraulic and
mechanical integrity;
Optional tests as follows when specified:
b) Hydrostatic test of pressure-containing components;
c) Net positive suction head required test (NPSHR
test);
d) Mechanical test;
e) Priming time test.
For airborne sound testing see HI 9.1-9.5-2000,
Pumps - General Guidelines.
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
1.6.2.1 Test conditions
Unless otherwise specified, the rate of flow, head, effi-
ciency, NPSHR and priming time are based on shop
tests using water corrected to 20
0
C (68
0
F). If the facil-
ity cannot test at rated speed because of limitations in
power, electrical frequency or available speed chang-
the pump may be tested at between 80% and
120% of rated speed. It is permissible on pumps
greater than 225 kw (300 hp) to test at speeds
between 60% and 140% of rated speed.
1.6.3 Terminology
The following terms are used to designate test param-
eters or are used in connection with pump testings:
1.6.3.1 5ymbols
See Table 1 .18.
1.6.3.2 5ubscripts
See Table 1.19.
1.6.3.3 5pecified condition point
Specified condition point is synonymous with rated
condition point.
1.6.3.4 Rated condition point
Rated condition point applies to the rate of flow, head,
speed, NPSH and power of the pump as specified by
the purchase order
1.6.3.5 Normal condition point
Normal condition point applies to the rate of flow,
head, speed, NPSH and power at which the pump will
normally operate. It may be the same as the rated con-
dition point.
1.6.3.6 Best efficiency point (BEP)
The rate of flow and head at which the pump effi :iency
is a maximum.
1.6.3.7 5hut
The condition of zero flow where no liquid is flow-
ing through the pump, but the pump is primed and
operating.
1\.)
Table 1.18 - Symbols
Conversion
Symbol Term Metric unit Abbreviation US Customary Unit Abbreviation factor
a
A Area square millimeter mm
L
square inches in
L
645.2
(beta) Meter or orifice ratio dimensionless dimensionless
D Diameter millimeter mm inches In 25.4
(delta) Difference dimensionless dimensionless
percent % percent %
g Gravitational acceleration meter/second/sq uared m/s
2
feetlsecond/sq uared ftlsec
2
0.3048
y(gamma) Specific weight pounds/cubic foot
h Head meter feet R 0.3048
H Total head meter feet R 0.3048
n Speed revolutions/minute rpm revolutions/minute rpm
NPSHA Net positive suction head meter feet

0.3048
available
NPSHR Net positive suction head meter m feet R 0.3048
required
NS Specific speed NS = nQYo/H% dimensionless dimensionless 1.162
v (nu) Kinematic viscosity millimeter squared/sec feet squared/second ft2/
sec 92,900
pi = 3.1416 dimensionless dimensionless
p Pressure kilopascal kPa pounds/square inch pSI 6.895
P Power kilowatt kW horsepower hp 0.7457
q Rate offlow cubic meter/hour m
3
/h cubic feetlsecond
101.94
Q Rate offlow cubic meter/hour m
3
/h US gallons/minute gpm 0.2271
p (rho) Density kilogram/cubic meter kg/m
3
pound mass/cubic foot Ibm/ft
3
16.02
s Specific gravity dimensionless dimensionless
Temperature degrees Celsius
degrees Fahrenheit
CF-32) x %
Torque Newton - meter N.m pound-feet Ib-ft 1.356
V Velocity meter/second m/s feetlsecond ftlsec 0.3048
X Exponent none none none none
Z Elevation gauge distance above meter feet 0.3048
or below datum
a Conversion factor x US units = metric units.



1.6.3.8 Volume
The unit of volume shall be one of the following:
Metric: cubic meter;
US units: US gallon;
US units: cubic foot.
The specific weight of water at a temperature of 20
0
C
(68
0
F) shall be taken as 9.89 kN/m
3
(62.3 IbIft
3
). For
other temperatures, proper specific weight corrections
shall be made using values from the ASME steam
tables.
1.6.3.9 Rate offlow (capacity) (Q)
The rate of flow of a pump is the total volume through-
put per unit of time at suction conditions. It assumes
no entrained gases at the stated operating conditions.
1.6.3.10 Speed (n)
The number of revolutions of the shaft in a given unit
of time. Speed is expressed as revolutions per minute
HI Centrifugal Pump
1.6.3.11 Datum
The reference line or center of the pump shaft from
which all elevations are measured. The elevation head
(Z) to the datum is positive when the gauge is above
datum and negative when the gauge is below datum.
The datum elevation is defined as follows:
For horizontal units, it shall be the centerline of the
pump shaft, Figure 1.113.
For vertical single suction pumps, it shall be the
entrance eye to the first stage impeller, Figure
1.114.
For vertical double suction pumps, it shall be the
center of the 1.115.
1.6.3.12 Head (h)
Head is the expression of the energy content of the liq-
uid referred to a datum. It is expressed in units of
energy per unit weight of liquid. The measuring unit for
head is meter (feet) of liquid:
Table 1.19 - Subscripts
Subscript Term Subscript Term
Test condition or model Motor
2 Specific condition or prototype ot Operating temperature
a Absolute OA Overall unit
Atmospheric p Pump
b Barometric S Suction
d Discharge Theoretical
dvr Driver input V Velocity
g Gauge vp Vapor pressure
max Maximum W Water
mm Minimum
3
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000

and datum elevation


Figure 1.113 - Horizontal unit - (Single or double
suction) (Double suction not shown)
Pump centerline

Figure 1.114 - Vertical single suction pump
Pump centerline
Figure 1.115 - Vertical double suction pump
4
1.6.3.12.1 Gauge head (hg)
The pressure energy of the Ii quid determined by a
pressure gauge or other pressure measuring device.
(Metric) hg
9.8s

(Pg)
(US units) h(J = "v'
r s
1.6.3.12.2 Velocity head (hv)
The kinetic energy of the liquid at a given section.
Velocity head is expressed by the following equation:

h..
v 2(g)
1.6.3.12.3 Elevation head (Z)
The potential energy of the liquid due to its elevation
relative to a datum level , measured to the Iiquid sur-
face or center of the pressure gauge.
1.6.3.12.4 Total suction head (hs)
The total suction head is the algebraic sum of the suc-
tion gauge head, the suction velocity head, and the
suction elevation head:
hs = h_ + h.. + Z_
.S
The gauge head is positive when the suction ga,uge
reading is above atmospheric pressurE; and negative
when the reading is below atmospheric pressure.
The velocity head is computed for the liquid velocity at
the point of gauge attachment.
On pumps submerged in an open sump or open wet
well , where the suction piping is considered
pump:
hs = Zw
Where:
Zw = Vertical distance of the sump free water
surface from datum.
--<





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1.6.3.12.5 Total suction lift
When the total suction head is negative, it is often
called total suction lift.
1.6.3.12.6 Total discharge head (h
d
)
The total discharge head is the algebraic sum of the
discharge gauge head, discharge velocity head, and
the discharge elevation head. It is computed for the
liquid velocity at the discharge pressure tap, and the
elevation head Zd' measured at the pressure gauge:
h.... = h_ +h.. +Z
d - "gd ' "vd
1.6.3.12.7 Total head (H)
This is the measure of the work increase per unit
weight of the liquid, imparted to the liquid by the pump,
and is therefore the algebraic difference between the
total discharge head and the total suction head.
a) Where positive suction head exists, the total head
is the total discharge head minus the total suction
head:
H = hd-h
s
or
H=(hgd+hvd+Zd)(hgs+hvs+Zs)
Combining terms, the general expression for total
head is:
H=(hgd-hgs)+(hvd-hvs)+(Zd-Zs)
pumps submerged in sumps:
H = h_ +h"
:1 d Vd
c) Where negative suction head exists, the total head
is the total discharge head plus the total suction
lift.
Since the complete characteristics of a pumping sys-
tem determine the total head requirements, this value
can only be specified by the user.
1.6.3.12.8 Atmospheric head (h
atm
)
Local atmospheric pressure expressed in meters
(feet).
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
1.6.3.12.9 Effects of compressibility of liquid on
total head
In the preceding formulas, the work accomplished in
compressing the liquid has been ignored. To evaluate
the total head more accurately when pumping to high
pressure, this factor should be taken into consider-
ation. For most liquids, it may be assumed that a
straight line relationship exists between pressure and
volume. With this assumption, the above total head
formula becomes:
H =
It is suggested that this relationship be used if the
ference between Yd and near best point,
is 0.2% or more.
Example: (Metric) Correction of total head for com-
pressibility. Given Water Conditions:
t
s
= 177
0
C (suction temperature);
Ps = 1380 kPa (suction pressure);
t
d
= 182
0
C (discharge temperature);
Pd = 32400 kPa (discharge pressure);
At suction conditions:
Ps = 1480 17rC
From steam tables, Suction specific volume = 890.5
kg/m
3
At discharge conditions:
Pd = 32500 kPa; t
d
= 182
0
C
From steam tables, Discharge specific volume =
904.5 kg/m
3
Specific volume = 1/specific weight = 1/ythen:
5
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
This value should be added to the terms:
(hvd hvs)and (Zd Zs)
to obtain the total head.
Example: (US units) Correction of total head for
compressibility. Given Water Conditions:
t
s
= 350
0
F (suction temperature);
Ps = 200 psig (suction pressure);
t
d
= 360
0
F (discharge temperature);
Pd = 4700 psig (discharge pressure);
Reference: Keenan and Keys, Steam Ther-
modynamic Properties of Water, John Wiley and
Sons, lnc.
At suction conditions:
Ps = 215 350
0
F
From steam tables, Suction specific volume =
.01800 ft3/lb
At discharge conditions:
Pd = 4715 360
0
F
From steam tables, Discharge specific volume =

Specific volume = 1/specific weight = 1/ythen:

(.01772 + .01800)
2=11,57O ft
value should be added to the terms:
(hll.-h
ll
) and
a .5
to obtain the total head.
6
1.6.3.12.10 Net positive suction head available
(NPSHA)
Net positive suction head available (NPSHA) is the
total suction head of liquid absolute, determined at the
suction nozzle and referred to datum, less the abso-
lute vapor pressure of the liquid in head of liquid
pumped:
NPSHA = - h"n
-a
Where:
h ", = Total suction head in Meters (feet) absolute
-a
= hatm+h
s
or
NPSHA = hatm+hs-hvp
Example: (Metric) A four-stage boilerfeed pump
having a 100-mm inside diameter suction and a 75-
mm inside diameter discharge is rated at a flow rate
of 91 m
3
/h against a total head of 274 m handling
water at 116
0
C, and running at 3550 rpm. The suc-
tion gauge reading is 145 kPa and the gauge center
location is 0.15 m below impeller inlet datum, and
atmospheric pressure is 98 kPa.

To calculate the net positive suction head available
(NPSHA) to the pump in the field:
1000
NPSHA P,m) + h",
(gxp)' a
P
vp
= 172 kPa (from steam tables)
y = Specific weight = 947.3 kg/m
3
Velocity in the 100-mm inside diameter suction:
v=
91
= 3.2 m/s

.,2
Velocity head (h
v
) =
5' 2g
m
n/- FO nu
--

n
u
q
u

s
v
h

:38 .S
r=\
( 1000
h_ = 144.8xl IVVV 1+0.52-0.15 = 16.2 m
s - \..947.3 x 9.81)


\-.-/
1000
NPSHA = ,... ,, (98-172) + 16.2 = 8.2 m
9.81 x 947.3
(US units) A four-stage boiler feed pump
having a 4-inch inside diameter suction and a 3-
inch inside diameter discharge is rated at a flow
rate of 400 gpm against a total head of 900 feet
handling water at 240
o
F, and running at 3550 rpm.
The suction gauge reading is 21 psig, the gauge
center location is 0.5 feet below impeller inlet
datum, and atmospheric pressure is 29 inches Hg.
29 13.6
P", tm = 29" of Hg 14.2 psia
:J LfTI 12 2.31
NOTE: specific gravity of 13.58 and
ft of liquidx s
P
atm
in psi
rm ... ,..._. 2.31
To calculate the net positive suction head available
(NPSHA) to the pump in the field:
144
NPSHA=7(Pa Pvp)+hs
P
vp
= 25.0 psia (from steam tables)
y = Specific weight = 59.1 Ib/ft
3
Velocity in the 4-inch inside diameter suction:
400 x .321
10.2 ftlsec
:(4)2
,,2
Velocity head (hv)
s' 2g
1.6 feet
s 2 x 32.2
h_=h_+h..+Z_
21 x 144
= 52.3 feet
59.1
144
NPSHA 14.2 - 25.0) + 52.3 = 26.1 feet
59.1

(NPSHR)
Net positive suction head required
Net positive suction head required (NPSHR) is the
total suction head of liquid absolute determined at the
first stage impeller datum less the absolute vapor
HI Centrifugal Pump
pressure of the liquid in head of liquid pumped,
required to prevent more than 3% loss in total head
from the first stage of the pump at a specific rate of
flow.
1.6.3.13 Power (P)
1.6.3.13.1 Pump input power (P
p
)
The power delivered by the driver to the pump input
shaft. It is also called brake horsepower.
1.6.3.13.2 Electric driver input power (P mot)
The electrical input to the driver expressed in kilowatls
(horsepower).
1.6.3.13.3 Pump output power (Pw)
The power imparted to the liquid by the pump. It is also
called water horsepower.
QxHxs
(Metric) P w
367
QxHxs
(US units) P w
w 3960
1.6.3.13.4 Pump efficiency (llp)
The ratio of the pump output power (Pw) to the pump
input power (P
p
); that the ratio of the liquid horse-
power to the brake horsepower expressed in percent:
100
.p
1.6.3.13.5 Overall efficiency (1l 0A)
The ratio of the pump output power (Pw) to the energy
supplied to the driver (Pmot) expressed in percent. This
takes into account losses in both the pump
and the driver:
p
x 100
mot
1.6.4 Hydrostatic test
1.6.4.1 Hydrostatic test objective
To demonstrate that the pump when subjected to
hydrostatic pressure(s) will not leak or fail structurally.
For purposes of this requirement, the containment of
liquid means only prevention of its escape through
7
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
the external surfaces of the pumps, normally to
atmosphere.
1.6.4.2 Hydrostatic test parameters
Each part of the pump which contains liquid under
pressure shall be capable of withstanding a hydro-
static test at not less than the greater of the following:
150% of the pressure which would occur in that
part when the pump is operating at rated condi-
tion for the given application of the pump, except
thermoset
125% of the pressure which would occur in that
part when the pump is operating at rated speed for
a given application, but with the pump discharge
valve closed.
Due to the irreversible damage that can occur to the
reinforcement of thermoset parts that are put under
excessive pressure, hydrostatic test pressure shall be
1.1 times the maximum design pressure. The manu-
facturer should be able to verify through test records
that adequate sampling was done to prove that the
can sustain 1.5 times the design pressure. When
a 1.5 hydrostatic test pressure on thermoset parts is
requested, all parties should agree to the conse-
quences of possible irreversible damage.
In all instances, suction pressure must be taken into
account.
8
Components or assembled pumps: The test shall
be conducted on either the liquid-containing com-
ponents or the assembled pump.
Components: The test shall be conducted on the
liquid-containing components such as the casing
and end covers. Care must be taken not to impose
pressure in excess of 150% of design on areas
designed for lower pressure operation. Test
flanges or cylinders can be used for isolating dif-
ferential pressure.
Assembled pump: The test shall be conducted on
the entire liquid-containing area of the pump, but
care must be taken not to impose pressure in
excess of 150% of design on areas such as suc-
tion volutes or mechanical seal areas.
Test duration: Test pressure shall be maintained
for a sufficient period of time to permit complete
examination of the parts under pressure. The
hydrostatic test shall be considered
when no leaks or structural failure are observed
for a minimum of 3 minutes for pumps 75 kW (100 /"\
horsepower) and below, or 10 minutes above
75 kW (100 horsepower).
Test Iiquid: Test liquid shall be water or oil having a
maximum viscosity of 32 Cst (150 SSU) at test
temperature.
Temperature: If the part tested is to operate at a
temperature at which the strength of material is
below the strength of the material at room temper-
the hydrostatic test pressure shall be multi-
plied by a factor obtained by dividing the allowable
working stress for the material at room tempera-
ture by that at operating temperature. This pres-
sure thus obtained shall then be the minimum
pressure at which hydrostatic pressure shall be
performed. The data sheet shall list the actual
hydrostatic test pressure.
1.6.4.3 Hydrostatic test procedure
Items to be tested shall have all the openings ade-
quately sealed. Provisions shall be made to vent all
the air at the high points on the item. The item shall be
filled with the test liquid, pressurized, and the test
pressure shall be maintained for the duration of the
test. No leakage through the item tested shall be visi-
ble; however, leakage through the stuffing-box packing
shall be permitted.
1.6.4.4 Hydrostatic test records
Complete written or computer records shall be kept of
all information and kept on file, available to
the purchaser by the test facility, for two years. This
information shall include:
by model , size, serial number;
b) Test liquid;
c) Maximum allowable working pressures and
temperature;
d) Hydrostatic test pressure and test duration;
e) Date of test;
f) Identity of personnel in charge.


1.6.5 Performance test

1.6.5.1 Performance test acceptance tolerances
The acceptance tolerance applies to the specified con-
dition point only, not to the entire performance curve.
While pumps must be closely checked for satisfactory
mechanical operation during performance testing, the
degree and extent of such checking is independent of
the level of acceptance tolerances.
The minimum number of test points for level A" shall
be 7, and the minimum number for level B" shall be 5.
See Section 1.6.5.3 for descriptions of levels A and B.
When testing at rated speed is not practical , test
speed shall not be less than 80% nor more than 120%
of the rated speed. It is permissible on pumps greater
than 225 kW (300 horsepower) to test at speeds
between 60% and 140% of rated speed. Results are to
be adjusted to rated speed. Any greater change in
speed shall be by mutual agreement.
1.6.5.2 Witnessing of tests
The purchaser or purchaser's designated representa-
tive may witness the test when requested by the pur-
\ __ / chaser in the purchase order.
1.6.5.3 Acceptance levels
The test has two levels of acceptance, A
and B, for the quantitative values. Acceptance level
A" is usually applied to those pumps that are manu-
factured for specific conditions of service. Acceptance
level B" is usually applied to those pumps that are
mass produced for stock. If not specified, level A will
apply.
a) In making level "A" tests, no minus tolerances or
margin shall be allowed with respect to rate of
f1ow, total head or efficiency at the rated or speci-
fied conditions;
b) Acceptance of the pump test results shall be
judged at rated rate of flow and rpm with applica-
ble total head and efficiency as follows:
Performance Tolerance
Acceptance level A B
\-./
Under 60 m (200 ft)
o to 680 m
3
/h (2999 gpm)

HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
Performance Tolerance (continued)
Acceptance level A B

I'm -HDB nunuo nunu

nuhHr

d1d
nHnonH
U6a

From 60 m (200 ft) to
150 m (500 ft),
any f1 0w rate
+
150 m (500 ft) and over, +
any f1 0w rate

Minimum efficiency at rated Tl p or Tl OA
rpm and rate of f10w
(For Level = contract pump efficiency)
(For Level = published, nominal efficiency)
c) Alternatively, the pump test results may be judged
at rated total head and rpm versus rate of flow as
follows:
Performance Tolerance
Acceptance level A B
Rate of flow tolerance
at rated total head
+ +
Minimum efficiency at
rated rpm and total head

Tl p or Tl OA .
d) Examples in metric units follow for a pump rated
227 m"/h, 30.5 m, 80% efficiency, water with 1.0
specific gravity:
1) Per Para b, level A at rated rate of flow and
rpm, test total head range;
30.5 x 1.08 = 33 m max;
30.5 x 1.0 = 30.5 m min;
2) Per Para b, level B at rated rate of flow and
rpm, test total head range;
9
HI Centrifugal Pump
30.5 x 1.05 = 32 m max; Examples in US units follow for a pump rated 1000
gpm, 100 ft, 80% efficiency, water with 1.0 specific
30.5 x .97 = 29.6 m min; gravity:
Based on minimum efficiency = 1) Per Para b, level A at rated rate of flow and
rpm, test total head range;
100/[(120/80) - .2] = 76.9%;
100 x 1.08 = 108 ft max;
Test power range = 22.8 kW min; 25.7 kW
max. 100 x 1.0 = 100 ft min:
3) Per Para c, level A at rated total head and 2) Per Para b, level B at rated rate of flow and
rpm. rpm, test total head range;
Test rate of flow range at rated total head: 100 x 1.05 = 105 ft max;
227 x 1.1 = 250 m
3
/h max; 100 x .97 = 97 ft min;
227 x 1.0 = 227 m
3
/h min; Based on minimum efficiency =
Test power at rated total head and rpm = 100/[(120/80) - .2] = 76.9%;
Pw
Test power range = 30.6 hp min; 34.5 hp max.

3) Per Para c, level A at rated total head and
and: rpm.
227 x 30.5 = 23.6 kW min;

Test rate of flow range at rated total head:

100
1000 x gpm max;
250 x 30.5 = 26 kW max:
1000 x 1.0=1000 gpm min;
367x 100
Test power at rated total head and rpm =
4) Per Para c, level B at rated total head and
Pw
rpm.

Test rate of flow range:
(1000)(100) =31.6hp m-n;
227 x 1.05 = 238 m
3
/h max;

227 x .95 = 216 m
3
/h min; and:
Test max power at rated total head and rpm =
(11 00)(100) =34.7hp max,
238 x 30.5 = 25.7 kW;


100
4) Per Para c, level B at rated total head and rpm.
Test min power at rated total head and rpm = Test rate of flow range:
216 x 30.5 = 22.4 kW;
1000 x 1.05 = 1050 gpm max;

100
1000 x .95 = 950 gpm min;
10

Test max power at rated total head and rpm =
(1050)(100)
34.5 hp;
(76.9'\

\. 100)
Test min power at rated total head and rpm =
(950)(100)
30 hp;
(80 '\

\.100)
5) Note that the driver horsepower required is
dictated by the acceptance level specified and
the tolerances.
If it is dismantle a pump after the
mance test for the sole purpose of changing rotation or
machining impellers to meet the tolerances, no re-test
shall be required unless the reduction in diameter
exceeds 5% of the original diameter.
1.6.5.4 Peormance test instrumentation
1.6.5.4.1 Introduction
Test instruments shall be selected so that they can
provide measurements with accuracy shown in Sec-
tion 1.6.5.4.2 at BEP. Instruments need not be cali-
brated specifically for each test, but are to be
periodically calibrated by the manufacturer or suitable
Refer to Section 1.6.5.4.3 for suitable interval
between calibrations for test instruments.

1.6.5.4.2 Fluctuation and accuracy
Acceptable
f1uctuation of Accuracy of the
test readings instrument as a
Actual :1:% ofthe :1:% ofthe
Measurement values values
Rate offlow 2.0 1.5
Differential
head 2.0 1.0
Discharge
head 2.0 0.5
Suction head 2.0 0.5
lnput power 2.0 1.5
Pump speed 0.3 0.3
NOTE: Since itself is a derived quantity, its accu-
.racy may be computed from the other instrument accuracies
listed in the table, applying the root mean square law. It is
common practice to use the actual recorded test readings for
HI Centrifugal Pump
computation of efficiency for fulfillment of the manufacturer's
guarantee and to disregard the of instrument accuracy.
1.6.5.4.3 Suitable interval between calibration for
test instruments
Measuring and test equipment and measurement
standards shall be calibrated at periodic intervals as
listed in Table 1.20. Intervals shall be shortened as
required to ensure continued accuracy as evidenced
by the results of preceding calibrations and may be
lengthened only when the results of previous calibra-
tions provide definite indications that such action will
not adversely the accuracy of the system.
1.6.5.5 Peormance test setup
This section contains general guidelines for perfor-
mance test setup, to ensure accurate and repeatable
test results. See Figures 1.116 and 1.117.
The performance test may utilize, but is not limited;
to, the following:
a) Facility or purchaser-furnished driver. Depending
on the method used to measure pump input
power, efficiency data may be required;
b) Facility or purchaser-furnished speed-change unit,
if required. To accurately establish pump input
power, efficiency data of speed changer may be
required;
c) A suction pipe or hose from the booster pump,
closed tank or open sump, properly sized for the
pump being tested. The f10w into the pump is to be
free from swirl and have a symmetrical velocity
distribution;
Priming connection
Optional
throttle
valve
Suction

same as Figure 1.117
or 1.119
-1 _ Water level variance
J Optional baffle: spacing between
suction and discharge pipes is to
be equal to or greater than 6
times the sum of the nominal
pipe diameters. When spacing
must be reduced, a baffle as
shown is required
Figure - Test with suction lift
11
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
d) A suction pressure gauge, compound gauge or
pressure transducer suitable for measuring the
complete range of pressures whether positive or
negative;
e) A discharge pipe or hose with a pressure break-
down (throttling) device;
f) A discharge pressure gauge or pressure trans-
ducer(s) for measuring the complete range of
pressures;
Table 1.20 - Recommended instrument calibration interval
3
Rate offlow Power (continued)
Quantity meter Torque bar
Weighing tanks 1 yr Calibrated motor
Volumetric tank 10 yr KW Transducer
Rate meters
Venturi
c
permanent
Nozzle
c
Strain gauges
Orifice plate
c
Transmission gear to 375 kW (500 HP)
Weir
c
Transmission gears above 375 kW (500 HP)
Turbine 1 yr Speed
Magnetic flow 1 yr Tachometers
Rotometer 5 yr Eddy current drag
Propeller 1 yr Electronic
Ultrasonic 5 yr Frequency responsive devices
Pressure Vibrating reed
Bourdon tube (pressure gauge) 4mo Electronic
Manometers Not req'd Photocell
Dead weight tester 1 yr Stroboscopes
Transducers 4mo Torque meter (speed)
Digital indicator 1 yr Temperature
Power Electric
Dynamometer w/scale 6 yr Mercury
Dynamometer w/load scale 6mo
a Use instrument manufacturer's recommendation if shorter than listed above.
b Unless electrical or mechanical failure.
C Calibration is not required unless it is suspected there are critical dimensional changes.
12
1 yr
Not req'd
b
3 yr
1 yr
1 yr
6mo
10 yr
20 yr
3 yr
10 yr
Not req'd
b
10 yr
10 yr
10 yr
5 yr
1 yr
2 yr
5 yr
r--\

/


HI Centrifugal Pump 2000
Pressure Gauge
Thermometer
Control Valve lor
Throttling Suction
Dampening Valve
Pressure Gauge
Return to sump Discharge
Dampening Device
_ Flow Meter il
I Located in Discharge
on
Test I I 2lJ I
D
Spring Loaded
Back Pressure Valve or
Adjustable Choke Valve
Note:
Position 01 these
devices may be reversed
in some set ups
Figure 1.117 - Open or closed tank
g) Throttling devices may be used for the suction
and discharge instruments, such as needle
valves or to dampen out the pres-
sure pulsations;
h) A means for measuring input power to the pump
shall be provided and be suitable for measuring
the complete range of power;
i) A means for measuring pump speed shall be
provided;
j) Test setups intended for NPSH testing shall be
provided with a means for lowering the suction
pressure to the pump, such as a suction throtlle
valve (with optional screen or straightening
vanes), variable level sump in an open system, or
a closed tank with a mechanism to create a vac-
uum or pressure;
k) A means for measuring the test
liquid shall be provided;
1) The actual dimensions of the suction and dis-
charge pipes where pressure readings are to be
taken shall be determined so that proper velocity
head calculations can be made;
1.6.5.6 Performance test data requirements
The following data shall be obtained prior to the test
run and writlen for the record to be retained for two
years (see sample data sheet on page 14):
a) Record of pump type, size and serial number;
b) To verify the liquid the temperature of
the liquid shall be taken before and after testing.
Temperature readings should be taken more often
when testing for NPSHR or high-power pumps.
c) Ambient conditions, such as temperature and
barometric pressure;
d) Records of critical installation dimensions, such as
tank internal dimensions, pipe internal dimensions
and lengths, and liquid levels (submergence) rela-
tive to datum;
e) Record of driver data, such as type, serial number,
horsepower, speed range, amperage, voltage and
efficiency;
'-......./ m) Flow measuring device(s).
f) Record of auxiliary equipment, such as vibration
monitors, temperature sensors, low- or high-
pressure monitors, leakage detectors, alarms,
etc.;
13
HI Centrifugal Pump
Summary of necessary data on pumps to be tested
The following information should be furnished on pumps
to be tested:
General:
1 . Owner's name
2. Plant location
3. Elevation above sea level
4. Type of service
Pump:
1. Manufactured by
2. Manufacturer's designation
3. serial number
4. Arrangement:
5. Inlet: single
6. Number of stages
7. Size suction: nominal
actual
8. Size discharge: nominal
actual
Intermediate transmission:
1. Manufactured by
2.
3. Serial number
4. Speed ratio
5. Efficiency
Driver:
1. Manufactured by
Serial number
3. Type:
4. Rated horsepower
5. Rated
6. Characteristics (voltage, frequency,
7. Calibration data
8. Driver efficiency
Specifying rated conditions
The following information is necessary in specifying
rated conditions:
1. Li quid pumped (water, oil , etc.)
2. Specific weight
3. Viscosity at pumping temperature
4.
5. Vapor pressure
6. Rate of flow
7. Total suction lift (hs)
8. Total suction head (hs)
14

9. Net positive suction head required
(NPSHR)
10. Total discharge head (h
d
)
11. Total head (H)
12. Output power (Pw)
13. Efficiency (llp)
14. Input power (P
p
)
15. Speed
Test information
Test information should be listed substantially as follows:
VJ
hU AU
1e as
ts
sye

eeht

n1234 e
G
Rate of flow:
1. Method of measurement
- G
2. Meter-make and serial number
3. Calibration data

Head:
1. Suction gauge-make and serial number
2. Calibration data
3. Discharge gauge-make and serial number
4. Calibration data
Power:
1. Method of measurement
2. Make and serial number of instrument
3. Calibration data
Speed:
1. Method of measurement
2. Make and serial number of instrument

3. Calibration data

g) Instrument calibration records and correction fac-
tors in accordance with instrumentation calibration
section;
h) Identity and authority level of test personnel in
charge of tests;
i) The actual dimension of the areas where pressure
readings are to be taken shall be determined so
that proper velocity head corrections can be
made.
1.6.5.7 Peormance test records
Complete written or computer records shall be kept of
all information relevant to a test and kept on file, avail-
able to the purchaser by the test facility, for two years.
The manufacturer's serial number, type and size, or
other means of identification of each pump and driver
(if calibrated and used to obtain the pump's efficiency)
involved in the test shall be recorded to avoid mistakes
in identity.
While these records apply to the complete unit, includ-
ing the driver, the standard itself applies only to tests
ofthe pump.
\ j 1.6.5.8 Calculations
1.6.5.8.1 Calculation of total suction head (hs)
= h_ +h..
:1 S s
1.6.5.8.2 Calculation of total discharge head (h
d
)
h .J = h_ +h.. +Z.J
d "gd. "v
d
.
1.6.5.8.3 Calculation of total head (H)
H = hd-hs
For definition of terms and algebraic summation of the
parts, see Section 1.6.3.12.
1.6.5.8.4 Calculation of input power
The input power (Po), when measured by transmission
dynamometer, is calculated from the following formula:

\-....../
HI Centrifugal Pump
2nLWn
(US units): P n
p 33,000 5250
Where:
L = Length of lever arm in m
W = Net force in N (Ib);
n = Pump speed in rpm;
,. = Torque in N.m (pound-feet).
The electrical horsepower input to an electric motor is
given by:
(Metric) P mot = kW

-nu
--
o m
p
s nH
U S U
Where:
kW = Electrical input power in kilowatts.
The input power to a pump driven by an electric motor
IS:
P- =
p mUL 100
1.6.5.8.5 Calculation of output power
The liquid horsepower (Pw) is computed by the foll.ow-
ing formula:
units:
P=QH(S)
w 366
b) US units:
P... =
W
df

-m

nE
.'-

When the specific weight of the liquid is 62.3 pounds


per cubic foot, which is the value for water at a stan-
dard temperature of 68
0
F, then:
15
/-\
In order to maintain hydraulic similarity with the field
operation, the following relationships are used for
determining the head, rate of flow, power and NPSHR
at the rated point. These relationships which follow
definite rules are known as the affinity laws. The
power relationship is based on the criteria that the effi-
ciency stays constant with change in speed.
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
If the pump is handling a liquid with different specific
weight, or water at a temperature resulting in a specific
weight per cubic foot other than 62.3 pounds, the
above formula must be corrected so that:
P...
w 3960
= (::f
333
=
0
1
O
2
P-QH(S)
w
3960
Where:
If pump output is measured in pounds per square inch
,
the formula for output power
,
regardless of the specific
weight of the liquid
,
becomes:
rate of flow on test; - 0
1
rate of flow on installation; - O
2
P=QAP
w 1710
speed on test in rpm; - n1
speed on installation in rpm; - n2
Calculation of efficiency
The pump efficiency expressed in percent is calcu-
lated by:
1.6.5.8.6
head on test;
head on installation;
-
-
-

H
2
100
p P
p

/
power on test; - P
1
The overall efficiency of a motor-driven unit expressed
in percent is calculated by:
power on installation; - P
2
NPSHR
1
= NPSH on test;
f P\

\ mot/
NPSHR
2
= NPSH on installation.


Figure 1.118 - Pump (all data is
corrected to rated speed)
d
SPEED-RPM

Denotes head- rate olllow



kfor w| hich pump was sold
h\
g 3
EmclemIY
L..----"""


\
UET

/
v
/
Power(s= r

z EEL
/
1----""
v

/
NPSHR
-
L..----"""
1/
I I
Plotting performance test results
The total head, efficiency and power input are usually
plotted as ordinates on the same sheet with rate of
flow as the abscissa, as shown on Figure 1.118.
1.6.5.8.7
Performance test at other than rated 1.6.5.8.8
speed
Test of a full-sized pump at reduced 1.6.5.8.8.1
speed
Rate offlow
In tests at reduced speed, the relative power loss in
bearing and stuffing-box friction may be increased, an
effect which may be appreciable in small pumps. The
hydraulic friction losses may be relatively increased
when the Reynolds number for the water passages is
reduced, an which may be appreciable in small
pumps of low specific speed. Therefore, these factors
must be considered in determining an acceptable test
speed.
16

Sealless pumps incur significant eddy current losses
which are affected by speed. Impeller input power var-
ies approximately with the cube of rpm as they do in
conventionally sealed pumps. Eddy current losses are
to rpm squared. Therefore the following
power correction for speed is made:
P2 = (P 1 - EC
1
)(n2/n1)3 + EC
1
(n2/nd;
P
1
= Power on test in kW (bhp);
P
2
= Power on installation in kW (bhp);
EC
1
= Eddy current losses on test in kW (bhp).
Eddy current losses, EC
1
, are normally measured by
manufacturers during development studies. Values
from these tests may be used in lieu of measurements
during the contractural performance test.
1.6.5.8.8.2 Peormance test of full-sized pumps
at increased speed
Under unusual circumstances, it may be desirable to
carry out tests at higher speeds than specified for the
installation. This may be due to the limitations of avail-
able prime movers or correct electrical frequency. In
this case, if such tests do not exceed safe operating
\--..-/ limits of the pump, all of the above considerations con-
tinue to apply.
1.6.5.8.8.3 Peormance test correction to rated
speed
For purposes of plotting, the rate of flow, head and
power shall be corrected from the test values at test
speed to the rated speed of the pump. The corrections
are made as follows:
flow: O
2
=

Head: H'l = H.


rn'll3
Input power: P
2
= P
1
Example (Metric): A pump for 90.8 m
3
/h, 68.5 meters,
total head and 8 m NPSHA running at 3550 rpm is to
be tested at 2950 rpm. What head, rate of flow and
NPSHA should be used in the factory test?
)
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
Applying the relationships given above, the head per
stage to be used in the factory test is:
m

7
,

nu-nU FO=b

5 0o no
--

qJh
H


H
The rate of flow to be used in the factory test is:
0
1
=
slnce:

- 68.50.75
then,


47.3
0

NPSH to be used in the factory test is:


= = 5.5 m
Example (US Units): A pump for 400 gpm, 225 feet
total head and 26.1 ft NPSHA running at 3550 rpm is
to be tested at 2950 rpm. What head, rate of flow and
NPSHA should be used in the factory test?
Applying the relationships given above, the head per
stage to be used in the factory test is:
=
The rate of flow to be used in the factory test is:
0
1
= = = 332
slnce:


17
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
then


The NPSH to be used in the factory test is:
= 18ft
This will keep the specific speeds the same in the fac-
as in the field installation.
1.6.5.8.9 Performance test correction for
temperature variations
Variations in the temperature of the liquid pumped
cause changes in the specific weight and viscosity,
with resultant changes in the of the
pump.
Any reduction in specific weight, as caused by an
increase in temperature, results in a directly propor-
tional reduction in output and input power; therefore,
the efficiency is not changed.
Reduced viscosity of water at increased temperature
will have an influence on efficiency. For pumps in the
lower range of specific speed typically below 1750
(1500), such as high multi-stage boiler feed
pumps and large, single-stage hot water circulating
pumps, reduced viscosity will:
increase the internal leakage losses;
reduce disc friction losses;
reduce hydraulic skin friction or flow losses.
The net of a reduction in viscosity due to higher
temperature will depend on specific speed and on the
design details of the pump. Where substantiating data
are performance data from a cold water test
may be adjusted to hot water operating conditions on
the basis of the following formula:
t =
Where:
Efficiency at test temperature, decimal
value;
18
llot = Efficiency at operating temperature, deci-
mal value;
\

Vot = Kinemati<? viscosity at operating tempera-



Kinematic viscosity at test temperature,
mm
2
/s;
x = Exponent to be established by manufac-
turer's data (probably in the range of 0.01
toO.1).
Example: (Metric) Typical efficiency adjustment for
increased temperature. A test on water at 37.8
0
C
resulted in an efficiency of 80%. What will be the
probable efficiency at 177
0
C?
IV _"\X
=


nu \ll/

85
,

..

o-8

-n/-
4tnu

..

tt oo

llot = .826 = 82.6%


Example: (US units) Typical efficiency adjustment
for increased temperature. A test on water at 100
0
F
resulted in an efficiency of 80%. What will be the
probable efficiency at 350
0
F?
IV_"\X
=
r. 00000185,\0.1

or .- -'\. .0000076 )
llot = ,
llot = .826 = 82.6%
/-\
1.6.5.8.10 Performance test correction for
specific weight variations
If the test is run with a liquid of different specific weight
from that of the field installation, there will be a revision
in required input power which will be determined as
follows:
y2
(Pn)" = (Pn ) ,
P'2 ,. P'1 "y1
There is no change in

\

Sealless centrifugal pumps incur significant eddy cur-
rent losses which are not affected by specific weight
variations. Power correction for installation specific
weight different from test specific weight is made as
follows:

C E +

C E P

p
Where:
Power for a specific weight on test in kW
(bhp);
P
2
= Power for a specific weight on installation
in kW (bhp);
EC
1
= Eddy current losses on test in kW (bhp).
1.6.5.8.11 Performance test correction for
viscosity variations
/
)
Viscosity has a very definite effect on the operating
conditions of the pump with respect to head, rate of
flow, efficiency and input power. Pumps for viscous
service, which are tested with water, will require cor-
rections to approximate the performance with the vis-
cous liquid. (See ANSI/HI 1.3-2000, Centrifugal Pump
Operation. )
Thermometer Dampening Valve
Control Valve for
Throttling Suction
Pressure Gauge
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
1.6.5.9 Performance test correction for solids in
suspenslon
Solids in suspension affect the operating performance
of the pump in varying degrees, depending on the per-
centage and nature of the solids. No definite correc-
tions can be recommended.
1.6.5.10 Report of test
AII parties to the test shall be furnished a copy of the
curve at constant speed.
1.6.6 Net positive suction head required test
(optional)
1.6.6.1 NPSHR test
To determine the NPSH required (NPSHR) by the
pump.
1.6.6.2 NPSHR test arrangements
Three typical arrangements are shown for determining
the NPSHR characteristics of pumps.
In the first arrangement, Figure 1.119, the pump is
supplied from a constant level supply through a throttle
valve which is followed bya section of pipe containing
straightening vanes or a minimum of seven diameters
Pressure Gauge
Dampening Device
Return to sump Discharge

Note:
Position of these
devices may be reversed
in some setups.
Figure 1.119 - Suppression type NPSH test with constant level sump
19
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
of straight pipe to straighten flow. This arrangement
dissipates the turbulence produced by the throttle
valve and makes possible an accurate reading of suc-
tion pressure at the pump inlet.
This simple arrangement usually is satisfactory for
NPSHR greater than 3 meters (10 feet), although the
turbulence at the throttle valve tends to accelerate the
release of dissolved air or gas from the liquid which
takes place as the pressure on the liquid is reduced. A
test made with this arrangement usually indicates
higher NPSHR than that which can be expected with
deaerated liquid.
In the second arrangement, Figure 1.120, the pump is
supplied from a sump in which the liquid level can be
varied to establish the desired NPSH. This arrange-
ment provides an actual suction lift and hence more
nearly duplicates operating conditions of pumps on
water service. Care should be taken to prevent vortex-
ing as liquid level is varied. The priming connection
should be installed above the eye of the impeller either
in the suction pipe or on the pump.
In the third arrangement, Figure 1.121 , the pump is
supplied from a closed tank in which the level is held
constant and the NPSHA is adjusted by varying the air
or gas pressure over the liquid, by varying the temper-
ature of the liquid, or by both.
This third arrangement tends to strip the liquid of dis-
solved air or gas. It gives a more accurate measure-
ment of the pump uninfluenced by the
Suction
Priming connection
)Rdystem
same as Figure 1.117
or 1.119

OHue
-huov
h

ctI
i ___ Water level variance
Optional baffle: spacing belween
suclion and discharge pipes is 10
be equal to or grealer Ihan 6
limes Ihe sum of Ihe nominal
pipe diamelers. When spacing
musl be reduced, a baffle as
shown is required.
Figure 1.120 - Level control NPSH test with deep
sump supply
20
release of air or gas. This arrangement more nearly
duplicates service conditions where a pump takes its
supply from a closed vessel at or near its vapor pres-
sure. It is also acceptable to tst with a closed loop
without the closed tank on the suction side.
In each of these arrangements, water shall be used as
the test liquid. Aeration shall be minimized by taking
the following precautions:
submerged return lines;
reservoir sized for long retention time to allow air
to escape;
inlet line properly located to prevent vortexing;
reservoir bafftes to isolate inlet from return line;
tight pipe joints and stuffing boxes to guard
against air leakage into the system.
1.6.6.3 NPSHR test procedure
The cavitation characteristics of a pump can be deter-
mined by one of the following procedures:
/"\
Using one of the test arrangements shown, the pump
is run at constant rate of flow and speed with the suc-
tion condition varied to produce cavitation. Plots of
head shall be made for various NPSH values.
Gas Pressure
Heat
Exchanger
Flow
Distributor
--- ---

--- ---
Heating or
Cooling Coil
Suction



Figure 1.121 - Vacuum and/or heat control NPSH
test with closed loop
HI Centrifugal Pump 2000
NPSHR characteristics. The relationship between
model results and predicted full-size characteristics is
described in Section 1.6.13.
Accurate determination of the cavitation point requires
careful control of all factors which influence the opera-
tion of the pump. A minimum of five test points brack-
eting the point of change shall be taken, and the data
to determine when the performance breaks
away from that with excess NPSHA. Any change in
either a deficiency at a given rate of flow,
or change in sound or vibration, may be an indication
of cavitation. But because of the difficulty in detrmin-
ing just when the change starts, a drop in head of 3%,
which is the standard value in determining NPSHR, is
accepted as evidence that cavitation is present. The
3% head drop is based on the first stage head for
multi-stage pumps.
As NPSHA is reduced, a point is reached where the
curves break away from a straight-line trend, indicat-
\/ ing a condition under which the of the
may be impaired. The degree of impairment will
depend upon the specific speed, size and service of
the pump. Figure 1.122 shows results typical of a test
for NPSH at flow rates both greater and less than nor-
mal. The 3% drop in head is the standard to determine
NPSHR.
Another technique for determining the NPSH charac-
teristics is to hold the speed and suction head (hs)
constant and to rate of flow. For any given
suction head, the pump head may be plotted against
rate of flow. A series of such tests will result in a family
of curves, as shown in Figure 1.123. Where the curve
for any suction head (hs) breaks away from the enve-
lope by 3%, NPSHR is established.
The NPSHA value required to properly establish the
non-cavitating performance of a pump should be
determined from prior full-scale or model tests of the
specific pump in question. If no such prior test results
are available, a recommended NPSHA value of twice
the predicted NPSHR, for rated flow rates greater than
85% of the best efficiency point, or an NPSHA value of
at least two and a half times the NPSHR, for rated flow
rates below 85% of the best efficiency point, is recom-
mended for maximum assurance. It should be noted
that the average pump will give full at
NPSHA values only 1.3 times the NPSHR value at
flow rates above 85% of the best efficiency point and
1.7 times the NPSHR value at flow rates below 85% of
the best efficiency point. Accordingly, the test per-
formed at constant rate of flow, as shown in Figure
1.124, should begin with the non-cavitating
mance NPSHA value established above, or greater.
When it is impractical to conduct a test to the above
criteria on large pumps due to size, rate of flow or facil-
ity NPSHA, a model test may be used to determine
O
2
- 100% cap.
0
3
NPSHR values
\11 Q


c
v
o


When testing with water, an accurate temperature
measurement usually is sufficient to establish the
vapor pressure, but the degree of aeration of the water
may have a considerable influence on performance.
Consistent results are more readily obtained when the
water is deaerated.
NPSHA
Figure

Cases may arise in which the limitations of the factory
test facilities may preclude the securing of sufficient
NPSHA to produce the installation NPSHA. In such
cases, the NPSHR can be obtained by an increase in
the pump speed with a corresponding increase in
pumping head and flow rate instead of by a reduction
in NPSH available:
NPSHR values
3% reduction
in total head
ro
H
A-T
hH
-
qd
H

H
|
1
.hH

c
o
z

c
v

a} Correction to specified speed for net positive suc-


tion head
21
Figure 1.123 - NPSH test with suction head held
constant
Rate of flow
\-/
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
H CU P N

!n-nH
fZ/llk s=

NQ
Where:
NPSH
1
= Net positive suction head at test speed;
NPSH
2
= Net positive suction head at specified
speed;
n1 = Test speed in rpm;
n2 = Specified speed in rpm;
01 = Test rate of flow;
02 = Rate of flow at specified speed;
b) NPSH - Experimental deviation from the square
law.
The affinity relationships define the manner in
which head, rate of flow, input power, and NPSHR
vary in a centrifugal or axial flow pump with
respect to speed changes. If a pump operates at
or near its cavitation limit. other factors also have
an and the limiting NPSHR value may vary
other than as the square of the speed. Some of
these factors are: thermodynamic on the
vapor pressure of the liquid, change in surface
tension, and test differences due to the relative air
content of the liquid.

.. 3% At rates of flow 85%


|
_ 1_ 2.5 x
, 3%


;y
W
NPSHA

NPSH test at constant rate of flow
Recommended NPSHA range for NPSHR
test when no previous data on pumps
full performance is available.
Figure 1.124 - NPSH test with flow rate held
constant
22
If the manufacturer can demonstrate that, with a
given pump under conditions, an expo- ./'-\
nent different than the square of the speed exists,
such exponent may be recognized and used
accordingly.
1.6.6.4 NPSHR test suction conditions
The total suction head is to be determined as specified
in Section 1.6.3.12.4.
The NPSHA on the test stand shall exceed the
NPSHR of the pump with sufficient margin throughout
the operating range to ensure that it will have no effect
on the pump performance. See Section 1.6.3.12.10 for
a description of NPSHA.
For pumps in free-surface systems, the approach
must be free of obstructions. The flow towards the
pumps must be uniform and free of eddies and vorti-
ces.
Intake structures should be designed as described in
the ANSI/HI 9.8-1998, Pump Intake Design.
1.6.6.5 NPSHR test records
Complete written or computer records of all data rele-
vant to the NPSHR tests shall be kept by the test facil-
ity and available to the purchaser for a minimum of two
years (see sample data sheet on page 14).

This information should include:
a) Specified NPSHR and NPSHA;
b) Height of suction gauge, above or below the
datum line;
c) Inside diameter of pipe at location of suction pres-
sure tap;
d) Observed data (each run);
- water temperature;
- suction pressure;
- shaft speed;
- discharge pressure;
- rate of flow.

setup;

/
./
f) Type of flow meter and calibration;
g) Type, number and calibration of pressure gauges;
h) Note any abnormal observation (noise, vibration,
etc.);
i) Identification of materials at liquid end of pump;
j) Type and serial number of pump and driver;
k) Date of test;
1) Identity of personnel in charge.
1.6.6.6 NPSHR test
AII parties to the test shall be furnished a copy of the
NPSHR curve or curves as described in Section
1.6.6.3.
1.6.7 Mechanical test (optional)
1.6.7.1 Mechanical test objective
To demonstrate the satisfactory mechanical operation
of a pump, at the rated conditions, including: vibration
levels; lack of leakage from shaft seals, gaskets, and
lubricated areas; and free running operation of rotating
When specified, bearing temperature stabiliza-
tion will be recorded.
\---/
These tests do not apply to submersible pumps as
described in ANSI/HI 1.1-1.2-2000 Figures 1.7 and
1.8.
References to shaft seal do not apply to sealless
pumps.
1.6.7.2 Mechanical test setup
The test setup shall conform to the requirements of
Section 1.6.5.5 where applicable, and the test liquid
shall be clear water. In addition. instrumentation shall
be added to measure the following:
a) Vibration at the pump bearing housing, in two
directions perpendicular to the shaft plus the axial
direction.
b) Temperature of both bearings or bearing housings.
c) Leakage from mechanical seals, gaskets, and
bearing lubricant. Visual observation is sufficient
for allleakage.
HI Centrifugal Pump
temperature, when oil sump is used.
1.6.7.3 Mechanical test operating conditions
The mechanical test shall be conducted under the fol-
lowing operating conditions:
a) Shaft speed - as required to meet rated conditions
as specified in the customer's order. Facility 60 or
50 may be used when customers hertz
are not available, or as agreed to by customer.
b) Rate of flow - the rated rate of flow for which the
pump is sold, or as adjusted to a speed other than
contract by Section 1.6.5.8.8.
c) Suction pressure - as available from the test facility.
d) Li quid temperature - at ambient condition.
e) Ambient air temperature.
1.6.7.4 Mechanical test instrumentation
1.6.7.4.1 Vibration
Vibration instruments can be either hand held or rigidly
attached to the pump. The sensor(s) shall be velocity
type designed to read the nominal RMS velocity with-
out filtering to specific vibration frequencies. Readings
can be taken manually or with recording instruments.
1.6.7.4.2 Temperature
Temperature instruments can be any recognized tem-
perature sensor such as pyrometers, thermometers,
thermocouples and the like. They shall be capable of
measuring the metal temperature on the outside of the
housing of both bearings, and may be hand held or rig-
idly attached to the bearing housing. The top center
over the bearing is usually the location of the highest
temperature. Where temperature sensors are built into
the pump, they shall be used instead of sensors on the
bearing housing. If built-in, they must be at a location
where temperature is of interest.
1.6.7.5 Mechanical test procedure
The pump rate of flow and suction pressure shall be
set per Section 1.6.7.3. The pump shall be operated
for a minimum of 10 minutes, and the following obser-
vations made and data recorded:
from shaft seals, gaskets, mechanical
seal piping, and bearing housing(s).
23
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
b) Vibration level at both inboard and outboard bear-
ings, in two directions perpendicular to the shaft
plus the axial direction. Only the nominal RMS
velocity values need be recorded. Refer to the lat-
est HI Standard for acceptable values.
c) Bearing temperatures at both inboard and out-
board bearings shall be recorded. When specified,
the pump shall be operated until the bearing tem-
perature stabilizes. See ANSI/HI 1.4-2000, Cen-
trifugal Pumps, Section 1.4.5.2.3, for the
temperature stabilization procedure.
d) Rubbing of rotating parts shall be checked for by
listening for unusual or excessive noise, and
observing the coast down of the pump when
power is cut off. Torque readings or other changes
in similar instrument readings can also indicate
rubbing.
temperature and ambient air tempera-
ture shall be taken manually or with recording
instruments.
1.6.7.6 Mechanical test acceptance levels
The mechanical performance is considered accept-
able when each of the following is achieved:
a) Vibration levels on both bearings in any direction
do not exceed the allowable limits specified in or
as specified on the order document.
b) Temperature of both bearings' housing surface
does not exceed the pump manufacturer's stan-
dard for the product as established prior to test.
c) Mechanical seals may have an initial small leak-
age, but shall have no visible leakage when run-
ning at test operating conditions for a minimum of
10 minutes. When shut down, there shall be no
visible leakage from seals for five minutes with the
test suction pressure applied. The purpose of this
test is to ensure that the entire seal (cartridge) has
been properly installed.
24
Soft packing shall have no more than 12 drops per
minute leakage for a 25-mm (1-inch) shaft up to
3500 rpm. For larger shafts or higher test speeds
and pressures, allowable leakage shall be increased
proportionately with shaft diameter speed and pres-
sure or as agreed to by the purchaser.
There shall be no visible leakage through pres-
sure containment parts, gaskets, seal recirculation
piping, bearing housing, etc. Minor leakage at
pump suction and discharge flanges shall not be
cause for rejection since these joints are discon-
nected and reconnected in the field.
d) Rubbing of rotating parts shall not be apparent
from excessive noise during operation nor abrupt
stopping of the pump when power is cut off.
1.6.7.7 Mechanical test records
The following data shall be recorded in either written
or computer form and kept on file, available to the pur-
chaser by the test facility, for two years.
manufacturer's serial number, pump type and
size, or other means of identification of the pump.
b) Vibration levels on both bearings in two directions
perpendicular to the shaft plus the axial direction.
c) Temperature at both bearings.
d) Ambient air temperature.
e) Leakage from the pump as observed at the following:
- Pump pressure containment components
- Pump gaskets
seal piping
seal(s) or packing
- Bearing housing(s)
f) Free-running rotating parts
g) Date of test
h) Name of test technician
1.6.8 Priming time test
Priming tests should only !Je conducted on pumps
designed for this application.
1.6.8.1 Priming time testing of self-priming
pumps
In addition to the standard performance tests, as out-
/'''''\

lined in preceding paragraphs, it may be desirable to
test self-priming pumps to determine the priming time.
For this test, the suction line shall be substantially the

J

\-/


same as that shown in Figure 1.125. Static lift between
the eye of the impeller and the liquid level shall not be
less than 3 meters (10 feet). No check or foot valve
shall be installed in the suction piping.
In making this test, proceed as follows:
Start the unit: The priming time then shall be the
total elapsed time between starting the unit and
the time required to obtain a steady discharge
gauge reading, or full flow through the discharge
nozzle. During this phase of the test, the dis-
charge pipe must be vented if the priming system
is the recirculating type. This will prevent a back
pressure from being developed as the result of the
accumulation of gas. If the unit is equipped with a
priming pump of the separate type, it will be nec-
the discharge pipe to be sealed with a
column of water that will prevent air being drawn
from the discharge side of the unit.
1.6.8.2 Priming time conversion factor
If a suction pipe is used which is different in size than
the pump suction size, it is necessary to compute the
performance for the normal size of pipe.
Use the following equation:
True priming time =
Measured (eump suction

" actual pipe size )


D = DIAMETER OF PIPE
Figure 1.125 - Suction line for static lift test
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
1.6.8.3 Determination of maximum developed
vacuum by means of dry vacuum test
The test procedure is:
With the unit in operation and delivering full flow, close
gate valve in the suction line.
The reading on the vacuum gauge will then be the
maximum developed vacuum.
The gate valve shall be located on the pump flange so
maximum vacuum capability can be credited to the
pump.
1.6.9 Measurement of rate of flow
1.6.9.1 Introduction
Any flow measuring system may be used for measur-
ing pump rate of flow. However, it must be installed so
that the entire flow passing through the pump also
passes through the instrument section so that the
instrument can measure rate of flow with an accuracy
of :t 1.5% at BEP.
Rate of f10w instruments are classified into two func-
tional groups. One group primarily measures batch
quantity; the other primarily measures rate of flow.
1.6.9.2 Rate of flow measurement by weight
Measurement of rate of flow by weight depends upon
the accuracy of the scales used and the accuracy of
the measurement of time. A certification of scales shall
become the test record, or in the absence of
certification, the scales shall be calibrated with stan-
dard weights before or after the test. Time interval for
the collection period shall be measured to an accuracy
of one-quarter of 1 %.
1.6.9.3 Rate of flow measurement by volume
Measurement of rate of flow by volume is done by
measuring the change in volume of a tank or reservoir
during a measured period of time. The tank or reser-
voir can be located on the inlet or discharge side of the
pump, and all flow into or out of the tank or reservoir
must pass through the pump.
In establishing reservoir volume by linear measure-
ments, considerations shall be given to the geometric
regularity (flatness, parallelism, roundness, etc.) of
the reservoir surfaces, dimensional changes due to
25
HI Centrifugal Pump
thermal expansion or contraction, or deflection result-
ing from hydrostatic pressure of the liquid.
Li quid levels shall be measured by means such as
hook gauges, floats and vertical or inclined gauge
glasses.
In some locations and under some circumstances,
evaporation and loss of liquid by spray may be signifi-
cant and may be greater than the effects of thermal
expansion or contraction. Allowance for such loss
must be made, or the loss prevented.
1.6.9.4 Rate of flow measurement by head type
rate meters
Measurement of rate of flow by head meters is done
by introducing a reduced area in the flow stream which
results in a reduction in gauge head as the velocity is
increased. The gauge head is measured
and used to determine the rate of flow. The meters dis-
cussed in Sections 1.6.9.4.1. 1.6.9.4.2 and 1.6.9.4.3
use this principle.
Meters falling within this classification and acceptable
for rate of f10w determination under this standard,
when used as prescribed herein, are venturis, nozzles
and orifice plates.
For any such meter, compliance with this standard
requires that a certified curve showing the calibration
of the meter shall be obtained from the calibrating
agency. This certification must state the method used
in calibration and whether the meter itself was cali-
brated, or whether calibration was obtained from an
exact duplicate.
When a flow meter is used on the discharge, it is pref-
erable to install it in the high pressure section between
the pump and the pressure breakdown valve. If the
working pressure of the meter is lower than the pump
discharge pressure at shut off, it may be installed
downstream of the pressure breakdown valve, with a
back pressure valve located downstream of the flow
meter to ensure that the pressure will stay above
vapor pressure during operation and be free of cavita-
tion in the high-velocity section of the meter.
These precautions are stipulated to ensure uniform
flow velocity within :t 20% at the meter inlet and stable
flow at the downstream pressure taps. If there is a
question as to whether or not uniform flow has been
obtained, it shall be checked by a velocity head
traverse of the pipe immediately preceding the meter
26
to ensure symmetrical velocity distribution within the
pipe. ./"""\l
The pipe for one diameter preceding the upstream
pressure taps shall be free from tubercles or other sur-
face imperfections which would establish a local dis-
turbance in line with these openings. The pressure tap
opening shall be flush with the interior of the pipe or
meter element as appropriate and shall be free of
burrs (see Figures 1.126 and 1.127).
1.6.9.4.1 Rate of flow measurement by venturi
meter
To ensure accurate results in the measurement of f10w
rates with venturi meters, certain minimum lengths of
straight pipe are required upstream of the meter. Table
1.21 shows these minimum lengths, expressed in
terms of pipe diameters.
Nipple
conneCls
here
Approx. rad
Figure 1.126 - Pressure tap opening

Figure 1.127 - Welded-on pressure tap opening


HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
Table 1.21 - Straight pipe required following any fitting before venturi meter in diameters of pipe
\J/

Meter ratio (throat to inlet diameter)
One standard short radius elbow
Two elbows in same plane
Two elbows in planes at 90 degrees and with
straightening vanes
Standard C. 1. flanged reducer
Standard C. 1. flanged increaser
Globe valve - with straightening vanes
Gate
Gate valve - 0.5 open
Gate valve - full open
1.6.9.4.2 Rate of flow measurement by nozzles
To ensure accurate results in the measurement of rate
of flow with nozzle type meters, a length of straight
pipe is required preceding and following the nozzle.
Tables 1.22 and 1.23 show the length of straight pipe
required.
NOTE: A centrifugal pump discharging directly into
a venturi meter should have at least 10 diameters of
straight pipe between it and the meter.
1.6.9.4.3 Rate of flow measurement by thin
square-edged orifice plate
Whenever possible, the orifice plate should be cali-
brated in place in the piping system by weight or vol-
ume. When this is not possible, a certified curve
showing the calibration of the orifice plate shall be
obtained. This certification shall conform to require-
ments given in Section 1.6.9.4 and shall , in addition,
indicate the exact location and size of pressure taps,
which are then to be duplicated in the test installation.
To ensure accurate results in the measurement of rate
of flow with orifice type meters, a length of straight
pipe is required preceding and following the orifice
plate. Tables 1.22 and 1.23 show the length of straight
0.4
2
2
2
2
2
2
O
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
2 3 4 6
3 4 6 8
3 4 5 7
5 7.5 10 13
2 3 4.5 6
4 6 9 12
4 6 9 12
3 4 6 8
0.5 2 3
pipe required, expressed in terms of equivalent pipe
diameters.
1.6.9.5 Rate of flow measurement by weirs
This is done in open channel flow by allowing the liquid
to cascade over a dam through a sharp crested con-
traction in the dam, which results in an increase in
velocity at the contraction. The drop in liquid level at
the contraction is measured and used. to determine
rate of flow.
The rectangular sharp-crested weir with smooth verti-
cal crest wall , complete crest contraction, free over-fall
and end contraction suppressed is acceptable for rate
of flow determination under this standard. It may be
used for either factory or field testing.
For a detailed discussion of weirs, their construction,
installation and operation, the user is referred to Flud
Meters, Ther Theory and Applcaton, a the
ASME Research Committee on Fluid Meters.
1.6.9.6 Rate of flow measurement by pitot tubes
A pitot tube is a double tube, one within the other. Rate
of flow is measured by inserting the tube so that it
points into the flow stream. The inner tube measures
27
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
Table 1.22 - Straight pipe required following any fitting before nozzle or orifice plate meter in
diameters of pipe
Meter to inlet diameter) 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Tee or wye within line flow 6 6 6.5 7 8.5 10.5
One elbow, branch flow thru tee or wye, or flow from 6 6 6.5 7 9 13
drum or separator
Globe valve - wide open 9 9 9.5 10.5 13 15
Gate valve - wide open 6 6 6 6 7.5 9.5
Two or more short radius elbows or bends in the same 7.5 7.5 8.5 10.5 13.5 18
plane
Two or more long radius elbows or bends in the same 6 6 6.5 8 11 16
plane
Two short radius elbows or bends in different planes 14.5 16 17.5 20.5 24.5 30
Two long radius elbows or bends in different planes 7 8 10 12 16 22
0.8
14
20.5
21
13.5
25
23
40
33
NOTE: A centrifugal pump pumping directly into a nozzle or orifice should have at least 10 diameters of straight pipe between it
and the meter.
Table 1.23 - Straight pipe required following downstream pressure tap of a nozzle or orifice plate meter
beforeany fitting in diameters of pipe
Meter ratio (throat to inlet diameter) 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
Gate valve - wide open O O O O O O O
Wye O O O O O O 4
Tee O O

O O 3.5 4
Expansion joint O O

O O 3.5 4
45 degree elbow O O O O 3.5 3.5 4
Long radius elbow or bend 2 2.5 2.5 3 3.5 3.5 4
Regulators, control valves, and partly throttled gate
valves 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
28








the velocity head and gauge head of the liquid, and
the other tube with holes in the outer wall measures
gauge head only. The head differential is measured
and used to determine velocity head which in turn
determines flow rate.
Where it is impossible to employ one of the methods
described above, the pitot tube is often used. When
the flow conditions are steady during the time required
to make a traverse that has variations less than :t
0.5%, the flow may be determined with a fair degree of
accuracy.
The procedure set forth in the PTC 18-
1992 Hydraulic Turbines is recommended
1.6.9.7 Other methods of flow rate measurement
When the methods of flow rate measurement
described above are not applicable, there are other
methods not included in this standard which may be
utilized, provided the accuracy of the instrument as
described in Section 1.6.5.4.2 can be demonstrated.
1.6.10 Head - measurement
The units of head and the definition of total head and
its component parts are covered in Section 1.6.3.12.
1.6.10.1 Pressure tap location
1.6.10.1.1 Pressure tap location for level A"
tests
The taps shall be located in the piping a minimum of
two (2) diameters of straight pipe before the suction
flange and after the discharge flange. Figure 1.128
shows a single tap connection. To provide uniform
velocity before the suction pressure tap, a straight pipe
unvarying cross section of at least five pipe diameters
Figure 1.128 - Single tap connection
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
in length as a minimum shall precede the gauge tap,
unless otherwise agreed to by the pump manufacturer
and the purchaser.
If the pipe friction loss between the pump suction or
discharge flange and the point of instrument connec-
tion exceeds 0.1 % of the pump head, adjustment shall
be made to the total head. The friction factor used for
the friction loss calculation shall be based on the appro-
priate roughness factors for the actual pipe section.
1.6.10.1.2 Pressure tap location for level B"
tests
On pumps with tangential discharge, the taps may be
located at the suction and discharge flange of the
pump, provided V
2
/2g is less than 8% of total head.
The following precautions shall be taken in forming
openings for pressure-measuring instruments and for
making connection:
The opening in the pipe shall be flush with and normal
to the wall of the water passage.
The wall of the water passage shall be smooth and of
unvarying cross section. For a distance of at least 300
mm (12 inches) preceding the opening, all tubercles
and roughness shall be removed with a file or emery
cloth, if necessary.
The opening shall be of a diameterfrom 3 to 6 mm (1/8
to 1/4 inch) and a length equal to twice the diameter.
The edges of the opening shall be provided with a suit-
able radius tangential to the wall of the water passage
and shall be free of burrs or irregularities. Figures
1.126 and 1.127 show suggested arrangements of
taps or orifices in conformity with the above.
Where more than one tap or orifice is required at a
given measuring section, separate connections, prop-
erly valved, shall be made and separate instruments
shall be provided.
When multiple openings (see Figure 1.129) are
agreed upon as an alternative, they shall not be con-
nected to a head-measuring instrument unless there
will be no more than 1 % pressure variance between
pressures at each opening. If pressure variance
exceeds 1 %, they shall be measured separately and
averaged.
AII connections or leads from the opening tap shall be
free of liquid leakage. These leads shall be as short
29
HI Centrifugal Pump
and direct as possible. For the dry-tube type of leads,
suitable drain pots shall be provided and a loop shall
be formed of sufficient heights to keep the pumped liq-
uid from entering the leads. For the wet-tube type of
leads, vent cocks for flushing shall be provided at any
high point or loop crest to ensure that there are no
leaks.
Suitable dampening devices may be used in the leads.
1.6.10.2 Head measurement by means of
pressure gauges
The definitions in Section 1.6.3.12 apply to Figure
1.130 where temperature effects are negligible.
The quantities (Zd) and (Z5) are negative if the corre-
sponding values are below the datum elevation.
Vent Valve
Pressure Tap
Valves (4)
Figure manifold connecting
pressure taps
When the head(s) at the gauge connection(s) is below
atmospheric pressure and the lead line is completely ?-\
filled with air, Z is then measured from datum to the
corresponding gauge connection instead of the gauge
centerline. The air-filled line should be drained before
a reading is made in order to avoid the affect of liquid
in the line.
Manometers, pressure transducers and other
sure devices can be used in place of pressure gauges.
However, the basic expression for total head and the
placement of the instruments is the same.
measurement
Pump input power may be determined by transmission
dynamometers, torsion dynamometers, strain gauge
type torque measuring devices or other sufficiently
accurate measuring devices which result in measure-
ment accuracy of :t 1.5% at the specified condition.
Readings of power shall be taken at the same time
that rate of flow is measured.
When pump input power is determined by transmis-
sion dynamometers, the unload dynamometer shall be
statically checked prior to the test by measuring the
load reading deflection for a given torque and by tak-
ing the tare reading on the dynamometer scale at
rated speed with the pump disconnected. After the
test, the dynamometer's tare value shall be rechecked
to ensure that no change has taken place. In the event
of a change of 1 .0% of the power at BEP, the test shall
be rerun. An accurate measurement of speed within :t
0.3% is essential.


connectlon
Gauge
connectlOn
V

nv m HU
DI
Datum

Figure 1.130 - Gauge connections
30

The use of calibrated dynamometers or motors is an
acceptable method for measurement of pump input
power.
Calibration of the dynamometer shall be conducted
with the torsion-indicating means in place. The indica-
tor shall be observed with a series of increasing load-
ings and then with a series of decreasing loadings.
During the taking of readings with increasing loadings,
the loading is at no time to be decreased; similarly,
during the decreasing loadings, the loading shall at no
time be increased. The calculation of output shall be
based on the average of the increasing and decreas-
ing loadings as determined by the calibration. If the dif-
ference in readings between increasing and decreasing
loadings exceeds 1 %, the torsion dynamometer shall
be deemed unsatisfactory.
Dynamometers shall not be employed for testing
pumps with a maximum torque below one-quarter of
the rated dynamometer torque.
When strain gauge type torque measuring devices are
used to measure pump input power, they shall be cali-
brated annually, with their accompanying instrumenta-
tion. After the test. the readout instrumentation
balance shall be rechecked to ensure that no appre-
ciable change has taken place. In the event of a
j change of 1.0% of the power at BEP, the test shall be
-- rerun.
Calibrated laboratory type electric meters and trans-
formers shall be used to measure power input to all
motors.
Calibrated electric motors are satisfactory to deter-
mine the input power to the pump shaft. The electrical
input to the motor is observed and the observations
are multiplied by the motor efficiency to determine
input power to the pump shaft. Noncalibrated pur-
chased, furnished or facility motors may be used when
agreed upon by the purchaser.
The use of transmission dynamometers and motors
that have been calibrated by acceptable methods pre-
viously covered shall be considered as giving the
actual input power to the pump.
1.6.12 Speed measurement
Test speeds for centrifugal pumps may be in the range
of a few hundred to thousands of revolutions per
minute. Since the pump test data will be taken under
)/steady state conditIons, the maximum permisslble
short-term speed fluctuation shall be no more than
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
0.3%. The instruments shall also be capable of mea-
suring speed with an accuracy of :t 0.3%. The speed
measuring methods described, therefore, are those
which, at moderate speeds, will give a measure of the
average speed over an interval of from less than one
second up to two minutes, depending on the type of
instrumentation.
The revolution counter and timer method, as its name
implies, involves the counting of the number of revolu-
tions over an interval of time. A major source of error is
inexact synchronization of counter and timer. In cases
where this is automatic (e.g. , digital tachometers),
accuracy is achieved over a time interval of a few sec-
onds. In the case where a handheld counter and stop-
watch are used, the timing interval should be about
two minutes. During this time the speed must be con-
stant, and slippage of the counter on the shaft must be
avoided. The stopwatch shall be periodically checked
against a standard timer.
Tachometers provide a direct reading of speed aver-
aged over a fixed time interval. Some types automati-
cally repeat the reading process; handheld units must
be reset manually. The above comments regarding
uniform speed and slippage pertain here also. A
tachometer shall be checked periodically against a
counter and stopwatch.
Frequency responsive devices have the advantage of
not requiring direct contact with the motor or pump
shaft, and hence impose no additional load on the
motor. The vibrating reed type is useful only when the
shaft is completely inaccessible. Electronic units may
be converted to read rpm directly using a shaft-
mounted gear and a non-contacting magnetic pickup.
Since normally the line frequency (which determines
the timing interval) is 60 Hz :t 0.1 %, the method is
accurate to the nearest rpm, as read on a digital read-
out. The timing interval may be set as short as 0.1 sec-
ond, thus making any speed fluctuations readily
discernible.
Most stroboscopes are limited in accuracy due to
in the precision of the strobe frequency.
The only approach suitable for pump test purposes is
to use the strobe to determine motor slip under load
relative to synchronous speed, using a stopwatch to
time the slippage while driving the strobe at line fre-
quency (which is known to the accuracy given above
and can be determined with even greater precision for
the time and location of the test).
31
HI Centrifugal Pump
1.6.13 Temperature measurement and
instruments
Temperature shall be measured as close to the pump
inlet as possible. The temperature measuring device
shall have no effect on the measurements of pressure
and flow rate.
AII temperature sensing instruments shall be properly
supported and installed directly into the liquid stream.
When this is not feasible. wells filled with suitable
intermediate conducting materials may be used.
Temperature may be measured by etched stem, liquid-
in-glass thermometers, thermocouples or resistance
thermometers. Thermocouples and resistance ther-
mometers, when employed, require potentiometric
instruments.
1.6.14 Model tests
1.6.14.1 Model test procedure
In many installations involving large pumps, model
tests are often necessary. Even when it might be feasi-
ble to test the large unit in the factory, a model may
often be tested with greater accuracy and thorough-
ness. By adopting a standard size of model for various
pumps, comparable can be obtained.
The model impeller should be not less than 300 mm
(12 inches) outside diameter. The exact
totype ratio shall be selected by the builder. Compari-
sons between model tests are valid only when all
dimensions of the model hydraulic passages to proto-
type are in accordance with model-to-prototype ratio.
Testing models in advance of final design and installa-
tion of a large pump not only provides advance assur-
ance of performance but makes design alterations
possible in time for incorporation in the prototype
pump.
Not all installations lend themselves to a practical
model investigation. The pumping of water carrying
considerable quantities of sand or other foreign mate-
rial is not readily reproduced in model operation. This
standard, therefore, is limited to the pumping of clear
water, free from abnormal quantities of air or solids,
both in field installation and factory tests. The
of wear and deterioration, the of free-surface
disturbances in open channel sumps, interference
between neighboring units, and peculiar problems
caused by abnormal settings are covered by model
sump tests.
32
The model hydraulic passages should have complete
geometric similarity with the prototype, not only in the
pump proper, but also in the intake and discharge con-
duits as specified above for tests on full-size pumps. If
cavitation tests are not available, the NPSHA should
be such as to give the same suction specific speed as
the prototype. As previously explained, if the prototype
NPSHR is known to be safely below the NPSHA, then
a higher NPSHA can be used for the model tests,
although it is preferable to maintain the same value.
There is danger of air separation destroying similarity
relationships if the absolute pressure is reduced too
low. Consequently, condensate pumps should not be
modeled.
If corresponding diameters of model and prototype are
D
1
and D
2
respectively, then the model speed n1 and
model rate of flow Q1 , under the test head H
1
, must
agree with the relationships:

and

The efficiency of the model will not, in general , be
exactly equal to that of the prototype. In testing a
model of reduced size, the above conditions being
observed, complete hydraulic similarity may not be
attained because of certain influences. For example,
complete geometric similarity will not be obtained
unless the relative roughness of the impeller and
pump casing surfaces are the same. With the same
surface texture in both model and prototype, the model
efficiency will be lower than that of the larger unit. Fur-
ther, it is generally not practical to model running clear-
ances or bearing sizes. When such is the case, the
model efficiency will be reduced.
When a high degree of understanding exists between
manufacturer and user relative to the comparison limi-
tations encountered going from model to prototype,
thought may be given to the practicality of increasing
the prototype on the basis of model test
results. However, this should be done only by mutual
agreement before the job is let, on the basis of all the
available test data of a similar nature.
Numerous comparisons of prototype and model effi-
ciencies, with consistent surface finish of models and

\
,'.


prototypes, are a given factory to estab-
lish a basis for calculating model performance to field
\, performance. This calculation can be applied conve-
niently according to the formula in use for turbines;
namely
X

4l-n/

ABE-a1

The exponent (x) is to be determined from actual data


as described above.
The values for the exponent (x) have been found to
vary between zero and 0.26, depending on relative
surface roughness of model and prototype and other
factors.
Example (Metrict A single-stage pump designed to
deliver 20,000 m"/h against a head of 120 meters at
450 rpm and have an impeller diameter of 2 meters.
This pump is too large for a and, in place of
such test on the actual pump, a model is to be tested
at a reduced head of 100 meters. The model impeller
is to be 0.5 meters in diameter.
Determine speed and rate of flow for the above model
test.

Apply the above relationships:

or
EU nu

FI--lL

n
= = 1643 rpm
zu nu

q4

qq
or
Ru nu

qL

FiiIll-L

Q

HI Centrifugal Pump
= 1141m
3
The model pump should therefore be run at a speed of
1643 rpm delivering 1141 m
3
/h against a head of
100 m.
To check these results, it will be noted that the specific
speed of the prototype is:
_ n( Q)0.5 _ 450(20,000)0.5
= 1755
s HO.75
and the specific speed of the model will be:
1643( 1141 )0.5
1755
s 100
0
.
75
Therefore, the specific speeds are the same as
required.
Example (US Units): A single-stage pump designed to
deliver 90,000 gpm against a head of 400 feet at 450
rpm and have an impeller diameter of 6.8 feet. This
pump is too large for a factory test and, in place of
such test on the actual pump, a model is to be tested
at a reduced head of 320 feet. The model impeller is to
be 18 inches in diameter.
Determine speed and rate of flow for the above model
test.
Apply the above relationships:
Ru nu

or
RU nu

n
m nv vt
FO


QU A-t

5 nu

nu-nu qL-nu 3-4.

QU-EU RO--

nu FO

A

n
FD nu

q-q
or
33
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests - 2000
Q1
Q1
=

= 3920 gpm
The model pump should therefore be run at a speed of
1825 rpm delivering 3920 gpm against a head of 320
feet.
To check these results
,
it will be noted that the specific
speed of the prototype is:
N_

450(90
,
000)0.5=1510
HO.75 4000.75
and specific speed of the model will be:
1825(3920)0.5
1510
s
320
0.75
Therefore
,
the specific speeds are the same as
required.
1.6.14.2 Model test at increased head
Under special and unusual circumstances
,
it may be
desirable to carry out factory tests at higher heads
than the prototype head. This
,
for example
,
may be
due to the limitations of available test motors or electri-
cal frequency. In this case
,
all of the above consider-
ations continue to apply.
34
The choice of using a model is based on balancing the
,.,\
cost benefits of a smaller model versus the manufac-
-\
turing and test accuracies.
It should be pointed out
,
however
,
that with a reduced-
size model
,
coupled with an increase in head
,
the
increase in speed corresponding to the head increase
tends to minimize the change in Reynolds number;
that is
,
the product of flow velocity and linear dimen-
sions of the model tends to approach equality with the
same product in the prototype. This effect tends to
restore dynamic similarity in model and prototype and
to approach equality of efficiencies and other perfor-
mance factors. With increased head
,
however
,
the
preservation of the same suction specific speed value
in the model as in the prototype must still be observed
,
and this value will assume increased importance
,
requiring an increase in submergence or reduction in
suction lift in the factory test.
The last mentioned requirement may result in another
reason for the use of an increased head in the factory
test. Cases may arise in which the limitations of the
factory test setup may preclude obtaining sufficient
suction lift to reproduce the prototype suction specific
.speed. In such cases
,
the required value can be
obtained by an increase in the pumping head instead
of by a reduction in suction head or increase in suction
lift.


f
\/

\)
HI Centrifugal Pump
Appendix A
References
This appendix is not this standard, but is presented to help the user in considering factors beyond the stan-
dard sump design.
A5ME-American 50ciety of Mechanical Engineers
Fluid Meters, Their Theory and Application
ANSI/ASME PTC 18-1992, Hydrau/ic Turbines
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
United Engineering Center
345 East 47th Street
New York, NY 10017
35
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests 2000
Appendix B
Index
This appendix is not part of this standard, but is presented to help the user in considering factors beyond this
standard.
Note: an f. indicates a figure, and a t. indicates a table.
Affinity laws, 16
Atmospheric head, 5
BEP See Best efficiency point
Best efficiency point, 1
Calibrated electric meters and transformers, 31
Capacity, 3
Datum, 3
Datum elevations, 3
horizontal units, 3, 4f.
vertical double suction pumps, 3, 4f.
vertical single suction pumps, 3, 4f.
Dry vacuum test, 25
Dynamometers, 30
calibration, 31
Electric driver input power, 7
Elevation head, 4
110A See Overall efficiency
II
p
See Pump
Frequency-responsive devices, 31
Gauge head, 4
h See Head
H See Total head
h
atm
See Atmospheric head
hd See Total discharge head
hg See Gauge head
hs See Total suction head
hv See Velocity head
Head, 3
loop manifold connecting pressure taps, 30f.
measurement, 29
measurement by means of pressure gauges, 30
pressure tap location for level A tests, 29, 29f.
pressure tap location for level B tests, 29, 30f.
single tap connection, 29f.
Hydrostatic test, 7
objective, 7
36
parameters, 8
procedure, 8
records, 8
Mechanical test, 23
acceptance levels, 24
instrumentation, 23
objective, 23
operating conditions, 23
procedure, 23
records, 24
setup, 23
temperature instruments, 23
vibration instruments, 23
Model tests, 32
at increased head, 34
procedure, 32
n See Speed
Net positive suction head, 1
Net positive suction head available, 6
Net positive suction head required, 1, 7
Normal condition point, 1
NPSH See Net positive suction head
NPSHA See also Net positive suction head available
NPSHR See Net positive suction head required
NPSHR test, 19
arrangements, 19, 19f. , 20f.
level control with deep sump supply,
objective, 19
procedure, 20
with rate of flow held constant, 21 , 21 f.
records, 22

suction conditions, 22
with suction head held constant,
suppression type with constant level sump,
vacuum and/or heat control with closed loop,
Overall efficiency, 7
P See Power
P
mot
See Electric driver input power



/
P p See Pump input power
P w See Pump output power
\/ Performance test, 9
acceptance levels, 9
acceptance tolerances, 9
calculations, 15
calibration interval for instruments, 11 , 12t.
correction for solids in suspension, 19
correction for temperature variations, 18
correction for viscosity variations, 19
correction to rated speed, 17
data requirements, 13
efficiency calculation, 16
at increased speed, 17
input power calculation, 15
instrumentation, 11
instrumentation
instrumentation fluctuation, 11
level A acceptance, 9
level B acceptance, 9
open or closed tank, 13f.
at other than rated speed, 16
output power calculation, 15
results, 16,
records, 15
at reduced speed, 16

sample data sheet, 14
11


for specific weight variations, 18
with suction 11 f.
total discharge head calculation, 15
total head calculation, 15
total suction head calculation, 15
witnessing, 9
Power, 7
measurement, 30
Priming time test, 24
conversion factor, 25
determination of maximum developed vacuum by
means of dry vacuum test, 25
of self-priming pumps, 24
suction line, 24, 25f.
Pump efficiency, 7
calculation, 16
Pump input power, 7
calculation, 15
measurements, 30
Pump output power, 7
calculation, 15
Q See Rate of flow
HI Centrifugal Pump Tests Index - 2000
Rate of flow, 3
measurement by head type rate meters, 26
measurement by nozzles, 27
measurement by other methods, 29
measurement by thin square-edged orifice plate, 27
measurement by venturi meter, 26
measurement by volume, 25
measurement by weight, 25
measuring system requirements, 25
pressure tap openings, 26, 26f.
straight pipe requirements associated with nozzle
meters, 27, 28t.
straight pipe requirements associated with orifice
plate meters, 28t.
straight pipe requirements associated with venturi
meters, 26, 27t.
types, 25
Rated condition point, 1
Revolution counter and timer method, 31
Shut off, 1
SO See Shut off
Specified condition point, 1
Speed, 3
measurement, 31
Strain gauge type torque measuring devices, 30, 31
Stroboscopes, 31
Subscripts, 3t.
Symbols, 2t.
Tachometers, 31
Temperature
instruments, 32
measurement, 32
Terminology, 1
Tests, 1
conditions, 1
objectives, 1
scope, 1
Total discharge head, 5
calculations, 15
Total head, 5
calculation, 15
of compressibility of liquid on, 5
Total suction head, 4
calculation, 15
Total suction
Transmission dynamometers, 30, 31
Velocity head, 4
Volume, 3
Z See Elevation head
37
/ \
/ ~