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CHAPTER 4

4.1

Remainder
147 2
73 2
36 2
18 2
9 2
4 2
2 2
12
0

1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1

From the remainders, we get the 8-bit number as follows:

N2 = 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
4.2

Remainder
145 2
72 2
36 2
18 2
9 2
4 2
2 2
1 2
0

1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1

From the remainders, we get the 8-bit number as follows:

N2 = 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
4.3

Remainder
1149 2
574 2
287 2
143 2
71 2
35 2
17 2
8 2
4 2
2 2
12
0

1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1

From the remainders, we get the 12-bit number as follows:

N2 = 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1
Note that the MSB must be zero since we have only eleven remainders.

4.1

4.4

Remainder
872 2
436 2
218 2

0
0

109 2

54 2
13 2

1
0
1

6 2

3 2

1 2

1
1

27 2

From the remainders, we get the 12-bit number as follows:

N2 = 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Note that the MSB must be zero since we have only eleven remainders.

4.2

Remainder
121 2
60 2

30 2

15 2

7 2

3 2

12

The 8-bit number for +121 is 01111001.

To find the 8-bit number for -121, we first invert the 8-bit number for +121:
10000110.
Then we add 1 to obtain the 8-bit number for -121: 10000111.
4.6 We first find the 8-bit number for +101:
Remainder
101 2
50 2
25 2
12 2
6 2
3 2
1 2
0

1
0
1
0
0
1
1

The 8-bit number for +121 is 01100101.

To find the 8-bit number for -121, we first invert the 8-bit number for +121:
10011010.
Then we add 1 to obtain the 8-bit number for -121: 10011011.

4.3

4.7

Remainder
891 2
445 2
222 2
111 2

55 2

27 2
13 2

6 2

3 2
12
0

1
1

1
0

1
0

001101111011
4.8

Remainder
695 2
347 2
173 2
86 2
43 2
21 2
10 2
5 2
2 2
1 2
0

1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1

The 2's complement binary equivalent is thus,

001010110111

4.4

4.9 To find the decimal value for 10010001, we must first subtract 1 from the
LSB thus giving:
10010000
Next, we invert the 1's and 0's as follows:
01101111
Finally, we evaluate the decimal:
N10 0 27 1 26 1 25 0 2 4 1 23 1 22 1 21 1 20
111
N10 111

4.10 To find the decimal value for 10001001, we must first subtract 1 from the
LSB thus giving:
10001000
Next, we invert the 1's and 0's as follows:
01110111
Finally, we evaluate the decimal:
N10 0 27 1 26 1 25 1 2 4 0 23 1 2 2 1 21 1 20
119
N10 119

4.11 The following table presents the maximum decimal number versus the
number of bits for simple binary:
No. Bits

12
13
14
15
16

212 -1 = 4095
213 -1 = 8191
214 -1 = 16383
215 -1 = 32767
216 -1 = 65535

Consequently, 15 bits are needed to represent 27541 in simple binary. For a

two's complement binary number, the MSB will be zero so 16 bits will be
required.

4.5

4.12 The following table presents the maximum decimal number versus the
number of bits for simple binary:
No. Bits

12
13
14
15
16

212 -1 = 4095
213 -1 = 8191
214 -1 = 16383
215 -1 = 32767
216 -1 = 65535

Consequently, 14 bits are needed to represent 12034 in simple binary. For a

two's complement binary number, the MSB will be zero so 16 bits will be
required.
4.13 The following table presents the maximum decimal number versus the
number of bits for simple binary:
No. Bits
8
9
10
11
12

Max. Dec. No. for Simple Binary

28 -1 = 255
29 -1 = 511
210 -1 = 1023
211 -1 = 2047
212 -1 = 4095

Consequently, 10 bits are needed to represent 756 in simple binary. However, for
-756, an additional bit is required to represent the sign. Hence, 11 bits will be
required. The representation of -756 in 2's complement binary is 10100001100.
4.14 The following table presents the maximum decimal number versus the
number of bits for simple binary:
No. Bits
8
9
10
11
12

Max. Dec. No. for Simple Binary

28 -1 = 255
29 -1 = 511
210 -1 = 1023
211 -1 = 2047
212 -1 = 4095

Consequently, 10 bits are needed to represent 534 in simple binary. However, for
-534, an additional bit is required to represent the sign. Hence, 11 bits will be
required. The representation of -534 in 2's complement binary is 11011101010.

4.6

4.15

N = 12
Vru = 8V
Vrl = -8V
Vin = input voltage
(a) By Eq. B in Fig. 4.7:

Vin Vrl N
2
Vru Vrl

D0 int

int

4.2 8 2
8 8

12

int 3123.2
3123

(b) By Eq. B in Fig. 4.7:

D0 int

5.7 8 2
8 8

12

int 588.8
589

(c) Since 10.9V falls outside the input range, D o will have the maximum
output:
D0 212 1 4095
(d) Since -8.5V falls outside the input range, D 0 will take the minimum
value:
D0 0

4.7

4.16

N = 12
Vru = 8V
Vrl = -8V
Vin = input voltage
(a) By Eq. B in Fig. 4.7:

Vin Vrl N
2
Vru Vrl
2.4 8 12
int
2
8 8

int 2662.4

D0 int

2662
(b) By Eq. B in Fig. 4.7:
6.3 8 12
D0 int
2
8 8

int 3660.8
3660

(c) Since 11V falls outside the input range, Do will have the maximum
output:
D0 212 1 4095
(d) Since 9.2V falls outside the input range, D 0 will take the maximum
value:
D0 212 1 4095

4.8

4.17

N8
Vru 10V
Vrl 0V
Vin input voltage

a) By Eq. B in Fig. 4.7:

Vin Vrl N
2
Vru Vrl

D0 int

int

5.75 0 28
10 0

int 147.2

147

b) The input is below the input range. Hence the output will be 0,
D0 = 0
c) Since 11.5V falls outside the input range, the output will be the
maximum possible. The output will be:
D0 28 1 255
d) By Eq. B in Fig. 4.7:

D0 int

0 0 28

10 0

4.9

4.18

N 8
V ru 15V
V rl 0V
Vin input voltage

a) By Eq. B in Fig. 4.7:

Vin V rl N
2
V ru V rl

D0 int

6.42 0 8
2
15 0

int

int 109.6
109

b) The input is below the input range. Hence the output will be 0,
D0 = 0
c) By Eq. B in Fig. 4.7:

Vin Vrl N
2
Vru Vrl

D0 int

12 0 8
2
15 0

int

int 204.8
204

0 0 8
2
15 0

D0 int
0

4.10

4.19 We need Equation A of Figure 4.7 to solve this problem.

(a) When the 1.5V signal is amplified with a gain of 10, it becomes 15V which
exceeds the input range of the A/D converter (it is saturated). According to Figure
4.7, the maximum output is 2N/2-1 = 112/2-1 = 2047
(b) With the gain of 10, the input becomes 8V. The output, in decimal, is then:
V Vrl N 2 N
8 ( 10) 12 212
Do int in
2
int
2
1638
2
2
10 ( 10)

Vru Vrl

(c) When amplified, -1.5V results in an input to the A/D converter which is below
the input range (it is saturated). The largest negative output is 2 N/2 = -2048
(d)With the amplifier, this voltage results in an input to the A/D of 8V. The output
is then:
V Vrl N 2 N
8 (10) 12 212
Do int in
2
int
2
1638
2
2
10 (10)

Vru Vrl

4.20 We need Equation A of Figure 4.7 to solve this problem.

(a) When the 5.2V signal is amplified with a gain of 10, it becomes 52V which
exceeds the input range of the A/D converter (it is saturated). According to Figure
4.7, the maximum output is 2N/2-1 = 112/2-1 = 2047
(b) When the 1.5V signal is amplified with a gain of 10, it becomes 15V which
exceeds the input range of the A/D converter (it is saturated). According to Figure
4.7, the maximum output is 2N/2-1 = 112/2-1 = 2047
(c) When amplified, -5.2V results in an input to the A/D converter which is below
the input range (it is saturated). The largest negative output is 2 N/2 = -2048
(d) When amplified, -1.5V results in an input to the A/D converter which is below
the input range (it is saturated). The largest negative output is 2 N/2 = -2048
4.21

N 16
Vru 5V
Vrl 0V
Vin 136
. V

Vru Vrl
Volts

2N

Input Resolution Error 0.5

5 0
Volts
216

0.5

3.815 10 5Volts

The quantization error (as a percent reading) for an input of 1.36V is:
3.815 10 5Volts

100 0.0028%
136
. Volts

4.22
4.11

N 12
Vru 5V
Vrl 0V
Vin 2.45V

From Eq. 4.1:

Vru Vrl
Input Resolution Error 0.5

2N

Volts

50
0.5
Volts
12
2
6.104 10 4 Volts

The quantization error (as a percent reading) for an input of 2.45V is:
6.104 10 4 Volts

2.45Volts

100 0.00025%

4.23 Quantization error is computed using equation 4.1.

Vru Vrl
2N
For 8 bits this becomes
8 (8)
input res error 0.5
0.0313V and this is 0.42% of the 7.5V input.
28
For 12 bits this becomes
8 (8)
input res error 0.5
0.00195V and this is 0.026% of the 7.5V input.
212
For 16 bits this becomes
8 (8)
input res error 0.5
0.000122 V and this is 0.0016% if the 7.5V
216
input.
input res error 0.5

4.12

4.24 Quantization error is computed using equation 4.1.

Vru Vrl
2N
For 8 bits this becomes
10 (10)
input res error 0.5
0.0391V and this is 0.49% of the 8V input.
28
For 12 bits this becomes
10 (10)
input res error 0.5
0.00244V and this is 0.031% of the 8V input.
212
For 16 bits this becomes
10 (10)
input res error 0.5
0.000153V and this is 0.0019% if the 8V
216
input.
input res error 0.5

4.25

N 12
Vru 8V
Vrl 8V
Vin 4.16V

Vru Vrl
Volts

2N

Input Resolution Error 0.5

8 8
Volts
212

0.5

1996
.
10 3Volts

The quantization error (as a percent reading) for an input of -4.16V is:
1996
.
10 3Volts

100 0.048%
4.16Volts

4.13

4.26

N 12
V ru 5V
V rl 5V
Vin 2.46V

From Eq. 4.1,

Vru Vrl
Volts
Input Resolution Error 0.5

2N
5 5
Volts
0.5

212
1.221 10 3 Volts

The quantization error (as a percent reading) for an input of -2.46V is:
1.221 10 3 Volts

2.46Volts

100 0.050%

4.27 Since the signal from the transducer varies between 15mV (0.015V) and
the A/D converter input range is 10V, we can select a gain of 100 which will
yield an input of 1.5V. A gain of 100 is chosen such that the amplified signal is
not saturated (i.e. greater than the input range).
The quantization error from Eq. 4.1 is as follows:
V V
Quantization Error 0.5 ru N rl Volts

2
10 10

0.5

212

2.44 10 Volts

The transducer voltage is 3.75mV but after a gain of 100 it becomes

0.375V. Thus, the quantization error as a percent reading is as follows:
2.44 10 3Volts

100 0.651%
0.375Volts

If the transducer output were attenuated by a factor of 2/3 (to 10 mV) the
gain could be set to 1000 without saturating the A/D converter. The 3.75
mv output would then become 3.7510-3(2/3)1000 = 2.5 V at the input to
the A/D converter and the resolution error would be reduced to 0.098%.

4.14

4.28 The amplified input must not exceed 10V.

When amplified, the maximum input will be 0.075V, 0.75V and 3.75V for gains
of 10, 100 and 500 respectively. So we can use the maximum gain of 500.
The input resolution error is:
10 (10)
input res error 0.5
2.44m V
212
This is 0.033% of the maximum 7.5V input.
4.29 The amplified input must not exceed 10V.
When amplified, the maximum input will be 0.1V, 1V and 5V for gains of 10, 100
and 2000 respectively. The gain of 2000 will saturate the amplified signal and
become greater than the input limit of 10V. Thus the maximum gain that can be
used is 100.
The input resolution error is:
10 (10)
input res error 0.5
2.44 m V
212
This is 0.024% of the maximum 10V input.
4.30

N8
Vru 5V
Vrl 0V
D in Digital input 32

incr.

5
0.0195
28

An input of 32 would then give an output of:

Vout 32 0.0195 0.625V

4.15

4.31

N 12
Vru 10V
Vrl 0V
Din Digital input 45

The output range will be divided into increments of:

10
incr. 12 0.00244
2
An input of 45 would then give an output of:

Vout 45 0.00244 0.110V

4.32
The reference voltage increment is:
input span 10
V
12 0.0024414

2
2N
Trial digital output (D0)
100000000000
010000000000
011000000000
010100000000
010110000000
010101000000
010101100000
010101010000
010101001000
010101000100
010101000010
010101000011

(2048)
(1024)
(1536)
(1280)
(1408)
(1344)
(1376)
(1360)
(1352)
(1348)
(1346)
(1347)

D0V

Pass/Fail

5.0
2.5
3.75
3.12
3.44
3.28
3.36
3.32
3.30
3.2901
3.286
3.289

F
P
F
P
F
P
F
F
F
F
P
P

010000000000
010000000000
010100000000
010100000000
010101000000
010101000000
010101000000
010101000000
010101000000
010101000010
010101000011

4.16

(1024)
(1024)
(1280)
(1280)
(1344)
(1344)
(1344)
(1344)
(1344)
(1346)
(1347)

4.33 The voltage increment is V = 16/212 = 0.00390625 V. Since this converter

is offset binary, the expected input for a given digital output D o is 0.0039806Do 8.0. The expected input for the final output is 4.2 V.
Trial Do

VDo - 8.

Pass/Fail

Actual Digital Output

100000000000 (2048)
110000000000 (3072)
111000000000 (3584)
110100000000 (3328)
110010000000 (3200)
110001000000 (3136)
110000100000 (3104)
110000110000 (3120)
110000111000 (3128)
110000110100 (3124)
110000110010 (3122)
110000110011 (3123)

0.0
4.0
6.0
5.0
4.5
4.25
4.125
4.1875
4.21875
4.203125
4.195313
4.199219

P
P
F
F
F
F
P
P
F
F
P
P

100000000000 (2048)
110000000000 (3072)
110000000000 (3072)
110000000000 (3072)
110000000000 (3072)
110000000000 (3072)
110000100000 (3104)
110000110000 (3120)
110000110000 (3120)
110000110000 (3120)
110000110010 (3122)
110000110011 (3123)

The final output is 110000110011 in binary or 3123 in decimal. The same result is
obtained from Eq. B in Figure 4.7.
4.34
non-linearity error
amplifier gain
MUX crosstalk
quantization
aperture
drift

bias
bias
bias
bias
precision
precision
precision
precision

4.35 How many channels available?

How many bits does the ADC output?
Is there programmable gain and what values of gain are possible?
Maximum number of samples per second?
Is there capability for automatic timing of data taking?
Is there a simultaneous sample and hold capability?
Is there a capability for digital input?
Is there a capability for frequency input? (not discussed in chapter)
Is there a capability for analog output?
What range of input voltages will not permanently damage the system?
What software is available for the system?
If intended for a harsh environment, how durable is the package?

4.17