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High Speed Tapered Roller Bearing Stress Optimization

by
Brady Walker
A Project Submitted to the Graduate
Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the degree of
MASTER OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING







Approved:

_________________________________________
Ernesto Gutierrez-Miravete, Project Adviser





Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Hartford, Connecticut
April, 2008






























Copyright 2008
by
Brady Walker
All Rights Reserved
ii

CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................ iv
LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................... v
LIST OF SYMBOLS........................................................................................................ vi
ACKNOWLEDGMENT .................................................................................................. ix
1.0 ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................ x
2.0 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................... 1
3.0 THEORY ..................................................................................................................... 6
3.1 INTERNAL LOADING....................................................................................... 6
3.2 CENTRIFUGAL LOADING............................................................................... 7
3.3 CAGE SPEED...................................................................................................... 9
3.4 POINT CONTACT STRESS............................................................................. 11
3.5 LINE CONTACT STRESS................................................................................ 16
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION............................................................................... 18
4.1 EXAMPLE CALCULATION............................................................................ 18
4.2 SENSITIVITY STUDY...................................................................................... 25
5.0 CONCLUSION......................................................................................................... 31
6.0 REFERENCES......................................................................................................... 32
7.0 APPENDIX A- Program Instructions....................................................................... 33
8.0 APPENDIX A- Program Source Code..................................................................... 37


iii

LIST OF TABLES
No. Page
1. Bearing Characteristics 2
2. Cup Angle Sensitivity Study Results 29
iv

LIST OF FIGURES
No. Page
1. Common Types of Ball Bearings 1
2. Common Types of Roller Bearings 2
3. 3D Tapered Roller Bearing Cutaway View 4
4. Tapered Roller Bearing Terminology 5
5. Tapered Roller Bearing Internal Geometry 6
6. Tapered Roller Bearing Loading 7
7. Cup Free Body Diagram 7
8. Roller Free Body Diagram (x- direction) 8
9. Roller Free Body Diagram (y-direction) 8
10. Tapered Roller Bearing Kinematics 10
11. General Case of 2 Point Contact 11
12. Two Bodies in Point Contact, Resulting Elliptical Contact Area 12
13. Tapered Roller Bearing Rib- Roller End Contact Shape 13
14. Radius of Curvature 15
15. Line Contact Stress Profile 16
16. Hertzian Contact Shape for Cup and Cone 22
17 3D View of Rib-Roller End Contact Ellipse 24
18. 2D View of Rib-Roller End Contact Ellipse 24
19. Example TRB at 0.25 Million DN 25
20. Example TRB at 0.50 Million DN 26
21. Example TRB at 0.75 Million DN 26
22. Example TRB at 1.00 Million DN 27
23. Example TRB at 1.50 Million DN 27
24. Example TRB at 2.00 Million DN 28
25. Example TRB at 3.00 Million DN 28



v

LIST OF SYMBOLS
Symbol Definition Units (SI, English)
a =Semimajor Axis of the Projected Contact mm (in)
a* =Dimensionless (a) Parameter
b =Semiminor Axis of the Projected Contact mm (in)
b
i
=Cone Semiminor Axis of the Contact Ellipse in (mm)
b
o
=Cup Semiminor Axis of the Contact Ellipse in (mm)
b* =Dimensionless (b) Parameter
DN =Product of Shaft Speed in RPM Times Bearing Bore in millimeters
d
f
=Diameter to Rib Roller End Contact Point mm (in)
d
m
=Bearing Pitch Diameter mm (in)
D
1
=Diameter to Cone Large End Raceway mm (in)
D
max
=Roller Large End Diameter mm (in)
D
mean
=Roller Mean Diameter mm (in)
D
min
=Roller Small End Diameter mm (in)
E
I
=Youngs Modulus (body I) ( ) psi
mm
N
2

E
II
=Youngs Modulus (body II) ( ) psi
mm
N
2

F
c
=Roller Centrifugal Load N (lbf)
h =height of Rib-Roller End Contact Point from Cone Raceway mm (in)
L
2
=Roller Apex Length mm (in)
l
t
=Roller Length mm (in)
l
eff
=Effective Roller Length mm (in)
m =Roller Mass

in
lb kg
2
sec

Q =Roller Load N (lbf)
Q
f
=Rib Normal Load N (lbf)
Q
i
=Cone Normal Load N (lbf)
Q
o
=Cup Normal Load N (lbf)
Q
fa
=Rib Axial Load N (lbf)
vi

Q
ia
=Cone Axial Load N (lbf)
Q
fr
=Rib Radial Load N (lbf)
Q
oa
=Cup Axial Load N (lbf)
Q
ir
=Cone Radial Load N (lbf)
Q
or
=Cup Radial Load N (lbf)
r =radius mm (in)
r
I1
=Body I Radius of Curvature in Direction 1 mm (in)
r
I2
=Body I Radius of Curvature in Direction 2 mm (in)
r
II1
=Body II Radius of Curvature in Direction 1 mm (in)
r
II2
=Body II Radius of Curvature in Direction 2 mm (in)
R
x
=Directional Equivalent Radii (in the x direction) mm (in)
R
y
=Directional Equivalent Radii (in the y direction) mm (in)
v =Velocity
sec
rad

v
c
=Cage Velocity
sec
rad

v
i
=Cone Velocity
sec
rad

v
ie
=Rolling Element Velocity at Cone Contact Point
sec
rad

v
o
=Cup Velocity
sec
rad

v
oe
=Rolling Element Velocity at Cup Contact Point
sec
rad

x =Principal Direction Distance mm (in)
y =Principal Direction Distance mm (in)

dm
=Pitch Angle rad

f
=Rib Angle rad

i
=Cone Angle rad

o
=Cup Angle rad

R
=Roller Included Angle rad

i
=Cone Geometry Term
vii

o
=Cup Geometry Term
k =Elliptical Eccentricity Parameter
=Angle From Cone Raceway to Rib Face rad
=Roller Density

4
2
3
sec
in
lb
mm
kg

= Sum Curvature (point contact) ( )


1 1
in mm

= Sum Curvature
i
(line contact-Cone) ( )
1 1
in mm

= Sum Curvature
o
(line contact-Cup) ( )
1 1
in mm
= Hertzian Contact Stress ( ) psi
mm
N
2

max
= Maximum Hertzian Contact Stress ( ) psi
mm
N
2

=Speed rpm

c
=Cage Speed rpm

e
=Rolling Element Speed rpm

i
=Cone Speed rpm

o
=Cup Speed rpm

I
=Poissons Ratio (body I)

II
=Poissons Ratio (body II)
=Complete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind

viii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

ix

1.0 ABSTRACT
Tapered roller bearings historically have been used in low speed applications. There has
been a great deal of interest in recent years in evaluating the usage of tapered roller
bearings at high speeds where ball bearings are normally used. The major benefit of
using a tapered roller bearing is reduced size and weight. Tapered roller bearings have a
significantly larger load capacity than ball bearings so a much smaller bearing could be
used to carry the same load. A rule of thumb is that a tapered roller bearing can carry 2
times the load of a similar size ball bearing.

The purpose of this project is to determine the effects of cup and cone angles on tapered
bearing stresses at high speeds. The theory was developed and a FORTRAN program
was created to calculate the stress distributions within a tapered roller bearing. The
program takes the kinematics of the bearing motion into account but ignores gyroscopic
moments. The program was run for a given bearing size while varying the cup angle and
DN level. The results show that at high speeds >1.0 million DN there is a significant
amount of stress generated from centrifugal loading. The centrifugal loading is
generated by the rolling element speed and mass. The centrifugal loading increases the
load on the rib and decreases the load on the cone, while the cup load remains
unchanged for increasing DN levels. To minimize the stress generated by the centrifugal
loading the cup angle should be optimized for each DN level. An example bearing was
analyzed at various DN levels and the corresponding stresses were calculated. It was
found that at low speeds the optimum cup angle is 40 degrees, as the DN level increases
the optimum cup angle decreases to 10 degrees for 3.0 million DN.

The results show that there is an optimum cup angle to reduce stresses within the bearing
at high speeds. The rib stress is especially sensitive to the speed and care should be
given to reduce the rib stress as low as possible. It can be clearly seen in the graphical
results that there is a trough shape for the rib stress, which indicates that there is an
optimal angle at which rib stress is minimized.

x

It was also determined that there is a limiting speed for tapered roller bearings. For a
given design there exists a speed that completely unloads the cone and all of the load is
transmitted through the rib. This condition is referred to as declutching and must be
avoided by either limiting the speed or modifying the bearing geometry (i.e shallower
cup and cone angles).

xi

2. Introduction
Bearings are devices that allow relative motion (rotation) between two objects.
Typically, bearings are attached to a shaft (through the bore) and a housing (around the
outer diameter). The types of rotation that can occur are shaft rotation, housing rotation,
co-rotation or counter rotation. In addition to allowing relative motion, bearings also
carry load. Bearings are designed to tolerate differing loading conditions depending
upon the bearing type. The most common types of bearings are ball bearings and roller
bearings. Ball bearings contain balls (spheres) as rolling elements and can be found in a
variety of configurations (fig 1.) [1]. Ball bearings are widely used because of their
simple design. Ball bearings can take radial loads, thrust loads or a combination of both
at low and high speeds. They can also have misalignment capabilities (self aligning).
Roller bearings contain rollers as the rolling element, the term roller refers to a
cylindrical shaped object. Roller bearings may contain rolling elements that have a large
aspect ratio (length/diameter), small aspect ratio, spherical shape, or a tapered shape (fig
2) [1].

Figure 1: Common Types of Ball Bearings [1]
1


Figure 2: Common Types of Roller Bearings [1]
Table 1 summarizes the general differences of the various types of bearings shown
in figures 1 and 2. Roller bearings are stiffer and have higher load capacity than compa-
rably sized ball bearings. These increases are due to the type of contact present in roller
bearings (line contact for roller bearings, point contact for ball bearings). Generally, ball
bearings operate at higher speeds than roller bearings. The only bearings that can take
thrust loads are ball bearings, spherical roller and tapered roller bearings.
2


Table 1: Bearing Characteristics [1]

Tapered roller bearings have a higher thrust load capacity than a ball bearing of
similar size. There has been an interest in using tapered roller bearings in the place of
ball bearings at high speeds due to the benefit of size and weight reduction. Historically,
tapered roller bearings have been used in lower speed applications. Speeds have been
limited to 0.5 million DN unless special design consideration is given to the rib/roller-
end geometry and lubrication. The speed limitation is primarily due to the rib/roller-end
contact stress generated from centrifugal loading (C.F.). A special lubrication method
was devised to provide an ample supply of lubrication to the surfaces in contact. Subse-
quent testing proved that high speed tapered bearings were viable and warranted
continued research. The focus now turns to decreasing the stresses within the bearing to
ensure an optimum design.
The term tapered refers to the shape of the rolling element within the bearing.
Figure 3 illustrates a 3D view of a tapered roller bearing [1]. The tapered shape of the
cup, cone and roller can clearly be seen.

3



Figure 3: 3D Tapered Roller Bearing Cutaway View [1]

Figure 4 defines the terminology for tapered roller bearings. The outer ring is referred to
as a cup, the inner ring is referred to as a cone and the rib is the part of the cone that
contacts the face of the large end of the roller. The bearing also contains a cage (or
separator) to keep the rolling elements equally spaced for proper load distribution and to
keep the rolling elements from contacting each other.
Cup
Cone
Cage
Roller
4


Figure 4: Tapered Bearing Terminology [1]

The intent of this project is to develop a method for optimizing tapered roller bear-
ing stress fields at high speeds. The areas of interest are the cup, cone and rib-roller end
contact zones. The goal is to understand the effects of centrifugal loading, force balance,
bearing kinematics and stress calculations.
5

3. Theory
Tapered roller bearing terminology is different from that of a traditional ball and
roller bearing. The roller included angle, cup angle, and cone angle all meet at the apex
point along the bearing centerline. The pitch diameter is measured to the center of the
rolling element, and the roller length is measured from roller small face to roller large
face along the pitch angle (cone angle + roller angle). The flange angle is nearly
perpendicular to the cone angle, however it is common to adjust the flange angle a small
amount to ensure that the contact ellipse is fully contained (see section 4.0 for further
discussion). The following figure [1] illustrates the terms for tapered roller bearing
internal geometry. The cage geometry has been omitted from this analysis since it has
no impact on cup and cone loading.


Figure 5: Tapered Roller Bearing Internal Geometry [1]
Roller Large End
Roller Small End

3.1 Force Balance
Figure 6 [1] illustrates a free body diagram for a tapered bearing under combined
loading (including centrifugal). The forces Q
o
, Q
i
, and Q
f
all act perpendicular to their
respective surfaces. The centrifugal force F
c
acts vertically at the C.G. of the roller. The
force balance is affected by the magnitude of the centrifugal force generated by the
rolling element speed. A large portion of the centrifugal load is transmitted to the roller
6

large end rib contact at high speeds. The following is a derivation of the contact loading
for a tapered roller bearing, including centrifugal forces.

Point Contact Line contact
Figure 6: Tapered Roller Bearing Loading [1]
For a tapered roller bearing roller centrifugal forces alter the distribution of load between
the outer raceway and central guide flange. For roller equilibrium to exist [3, 4],
0
0
= +
= +
or c fr ir
oa fa ia
Q F Q Q
Q Q Q

Figure 7 illustrates a free body diagram of the cup in the axial direction where Q
oa
is the
axial component of the reaction load Q
o
. Setting the sum of the forces on the cup equal
to the applied load in the x direction results in the following equation (assuming that all
rollers are loaded equally):
( )
o
o
z
ust AppliedThr
Q
sin
= 3.1.0

Qoa
Applied Thrust


Figure 7: Cup Free Body Diagram (x- direction)
7

Figure 8 illustrates a free body diagram of the roller in the axial direction where, Q
fa
, Q
ia

and Q
oa
are the axial components of the reaction loads Q
f
, Q
i
and Q
o
respectively. Setting
the sum of the roller forces in the x direction equal to zero results in the following
equation:
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 sin sin sin = +
f f o o i i
Q Q Q
or,
( ) ( )
( )
i
f f o o
i
Q Q
Q


sin
sin sin
= 3.1.1

Qoa
Qfa
Qia



Figure 8 : Roller Free Body Diagram (x- direction)
Figure 9 illustrates a free body diagram of the roller in the radial direction where, Q
fr
, Q
ir

and Q
or
are the axial components of the reaction loads Q
f
, Q
i
and Q
o
respectively. Setting
the sum of the roller forces in the y direction equal to zero results in the following
equation:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
tan
sin
cos
tan
sin
cos = + +


i
o o
c o o
i
f
f f
Q
F Q Q


or,
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

tan
sin
cos
tan
sin
cos



=
i
f
f
i
o o
c o o
f
Q
F Q
Q

3.1.2
Qfr
Fc
Qir
Qor






Figure 9 : Roller Free Body Diagram (y- direction)
8


Equations 3.1.0, 3.1.1 and 3.1.2 are the solutions to the roller reaction forces for a
bearing under pure thrust, and including roller centrifugal forces.

As shown in figure 6, applied thrust loads are transmitted into forces acting normal to
the contact surfaces. These normal forces can be several times larger than the applied
thrust load due to the large radial component of the force that is generated by shallow
raceway angles. As described above, the centrifugal loading of the rolling elements will
effect the load distribution within the bearing. The most significant effect will be upon
the flange contact which tends to carry the majority of the centrifugal loading.

3.2 Roller Centrifugal Force
To determine the centrifugal force of the rolling element, the following method was
used. The centrifugal force is given by:
( )
( )
t mean
c m c
l D m
d m F
2
2
4
1
is mass roller the where,
2
1

=
=

Substituting
( ) ( )
2 2
4
1
2
1
c m t mean c
d l D F

=
Yields
( )
2 2
8
1
c m t mean c
d l D F = 3.2.0

3.3 Rolling Speeds and Velocities
To determine
c
(cage speed) the following method was derived:
9

Dmean
P
r

r
Q

dm

o
v
o
v
c
v
i
l
t
dm/2
y
z
x
Figure 10: Tapered Roller Bearing Kinematics
The velocity of any point on a rotating body can be given as a function of radius and
speed as:
r v =
Similarly, the velocity of the cone at the roller mid length can be written as:
( )

=
dm
mean m
i i
D d
v cos
2 2
(Velocity of inner ring at point P) 3.3.0
The cage velocity can also be written using this same method (at roller center)

=
2
m
c c
d
v (Velocity of cage at roller midpoint) 3.3.1
Since there is no outer ring rotation, the velocity at point Q is equal to zero.
0 =
o
v 3.3.2
The respective rolling element velocities are given by:

=
2 2
mean
e
m
c ie
D d
v 3.3.3
0
2 2
=

=
mean
e
m
c oe
D d
v 3.3.4

Setting Eqn.3.3.3 equal to Eqn. 3.3.0 (inner ring speed equal to element speed) yields
10

( )

2 2
cos
2 2
mean
e
m
c dm
mean m
i
D d D d
3.3.5

Again assuming no slip occurs at midspan, solve equation 3.3.5 in terms of element
speed

=
mean
m
c e
D
d
3.3.6
Now we have element speed as a function of cage speed. Plugging Eqn.3.3.6 into
Eqn.3.3.5, results in a solution for cage speed as a function of inner ring speed.
( )

=
dm
m
mean
i c
d
D
cos 1
2
1
3.3.7


3.4 Point Contact Stress Calculations
To develop the stress fields, for point contact the hertz contact theory was used. [2]. It is
assumed that the hertz point contact method will be representative for roller end to rib
contact stresses. Figure 11 illustrates a general case of 2 point contact, where the radii of
curvature in each direction for both bodies can be seen.

Figure 11: General Case of 2 Point Contact [2]
The contact zone between the roller-end and rib creates an ellipsoidal surface compres-
sive stress distribution, see figure 12 [1]. The roller end has a spherical radius, and the
11

rib face is flat at an angle
f
. The maximum compressive Hertzian contact stress is given
as:
ab
Q

2
3
max
= 3.4.0
The elliptical contact area is shown in figure number 12, the semimajor (a) and semimi-
nor (b) axes are also shown.

Figure 12: Two bodies in point contact, resulting elliptical contact area [1]
The normal stress at other points within the contact area is given by the following equa-
tion:
2
1
2 2
1
2
3

=
b
y
a
x
ab
Q

3.4.1
In terms of two curved bodies in contact, the contact area is shown in figure 12, it can be
seen that the contact shape is an ellipse because of the conformity of the rib in the x
direction. The physical location and orientation of the rib to roller end contact area is
shown in figure 13.
12


Figure 13: Tapered Roller Bearing Rib- Roller End Contact Shape [3]
To solve the hertz contact stress equations the a and b terms must be found.
Where a is the semimajor axis of the project contact and b is the semiminor axis of the
projected contact ellipse. The values of a and b are determined from the following
equations [1]:
3
1
2
2 2
*
1 1
2
3

E E
Q
a a
II
I
I

3.4.2
and,
3
1
2
2 2
*
1 1
2
3

E E
Q
b b
II
I
I

3.4.3
For steel bodies in contact equations 3.4.2 and 3.4.3 reduce to:
3
1
*
0236 . 0

Q
a a 3.4.4
3
1
*
0236 . 0

Q
b b 3.4.5
where the curvature sum is given by,
13

2 1 2 1
2
2
1
1
1 1 1 1
1
1
1
1
II II I I
II
yII
I
yI
II
xII
I
xI
r r r r
r
r
r
r
+ + + =
=
=
=
=


and,
( )
f
f
II
II
I I
d
r
r
r r
sin 2
surface) flat (i.e.
Radius Spherical end Roller
2
1
2 1
=
=
= =

The radius of curvature is positive in value if the body is convex, and negative if the
body is concave. Where,
( )
( )


+ =


cos
sin
2
i
l f
h D d
( )

=
=
2
sin 2
sin 2
max
2
2 1
R
i
D
L
L D


( ) ( ) ( )
( )
i f
R
I
I
r
D
a
r h

=
+ =
90
2 2
sin
cos sin
1
max
1


14

Figure 14: Radius of Curvature for Rib Roller End Contact (direction 2) [ref 5]
90
f

f
r
II2
L
2
d
f
/2
D
1
/2
h

The dimensionless quantities a* and b* are defined as:
3
1
3
1
2
2
*
2
a*

k
b
k

Brewe and Hamrock [6], using a least squares method of linear regression, ob-
tained simplified approximations for k, and . The simplifications are listed in equations
3.4.6 and 3.4.7:
636 . 0
0339 . 1

=
y
x
R
R
k 3.4.6

+ =
y
x
R
R
5968 . 0
0003 . 1 3.4.7
and
yII yI y
xII xI x
R
R


+ =
+ =

1
1

Substitution of the above into equation 3.4.1 yields the stress for the rib- roller
end contact.
15

3.5 Line contact Stress Calculations:
For the roller body- raceway contacts under ideal line contact the following equations are
used [1]:
o i eff
o i
b l
Q
o i
,
,
max
2
,

= 3.5.0

max


y
b 2
Y
l










Figure 15: Line Contact Stress Profile (ideal)
The stress at any point along the roller can be defined as:
2
1
2
, ,
,
,
1
2

=
o i o i eff
o i
o i
b
y
b l
Q

3.5.1
2
1
2
2 2
,
,
,
1 1
4

E E l
Q
b
II
I
I
o i eff
o i
o i


3.5.2
For steel contacting bodies:
2
1
,
, 3
,
10 35 . 3

o i eff
o i
o i
l
Q
x b

3.5.3
Where,
16

( )
( )
( )
( )

cos

cos
raceways or roller on crown no assumes
1
2
raceways or roller on crown no assumes
1
2
m
o mean
o
m
i mean
i
o mean
o
i mean
i
d
D
d
D
D
D

=
=
+
=


The calculation methods listed in sections 4 and 5 will be used to determine the stress
distributions and contact shapes for the raceways and rib contacts.

17

4. Results And Discussion

4.1 EXAMPLE CALCULATION

For this example the following are known parameters:
Inner Ring Speed =8000 RPM; Thrust Load =35,000 lbf; Pitch Diameter =9.7; Cup
Angle =18 degrees; Included Roller Angle=4.5 degrees; Cone Angle=13.5 degrees; Rib
angle =13.5 degrees; Roller Large End Diameter =1.5; Roller Length =1.9; Roller
Large End Crown =18; Roller Qty =17; Roller Mean Diameter =1.425, Pitch Angle =
15.75 (all angles must be converted to radians by multiplying by /180). Calculate the
maximum hertzian contact stress at the cup, cone, and rib contacts.

The calculation procedure is as follows:

Step 1: Calculate the contact forces. Begin with calculating the Cup contact force from
equation 3.1.0, as shown below:
( )
( )
N) (29650 lbf 5 . 6662
18 sin 17
000 , 35
sin
= =
=
o
o
o
Q
z
ust AppliedThr
Q


Step 2: Calculate the cage speed from equation 3.3.7, as shown below:
( )
( )
( )
RPM 4 . 3434
8000 75 . 15 cos
7 . 9
425 . 1
1
2
1
cos 1
2
1
cos 1
2
1
=

=
=

c
c
i dm
m
mean
c
i
c
dm
m
mean
d
D
d
D


Step 3: Calculate the centrifugal force generated by the rolling element from equation
3.2.0 as shown below:
18

( ) ( ) ( )( )( )
N) (6227 lbf 3 . 1399
4 . 3434 7 . 9 9 . 1 425 . 1 3 . 0
8
1
8
1
2 2
2 2
=
=
=
c
c
c m t mean c
F
F
d l D F



Step 4: Now that the centrifugal forces have been calculated the rib force can be deter-
mined from equation 3.1.2.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
N) (3780 lbf 4 . 849
5 . 13 tan
5 . 13 sin
5 . 13 cos
5 . 13 tan
18 sin 5 . 6662
3 . 1399 18 cos 5 . 6662

tan
sin
cos
tan
sin
cos
=


=



=
f
f
i
f
f
i
o o
c o o
f
Q
Q
Q
F Q
Q


Step 5: The cone reaction force can be calculated from equation 3.1.1.
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
N) (23502 lbf 3 . 5281
5 . 13 sin
5 . 13 sin 4 . 849 18 sin 5 . 6662
sin
sin sin
=

=
i
i
i
f f o o
i
Q
Q
Q Q
Q



Now that the reaction forces have been calculated, the stresses can be determined. We
will begin with the cup and cone contact stresses.
Step 6: The cup contact stress is given by equation 3.5.0 as shown below:
o eff
o
o
b l
Q

2
max
=
The term b
o
is given by equation 3.5.3 (English unit conversion).
10 78 . 2
2
1
4

o eff
o
o
l
Q
x b


First we must solve for
o

19

( )
( )
1397 . 0
7 . 9
18 cos 425 . 1

cos
o
=
=
=
o
m
o mean
o
d
D


Now, solve for the curvature sum
( )
( )

=
+
=
+
=

mm in
D
o
o
o mean
o
1
28 . 31
1
2315 . 1
1397 . 0 1 425 . 1
2

1
2


Substituting back into the equation for b
o
( )
( ) mm 0.3767 in 01483 . 0

2315 . 1 9 . 1
5 . 6662
10 78 . 2
2
1
4
=

=

o
o
b
x b

And finally, substituting the back into the equation for max hertz stress
( )
( )( )
( ) kPa 1036828 psi 150483
01483 . 0 9 . 1
5 . 6662 2
2
max
max
max
=
=
=
o
o
o eff
o
o
b l
Q


The cone contact stress shall be determined similar to the cup contact stress
Step 7: The difference in the calculations lie in the b
o
term.

10 78 . 2
2
1
4

i eff
i
i
l
Q
x b


First we must solve for
i

20

( )
( )
1428 . 0
9.7
13.5 1.425cos
cos
i
i
=
=
=

m
i mean
i
d
D


Now, solve for the curvature sum
( )
( )

mm
1
59 . 51
in
1
6374 . 1
1428 . 0 1 425 . 1
2
1
2
i
i
i mean
i
D



Substituting back into the equation for bi
( )
( ) mm 0.2908 in 01145 . 0

6374 . 1 9 . 1
3 . 5281
10 78 . 2
2
1
4
=

=

i
i
b
x b


And finally, substituting the back into equation 3.5.0 for max hertz stress
( )
( )( )
( ) kPa 1064450 psi 154492
01145 . 0 9 . 1
3 . 5281 2
2
max
max
max
=
=
=
i
i
i eff
i
i
b l
Q



The computed stresses on the cone and cup raceways are shown in figure 16. The
magnitude of the stresses and the shape of the stress profiles can be compared for each
contact location.

21


_____ Cone Contact Stress
_____ Cup Contact Stress
(psi)
Figure 16: Hertzian Contact Stress Profile for Cup and Cone
y (in)

Step 8: Determine the geometry of the rib to roller end contact:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) mm 228.6 in 9.003
90 cos
5 . 13 90 sin
0434 . 0 2 919 . 8
cos
sin
2
226.54mm in 8.919 5 . 13 sin 1 . 19 2 sin 2
mm 485.14 in 1 . 19
2
5 . 4
sin 2
5 . 1
2
sin 2
mm 1.102 in 0434 . 0
180
90
cos 0024 . sin 18 cos sin
rad 0024 .
2
5 . 13
18 2
5 . 1
sin
2 2
sin
deg 90 5 . 13 5 . 13 90 90
1
2 1
max
2
1
1
max
=


+ =


+ =
= = =
=

=
=

+ = + =
=

=
= = =


i
f
i
r
I
r
I
i f
h D d
L D
D
L
r h
a
r
D
a

To determine the radius of curvature of body II in the x direction. The following geome-
try must be used, and since the radius is concave the value must be negative.

22

( ) ( )
( )

=
+
=
+
=

=
+
=
+
=
=

= =

= =

= =

= + + = + + + =
=

=
= =

mm
1
2 . 57 4
1
0 . 18
0 05556 .
1 1
mm
1
6865.6
1
3 . 270
058562 . 05556 .
1 1
0
mm
1
411 . 1
in
1
05556 .
18
1
mm
1
487 . 1
in
1
058562 .
28 . 19
1
mm
1
411 . 1
in
1
05556 .
18
1
mm
1
0.1504
in
1
0.00592
28 . 19
1
0
18
1
18
1 1 1 1 1
28 . 19
5 . 13 sin 2
003 . 9
sin 2
18
2 1 2 1
2
2 1
in
R
in
R
r r r r
d
r
r r
yII yI
y
xII xI
x
yII
yI
xII
xI
II II I I
f
f
II
I I


Step 9: Determine the dimensionless parameters and max stress.
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( ) 171306kPa psi 24863
05308 . 0 3074 . 0 2
6 . 849 3
2
3
1.348mm in 05308 .
05919 .
6 . 849
4853 . 0045 . 0045 . 0
7.808mm in 3074 . 0
05919 .
6 . 849
811 . 2 0045 . 0 0045 . 0
4853 . 0
7913 . 5
04004 . 1 2 2
*
811 . 2
04004 . 1 7913 . 5 2 2
a*
04004 . 1
18
3 . 270
5968 . 0
0003 . 1
5968 . 0
0003 . 1
7913 . 5
18
3 . 270
0339 . 1 0339 . 1
max
3
1
3
1
*
3
1
3
1
*
3
1
3
1
3
1
2
3
1
2
636 . 0
636 . 0
= = =
=

=
=

=
=

=
=

=
=

+ =

+ =
=

ab
Q
Q
b b
Q
a a
k
b
k
R
R
R
R
k
f
y
x
y
x

23

Figure 17 illustrates a 3D view of the rib- roller end contact stress profile. For clarity the
x and y axes are not equal. The maximum stress is at the center of the contact ellipse and
decreases as it progresses to the edges of the ellipse.

(psi)
x (in)
y (in)
Figure No. 17: 3D View of Rib- Roller End Contact Stress Profile

Figure 18 illustrates a 2D foot print of the rib roller end contact area. As expected the
shape is elliptical.

y (in)
x (in)
Figure No. 18: 2D View Rib-Roller End Contact Ellipse




24

4.2 SENSITIVITY STUDY
The following figures, illustrate the effects of cup angle on bearing contact stresses for a
given speed (DN). The geometry used in section 4.1 was used for this study, with the
exception of the cup angle, cone angle and rib angle. The cone angle was varied from 5
degrees to 40 degrees, the cone angle equals the cup angle minus the roller included
angle, and the rib angle is assumed to be equal to the cone angle.

Figures 19-25 illustrate the cup, cone and rib stresses for various DN levels for a range of
cup angles. A red arrow points to the rib stress at the optimum cup angle on each figure.
Tapered Bearing Stress Distribution (0.25 million DN)
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Cup Angl e (deg)
C
u
p
,

C
o
n
e

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
R
i
b

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
Cup Stress
Cone Stress
Rib Stress

Figure No 19: Example TRB at 0.25 million DN
25

Tapered Bearing Stress Distribution (0.50 million DN)
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Cup Angl e (deg)
C
u
p
,

C
o
n
e

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
R
i
b

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
Cup Stress
Cone Stress
Rib Stress

Figure No 20: Example TRB at 0.50 million DN

Tapered Bearing Stress Distribution (0.75 million DN)
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Cup Angl e (deg)
C
u
p
,

C
o
n
e

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
R
i
b

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
Cup Stress
Cone Stress
Rib Stress

Figure No 21: Example TRB at 0.75 million DN
26

Tapered Bearing Stress Distribution (1.00 million DN)
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Cup Angl e (deg)
C
u
p
,

C
o
n
e

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
R
i
b

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
Cup Stress
Cone Stress
Rib Stress

Figure No 22: Example TRB at 1.00 million DN

Tapered Bearing Stress Distribution (1.50 million DN)
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Cup Angl e (deg)
C
u
p
,

C
o
n
e

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
R
i
b

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
Cup Stress
Cone Stress
Rib Stress

Figure No 23: Example TRB at 1.50 million DN
27

Tapered Bearing Stress Distribution (2.00 million DN)
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Cup Angl e (deg)
C
u
p
,

C
o
n
e

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
R
i
b

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
Cup Stress
Cone Stress
Rib Stress

Figure No 24: Example TRB at 2.00 million DN

Tapered Bearing Stress Distribution (3.00 million DN)
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Cup Angl e (deg)
C
u
p
,

C
o
n
e

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
R
i
b

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
Cup Stress
Cone Stress
Rib Stress

Declutching
Occurs
Figure No 25: Example TRB at 3.00 million DN
28


Table No. 2 summarizes the optimal cup angles for each DN level of the sample bearing.
DN
(million)
Cup Angle
(deg)
0.25 40
0.50 40
0.75 30
1.00 25
1.50 20
2.00 15
3.00 10
Table No. 2: Sample Bearing Optimized Cup Angle Based on DN level.

Several things can be ascertained from this sensitivity study. The first and most
important is that to minimize rib stress, there is an optimum cup angle for every speed.
At low speeds (<1 million DN), the optimum cone angle is near 40 degrees. At high
speeds the optimum angle varies depending upon DN level. For 1.5 million DN the
optimal cup angle is 20 degrees, for 2.0 million DN the optimal cup angle is 15 degrees
and for 3.0 million DN the optimal cup angle is 10 degrees. In general, the optimum cup
angle decreases as speed increases. This is due to the impact of the centrifugal loading
on the rib and cone contact locations. In all cases the cup and cone contact stresses
decrease with increasing cup angle, which is due to the change in magnitude of the
normal reaction forces. The cup contact stress remains unchanged at a given angle for
the different speeds. This is due to the fact that the loading upon the cup is independent
of the roller centrifugal loading. The cone and rib are significantly affected by the
centrifugal loading of the roller. The rib load increases and the cone load decreases as
the speed increases.

Another important feature is that there is a point at which the cone raceway will
become completely unloaded. If declutching occurs two things will occur; first the
rolling element will skid (not rotate) with respect to the cone raceway. Second, the
29

applied thrust load will be driven through the rib contact which will potentially over
stress it. The unloading (or declutching) of the roller from the cone raceway will have
negative effects upon the bearing performance and should be avoided.


30

5. Conclusion

The theory for the stress distribution of a high speed tapered roller bearing was
determined. A simplified FORTRAN code (appendix A) was written based on this
theory and was validated by the hand calculations in section 4.1. This code was gener-
ated with the intention of calculating tapered roller bearing rib, cup and cone contact
stresses at high speeds. As expected, the stress distribution changed significantly based
on speed. The most significant contributors to the stress distribution are the cup, cone
and rib angles as well as roller centrifugal loading. Slight modifications to these angles
can significantly reduce (or increase) the contact stresses. Shallower cup and cone
angles decrease the effects of the roller centrifugal loading upon the rib contact stress.
As the speed increases the rib load increases, and the cone load decreases. The cup load
remains constant across all DN levels since it is independent of speed, it is only a
function of the applied thrust load.

Another method of reducing the contact stresses is to reduce the centrifugal forces
generated by the rollers. This can be done by decreasing (or minimizing) the rolling
element diameter to an optimum size. For a given pitch diameter additional rollers could
be added based on the decrease in roller diameter. This increase in roller quantity would
also decrease the stresses within the bearing.

Tapered roller bearings require optimization based on operating speeds. A single cup
angle for high speed applications is insufficient. At low speeds, larger cup angles are
beneficial while at higher speeds (>1MDN) lower cup angels are optimal. This is based
on the assumption that the optimum design is the one that contains the lowest rib contact
stress. Although, there are limitations for contact stress that must be observed.

Tapered bearings do have a maximum speed limit for a given design. The speed limita-
tion occurs when the centrifugal loading of the roller overcomes the cone reaction forces.
When this occurs the roller no longer contacts the cone, and the rib load increases dra-
31

matically. This phenomenon is referred to as declutching and is detrimental to bearing
performance. It is desirable to avoid declutching.

The FORTRAN program in appendix A can be used to evaluate tapered roller bearing
performance, and assist in determining if a particular bearing is suitable for a specific
high speed application. Although stress limits are important in bearing design, there are
other criteria that must be considered when designing a high speed tapered roller bearing.
Some of these criteria include (but are not limited to) sliding velocity, stress velocity,
torque, heat generation and gyroscopic effects.




32

References
1. T.A. Harris, Rolling Bearing Analysis, Fourth Edition, J ohn Wiley and Sons,
New York (2001).
2. S. Timoshenko and J . Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, 3
rd
ed., McGraw-Hill, New
York (1970).
3. Cornish, Robert F.; Orvos, Peter S.; and Gupta, Shionarayan R.: Development of
High Speed Tapered Roller Bearing. IR-1, Timken Roller Bearing Co., 1973.
(AFAPL-TR-73-85, AD-771547).
4. Conners, T. F.; and Morrison, F. R.: Feasibility of Tapered Roller Bearings for
Main-Shaft Engine Applications. SKF Industries, Inc Report AL73T009, 1973
(USAAMRDL-TR-73-46).
5. W.Wang, P.L. Wong, and Z. Zhang: Partial EHL analysis of rib-roller contact in
tapered roller bearings. Tribology International Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 313-321,
1996.
6. D. Brewe and B. Hamrock, Simplified Solutions for Elliptical Contact Defor-
mations Between Two Elastic Solids, ASME Trans., J . Lub. Tech. 101 (2), 231-
239 (1977).







33

Appendix A:
Program Instructions

34

PROGRAM GUIDE

The FORTRAN program provided in Appendix A is available and can be used by anyone
interested in determining tapered roller bearing stresses.

To run the program from a local computer, copy the file named hertz_trb3.exe located at
http://www.ewp.rpi.edu/hartford/~walkeb4/EP/Updates/, to a directory on you r local
drive. Once the file is copied, open a DOS prompt in the folder that you have stored the
file in and type hertz_trb3 and press the ENTER key.

The program will run and will prompt the user for bearing dimensions as well as
operating conditions. Before running the program the user should become familiar with
the required inputs as defined in the body of this report.

For training purposes a sample run was performed to aid users. The following are the
actual program prompts and their respective values from the example in section 4.1. The
text in italics is the actual program prompt, and the bold text is the value entered by the
user. The input values for the program are all in English units.

EXAMPLE CALCULATION INPUT

ENTER CUP ANGLE (DEG)
18
ENTER RIB ANGLE (DEG)
13.5
ENTER ROLLER INCLUDED ANGLE (DEG)
4.5
ENTER ROLLER LARGE END DIAMETER (in)
1.5
ENTER ROLLER LARGE END SPHERICAL RADIUS (in)
18
ENTER BEARING PITCH DIAMETER (in)
9.7
ENTER TOTAL ROLLER LENGTH (in)
1.9
ENTER ROLLER EFFECTIVE LENGTH (in)
1.9
ENTER ROLLER QTY
17
ENTER SHAFT SPEED (RPM)
8000
ENTER APPLIED THRUST LOAD (lbf)
35000

35
After the last input is entered the program outputs the corresponding stress values for the
cone, cup and rib.

EXAMPLE CALCULATION OUTPUT

Max Rib Stress = 24863.6227315356 (psi)
Max Cone Stress = 154492.372073366 (psi)
Max Cup Stress = 150458.399427844 (psi)

To close the pop up DOS screen press C and then press enter.

Note that data from this program is not stored, so each run will require re-entry of all
necessary inputs. The FORTRAN code is available in appendix B which can be copied
and modified as needed by individual users.
36
Appendix B:
Program Source Code


37

CC**********Beginning Tapered Roller Bearing Analysis Program*********
CC
CC References:
CC 1. Rolling Bearings Analysis, 3rd Ed, Tedric A. Harris
CC
CC

program hertz

implicit none
character*1 flag, c
real*8 rhoI1,rhoI2,rhoII1,rhoII2,Q,EI,EII,P_I,P_II,a,b,
#K,rhosum,FG,EG,num,pi,astar,bstar,alphainc,
#sigma_max,rI1,rI2,rII1,rII2,Frho,
#Rx,Ry,delta_s,delta,Rxy,tau_o,z_o,alphao,
#resi,min_phi,max_phi,phi_rlx,etol,phi1,j_phi,resi_last,del_phi,
#phi_last,phi,alphaf,theta,d1,v,r,phia,h,d3,d3a,beta,L2,
#dx,x,alphai,Thrust,Qi,Qo,Qf,Fc,rad,rho,Dmean,alphaf1,
+lt,leff,dm,omega,gammai,gammao,rhosumi,rhosumo,bi,bo,Qimax,Qomax,
+speed,alphadm,ldm
integer iter,nint,int,z
pi =acos(-1.)
C*****Input Geometry ***********************************
print*, 'ENTER CUP ANGLE (DEG)'
read*, alphao
alphao=alphao*pi/180 !Cup Angle
c print*,'alphao=',alphao
print*, 'ENTER RIB ANGLE (DEG)'
read*,alphaf
alphaf=alphaf*pi/180
alphaf1=90*pi/180-alphaf
c print*,'alphaf=',alphaf
c print*,'alphaf1=',alphaf1
print*, 'ENTER ROLLER INCLUDED ANGLE (DEG)'
read*, alphainc
alphainc=alphainc*pi/180. !Included Roller Angle
print*,'alphainc=',alphainc
beta=alphao-alphainc !Cone Angle
print*,'beta=',beta
alphadm=beta+(alphainc/2.)
print*,'alphadm=',alphadm
print*,'ENTER ROLLER LARGE END DIAMETER (in)'
read*,d1
print*,'d1=',d1
print*,'ENTER ROLLER LARGE END SPHERICAL RADIUS (in)'
38
read*,r
print*,'r=',r
print*,'ENTER BEARING PITCH DIAMETER'
read*,dm
print*,'dm=',dm
print*,'ENTER TOTAL ROLLER LENGTH (in)'
read*,lt
print*,'lt=',lt
print*,'ENTER ROLLER EFFECTIVE LENGTH (in)'
read*,leff
print*,'leff=',leff
print*,'ENTER ROLLER QTY'
read*,z
print*,'z=',z
print*,'ENTER SHAFT SPEED (RPM)'
read*,speed
print*,'speed=',speed
print*,'ENTER APPLIED THRUST LOAD (lbf)'
read*,Thrust
print*,'Thrust=',Thrust
C*****Plane Geometry ***********************************
theta=90*pi/180 !Angle from cone race to flange (assume 90deg)
print*,'theta=',theta
v=alphainc*0.5 !1/2 included roller angle
print*,'v=',v
L2=d1/(2.*sin(v))
print*,'L2=',L2
d3a=2.*L2*sin(beta)
print*,'d3a=',d3a
phia=asin(d1/(2.*r))-v
print*,'phia=',phia
h=r*(sin(phia)+cos(theta))
print*,'h=',h
d3=d3a+(2.*h*(sin(theta-beta)/sin(theta)))
print*,'d3=',d3
C***** Calculate Dmean *****************************************
ldm=L2-lt/2.
Dmean=2*ldm*sin(v)
print*,'Dmean=',Dmean
C*****Roller Loads ***********************************
omega=speed*(0.5*(1-((Dmean/dm)*cos(alphadm))))
print*, 'omega=',omega
Fc=3.17E-6*(Dmean**2)*lt*dm*(omega**2)
print*,'Fc=',Fc
C****#****C*********C*********C*********C*********C*********C********
*C*
39
C****#****** CUP CONTACT LOAD CALCULATION
Qo=Thrust/(z*sin(alphao)) !(EQ 3.1.0)
C****#****** FLANGE CONTACT LOAD
CALCULATION******C*********C*********C*
Qf=(Qo*cos(alphao)-Fc-(Qo*sin(alphao)/tan(beta)))/
+(-cos(alphaf1)-sin(alphaf1)/tan(beta)) !(EQ 3.1.2)
C****#****** CONE CONTACT LOAD
CALCULATION********C*********C*********C*
Qi=(Qo*sin(alphao)-Qf*sin(alphaf1))/sin(beta) !(EQ 3.1.1)

print*,'Qi=',Qi
print*,'Qo=',Qo
print*,'Qf=',Qf
C*****Body I Radius of Curvature ***********************************
rI1=r
rI2=r
C*****Body II Radius of Curvature ***********************************
rII2=(-1.)*d3/(2.*sin(alphaf)) !Correct equation
c rII1=infintiy !Assumes a flat surface
EI=29.86e6
EII=29.86e6
P_I=.29
P_II=.29
print*,'rI1=',rI1
print*,'rI2=',rI2
print*,'rII2=',rII2

C*****Curvature calculations***********************************
C
rhoI1=1./rI1 ! (y-dir)
rhoI2=1./rI2 ! (x-dir)
rhoII2=1./rII2 ! (y-dir)
rhoII1=0 ! (x-dir)
rhosum=rhoI1+rhoI2+rhoII1+rhoII2
print*, 'rhoI1',rhoI1
print*, 'rhoI2',rhoI2
print*, 'rhoII1',rhoII1
print*, 'rhoII2',rhoII2
print*, 'rhosum',rhosum
C
C****************************************************************

C*****Directional Equivalent Radii R*****************************
C
Rx=1./(rhoI2+rhoII2) ! Eq.6.36 [1]
Ry=1./(rhoI1+rhoII1) ! Eq.6.37 [1]
40
print*,'Rx=',Rx
print*,'Ry=',Ry
C
C****************************************************************


C*****Calculate K,EG,FG******************************************
C
Rxy=max(Rx/Ry,Ry/Rx)
Frho=((rhoI1-rhoI2)+(rhoII1-rhoII2))/rhosum
C*****Kappa Calculation method Start ********************************
C*****Solver Controls************************************************
C
min_phi=.5
max_phi=100.0
phi_rlx=0.4
etol=1.e-8
C
C********************************************************************

C*****Initialization*************************************************
C
iter=1
K=1.1 ! initial contact force guessed
phi=K/1.
C
C********************************************************************

C*****Newton's Method iteration**************************************
C

5 K=phi*1.


c* * *Calculations start here ->
nint=200.0
dx=pi/2./nint
FG=0.0
EG=0.0
do 100 int=1,nint
x=dx*(int-0.5)
FG=FG+(1.-(1.-1./K**2)*sin(x)**2)**(-.5)*dx
EG=EG+(1.-(1.-1./K**2)*sin(x)**2)**(.5)*dx
100 continue

c*****Residual
41
resi=Frho-((K**2+1.)*EG-2.*FG)/(K**2-1.)/EG
C
C**********************************************************************
*


C*****Newton Solver Algorithm*******************************************
C
if (iter.gt.1) then
J _phi=(resi-resi_last)/(del_phi)
del_phi=phi_rlx*(-resi/J _phi)
else
del_phi=max(phi1*0.1,0.1)
endif


phi_last=phi
phi=phi+del_phi
phi=max(phi,min_phi)
phi=min(phi,max_phi)
del_phi=phi-phi_last
resi_last=resi
iter=iter+1
if (iter.gt.200) then
write(6,*)'Newton Method iterations exceeded max in kappa
#subroutine'
endif
if (abs(resi).gt.etol) goto 5
C
C****#****C*********C*********C*********C*********C*********C********
*C*
C*****Kappa Calculation Complete ********************************
C****************************************************************

C*****From 'K' calculate a and b****************************************
C
num=(3.*Qf/(2.*rhosum)*( (1.-P_I**2)/EI+
# (1.-P_II**2)/EII ))**(1./3.)
astar=(2.*EG*K**2/pi)**(1./3.) ! Eq.6.44
bstar=(2.*EG/(pi*K))**(1./3.) ! Eq.6.45
print*,'astar=',astar
print*,'bstar=',bstar
a=astar*num ! Eq.6.38
b=bstar*num ! Eq.6.39
C
42
C****#****C*********C*********C*********C*********C*********C********
*C*

C*****Calculate maximum compressive stress at geometrical center********
C
sigma_max=3.*Qf / (2.*pi*a*b) ! Eq.6.47
C
C****#****C*********C*********C*********C*********C*********C********
*C*

C*****Deformation of contact ellipse at center**************************
C
delta_s=(2.*FG/pi)*(pi/(2.*K**2*EG))**(1./3.)
delta=delta_s*num**2*rhosum/2.
C
C**********************************************************************
*

C*****Max Subsurface Shear Stress***************************************
C ! Based on curve fit of fig 5.14 of Ref 1.
tau_o=(sigma_max/2.)*( 0.04976*(b/a)**3. - 0.11347*(b/a)**2
# -0.00704*(b/a)+.5000)
C
C**********************************************************************
*

C*****Depth of Max Sub-Surface Stress***********************************
C ! Based on curve fit of fig 5.14 of Ref 1.
z_o=b*(0.1567*(b/a)**3-.2794*(b/a)**2-0.0262*(b/a)+0.5000)
C
C**********************************************************************
*
print*,'a=',a
print*,'b=',b
print*,'Qf=',Qf
print*,'Max Rib Stress =',sigma_max

C****#****C*********C*********C*********C*********C*********C********
*C*
C****#****** CONE CONTACT STRESS CALCULATION
gammai=Dmean*cos(beta)/dm
rhosumi=2/(Dmean*(1-gammai))
if (Qi.gt.0) then
bi=2.78e-4*(Qi/(leff*rhosumi))**(0.5)
Qimax=2*Qi/(pi*leff*bi)
else
43
Qimax=0
endif
C****#****** CUP CONTACT STRESS CALCULATION
gammao=Dmean*cos(alphao)/dm
rhosumo=2/(Dmean*(1+gammao))
bo=2.78e-4*(Qo/(leff*rhosumo))**(0.5)
Qomax=2*Qo/(pi*leff*bo)
print*,'Max Cone Stress =',Qimax
print*,'Max Cup Stress =',Qomax
print*,'Press "C" To Continue'
read*,c


END
44