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OISD - 130

FOR RESTRICTED
CIRCULATION
No.
INSPECTION
OF
PIPES, VALVES AND FITTINGS
OISD - STANDARD-130
First Edition, November 1988
Reaffirmed, A!st, 1999
OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE
Government of In!"
#!n!$tr% of Petro&e'm ( N"t'r"& G"$
OISD S"ANDARD - 130
First Edition, November 1988
1
Reaffirmed, A!st, 1999
FOR RESTRICTED
CIRCULATION
No.
INSPECTION
OF
PIPES, VALVES AND FITTINGS
#re$ared b%
CO##ITTEE ON
INSPECTION OF STATIC E)UIP#ENT
OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE
&
ND
F'OOR, ()AI'AS*+
&,, )AS"-R.A /AND*I 0AR/,
NE1 DE'*I 2 110 001
2
NOTES
OISD $b3i4ations are $re$ared for se in t5e Oi3 and
!as indstr% nder 0inistr% of #etro3em and Natra3 /as.
"5ese are t5e $ro$ert% of 0inistr% of #etro3em and Natra3 /as
and s5a33 not be re$rod4ed or 4o$ied and 3oaned or e65ibited to
ot5ers 7it5ot 7ritten 4onsent from OISD.
"5o!5 ever% effort 5as been made to assre t5e
a44ra4% and re3iabi3it% of data 4ontained in t5ese do4ments,
OISD 5ereb% e6$ress3% dis43aims an% 3iabi3it% or res$onsibi3it% for
3oss or dama!e res3tin! from t5eir se.
"5ese do4ments are intended on3% to s$$3ement and
not re$3a4e t5e $revai3in! stattor% re8irements.
3
FORE*ORD
"5e Oi3 Indstr% in India is 100 %ears o3d. .e4ase of
varios 4o33aboration a!reements, a variet% of internationa3
4odes, standards and $ra4ti4es 5ave been in vo!e.
Standardisation in desi!n $5i3oso$5ies and o$eratin! and
maintenan4e $ra4ti4es at a nationa3 3eve3 7as 5ard3% in
e6isten4e. "5is, 4o$3ed 7it5 feed ba49 from some serios
a44idents t5at o44rred in t5e re4ent $ast in India and abroad,
em$5asi:ed t5e need for t5e indstr% to revie7 t5e e6istin! state
of art in desi!nin!, o$eratin! and maintainin! oi3 and !as
insta33ations.
1it5 t5is in vie7, t5e 0inistr% of #etro3em ; Natra3
/as, in 198,, 4onstitted a Safet% <on4i3 assisted b% Oi3
Indstr% Safet% Dire4torate =OISD>, staffed from 7it5in t5e
indstr%, in form3atin! and im$3ementin! a series of se3f
re!3ator% measres aimed at removin! obso3es4en4e,
standardisin! and $!radin! t5e e6istin! standards to ensre
safer o$erations. A44ordin!3%, OISD 4onstitted a nmber of
Fn4tiona3 <ommittees of e6$erts nominated from t5e indstr% to
dra7 $ standards and !ide3ines on varios sb?e4ts.
"5e $resent do4ment on (Ins$e4tion of #i$es, @a3ves ;
Fittin!s+ 7as $re$ared b% t5e Fn4tiona3 <ommittee on
(Ins$e4tion of Stati4 E8i$ment+. "5is do4ment is based on t5e
a44m3ated 9no73ed!e and e6$erien4e of indstr% members
and t5e varios nationa3 and internationa3 4odes and $ra4ti4es. It
is 5o$ed t5at t5e $rovisions of t5is do4ment, 75en ado$ted ma%
!o a 3on! 7a% to im$rove t5e safet% and red4e a44idents in t5e
Oi3 and /as Indstr%. -sers of t5is standard are 4ationed t5at
no standard 4an be a sbstitte for a res$onsib3e, 8a3ified
Ins$e4tion En!ineer. S!!estions are invited from t5e sers,
after it is $t into $ra4ti4e, to im$rove t5e do4ment frt5er.
"5is standard in no 7a% s$ersedes t5e stattor%
re!3ations of <<E, Fa4tor% Ins$e4torate or an% ot5er /ovt. bod%
75i45 mst be fo33o7ed as a$$3i4ab3e.
S!!estions for amendments to t5is do4ment s5o3d be
addressed to A
"5e <o-ordinator,
<ommittee on
(Ins$e4tion of Stati4 E8i$ment,
Oi3 Indstr% Safet% Dire4torate,
&
nd
F3oor, ()ai3as5+
&,, )astrba /and5i 0ar!,
Ne7 De35i 2 110 001
4
CO##ITTEE
ON
INSPECTION OF STATIC E)UIP#ENT
L!$t of #em+er$
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Name Desi!nation ; #osition in
Or!anisation <ommittee
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. S5. R.). Sab5ar7a3 <0N0-IO< =R ; #> 'eader
&. S5.A.S. Soni D/0 =#>-ON/< 0ember
3. S5.R.*. @o5ra D/0-=E> IO< =09t!.> 0ember
B. S5.D.#. D5a33 <* INS# ; AE 0/R-.#< =REF> 0ember
C. S5.#. Das!$ta Sr.0ana!er= Ins$e4tion> IO< 0ember
=R ; #>
,. S5.I.0. Advani 0/R =#ROD> *#< =REF> 0ember
E. S5.R.0.N. 0arar Dt.Dire4tor OISD 0ember
<o-ordinator.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In addition to t5e above, severa3 ot5er e6$erts from t5e indstr% 4ontribted in t5e
$re$aration, revie7 and fina3isation of t5is Re4ommended #ra4ti4es.
5
INSPECTION OF PIPES, VALVES AND FITTINGS
CONTENTS
SECTION PAGE NO.
1.0 Introd4tion
&.0 S4o$e
3.0 Definition and "%$es of #i$es
3.1 #i$es
3.& "%$es of #i$es
3.&.1 E3e4tri4 Resistan4e 1e3ded #i$es
3.&.& E3e4tri4 Fsion 1e3ded #i$es
3.&.3 Dob3e Sbmer!ed Ar4 1e3din! #i$es
3.&.B S$ira3 1e3ded #i$es
B.0 Ro3e of Ins$e4tion
C.0 Ins$e4tion "oo3s
,.0 Ins$e4tion of #i$in! drin! Fabri4ation
E.0 <5e49 'ist for Ins$e4tion of #i$in! $rior to <ommissionin!
8.0 'i9e3% Areas of 0eta3 1asta!e
8.1 E6terna3 <orrosion
8.& Interna3 <orrosion
9.0 Fre8en4% of Ins$e4tion
9.1 Onsite #i$in!
9.& Offsite #i$in!
9.&.1 *%dro4arbon Servi4e
9.&.& -ti3ities
9.&.3 -nder!rond #i$in!
10.0 Ins$e4tion #ro4edres
10.1 Onstream Ins$e4tion
10.1.1 @isa3 Ins$e4tion
10.1.& -3trasoni4 Ins$e4tion
10.1.3 Radio!ra$5i4 Ins$e4tion
10.1.B <orrosion #robes
10.1.C <orrosion <o$ons
10.& Ins$e4tion drin! S5tdo7n
10.&.1 Ins$e4tion for <orrosion, Erosion and Fo3in!
10.&.& Ins$e4tion for <ra49s
10.&.3 Ins$e4tion of /as9et Fa4es of F3an!es
10.&.B Ins$e4tion of *ot S$ots
6
10.&.C *ammer "estin!
10.3 Ins$e4tion of *i!5 "em$eratre #i$in!
10.B Ins$e4tion of #i$in! in <orrosive Streams
10.C Ins$e4tion of -nder!rond #i$in!
10.C.1 <at5odi4a33% #rote4ted #i$in!
10.C.& 1ra$$ed and 4oated $i$e3ines 7it5ot <at5odi4 #rote4tion
10.C.3 Interna3 <orrosion of -nder!rond #i$in!
10., Ins$e4tion of @a3ves, F3an!es, /as9ets ; .o3ts
10.,.1 @a3ves
10.,.& F3an!es, /as9ets and .o3ts
11.0 Retirin! 'imit
1&.0 0et5od of #i$e3ine Re$air and Ins$e4tion
1&.1 Ins$e4tion Drin! Re$airsFRe$3a4ements
1&.&. #ressre "estin!
1&.&.1 "est #ressre and #ro4edres
1&.&.& "est F3id
1&.&.3 1ater Ga3it%
13.0 Do4mentation
1B.0 Referen4es
ANNEH-RES
I Safet% #ra4ti4es to be fo33o7ed drin! #ressre "estin!
II Ins$e4tion Re$ort =#roforma)
7
INSPECTION OF PIPES, VALVES AND FITTINGS
1,0 INTRODUCTION
Safet% in $etro3em insta33ations
4omes t5ro!5 4ontines efforts at a33 sta!es
and as s45 it 4an be ensred b% observin!
t5at $3ant and e8i$ment are desi!ned,
4onstr4ted, tested and maintained as $er
En!ineerin! Standards and sbse8ent
modifi4ations and re$airs are 4onformin! to
t5e same standard.
-,0 SCOPE
"5is standard 4overs minimm
ins$e4tion re8irements for $3ant $i$in! and
off-site $i$in! 4onstr4ted as $er Standard
ANSI .-31.3 or e8iva3ent. Areas to be
ins$e4ted, fa4i3ities needed for ins$e4tion,
fre8en4% of ins$e4tion, 3i9e3% 4ases of
deterioration of $i$e3ines in servi4e and
ins$e4tion of $i$e fittin!s and re$airs 5ave
been s$e4ified. A3so in43ded brief3% are t5e
ins$e4tion and testin! re8irements for t5e
ne7 $i$e3ines drin! fabri4ation and $rior to
4ommissionin!.
3,0 DEFINITION AND TYPES OF
PIPES
3,1 PIPE
A $i$e is a $ressre-ti!5t sed to
4onve% a f3id or to transmit a f3id $ressre.
3,- TYPES OF PIPES
3,-,1 E&e.tr!. Re$!$t"n.e *e&e P!/e$
#i$es $rod4ed in individa3 3en!t5s
or in 4ontinos 3en!t5s from 4oi3ed s9e3$
and sbse8ent3% 4t into individa3 3en!t5s
5avin! a 3on!itdina3 or s$ira3 btt ?oint
75erein 4oa3es4en4e is $rod4ed b% t5e 5eat
obtained from resistan4e of t5e $i$e to t5e
f3o7 of e3e4tri4 4rrent in a 4ir4it of 75i45
t5e $i$e is a $art, and b% t5e a$$3i4ation of
$ressre.
3,-,- E&e.tr!. F'$!on *e&e P!/e$
#i$e 5avin! a 3on!itdina3 btt ?oint
75erein 4oa3es4en4e is $rod4ed in t5e
$reformed tbe b% mana3 or atomati4
e3e4tri4-ar4 7e3din!. "5e 7e3d ma% be sin!3e
or dob3e and ma% be 7it5 or 7it5ot t5e se
of ti3ter meta3.
3,-,3 Do'+&e S'+mer0e Ar. *e&!n0
P!/e$
#i$e 5avin! a 3on!itdina3 btt ?oint
$rod4ed b% at 3east t7o $asses, one of
75i45 is one t5e inside of t5e $i$e.
<oa3es4en4e is $rod4ed b% 5eatin! 7it5 an
e3e4tri4 ar4 or ar4s bet7een t5e bare meta3
e3e4trode or e3e4trodes and t5e 7or9. "5e
7e3din! is s5ie3ded b% a b3an9et of !ran3ar
fsib3e materia3 on t5e 7or9. #ressre is not
sed and fi3ter meta3 for t5e inside and
otside 7e3ds is obtained from t5e e3e4trode
or e3e4trodes.
3,-,1 S/!r"& *e&e P!/e$
#i$e 5avin! a 5e3i4a3 seam 7it5 btt
?oint 75i45 is 7e3ded sin! eit5er an
e3e4tri4a3 resistan4e, e3e4tri4 fsion or
dob3e sbmer!ed ar4 7e3din! $ro4ess.
3,-,2 Se"m&e$$ P!/e$
#i$e $rod4ed b% $ier4in! a bi33et
fo33o7ed b% ro33in! or dra7in! or bot5.
1,0 ROLE OF INSPECTION
"5e fo33o7in! are t5e a4tivities of t5e
ins$e4tion division.
i> "o ins$e4t, measre and re4ord t5e
deterioration of materia3s and to
eva3ate $resent $5%si4a3 4ondition of
t5e $i$in! for its sondness in servi4e.
ii> "o 4o-re3ate t5e deterioration rate 7it5
desi!n 3ife for frt5er rn.
iii> "o determine 4ases of deterioration and
to advise remedia3 measres.
iv> "o re4ommend F fore4ast s5ort-term and
3on!-term re$airs and re$3a4ements to
ensre frt5er rn 3en!t5 on t5e basis of
e4onomi4s and safet%.
v> "o advise materia3s re8irement for
re4ommended re$airs F re$3a4ement
needs.
vi> "o ins$e4t drin! and $on 4om$3etion
of re$airs.
vii> "o maintain $-to-date ins$e4tion
re4ords and 5istor% of $i$in!.
8
viii> "o 9ee$ t5e 4on4erned o$eratin! and
maintenan4e $ersonne3 f33% informed as
to t5e 4ondition of t5e varios $i$in!.
i6> "o advise re!ardin! s45ed3es of $i$in!
ins$e4tion and a3so stattor%
re8irement s45ed3es.
2,0 INSPECTION TOOLS
"5e fo33o7in! too3s ma% be sed as
aids for 4arr%in! ot $i$in! ins$e4tion.
i> -3trasoni4 t5i49ness meter.
ii> -3trasoni4 f3a7 dete4tor.
iii> 0a!neti4 $arti43e testin! e8i$ment.
iv> Infrared $%rometer F $etros4anner.
v> Fibros4o$e.
vi> Radio!ra$5i4 e8i$ment.
vii> A!-A!43 F <-soB 5a3f-4e33.
viii> D%e #enetrant testin! 9it.
i6> *o3ida% dete4tor.
6> #ortab3e 5ardness tester.
6i> Ins$e4torIs 5ammer.
6ii> #aint and 4oatin! t5i49ness !a!e.
6iii> #it de$t5 !a!e.
6iv> Inside and otside 4a3i$ers.
6v> 0a!net.
6vi> 0easrin! ta$e.
6vii> 0a!nif%in! !3ass.
6viii> Safet% tor45es.
6i6> <ra%ons.
66> Sma33 mirror.
66i> 0ateria3 identifi4ation 9it.
3,0 INSPECTION OF PIPING
DURING FA4RICATION
"5e ins$e4tion of $i$in! drin!
fabri4ation s5a33 be 4arried or as $er t5e
re8irement of a$$3i4ab3e 4odes.
s$e4ifi4ations, dra7in!s, et4. "5is ins$e4tion
re8ires re!3ar 45e49s on t5e 7or9 at
varios sta!es as it $ro!resses.
"5e ins$e4tion s5a33 in43deA
i> Std% of tender do4ment and a33 t5e
te45ni4a3 s$e4ifi4ations.
ii> Identifi4ation and ins$e4tion of materia3.
iii> A$$rova3 of 7e3din! $ro4edres in
a44ordan4e 7it5 4ode and tender
re8irement.
iv> <arr%in! ot of $erforman4e 8a3ifi4ation
test.
v> Ensrin! t5at 7e3din! is 4arried ot as
$er a!reed $ro4edres, b% a$$roved
7e3ders 7it5 s$e4ified e3e4trodes.
vi> Ins$e4tion of 7e3d ?oint fit-$s.
vii> D%e-$enetrant e6amination of t5e
$re$ared ed!es for 3o7 a33o7 stee3 and
stain3ess stee3.
viii> Ensrin! $ro$er $re5eatin!, maintainin!
$ro$er inter$ass tem$eratre and $ost-
7e3d 5eat treatment as s$e4ified.
i6> Radio!ra$5i4 andFor 3trasoni4
ins$e4tion of 7e3d ?oints as s$e4ified.
6> Ensrin! re$airs of t5e defe4tive 7e3ds,
if an%, before !ivin! 43earan4es for
5%drostati4 testin!.
6i> Ensrin! $ro$er re$airs to dama!ed
3inin! =4ementFrbber>, if an%.
6ii> *%drostati4 testin!.
6iii> Ensrin! a33 a$$roved deviations from
t5e dra7in! are noted and as bi3t
dra7in! $re$ared.
6iv> Ensrin! $ro$er srfa4e $re$aration and
$aintin!.
6v> Ensrin! insta33ation of $ro$er ins3ation
75erever a$$3i4ab3e.
6vi> Ensrin! nder!rond $rote4tion for
bried $i$in!, 5as been $rovided as
s$e4ified.
5,0 C6EC7 LIST FOR
INSPECTION OF PIPING
PRIOR TO CO##ISSIONING
9
"5e 45e493ist format s5a33 in43de t5e
fo33o7in! information
#i$e s9et45 NoFdr!. No.
'o4ation
Servi4e
0ateria3
Dimensions Dia "59.
0a6. a33o7ab3e 7or9in!
$ressre
0a6. a33o7ab3e 7or9in!
tem$eratre
Stress re3ief
Radio!ra$5%
*%drostati4 test $ressre
Ins3ation
Interna3 3inin!
-nder!rond $rote4tion
Ere4tion 4ontra4tor
<ontra4torJs ins$e4tor
<om$an%Js ins$e4tor
Date of ins$e4tion
<*E<) 'IS"
C6EC7 RE#AR7S
1. Ins$e4t 7e3d ?oints visa33%.
&. <5e49 and ins$e4t sma33 4onne4tions e.!. drains and vents.
3. <5e49 and ins$e4t a33 t5readed 4onne4tions for $ro$er
en!a!ement of t5reads, ba497e3din! and !ssetin!.
B. <5e49 for an% a3terationFdeviation from t5e dra7in! drin!
4onstr4tion.
C. <5e49 7a33 t5i49nesses =to serve as initia3 readin!s for
4orrosion data>.
,. <5e49 insta33ation of !as9ets.
E. <5e49 insta33ation of $ressre re3ievin! devi4es.
8. <5e49 insta33ation of 45e49 va3ves.
9. <5e49 bo3tin! of f3an!e ?oints.
10. <5e49 for $ro$er a3i!nment of s$$orts =on $i$e-ra49s
or s3ee$ers>
11. <5e49 steam tra4in!s and steam tra$s.
1&. <5e49 $aintin!.
13. <5e49 ins3ation.
1B. <5e49 for $ro$er 5oo9-$ 7it5 4at5odi4 $rote4tion s%stem 75erever a$$3i4ab3e.
8,0 LI7ELY AREAS OF #ETAL *ASTAGE
8,1 E9TERNAL CORROSION
"5e fo33o7in! areas of $i$in! are $rone e6terna3 4orrosion.
i> #i$in! above !rond is sb?e4t to atmos$5eri4 4orrosion.
ii> #i$e3ines to45in! t5e !rond are sb?e4t to 4orrosion de to dam$ness of t5e soi3.
10
iii> <revi4e 4orrosion ma% ta9e $3a4e at t5e $i$e s$$orts or s3ee$ers 75ere $i$es are restin! on
t5em.
iv> Deterioration ta9es $3a4e at t5e $i$e s$$ort 3o4ations 75ere re3ative movement bet7een $i$e
and $i$e s$$orts ta9es $3a4e.
v> .ried $i$e3ines are sb?e4t to soi3 4orrosion.
vi> -nder!rond $i$e3ines are sb?e4t 4orrosion de to $resen4e of stra% 4rrents.
vii> Im$in!ement atta49 ma% ta9e $3a4e on $i$e3ines in t5e vi4init% of 3ea9% $i$es and steam
tra$s.
viii> Ins3ated 3ines 75ere 7eat5er s5ie3din! is dama!ed are sb?e4t to e6terna3 4orrosion.
i6> Asteneti4 stain3ess stee3 3ines 75ere 453orides 4an 3ea45 from e6terna3 t5erma3 ins3ation de
to 7ater are sb?e4t to stress 4orrosion 4ra49in!.
6> E6terna33% 4on4rete-3ined $i$e3ines are sb?e4t to 3o4a3ised 4orrosion de to 4ra49s in t5e
4on4rete.
6i> #i$in! enterin! into or emer!in! from t5e nder!rond ma% e6$erien4e severe 4orrosion de
to 4oatin! dama!e.
6ii> #i$in! 4orrodes at 3o4ations of 7ater a44m3ation and a4id va$or 4ondensation s45 as in
t5e vi4init% of fire 5%drants s3$5r re4over% $3ants, 4oo3in! to7ers, ?ett%, et4.
8,- INTERNAL CORROSION
-sa33% a !reater 3oss of meta3 7asta!e is observed near a restri4tion in t5e 3ine or a
45an!e in 3ine dire4tion be4ase of t5e effe4ts of trb3en4e or ve3o4it%. "5erefore, is re8ired to
ins$e4t $i$e bends, e3bo7s, and tees and a3so at restri4tions s45 as orifi4e f3an!es and t5rott3in!
va3ves, and areas ?st do7n steam of t5e restri4tion.
Areas most $rone to 4orrosion, erosion, and ot5er forms of deterioration are A
i> #oints at 75i45 4ondensation of a4id !ases and F or 7ater va$or are 3i9e3% to o44r.
ii> #oints at 75i45 a4id 4arr%over from $ro4ess o$erations are 3i9e3% to o44r.
iii> #oints at 75i45 na$5t5eni4 or ot5er or!ani4 a4ids ma% be $resent in t5e $ro4ess stream.
iv> #oints at 75i45 5i!5 s3$5r steams of moderate to 5i!5 tem$eratre e6ists.
v> #oints at 75i45 5i!5 tem$eratre and 3o7 tem$eratre 5%dro!en atta49 ma% o44r.
vi> Dead-ends and 3o4ations 75ere 3i8id-va$or inter$5asin! or 4ondensation o44r.
vii> @a3ve bodies and trims, fittin!s, rin! !rooves and rin!s, f3an!e fa4es and ne6$osed t5reads.
viii> 1e3ded areas =sb?e4t to $referentia3 atta49>.
i6> <ata3%st, f3e !as, and s3rr% $i$in!.
6> Steam s%stems sb?e4t to 45anne3in! or 75ere 4ondensation o44rs.
6i> Ferros and non-ferros $i$in! sb?e4t to stress 4orrosion 4ra49in!.
6ii> A39a3i 3ines sb?e4t to 4asti4 embritt3ement 7it5 res3tant 4ra49in! at stressed areas s45 as
7e3d ?oints, bends, et4.
11
6iii> Areas near f3an!es or 7e3ded atta45ments, 75i45 a4t as 4oo3in! fins, t5ereb% 4asin!
3o4a3ised 4orrosion be4ase of 4ondensation.
6iv> 'o4ations 75ere f3id im$in!es or f3id ve3o4it% 45an!es.
6v> <5rome-Ni49e3 and 45rome-mo3%bdenm 3ines in 5i!5 tem$eratre servi4e near $oints of
in4reased stress s45 as bends and an45or $oints.
6vi> Are 75ere steam or e3e4tri4 tra4in! 4ome in 4onta4t 7it5 $i$es 5and3in! materia3s s45 as
4asti4 soda.
6vii> Asteneti4 stain3ess stee3 3ines 75ere $o3%t5ioni4 a4id formation ta9es $3a4e 7it5
res3tant 4ra49in!.
6viii> Areas immediate3% do7nstream of 45emi4a3 in?e4tion $oints 75ere 3o4a3ised 4orrosion
mi!5t o44r in t5e rea4tion :one.
6i6> Dissimi3ar meta3s in 4onta4t, 75i45 ma% 3ead to !a3vani4 4orrosion.
66> Rbber-3ined and !3ass-3ined $i$es 75i45 ma% !et dama!ed near t5e f3an!es or de to 4ra49s
in t5e 3inin!.
66i> Sta!nate 4onditions in areas of $i$e3ines 4arr%in! 4rde oi3s 7it5 5i!5 s3$5rF453oride
4ontent.
66ii> "ermina3 $i$e3ines 4arr%in! seaF ba33ast 7ater.
66iii> 'o4ations 5avin! 3o7 $it and 5i!5 453oride ions.
:,0 FRE)UENCY OF INSPECTION
"5e interva3 bet7een ins$e4tions de$end $on t5e -
i> De!ree of 4orrosivenessFerosiveness of t5e f3id.
ii> Remainin! 4orrosion a33o7an4e.
iii> "%$e of $rote4tive 4oatin!.
iv> Atmos$5ere $revai3in! arond t5e $i$in!.
v> #otentia33% of fire or e6$3osion in 4ase of a 3ea9 or fai3re.
vi> Stattor% re8irements.
vii> Im$ortan4e of o$erations.
:,1 ONSITE PIPING
Ins$e4tion of $ro4ess $i$in! in nits s5o3d be done on-stream as far as is $ossib3e on4e
bet7een t7o s45ed3ed trnaronds. Ins$e4tion, 75i45 4annot be made drin! o$eration, s5a33 be
done drin! t5e $3ant s5t do7n. *o7ever, de$endin! on t5e 4orrosion rate and t%$e of
deterioration, t5e fre8en4% of ins$e4tion of $ro4ess $i$in! 4an be varied sitab3%.
:,- OFF-SITE PIPING
"5e fo33o7in! fre8en4ies for ins$e4tion of off-site $i$in! s5a33 be fo33o7ed =see notes>A
:,-,1 6%ro."r+on Serv!.e
12
Servi4e Fre8en4% of Ins$e4tion %ears
------------------------------------
E6terna3 <om$re5ensive
i> <rdeA
S7eet C 10
Sor 3 ,
ii> '#FNatra3 !asA
S7eet 3 ,
Sor & B
iii> Natra3 !as
4ondensate & B
iv> /aso3ineF
Na$5t5a & B
v> A"FF*SDF'DOF
S)OF/as Oi3 3 C
vi> FOFR<OF@.OF
.itmen 3 C
vii> F3eraFFe3 !as 3 C
or drin! t5e
s5tdo7n of t5e 3ine
viii> 'be Oi3 C 10
Note;
*6ERE CRUDE SOURCE CANNOT 4E ESTA4LIS6ED T6E FRE)UENCY SPECIFIED FOR
SOUR CRUDE S6ALL APPLY.
:,-,- Ut!&!t!e$
Servi4e Fre8en4% of Ins$e4tion
=%ears>
-----------------------------------
E6terna3 <om$re5ensive
i> S7eet 7aterA
'ined $i$e 3 ,
-n3ined $i$e & B
ii> Sa3t 7aterA
<ement 3ined
$i$e 3 ,
-n3ined $i$e 1 &
iii> Fire 7aterA
Above !rondA
'ined $i$e 3 C
-n3ined $i$e 1 &

-nder!rondA
'ined $i$e 3 C
-n3ined $i$e & B
iv> AirFSteam 3 ,
v>Steam
4ondensate & B
13
vi> Ammonia & B
vii> <asti4 & B
viii> DEAF0EA 3 C
i6> S3$5r
dio6ide & B
6> S3$5ri4
a4id
=4on4. 98K> & B
6i> Frfra3
F#5eno3 & 3
6ii> 'ined $i$es
=e643din!
7ater 3ines> 3 ,
6iii> .en:ene & B
6iv> "o3ene & B
6v> Sodim
*e6ameta-
$5os$5ate & B
-----------------------------------------------------------
LNotesA
1. "5e above fre8en4ies are bases on data 4o33e4ted from varios refineries.
&. E6terna3 ins$e4tion in43des bot5 visa3 ins$e4tion and 3trasoni4 t5i49ness readin!s ta9en e6terna33%.
3. <om$re5ensive ins$e4tion 4overs some or a33 of t5e fo33o7in! testsA
i> @isa3 ins$e4tion
ii> *ammer test
iii> -3trasoni4 t5i49ness measrement
iv> D%e $enetration test
v> 0a!neti4 $arti43e test
vi> Radio!ra$5i4 test
vii> *%drotest
B. #i$in! is 4oasta3 insta33ations and in 4orrosive environment s5a33 be visa33% ins$e4ted on4e a %ear.
Mears of ins$e4tion e6$erien4e 5ave revea3ed t5at fai3res of most of t5e Offsite $i$e3ines are de to
e6terna3 4orrosion and t5at interna3 4orrosion fai3res are minimm.
C. Ins$e4tion data as 7e33 as t5i49ness data of ne73% 4onstr4ted $i$e3ines s5a33 be 4o33e4ted at t5e
ear3iest and 7it5 in t7o %ears of t5eir 4ommissionin! to fn4tion as base for estab3is5ment of 4orrosion
rates.
:,-,3 Uner0ro'n /!/!n0 <e=.&'!n0 f!re >"ter &!ne$?
!? CAT6ODICALLY PROTECTED LINES
"5ose nder!rond 3ines 5avin! 7ra$$in! and 4oatin! as 7e33 as 4at5odi4 $rote4tion s5a33
be ins$e4ted 75enever 4rrent 3ea9s are observed andFor an% dama!e to t5e 4oatin! is
ss$e4ted. "5e dama!e to t5e 4oatin! 4an be 3o4ated b% $erson srve%. #arameters of 4at5odi4
$rote4tion 3i9e $i$e-to-soi3 vo3ta!e or $i$e-to-7ater vo3ta!e s5a33 be monitored on4e a mont5.
!!? LINES *IT6OUT CAT6ODIC PROTECTION
A33 nder!rond 3ines 5avin! on3% 7ra$$in! and 4oatin! s5a33 be ins$e4ted on4e in t5ree
%ears sin! #erson Srve% for 3o4atin! 4oatin! dama!e, if an%. Additiona33%, a33 t5ese 3ines s5a33
be visa33% ins$e4ted at random on4e in ten %ears b% di!!in! at a fe7 3o4ations. #i$e3ines
4rossin! t5e roads and d%9es s5a33 be ins$e4ted on4e in ten %ears b% di!!in! and e6$osin! t5e
3ine 4om$3ete3%.
10,0 INSPECTION PROCEDURES
10,1 ONSTREA# INSPECTION
14
#i$in! in Offsite areas 4an and s5a33 be ins$e4ted onstream and a re!3ar ins$e4tion
$ro!ramme dra7n $. #i$in! in onsite areas s5o3d a3so be ins$e4ted on t5e rn, sb?e4t to
feasibi3it% as $ermitted b% $ro4ess $arameters =f3id, $ressre and tem$eratre>. An%
abnorma3ities noti4es drin! ins$e4tion s5a33 be investi!ated and 4orre4tive ste$s initiated at t5e
ear3iest. In settin! $riorities of ins$e4tion of different $i$e3ines, it is re4ommended t5at t5e
fo33o7in! 4ate!orisation be ado$tedA
i> 15ere fai3re is 3i9e3% to be 5a:ardos.
ii> 15ere fai3re is 3i9e3% to 4ase $3ant s5tdo7n.
iii> 15ere t5ere is reason to ss$e4t, based on e6$erien4e, t5at t5ere is e64essive meta3 3oss.
iv> Remainin! $i$in!.
Onstream ins$e4tion to monitor deterioration s5o3d be visa3 or instrment-
aided=3trasoni4, radio!ra$5i4>.
10,1,1 V!$'"& In$/e.t!on
!? LEA7S
@isa3 ins$e4tion s5a33 be made to 3o4ate 3ea9s. #arti43ar attention s5o3d be !iven to
$i$e 4onne4tions, t5e $a49in! !3ands of va3ves and e6$ansion ?oints.
!!? #ISALIGN#ENT
"5e $i$in! s5a33 be ins$e4ted for mis-a3i!nment. "5e fo33o7in! are some observations
75i45 ma% indi4ate misa3i!nmentA
a> #i$e dis3od!ed from its s$$ort so t5at t5at 7ei!5t of t5e $i$e is distribted neven3% on t5e
5an!ers or t5e sadd3es.
b> Deformation of t5e 7a33 of t5e vesse3 in t5e vi4init% of t5e $i$e atta45ment.
4> #i$e s$$orts for4ed ot of $3mb b% e6$ansion or 4ontra4tion of t5e $i$in!.
d> S5iftin! of base $3ate or s5earin! of t5e fondation bo3ts of me45ani4a3 e8i$ment to 75i45 t5e
$i$in! is atta45ed.
e> <ra49s in t5e 4onne4tin! f3an!es or $m$ 4asin!s and trbines to 75i45 t5e $i$in! is atta45ed.
!!!? SUPPORTS
#i$e s$$orts s5a33 be visa33% ins$e4ted for t5e fo33o7in!A
a> <ondition of $rote4tive 4oatin! or fire $roofin! if an%. If fire $roofin! is fond defe4tive,
sffi4ient fire $roofin! s5o3d be removed to determine e6tent of 4orrosion.
b> Eviden4e of 4orrosion
4> Distortion
d> /enera3 $5%si4a3 dama!e
e> 0ovement or deterioration of 4on4rete footin!s.
f> <ondition of fondation bo3ts.
!> Free o$eration of $i$e ro33ers.
15
5> Se4re atta45ment of bra49ets and beams to t5e s$$orts.
i> Se4re atta45ment and $ro$er ad?stment of $i$e 5an!ers, if sed. S$rin! 5an!ers 3oadin!
s5a33 be 45e49ed bot5 4o3d and 5ot and t5e readin!s obtained s5a33 be 45e49ed a!ainst t5e
ori!ina3 4o3d and 5ot readin!s. "5e movement of s$rin! s$$orts s5e33 be monitored.
?> .ro9en or ot5er7ise defe4tive $i$e an45ors.
9> Free o$eration of $33e%s or $ivot $oints of 4onter ba3an4ed $i$in! s%stem.
!v? VI4RATION
a> If vibrations or s7a%in! is observed, ins$e4tion, s5a33 be made for 4ra49s in 7e3ds, $arti43ar3%
at $oints of restraint s45 as 75ere $i$in! is atta45ed to e8i$ment and in t5e vi4init% of
an45ors. Additiona3 s$$orts s5o3d be 4onsidered for $oor3% bra4ed sma33 si:e $i$in! and
va3ves and for main vibratin! 3ine to 75i45 t5e% are atta45ed.
b> In 4ase of severe vibration, detai3ed investi!ations s5a33 be 4arried ot to determine t5e sor4e
of $rob3ems.
v? E9TERNAL CORROSION
Ins$e4tion of $i$in! for e6terna3 4orrosion s5a33 be 4arried ot 7it5 s$e4ia3 attention to
areas as ot3ined in 8.1
v!? 4ULGING, 4O*ING AND SAGGING
'ine s5a33 be 45e49ed for b3!in!, bo7in! and sa!!in! in bet7een t5e s$$orts.
v!!? #EC6ANICAL DA#AGE FRO# E9TERNAL FORCES
#i$es s5a33 be ins$e4ted for dents, s4rat45ed et4. from e6terna3 sor4es.
v!!!? FAILURE OF PAINT AND PROTECTIVE COATING
<onditions of $aint and $rote4tive 4oatin! s5a33 be 45e49ed.
!=? CRAC7S
#i$e3ines s5a33 be ins$e4ted for 4ra49s. $arti43ar attention s5o3d be !iven to areas near
t5e 7e3d ?oints.
=? INSULATION
Dama!e of ins3ation s5a33 be 45e49ed for 5ot as 7e33 as 4o3d 3ines.
=!? CONCRETE LINING
E6terna33% 4overts 3ined $i$in! s5a33 be visa33% ins$e4ted for 4ra49in! and dis3od!in! of
4on4rete.
10,1,- U&tr"$on!. In$/e.t!on
-3trasoni4 t5i49ness srve% of t5e $i$e3ines s5a33 be 4arried ot to as4ertain t5e remainin!
7a33 t5i49ness. "5e fo33o7in! $ro4edre s5a33 be fo33o7ed for t5e above-!rond $i$e3ines.
16
i> 0inimm t5ree readin!s s5a33 be ta9en on a33 t5e bends of t5e $i$in! net7or9 at t5e oter
4rvatre. One readin! s5a33 be at t5e 4entre of t5e bend and t7o readin!s on t5e same 3ine
on eit5er side of t5is readin!.
ii> 0inimm one 3trasoni4 s4an ea45 on t5e strai!5t $i$es on $stream and do7nstream of t5e
bend ad?a4ent to 7e3ds of t5e bend to $i$e. One 3trasoni4 s4an 4onsists of or readin!s =3,,,9
and 1& oJ43o49 $ositions>. For $i$e3ines in 75i45 t5ere is a $ossibi3it% of ba33ast 7ater 4omin!,
one 3trasoni4 s4an 7i33 4onsist of si6 readin!s =3,C,,,E,9 and 1& oJ43o49 $ositions> to s4an t5e
bottom $ortions 75ere 4orrosion ma% ta9e $3a4e.
iii>One 3trasoni4 s4an on t5e entire 4ir4mferen4e =for readin!s> $stream and do7nstream of
t5e 7e3d ?oint for $ro4ess $i$e3ines.
iv> 0inimm one 3trasoni4 s4an =for readin!s> ea45 on red4erFe6$ander and ?st do7nstream
on t5e $i$e.
v> One 3trasoni4 s4an on t5e $i$e do7nstream of va3ves orifi4es, et4.
vi> One 3trasoni4 s4an minimm on strai!5t $i$e for ever% t5ree meters 3en!t5 at 3o7er
e3evations 75ere $ossibi3ities of 4o33e4tion and sta!nation of 4arr%over 7ater, or a4id
4ondensation or SO& f3o7 e6ist.
vii> .ran45 4onne4tion, dead ends, et4, s5a33 be 45e49ed b% 3trasoni4 t5i49ness srve% for
4orrosion and erosion.
"5e detai3s of t5i49ness srve% s5a33 be maintained on an isometri4 s9et45 =sam$3e as in
Anne6re II>. "5e above are minimm re8irements. Areas of ins$e4tion s5o3d be in4reased of
t5i49ness readin!s are 3o7.
NoteA
#OST OF T6E ULTRASONIC INSTRU#ENTS ARE NOT E9PLOSION PROOF,
6ENCE 6OT *OR7 PER#IT AS OUTLINED IN OISD-STD-102 S6ALL 4E CO#PLIED *IT6,
10,1,3 R"!o0r"/@!. In$/e.t!on
<riti4a3 s$ots, 75i45 4annot be ins$e4ted b% 3trasoni4 instrments a44rate3%, s5a33 be
radio!ra$5ed drin! o$eration to determine 7a33 t5i49ness as 7e33 as interna3 4ondition 3i9e
fo3in!, s4a3in!, et4. Ins3ation need not be removed for radio!ra$5i4 ins$e4tion. <riti4a3 s$ots
75ere 7e3d-?oints, ni$$3esFsma33 dia dead3ines are 7e3ded, 75i45 4annot be ins$e4ted
3trasoni4a33% s5a33 be radio!ra$5ed to determine t5eir interna3 4ondition.
10,1,1 Corro$!on Pro+e$
One of t5e met5ods of measrin! interna3 4orrosion rate of nit $i$in! or Offsite $i$in! is
b% insta33in! 4orrosion $robes for measrin! 4orrosion rates. Im$ortant $i$e3ines 3i9e over5ead
3ines 4an be ins$e4ted sin! 4orrosion $robes. If insta33ed t5e readin!s s5a33 be ta9en 7ee93% and
deterioration rate estab3is5ed.
10,1,2 Corro$!on Co'/on$
<orrosion 4o$ons s5o3d be insta33ed in t5e im$ortant and 4riti4a3 $i$e3ines to measre
interna3 4orrosion rate. "5e 4o$ons are ta9en ot after a s$e4ified $eriod and t5oro!53%
43eaned. "5e 7ei!5t 3oss of 4o$ons over a s$e4ified $eriod !ives t5e interna3 4orrosion rate of
t5e $i$es.
10,- INSPECTION DURING S6UTDO*N
S5tdo7n ins$e4tion of $i$e3ines re3ates to ins$e4tion of t5e 3ines 75en not 4arr%in! an%
$rod4t, and va3ves and ot5er fittin!s in t5e net7or9 4an be ta9en ot. A33 $i$in! 75i45 4annot be
45e49ed on t5e rn s5a33 be ins$e4ted drin! s5tdo7n. "5ese are most3% 5i!5 tem$eratre
17
$i$in!. Drin! s5tdo7n ins$e4tion, 5ammer-testin! and 5%drotestin! as a$$3i4ab3e s5o3d be
4arried ot in addition to visa3, 3trasoni4 and radio!ra$5i4 ins$e4tions. #i$e3ines in some of t5e
servi4es 3i9e 7ater, $5eno3 and steam are $rone to $ittin! 4orrosion. Neit5er 3trasoni4 nor
radio!ra$5i4 testin! 7i33 revea3 t5e a4ta3 interna3 4ondition of t5e $i$es in s45 servi4e. In s45
4ases sam$3es s5a33 be 4t for t5oro!5 interna3 e6amination, at s45ed3ed 4om$re5ensive
ins$e4tions. "5e sam$3es s5a33 be s$i3t o$en in t7o 5a3ves and interna3 srfa4es ins$e4ted for
$ittin!, !roovin!, et4. "5e interna33% stri$3ined bends and $i$es s5a33 be visa33% e6amined for
b3!in!, 7e3d 4ra49in!, 7e3d, defe4ts, et4. "5i49ness of t5e stri$ s5o3d be measred to find ot
t5innin! of t5e stri$s.
Asteneti4 SS $i$in!, 75ere t5ere is a 45an4e of stress 4orrosion 4ra49in! de to
formation of $o3%t5ioni4 a4id, s5a33 be 9e$t in inert atmos$5ere. #assivation of t5e astaneti4 SS
$i$in! s5a33 be done as $er NA<E-R#-01-E0, if a33 t5ese are to be o$ened to t5e atmos$5ere.
10,-,1 In$/e.t!on for Corro$!on, Ero$!on "n Fo'&!n0
#i$in! s5a33 be o$ened at varios 3o4ations b% removin! va3ves at f3an!ed 3o4ations to
$ermit visa3 ins$e4tion. 15en errati4 4orrosion or erosion 4onditions are noted in areas
a44essib3e for visa3 e6amination, radio!ra$5i4 e6amination or 3trasoni4 testin! s5a33 be
$erformed to determine t5i49ness. "5is is a$$3i4ab3e to $i$in! 75i45 4annot be ins$e4ted drin!
o$eration. "5e natre and e6tent of interna3 de$osits s5a33 be noted. Sam$3es s5o3d be
4o33e4ted for 45emi4a3 ana3%sis.
10,-,- In$/e.t!on For Cr".A$
1e3ds, 5eat-affe4ted areas ad?oinin! 7e3ds, $oints of restraint 4ra49in!, 5%dro!en atta49
and 4asti4 embritt3ement s5a33 be ins$e4ted for 4ra49s. For s$ot 45e49s, d%e-$enetrant or
ma!neti4 $arti43e ins$e4tion s5o3d be sed. A33o% and stain3ess stee3 $i$in! need 43ose
ins$e4tion. In-sit meta33or!ra$5% at 4riti4a3 s$ots ma% be a3so done. 0a!nif%in! !3ass s5o3d be
sed for 4ra49 dete4tion.
10,-,3 In$/e.t!on of G"$Aet F".e$ of F&"n0e$
"5e !as9et fa4es of f3an!e ?oints 75i45 5ave been o$ened s5a33 be ins$e4ted visa33% for
4orrosion and for defe4ts s45 as s4rat45es, 4ts and !roovin! 75i45 mi!5t 4ase 3ea9a!e. Rin!
!as9ets and ?oints s5a33 be 45e49ed for defe4ts 3i9e dents, 4ts, $ittin! and !roovin!.
10,-,1 In$/e.t!on of 6ot S/ot$
15ere 5ot s$ots on interna33% ins3ated $i$e 7ere noted drin! o$eration, t5e interna3
ins3ation s5a33 be ins$e4ted visa33% for fai3re. "5e $i$e 7a33 at t5e 5ot s$ot s5a33 be ins$e4ted
visa33% for o6idation and s4a3in!. "5e s4a3es s5a33 be removed to e6$ose bare meta3 and t5e
area 45e49ed for 4ra49s. "5e t5i49ness of t5e meta3 s5a33 be measred to ensre t5at sffi4ient
t5i49ness is fe3t for t5e servi4e. "5e otside diameter of $i$in! in 5i!5 tem$eratre servi4e s5a33
be measred to 45e49 for 4ree$ deformation.
10,-,2 6"mmer Te$t!n0
*ammer testin! s5a33 a3so be 4arried ot to s$$3ement visa3 and 3trasoni4 ins$e4tion.
15i3e 5ammer testin!, t5e fo33o7in! $re4ations s5a33 be ta9enA
i> *ammer testin! of va3ves, $i$es and fittin!s of 4ast iron 4onstr4tion, 45rome-stee3, astenati4
SS 3ines and stress re3ieved 3ines s5a33 not be 4arried ot.
ii> <are s5a33 be ta9en not to 5ammer so 5ard as to dama!e ot5er7ise sond $i$in!.
iii> *ammer testin! s5a33 not be $erformed on !3ass-3ined, 4ement-3ined or ot5er7ise interna33%
4oated 3ines.
iv> *ammer testin! s5a33 not be done on o$eratin! 3ines and 3ines nder $ressre.
18
10,3 INSPECTION OF 6IG6 TE#PERATURE PIPING
Ins$e4tion s5a33 be made for 5ot s$ots on interna33% ins3ated $i$in!. An% b3!in! or
s4a3in! s5a33 be noted for frt5er ins$e4tion 75en t5e e8i$ment is s5t do7n. Some sot s$ots
4an be dete4ted b% a red !3o7, $arti43ar3% if ins$e4tion is made in t5e dar9. #ortab3e infrared
$%rometer or tem$eratre indi4atin! 4ra%on s5a33 be sed to determine t5e s9in tem$eratres.
Sometimes t5ermo!ra$5i4 srve% of interna33% ins3ated 5ot $i$in! 5e3$s in 3o4atin! t5e 5ot s$ots.
Frna4e transfer 3ines and 4o3mn bottom 3ines, 75i45 are o$eratin! at ver% 5i!5 tem$eratres,
s5a33 be ins$e4ted at ever% s5tdo7n. Ins3ation s5a33 be removed at s$e4ified 3o4ations in43din!
a33 bends and 3trasoni4 t5i49ness s5a33 be 4arried ot and t5e 4orrosion rate estab3is5ed. S$rin!
5an!ers and s$rin! s$$orts of 5i!5 tem$eratre $i$in! s5a33 a3so be 45e49ed drin! s5tdo7n.
10,1 INSPECTION OF PIPING IN CORROSIVE STREA#S
!? 6YDROGEN SULP6IDE <6-S? SERVICE
A33 t5e 7e3d ?oints in t5is 3ine s5a33 be stress re3ieved after fabri4ation. 1e3d ?oints at
random s5a33 be 45e49ed for ss$e4ted 4ra49in!. If t5e 3ine is not t5erma33% ins3ated, e6terna3
t5i49ness measrements s5a33 be ta9en for ss$e4ted interna3 4orrosion. 15en t5e 3ine is not in
o$eration, ma!neti4 testin! met5od 7i33 5e3$ in 3o4atin! 4ra49s in t5e 7e3ds.
!!? DI-ET6YL A#INEB#ONO-ET6YL A#INE SERVICE
#i$e3ines 4arr%in! DEAF0EA are $rone to interna3 4orrosion and stress 4orrosion 4ra49in!.
A33 ne73% 4onstr4ted $i$in! s5a33 be stress re3ieved irres$e4tive of t5e stren!t5 and tem$eratre
of t5e 45emi4a3s. A33 7e3d ?oints s5a33 be ins$e4ted for 4ra49s sin! 7et f3ores4ent ma!neti4
$arti43e test. E6terna3 t5i49ness measrements s5a33 be ta9en at a33 bends and ot5er f3o7-
restri4tions for determinin! t5e interna3 4orrosion rate. A33 so49et-7e3ded and sea3-7e3ded
t5readed 4onne4tions are $rone to stress 4orrosion 4ra49in! if not stress-re3ieved. *ammer
testin! of t5e 3ine s5a33 not 4arried ot as it ma% ind4e 3o4a3ised stresses.
!!!? 6YDROGEN SERVICE
<arbon stea3s are $rone to 5%dro!en embritt3ement at e3evated tem$eratres above
&3&
o
<. #i$e3ines s5a33 be 45e49ed for b3!in! =5%dro!en b3isterin!> and distortion 75enever t5e%
are s5t do7n for ins$e4tion.
!v? P6ENOL SERVICE
<arbon stee3 resists $5eno3i4 4orrosion $to &0C
o
< $rovided 7ater is not $resent.
<orrosion in $5eno3 is ver% errati4. *o7ever, 75en it o44rs, it ma% be ver% severe. A33 bends
and areas of 5i!5 ve3o4it% and 75ere trb3ent 4onditions o44r s5a33 be 3trasoni4a33% ins$e4ted.
*o7ever, areas 75i45 4annot be ins$e4ted 3trasoni4a33% s5a33 be radio!ra$5ed to as4ertain t5eir
interna3 4ondition.
v? CAUSTIC <SODIU# 6YDRO9IDE? SERVICE
<asti4 is non-4orrosive at atmos$5eri4 tem$eratres to$ 4arbon stee3. <asti4 7i33 4ase
stress 4orrosion 4ra49in! above 9B
O
< and 5en4e a33 4arbon stee3 3ines s5a33 be stress-re3ieved
before 4ommissionin! or after re$airs. 'ines s5a33 be 45e49ed for embritt3ement and meta3 3oss.
v!? C6LORINE SERVICE
<53orine, t5o!5 not so 4orrosive in !aseos $5ase, be4omes 5i!53% 4orrosive 75en even
a sma33 amont of moistre 4omes in 4onta4t 7it5 it. Rbber-3ined 4arbon stee3 $i$es are
!enera33% sed in 453orine servi4es. Rbber-3ined, $i$es s5a33 be 45e49ed for b3!in! of 3inin! at
bends, f3an!es or at 7e3d ?oints.
v!!? ACID SERVICE
19
S3$5ri4 a4id is 4orrosive in di3te $5ase. *%dro453ori4 a4id in 4orrosive at a33
4on4entrations 75i3e $5os$5ori4 a4id is 4orrosive 75ere it mi6es 7it5 7ater in 4arbon stee3 $i$es.
"5e fo33o7in! 3o4ations s5a33 be 45e49ed for a4id 4orrosion in 4arbon stee3 3inesA
a> *ori:onta3 se4tions of t5e 3ine 75ere di3te-a4id sta!nation ma% o44r.
b> Se4tion of t5e 3ine at bends 75ere e3bo7s tend to 4orrode de to trb3ent a4id atta49.
4> Se4tion of t5e 3ine ad?a4ent to orifi4es, red4ers, e6$anders, et4.
d> <asti4 netra3isation in?e4tion $oints and "-?oints de to trb3en4e.
e> *eat affe4ted :ones of 7e3d ?oints de to resida3 stress 4on4entrations and t5ermo-!a3vani4
effe4ts.
f> 'o4ations 75ere tem$eratres are more t5an C0
o
<.
10,2 INSPECTION OF UNDERGROUND PIPING
-nder!rond $i$in! is main3% 45e49ed off-stream. *o7ever, deve3o$ment of e6i!en4ies
ma% re8ire ins$e4tion of t5e same on t5e rn after e6$osin! t5e 3ine.
10,2,1 C"t@o!."&&% Prote.te P!/!n0
<at5odi4 $rote4tion s5a33 be 4ontro33ed so as not to dama!e t5e $rote4tive 4oatin!. A
$i$e-to-soi3 vo3ta!e of -0.8C, 7it5 res$e4t to <-<SOB 5a3f 4a33 5as been fond to !ive ade8ate
$rote4tion to 4at5odi4a33% $rote4ted $i$e3ines. An% e64ess vo3ta!e ma% dama!e t5e 7ra$$in! and
4oatin! on t5e $i$e. A33 bried or sbmer!ed 4oated $i$in! s%stem s5a33 be e3e4tri4a33% iso3ated at
inter4onne4tions from t5e ot5er 3ines 75i45 are not 4at5odi4a33% $rote4ted. "5e $i$e-to-s$ot
$otentia3 readin!s s5a33 a3so be 45e49ed sin! <-<SOB 4e33.
10,2,- *r"//e "n Co"te P!/e&!ne$ *!t@o't C"t@o!. Prote.t!on
"5e 4ondition of t5e 7ra$$in! and 4oatin! s5a33 be 45e49ed b% #earson srve% on4e in
t5ree %ears for nder!rond $i$in! not 4at5odi4a33% $rote4ted. E64avations s5a33 be done at
v3nerab3e $oints 3i9e re!ions of 3o7 ve3o4it% and strai!5t $ortions do7nstream of bends. "5e
e64avation, on4e in ten %ears is o$timm re8irement. After e64avation, t5e 7ra$$in! and
4oatin! s5a33 be e6amined bot5 visa33% and b% 5o3ida% dete4tor. Interna3 meta3 3oss and fo3in!
ma% be dete4ted b% radio!ra$5i4 e6amination. -3trasoni4 t5i49ness measrements s5a33 be
4arried ot on t5e srfa4e of t5e $i$e after removin! a bend of 7ra$$in! and 4oatin!. "5e
$i$e3ine s5a33 be 5%drotested on4e ever% five %ears. "5e stra% 4rrent interferen4e of
nder!rond $i$e s5o3d be 45e49ed b% <-<SOB 5a3f-4e33. A33 3ines s5a33 be ins$e4ted at and
?st before t5e $oint 75ere t5e% enter t5e eart5 or 4on4rete s3ab as serios 4orrosion fre8ent3%
o44rs at s45 3o4ations. "5e in4iden4e of stra% 4rrent interferen4e is 5i!5 in t5e nder!rond
$ortion of 4at5odi4a33% $rote4ted and non-4at5odi4a33% $rote4ted $i$in! se$arated b% ins3ated
f3an!es or 4o$3in!s. "5is 4rrent 4ases severe dama!e in t5e n$rote4ted 3ine if t5e 7ra$$in!
and 4oatin! is dama!ed. "5is 3o4ation s5o3d be ins$e4ted on4e a %ear b% e6$osin! t5e ins3atin!
f3an!es or 4o$3in!s.
10,2,3 Intern"& Corro$!on of Uner0ro'n P!/!n0
In order to assess t5e interna3 4ondition of nder!rond $i$e3ines, 3trasoni4 t5i49ness
srve% b% e6$osin! t5e 3ine s5a33 be done as $er fre8en4% s$e4ified $revios3%. .ends, red4ers,
e6$anders, bran45 4onne4tions and dead-ends s5a33 be e6$osed and t5i49ness srve% at t5ese
3o4ations 4arried ot as $er t5e !ide3ines !iven for t5e above-!rond $i$e3ines. One 3o4ation
ever% 100 meters for a strai!5t $ortion s5a33 be e6$osed for t5i49ness srve%. Interna3 4orrosion
monitorin! of t5ese 3ines s5o3d be done b% insta33in! 4orrosion $robes at v3nerab3e 3o4ations.
Readin!s s5o3d be ta9en on4e a 7ee9 to 4a343ate t5e 4orrosion rate.
10,3 INSPECTION OF VALVES, FLANGES, GAS7ETS ( 4OLTS
20
10,3,1 V"&ve$
Stee3 !ate va3ves stee3 !3obe va3ves, f3an!ed 4ast iron !ate va3ves, t5readed and so49et
7e3ded va3ves, soft-seated ba33 va3ves-NFire Safe "%$eJ, $3! va3ves, 45e49 va3ves and btterf3%
va3ves for 7ater servi4e are sed in #etro3em insta33ations.

!? INSPECTION AND TESTING OF NE* VALVES
A33 va3ves s5a33 be ins$e4ted and tested to ensre 4onformation to re8ired s$e4ifi4ations
and for 3ea9 ti!5tness. A33 ne7 va3ves s5a33 be ins$e4ted and tested as $er re8irements of A#I-
C98. "5e 43osre tor8e drin! testin! for 5and 75ee3 and !ear o$erated va3ves s5a33 not be
!reater t5an t5at obtainab3e b% 5and ti!5tenin!.
<"? V"&ve$ !n 6%ro0en Serv!.e
A33 3o7 a33o% va3ve 4astin!s =# nmbers 3,B and C> in 5%dro!en servi4e 7it5 a 5%dro!en
$artia3 $ressre of 100 $si! s5a33 be 100K ma!neti4 $arti43e and radio!ra$5i4a33% e6amined.
E6amination and a44e$tan4e 4riteria s5a33 be as $er AS0E Se4tion @III A$$endi6 E.
<+? V"&ve$ !n *et 6-S Serv!.e
@a3ves made of stee3 4ontainin! $5os$5ors or s3$5r in e64ess of 0.CK s5a33 not be
sed in *&S servi4e.
*ardness of t5e bod%, bonnet and !ate and 7e3d meta3 and *AO of an% $ressre retainin!
$art s5a33 not e64eed t5e 3imits !iven be3o7A-
0ateria3 .rine33
5ardness,
#-1 &&C
#-3, #-B, #-10, #1& &&C
#-C, #-,, #-E &&C
in4one3, #re4i$itation
5ardened 310
<.? F!re S"fe T%/e 4"&& V"&ve$
Ea45 va3ve s5a33 be tested as $er A#I C98.
- 'o7 $ressre se4t test s5a33 be 4ond4ted 7it5 t5e ba33 and seat dr% and free of oi3, !rease or
an% 3bri4ant.
- "5e 5i!5 $ressre seat test is not re8ired e64e$t for t5readed and va3ves.
- No 3ea9a!e s5a33 be $ermitted.
- Fire-safe test s5a33 be 4arried ot as $er A#I ,0E0.
!!? INSPECTION OF VALVES IN SERVICE
@a3ves s5a33 be dismant3ed at t5e time of s$e4ified 4om$re5ensive ins$e4tion or drin!
t5e s5tdo7n of t5e 3ine to $ermit e6amination of a33 interna3 $arts. .od% t5i49ness measrements
s5a33 be made at 3o4ations ina44essib3e before, dismant3in!, $arti43ar3% at 3o4ations s5o7in!
21
eviden4e of erosion. .odies of va3ves o$eratin! in severe 4%43i4 tem$eratre servi4e s5a33 be
45e49ed interna33% for 4ra49s.
/ate va3ves, 75i45 5ave been sed for t5rott3in!, s5a33 be measred for t5i49ness at t5e
bottom bet7een t5e seats, as serios deterioration ma% 5ave o44rred be4ase of trb3en4e.
"5is is $arti43ar3% 7ea9 $oint be4ase of t5e 7ed!in! a4tion of t5e dis4 75en t5e va3ve is 43osed.
"5e seatin! srfa4e s5a33 be ins$e4ted visa33% for defe4ts 75i45 mi!5t 4ase 3ea9a!e. "5e
7ed!in! !ides s5a33 be ins$e4ted for 4orrosion and erosion. "5e stem and t5reads on t5e stem
and in t5e bonnet of va3ves s5a33 be e6amined for 4orrosion 75i45 mi!5t 4ase fai3re., "5e
4onne4tion bet7een stem and dis4 s5a33 be ins$e4ted to assre t5at t5e dis4 7i33 not deta45 from
t5e stem drin! o$eratin!.

S7in! 45e49 va3ves s5a33 be ins$e4ted b% removin! t5e 4over or 4a$. "5e 43a$$er or dis4
s5a33 be 45e49ed for freedom of rotation and t5e nt 5o3din! it to t5e arm s5a33 be 45e49ed for
se4rit% and $resen4e of a 3o49in! $in, 3o49 7as5er, or ta49 7e3d. "5e arm s5o3d be free to
s7in! and t5e an45or $in s5a33 be ins$e4ted for 7ear. A3so t5e seatin! srfa4e on bot5 t5e dis4
and va3ve bod% s5a33 be 45e49ed for deterioration b% fee3in! t5em 7it5 t5e fin!ers. After t5e va3ve
5as been reassemb3ed, it s5a33 be 5%drostati4a33% andFor $nemati4a33% tested for ti!5tness. If
tested $nemati4a33%, a soa$ so3tion s5a33 be a$$3ied to t5e ed!es of t5e seatin! srfa4e and
observed for an% eviden4e of 3ea9a!e.
10,3,- F&"n0e$, G"$Aet$ "n 4o&t$
"5e !as9et fa4es of f3an!ed ?oints, 75i45 5ave been o$ened, s5a33 be ins$e4ted visa33%
for 4orrosion and for defe4ts s45 as s4rat45es, 4ts and !o!es 75i45 mi!5t 4ase 3ea9a!e. "5e
!as9et fa4es s5a33 be 45e49ed for tre f3atness or 7ar$in! b% $3a4in! a strai!5t ed!e a4ross t5e
diameter of t5e fa4e of t5e f3an!e and rotatin! it abot an a6is t5ro!5 t5e 4enter 3ine of t5e
f3an!e. /rooves and rin!s of rin! ?oints s5a33 be 45e49ed for defe4ts.
F3an!es bo3ts s5o3d be ins$e4ted for stret45in!. 15ere e64essive bo3t 3oadin! is
indi4ated or 75ere f3an!es are deformed, nts ma% be rotated a3on! t5e entire 3en!t5 of t5e std.
If stds are stret45ed, t5read $it45 7i33 be 45an!ed and nts 7i33 not trn free3%. Ins$e4tion invo3ve
45e49in! to determine 75et5er bo3ts of t5e $ro$er s$e4ifi4ation 5ave been sed and ma% invo3ves
45emi4a3 ana3%se or $5%si4a3 tests to determine t5e %ie3d $oint and t5e 3timate stren!t5 of t5e
materia3. If f3an!es are bo3ted too ti!5t3%, t5e% ma% bends nti3 t5e oter ed!es of t5e f3an!es are
in 4onta4t. 15en t5is o44rs, t5ere ma% be insffi4ient $ressre on t5e !as9et to assre a ti!5t
?oint. @isa3 ins$e4tion of t5e !as9et 7i33 revea3 t5is 4ondition. #ermanent3% deformed f3an!es
mst be re$3a4ed.
11,0 RETIRING LI#IT
<a343ation of retirin! 3imits for nit $i$in! and offsite $i$in! s5a33 be done as $er ANSI .
31-3 end AS0E Se4tion @II Div. 1. "5e retirin! 3imit re3ates t5i49ness, diameter and a33o7ab3e
stress to t5e ma6imm safe 7or9in! $ressre.
In addition, ANSI . 31.3 4ontains a form3a 7it5 materia3 fa4tors for determinin! t5e
re8ired t5i49ness bt $ermits t5e se of t5e sim$3e form3a of .ar3o7 7it5ot reservation. "5e
.ar3o7 form3a isA
1&.E # 6 D
t P- --------------
SE
15ere -
tP re8ired t5i49ness of t5e $i$e7a33 in mm.
#P #ressre 7it5in t5e $i$e in 9!Fs8.4m
DP Otside diameter of t5e $i$e in 4ms.
SP A33o7ab3e nit stress in 9!Fs8.4m. at t5e ma6imm o$eratin! tem$eratre.
EP 'on!itdina3 ?oint effi4ien4%.
NoteA
22
0eta33i4 $i$in! 7it5 t P DFB re8ires s$e4ia3 4onsideration.
"5e .ar3o7 form3a !ives res3ts $arti43ar3% e8iva3ent to t5ose obtained b% t5e more
e3aborate form3a, e64e$t at 5i!5 $ressres 75ere t5i49-7a33ed tbin! is re8ired or at 5i!5
tem$eratres 75ere 4ree$ $ro$erties of t5e $i$e meta3 be4ome im$ortant in determinin! t5e
3timate servi4e stren!t5. At 3o7 $ressres and 3o7 tem$eratres, t5e t5i49ness re8ired b% t5e
form3a ma% be so sma33 t5at t5e $i$e 7o3d 5ave insffi4ient str4tra3 stren!t5. For t5is reason,
an abso3te minimm t5i49ness s5a33 be determined for ea45 si:e of $i$e be3o7 75i45 t5i49ness
of t5e $i$e7a33 7o3d not be $ermitted to deteriorate re!ard3ess of t5e res3ts obtained b% t5e
above form3a.
As a !ide3ine, minimm t5i49ness for <.S. $i$in! are !iven be3o7A
Nomina3 $i$e si:e =mm> 0inimm t5i49ness =mm>
C0 mm and sma33er 1.C
,3-E, 1.8
101., &.&
1C&.B &.8
&03.& 3.0
&CB-,09., 3.3
1-,0 #ET6ODS OF PIPELINE REPAIR AND INSPECTION
1-,1 INSPECTION DURING REPAIRS B REPLACE#ENTS
"5e $ortion of t5e $i$in!, 75i45 ma% rea45 t5e retirin! 3imit before t5e sbse8ent
s45ed3ed ins$e4tion, s5a33 be re$3a4ed. 15i3e re$3a4in! t5e $i$e, t5e fo33o7in! $oints s5a33 be
4onsidered.
i> "5e meta33r!% and dimensions of t5e ne7 $i$e s5a33 mat45 7it5 t5ose of t5e e6istin! $i$e.
ii> Re$airs s5a33 be 4arried ot b% a 8a3ified 7e3der sin! 8a3ified 7e3din! $ro4edres.
iii> For ER1 $i$es, t5e 7e3d seam s5a33 be 9e$t sta!!ered and t5e ER1 seam s5a33 a$$ear in t5e
$$er 8adrants.
iv> #i$in! s%stems, 75i45 are 4overed nder ot5er stattor% re8irements, s5a33 be 45e49ed for
4onformation 7it5 t5e a$$ro$riate 4odes, re!3ations and s$e4ifi4ations.
v> Ins$e4tion of ?oints s5a33 be done as $revios3% s$e4ified.
vi> Re$aired 7e3ds s5a33 be sb?e4t to same $re and $ost-7e3d 5eat treatments as re8ired in t5e
4ase of ne7 $i$es.
vii> #aintin!, ins3ation, 7ra$$in! and 4oatin! s5a33 be done as $er t5e 4ode.
1-,- PRESSURE TESTING
A33 insta33ed $i$in! s5a33 be $ressre tested $rior to 4ommissionin!. #i$in! s%stems o$en
to atmos$5ere, s45 as drains vents and ot3et $i$in! for re3ief va3ves dis45ar!in! to atmos$5ere
and nder!rond se7ers s5a33 not re8ire an% $ressre testin!. "5ese 3ines s5a33 be e6amined to
determine t5at a33 ?oints are $ro$er3% made $.
1-,-,1 Te$t Pre$$'re "n Pro.e're$
"5e test $ressre and $ro4edre for testin! of $i$in! s5a33 be as $er ANSI . 31.3 or
e8iva3ent. *o7ever, t5e fo33o7in! additiona3 $oints s5a33 be 4onsidered 75i3e 4arr%in! ot
testin!.
i> A33 f3oats s5a33 be removed before fi33in! t5e s%stem 7it5 7ater.
23
ii> A33 air $resent in t5e s%stem s5a33 be vented 75i3e admittin! t5e test f3id.
iii> #i$in! desi!ned for va$or and !as s5a33 be $rovided 7it5 additiona3 tem$orar% s$$orts, if
ne4essar%.
iv> 'ine 4ontainin! 45e49 va3ves s5a33 5ave sor4e of test $ressre on t5e $stream side.
v> @a3ves s5a33 not be sb?e4ted to a test $ressre in e64ess of manfa4trerJs a33o7ab3e test
ratin!. 15en $ermitted, t5e insta33ed va3ves s5a33 be 9e$t o$en.
vi> <ontro3 and re3ief va3ves s5a33 be e643ded from t5e test irres$e4tive of t5eir $ressre ratin!.
vii> Instrment ta9e-off $i$in! $to t5e first b3o49 va3ve s5a33 be tested a3on! 7it5 $i$in! to 75i45 it
is 4onne4ted. "estin! of remainin! 3ine 3eadin! $to t5e instrment 4an a3so be done at t5e
same time $rovided instrments are b3o49ed off from t5e sor4e of $ressre and vented to
atmos$5ere.
viii> O$en ends of $i$in! 75ere b3an9s 4annot be sed e.!. $m$s, 4om$ressors, et4. s5a33 be
b3inded off b% sin! standard b3ind f3an!es of same ratin! as t5e $i$in! s%stem bein! tested.
i6> Indi4atin! $ressre !a!es monted 3o4a33% ma% be tested 7it5 t5e 3ine, $rovided t5e test
$ressre is not in e64ess of t5eir s4a3e ratin!s.
6> Orifi4e $3ates in 5ori:onta3 3ines s5a33 not be insta33ed ti33 4om$3etion of test.
6i> "5e test s5a33 be 4arried ot at ambient tem$eratre and it s5o3d not be 3ess t5an C0
o
<.
6ii> A33 vent va3ves drin! fi33in! $ as drin! drainin! mst be f33% o$en.
1-,-,- Te$t F&'!
6%r"'&!. te$t!n0 of ferr!t!. m"ter!"& $@"&& +e ."rr!e o't '$!n0 $'!t"+&% !n@"+!te
>"ter, >@!.@ /erm!t$ "n e=tene /er!o +et>een t@e $t"rt of te$t!n0 "n r%!n0 of
.om/onent$, 6%r"'&!. te$t!n0 of "'$temot!. m"ter!"& $@"&& +e ."rr!e o't '$!n0 e-
!on!Ce >"ter.
1-,-,3 *"ter )'"&!t%
i> #ortab3e 7ater free from oi3 and ss$ended matter s5a33 be sed for ferriti4 $arts and feriti4
$arts asso4iated 7it5 non-ferros $arts.
ii> 1ater s5a33 be d-ioni:ed 5avin! a 4ond4tivit% not !reater t5an one mi4ro m5o $er 4m at &C0
o
<
for asteneti4 $arts end ferriti4 $arts asso4iated 7it5 asteneti4 $arts.
13,0 DOCU#ENTATION
Isometri4s of ea45 4ir4it as $er a4ta3 site 4onditions s5a33 be $re$ared. "5e re4ords
s5a33 be maintained to !ive information 3i9eA
i> Identifi4ation of $arti43ar $i$in! s%stems in terms of 3o4ation, tota3 3en!t5, materia3
s$e4ifi4ation, !enera3 $ro4ess f3o7 and servi4e 4ondition and 3o4ation of 4orrosion $robes, if
an%.
ii> 'o4ation of t5i49ness measrement $oints, re$3a4ement 4arried ot, 4orrosion rate, et4.
An isometri4 s9et45 for !idan4e 5as been !iven in Anne6re-&. A33 sma33 4onne4tions
s5a33 be 43ear3% s5o7n on isometri4s and $i$in! dra7in!s. "5e 5istor% and t5i49ness re4ords s5a33
be maintained in 5istor% 4ards and data re4ord 4ards.
24
On t5e basis of re4ords of $revios and $resent ins$e4tion, a 7or9 s45ed3e s5a33 be
$re$ared for ftre ins$e4tion onstream as 7e33 as drin! t5e ne6t s5tdo7n.
11,0 REFERENCES
The following standards, codes and publications have either been referred to or used in
the preparation of this document and this standard shall be read in conjunction with the same
i) ANSI B 3!3 "hemical #lant and #etroleum $efiner% #iping!
ii) A#I &uide for Inspection of $efiner% '(uipment "h! )I!
iii) #iping *andboo+,"roc+er and -ing!
iv) ASA B 3.!/ welded seamless wrought steel pipe!
v) ASA B 3.!0 stainless steel pipe!
vi) NA"' $# /,.0!
vii) NA"' $#,/,1/!
viii) NA"' $#,/,12!
25
ANNE9URE -1
SAFETY PRACTICES TO 4E FOLLO*ED DURING PRESSURE TESTING
1. *ammer testin! of $i$in! nder!oin! a
$ressre test s5a33 not be 4arried ot as
t5is ma% 4ase fai3re res3tin! in
$ossib3e in?r% or deat5 to t5ose
$erformin! t5e test.
&. Stress de to testin! s5a33 not e64eed
90K of t5e %ie3d stress of t5e materia3 of
4onstr4tion of t5e $i$in! as it ma%
4ase fai3re res3tin! in $ossib3e in?r%
or deat5 to t5ose $erformin! t5e test.
3. #ressre test s5a33 not be 4arried ot at
meta3 tem$eratres near t5e d4ti3e-to-
britt3e transition tem$eratre of t5e
materia3.
B. If t5e $i$in! is tested $nemati4a33%, t5e
$ressre, s5a33 be 110K of t5e desi!n
$ressre. #nemati4 testin! invo3ves t5e
5a:ard de to $ossib3e re3ease of ener!%
stored in 4om$ressed !as. "5erefore,
$arti43ar 4are s5a33 be ta9en to minimi:e
t5e 45an4e of britt3e fai3re. An%
$nemati4 test s5a33 in43de a $re3iminar%
45e49 at not more t5an &C $si =&9!F4m&>
!a!e $ressre. "5e $ressre s5a33 be
in4reased !rada33% in ste$s $rovidin!
sffi4ient time to a33o7 t5e $i$in! to
e8a3ise strains drin! test.
C. In addition to t5e above, 4onditions 3isted
ot in A$$endi4es F and / of ANSI .
31.3 s5o3d be 9e$t note of.-
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