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Seminar: Phonetics & Phonology

Phonological Rules
- phonological rules = describe the variations of the sounds in terms of simple statements about regular sound
patterns
- not prescriptive x but: descriptive rules
Allophones of English Consonants
(a) [ voiced ! stop" # [! aspirated" $hen syllable initial
= voiceless stops %p t &% # aspirated $hen syllable initial ('pip( [p
h
p" 'test( [t
h
)st" '&ic&( [&
h
& ")
(a() [*" # [
h
" after syllable initial [ voiced ! stop" and before [ voiced ! stop"
= unstressed vo$els # voiceless after syllable initial voiceless stop and before another voiceless stop
('potato catastrophe()
(b) [! voiced ! obstruent" # partially voiced $hen syllable final except $hen follo$ed by a voiced sound
= voiced obstruents %b d g v + , % # partially voiced $hen at the end of an utterance or before a
voiceless sound (%v% in 'prove this(- %d% in 'add t$o()
(b() [! voiced ! stop" # partially voiced $hen syllable initial except $hen preceded by a voiced sound
= voiced stops %b d g% partially voiced $hen syllable initial after a voiceless sound
(c) [! consonantal" # longer at the end of a phrase
= syllable final consonants # longer than syllable initial ones ('bib did don x nod()
(d) [! approximant" # [ voiced" after [! aspirated ! stop"
= approximants %$ . l% # devoiced after voiceless aspirated %p t &% ('play( [p / e" 't$in( [t$n" 'cue(
[&1234
(d() [5 voiced ! stop" # [5 aspirated" after %s% at the beginning of a syllable
= voiceless stops %p t &% # not aspirated after syllable initial %s% ('spe$ ste$ s&e$()
(e) [ voiced" # longer at the end of a syllable
= ('bac& x bag( 'cap x cab()
(f) [! stop" # unexploded before [! stop"
= ('apt( [6p
7
t" 'act( [6&
7
t")
(g) [ voiced ! stop" # [! glottal stop" ! [ voiced ! stop" after a vo$el and at the end of a syllable
= voiceless stops %p t &% # reinforced by a glottal stop $hen syllable final after a vo$el ('tip( [tp" 'pit(
[pt" '&ic&( [&&")
(h) [ voiced ! alveolar ! stop" # [! glottal stop" before an alveolar nasal in the same $ord
= the voiceless alveolar stop %t% # replaced by a glottal stop before the alveolar nasal %n% ('beaten( [bin")
(i) [! nasal" # [! syllabic" at the end of a $ord and immediately after [! obstruent"
= nasals %m n 8% # syllabic $hen $ord final after an obstruent ('leaden( [9l)dn3:;<=>?@ABCDEF@G4
(.) [! lateral" # [! syllabic" at the end of a $ord and immediately after a consonant
= lateral %l% # syllabic $hen $ord final after a consonant x but: not after %r% for HI ('paddle( [9p6dl "
'$histle( [9$sl " '&ennel( [9&)nl " x HI: 'snarl( [snl")
(.() HI: [! liJuid" # [! syllabic" at the end of a $ord and immediately after a consonant
= liquids = the cover term for %l % # syllabic $hen $ord final after a consonant ('ra,or( [9re, " 'hammer(
[9h6m" 'tailor( [9tel ")
(&) HI: [ voice ! alveolar ! stop" # [! voiced ! tap" $hen the single consonant bt$ t$o vo$els $ith the
K
nd
one unstressed
= the voiceless alveolar stop %t% # replaced by a tap $hen bt$ t$o vo$els $ith the K
nd
one unstressed
('fatty( [9f6i" 'data( [9d6 * ")
(&() HI: [! alveolar ! stop" # [! voiced ! tap" $hen the single consonant bt$ t$o vo$els $ith the K
nd
one
unstressed
= alveolar stops %d t n% # replaced by a tap $hen bt$ t$o vo$els $ith the K
nd
one unstressed ('daddy(
[9d6i" 'many( [9m)i": [L" = indicates nasalisation $hen placed above a symbol x velarisation $hen in the
middle of a symbol)
(l) [! alveolar" # [! dental" before [! dental"
= the alveolar consonants %d t n l% # dentalised before dental consonants ('eighth( [eMN" '$idth( [$ O N"
;MPQM=ABMRQS3:;TP>/M=ABTR/S34
(m) [! alveolar ! stop" # ,ero (iUeU omitted) bt$ t$o consonants
= the alveolar stops %d t% # no audible release bt$ t$o consonants ('most people sand paper()
(n) [! consonant" # shortened before identical [! consonant"
= ('big game top post()
(o) ,ero # [ voice ! stop" after a nasal and before a voiceless fricative follo$ed by an unstressed vo$el
Source: www.anglistika.webnode.cz Page: V out of K
Seminar: Phonetics & Phonology
= the adding of a short voiceless stop [p" [t" [&" bt$ a nasal and a voiceless fricative before an unstressed
vo$el ('something( [9smpN8" 'youngster( [9.8&st*"): epenthesis = the insertion of a sound into the
middle of a $ord
(p) [! lateral" # velari,ed after a vo$el and before another consonant or the end of a $ord
= ('life( [laf" x 'file( [faW" 'clap( [&l6p" x 'talc( [t6W&")
Allophones of English Vowels
- [! vo$el" # shorter before voiceless sounds in the same syllable ('cap x cab()
- [! vo$el" # longer in open syllables ('sea x seed( 'sigh x side()
- [! vo$el" # longer in stressed syllables ('be9lo$ x 9billo$()
- [! vo$el" # [! nasal" before [! nasal" ('ban( [bEn")
- [! front ! vo$el" # [! retracted" before syllable final %l%
- = front vo$els # as if diphthongs $ith an unrounded form of [" as the last element before syllable final %l%
('peel( [p
h
iW" 'pail( [p
h
eW" 'pal( [p
h
6W")
Source: www.anglistika.webnode.cz Page: K out of K