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CALL No. 95'4. 0233 f!l- J)ew-
D,O.A. 79.

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}Is Told By lts Own /.
Fim .F.d ilion I 87 1
Second ' 'Editil>n 1952
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C&lutu 12..., And -erinl6d by M. lfukerjeo from
Tempt. Pra1, 2
Lano, Calcat,u..4 ..
TH1R1'1\l!NTII YEAR OF Tlffi . I.
1 .
FouRTE.ENTa YEAR 01.. l 'UF: . . . . , , , , . .
fOUNOA1'ION 6.F Tfll( ToivN o.F''F.\-rH.JiuiC '
,. '
CoNQ.m:sr oF KAt.JNJAR
6. Fll'TE&N'I'H YF.AR oF nrv. RliJCN
7. MARCH OF THJ> TO A pUR .. ,
s. SIX'l'CN1'R \'EAR OF ' fHE REIGN ".

SEvJ.U\J'EI!..\"'''H "\'EAR Oil REIGN ...
C'.omrcN IN Gu JA'It.A'r
A Dt\TAClL\11<'1' SENT TO lN\'llST SURAT
ErcJI1'F.EN'I'H YAtl or- TR" RE!CN .
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N.<CARKO'!' ... . f "' ; .... }l
Hi. EvFNrs wmc11 .occuntu IN GoJARAr 35
J 7, E\'El\ .. 'S Al'J'ER TT'IE i!r.J'P:MOR' S RETURN

Til l'A1'HPUR ..
N NJITF.F.N'fl1 Y.RAlt nm
.. Y1:ARov TfU( Rr". IGN . . .
.,. 79
32. Tw1\-N-l'tnTt YEAR oF 1'HJ-:
33. rwa."T\'SIX'HI. YJ;,\tt (W 1'1lf. :R etCN
an. YEAR ol:' 1ru:
36. vua Ot' rur' RP.tCN
38. THtA.'nt:-rH or. Rf.lCN
10. ,.JiAR m wr. RmcN
41. Ttlllt'IY-'I'Illltll YF.AR OF THE R l!lGN ...
13. T!!nn Ot' rnf. Rmc:N
15. THIRT\'Sncnr \'cAR Oil 'rHI: Rr;tGN ...
J.7. T>URTY-F.IGI<TH \ 'I'.AR OF 'l'fffi REIGN
48. HusAtt< KrIAN Tu&R"'A .. .
50. SIJJ.TAN Nin. Kl<A:-1 OF Mur.1'AN
f)j . SUI:l"AN H .USAIN



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The, of . tliis year ' corresponded with
Thuttdny. 14th Ramazan, 975 H. '(14th March, '156S).
At the beginning of this yea.r the Emperor left Ajmir.'
and proceeded by way of Mew':it towards 1-gra. On biSJ
jo\ltney, he passed a jungle which was The abode of lions'
(sl1cr) and tigers (babar). A terrible tiger (sher)>''cao\EI'
out, and His Majesty's followers, who were (otlstantly
ih attendance upon him, discharged their nirows and
stretched him i n tlic' dust. His Majesty then gave orders,'
that if a like thing should occur again, they not l'o
shoot until he directed them. As they went on, another
tigc1 , (sher), !Moger and fi ercer than the first, . came out'
an.d made towards the Emperor. No one of tile atten-
dants dared to fire without o.rdcrs. The tig'erburi'ting
alighted from. bis liorsc and levelled- :r' mu'$k-ei >i,l:'
the be:uf.'
f:ht! "'"' kraied i nllictin'ga
slight to liis 0.are
towards His Majesty. The l?JDB!rror iifccl' a tilnc,
:fnd brought him doM1. At this 'Adil :Mubam
mail Kandahari, boldly placed an arrow to his bow, ancl
faced the animal, which then turnM away From the :'Em'
peror and attacked bim. It brought bim to the ground:.
and was about to take his head in his mouth. That
brave feJlow, in his supreme moment, thrust his ham!
into I.M anlinal's mouth, -and sougl1t to his dagger
to stall liim in th.e' belly. But the handle of the dagger
Jl ; ' #
stuck 10 the sbeatli; and the licast gnawed tl:le ,flesh and
sKih. of'ibe hand which was in his moUth: Notwitbstarid
ing \:hts, 'Adil managed. to draw his ' dll'gger, :Jid 'ihflictecr
some deep in tb.e animal's belly: Brave m'en
it WiLl in al'l prol!dbili!y a tiger, aithough tile au
ili.or..,. woulcl .<etilrt id tuoriJ.r" 'and babnr' disl
tincttvei;.. . '' '
gathered round on all sides :md finished him. ' Adil
Muhammad reccived a swordcut besides the wounds tbc
tiger given him. Be lay or some time on the bed
.of pain before be died of his wounl)s.
After the tiger hunt the royal camp moved towards
Alwar, ;md directions were given th;;t .it should proceed
thither, while the Emperor himself went t? pay a visit
0 Shaikh Narnau.li. He then returned to the
<:amp, and procccde<l with the anny to the

After a stay o some months at Agm, the Emperor
=olved to attack the fort of Rantambhor, renowned
as one of the strongest and fortresses. of Hindus
tnn. An order was issned for the assembling of those
troops which had not been engaged in the siege of.
Chitor. Ashraf Khan Mi1munshi an<l Khan wctc
sent on: this service with a large portion of the Imperial
"'nny. When these amirs hnd marched several stages, in
telligcnce reached tbe Emperor of disturbances created
by the .ans of Muhammad Sultan Mirza, who hnd cscap-
ted from the bands o Changiz Khan, in Gujarat, and
had laid $iege to the fort of Ujjnin, in Ma)wa. The Em
peror then directed that Kalij KJtan, with the amirs and
the anny that had been -sent to,bRantambhor, hould
' ' '
Ul!dertakc the repressiOn c revolt . the
' The cwo forces qnited acconling to the otder. On
approaching Sironj, Shahabud .din, the ruler of that
sarkar, came forth to f!Leet them. He joil?ed them and
marched on witb them. }Vhen they ' encaroP,Cd at Sarang
put, Shah Bidaglt Khanjoinc<)> thc!%1 w.i.lli ,his ::fhe
army. had nqw grown very .large. When the wer,c
of its approach, tl;ley raise? the siege, of lijj,Pn,
wcnt ,olf towards Mandy. Muhammad Murad
!'Tile Mit'%Qs did 1101 ge,t . on amicably . with
.Khan, were tyrannical in 'their ;tagirs,' sQ
fled from him." -JJadarmi, vol, ii., pp. io6,. 19.9 . .

DlN Al:lMAD 3
and MirZll 'Azizu-lla, wllO had been besieged in Ujjain,
IJcing thus released, came out and joined the am irs . . Ali
marched cogetllCr iu pursuit of the. Mh-r.as. who fled
before them fTom Mandu to the banks of the
NCI'badda, They this river . in such confusion
that many of their were dt
wncd. Jilst at this time

Habshi munlcrcd Changi1. Khan, the ruler

Qft Gujat'at, in the titpauliyll 1110idan of Ahlnadabad.
When the Mitzas heard of chis, they seized the chance
ll(hich it a/forded, and lied to Gujarat. The .l:mpcrh;t\
mni'l'.s turned back front the r iver Ncrbadda, and the
jllgi!clms o Mandu returned to their jtigirs. K.alij Khan
and the other a'!'irs i?>'OCCCded to Co uri, aml were re-
-ceived wich royal favom. .()n reaching Gujarat, .tlte .
Mirzas first scit.cd upon the fort of Champanir,' ;u}{l
men marcht'<L against Uroach, to which they laid siege.
After a while, dtcy by stmtagem got into their power
Rust.un Khan Rumi, who was. beskoged in the fort, .and
put him to de.tth:' . The remniudcr of this
will be told bt its proper place. .
., J
ln the. rourse ,of tltis(>ycar Mir
kal:m, Kutubti-d . din uhaioniad , l<:ftan, and f Kamal
Kltan Glu.kar, jagirllars o the Pimjab, were SUillJilOUe<l
to Court. They hastened to obey, :UI<l in Rnbi'u-1
:twwal, 976 H., they arrivccl :tnd made dleir . offcr;ings.
Husaht Kuli .Khan :rncl his brother lsma'il Khan wctc
summoned from Nagor, ancl appointed to the govern-
ment of the Panjab jnstead of tllem. iagir of
Muhammad Khan-i Kalan, ilt the sa./.ar ot ... S'\ffi
" rl>lll Surat."-'Aitl1ar-11alll./l.' vol. ii., p. 'fJ8.
1'h1: fol't !Vas by Ru.stam Khan, a Turki
,;lave, iu .wlrosc house the sister of Changizo Khan httd
t.al<e>l efuge. lie fought bravely, and hcl(l ottt for two
years; hftt bci11g left without help, he. was at length
to rurrende, and was the11 "in It -base and @s-
-tardl)' mn!lller p11t /o death."-'Akba-uama,' vol. ii.,
I! 418.:
bal, became a tankllwah. When the .Emperor march-
ed lo conquer Rantambhor, Husain Kuli Khan
wru; his pcnooal attendant in tf1e campaign. But after
the reduction of Rantambllor, and the return of His
to Agrn, Husain Kuli Khan and his brothen
Ismail Kuli Khan took leave and . departed to the
i>a\.i)ab. 01i the lst Rajali, ''!he Emperor marched from .
. '\gra against Rantambhor. .Proceeding to Deldi, he
stayed tbcrc some days and went out to a kamurglw
liUnt, in the of Palam, where fonr
five thousovld :lni.mah were
FOURTE'EN"I'H '?F.All 0}' THE lllit(;N
'fhe beginning of tl>is year ag1eed w:ith llth Rama.
ian, 976 H. (22nd February, 1569). The .Emperot
1ilarchcd at the opening of the year towards Rantam-
bhoi', and in a 8hort period arrived .at the foot of the
fort. The place was invested, batteries raised, sabats-
constructcd, and se,ernl breaches were clfccted by bat-
tering witl1 cannon.
Riti Surjan, the commander of the forL, when he
bserved rhc progTcss of the siege, was brought dow.n:
from the pinnacle of his pride ,and insolence, ancl he
se'rlt (rut his' and l3h6j by name, tO ask.
for ferms. Hls MajestY received kindly the Lwo young
men, who had come t'o secli his mer<.-y, and pardoned:
their transgJessions. He sent Husain Kuli Khan,. who
had Teccivcd the title of Klmn-jaban, into the fort to giv<.
assurances fo Rai Stirjan. He ' did so, nnd brought t.hc
Rai to wait upon the Emperor, when he made a frank.
submiSsion; nnd wlls cru:olled among tlie royal
scrvilnts. On Wednesday, 3rd Shawwal, . the conquest
of.-'tb'e fortress was. and on the next day
the Em:peror '!vent in to examine place. .He placed:
Mihlar Khan in tommand of the fortress, and the", pre
P.ated lo re.tnrn to the capltal. Leaving the army u11der
.. . . . . .
See B/ochmann's 'Ain-i Akbari,' vol. i:, fJ. 4Q8,.

cthe command of Kh1Vaja Amiua.d diu Mah!nud,
was entitl.cd Khwaja-jahan, an?- Mmafar Khan, the
Empex;or left them to conduct the arll}y back to tbe
'(apital, wl1ilc he made a hasty ,journey to pay a visit to
the tomb of Faizu-1 anwar> Khwaja Mu'iuu-d
Chishti, He remained there a week,, and the1i departed,
for where he arrived on Wednesday, 4th Zi-1 ka'da,
'976. ' Darbar Khan, one pf his personal attendants, had
been compelled by sickness to continl)e with the army,
:.nd he died before His Majesty reached .Agra.
'his. rerum Majesty into the Khan's dining,
1lall, and .made a princely 'provision for
'The Emperor had several sons born to him, but
none of them had lived. Shaikh Salim Chishti, who l'C
<iided at the town of Sikri, kos ft;Qm Agra, bad
gladdened hhn with the promise of a son. The Emperor
went to visit the Shaikh several times, n:nd l'emained
there or twenty days on 1cach. occasion. corn)
a fine building there ,on ,l)le of a pill,
'l,he Shaikh's monastery. -;the s'naikh also commenced a
new monastery and a fine mosque, which at the present
day has no equal in the wo1ld, near. the mansion.
The amir. also built houses and mmtsions for them-
.sclves. When one of the Emperor's wiveS
-nant, he. conveyed her 10 the dwelling of the Shaikh :lll4
\ef\ her there. Sometimes he stayed there himself, yj>mc:
timll5 at Agra. He gave the name of Fathpur to Sikfi,
.and buUt a .baza and baths there.
'This is, stf9ng . (ortress, and many Sultans
:bad been ambitious o talUng Shcr ,Kb'an Afgha11
it for a_ year, but' -i'('as the
_to \ake it, as has bee!? narrated iil the hist<l!Y
.of h.is reign. During tbc interregnum of Nghans;

ltaja Ram Chandar' bacl pmclH!Sed lhc fort at a high
pritc from llijiili' Khan, the adopted son (pismi
lthrva11lla) of Bihar Khan Afghan. T he renown of
conquest of the forts of Chitq and Rant:nnbhor spreact
through lhe wqrld, and the men of lhc Imperial armr
who held jagit,, in the neigl!bourhood of: Kallujat were
constantly forming plans (or the c:1p01re of that ,(urt,
and were anxious to begin the war. Rnjil Ram Chnuclat
was n pmdcnt and experienced man, Mltl considerccr
himself an adherent of Lhc lmpc'l'ial thwne. He sent hJ'
J1is envqy the keys' of t:he forucss and suitable offerings;
with for the victories ad>icved, to the
Emperor. On the same day tlte custodJ' of the was
given into the charge of Majumt Khan Kakshal, one of
the jagirdars of Ulat qunrter, and a friendly fatmn.tl was
sent to Raja Ram Cbandar. l'he forhcss came into the
possession o the Emperor in the month o Safar, 977 H.,
in the fourteenth year of his reign.
lll'R'fll ot: .PRINCP. SUI: rAN SAJ,JM
On Wcduesdny, 18t h of Rabi'u-1 awwal, 977 H .
and the fourteenth year o( the reign, when seven
thc day had passed, the cxalte<l prince Sultan Salhrt
Mirza was born in the house o Shaikh Salim Chishti in
the town of Fatllpur. 'l"hc Emperor himself was itvAgm
at that time, and the j6yful tidinb'S was conveyed to him
by Sbaikb Ibrahim, sonbl-law of Shaikh Salim, who was
.right' royaUy rewarded.' In thankSgiving f:or this happy
event, gifts were distributed among the people, prion
crs were set nee, and great feasts were held, which were
kept up for seven wilh great plcasmc and rejoicing:
The date of the birth is fonod in the words Slta/1<-i al i
of Panna" .-'T. Alfi.'
'Ait1i Af:<bari,' t1ol. i., p. 106. ,
!"4/i l<h<m, the ref>!teil son of Bihar Kha>( 'Amm
Numayun, antl srminAaw 9! Slier Khan (She?' Shnl1).'
-'T. Alfi.' .
7'imur. Khwaja Hu.sai11 composed an ode, of which the
ftrst line contained the date of the Empcror's accession,
and the second the elate of the prince's birth. The
Khwaja received a present of two lacs of tanlu .. s {or this,
ode, and several other poets 'received rewards for their
productions. The Emperor made Fathpur' ;t royal
u.bode,. raised a stone fortification round it, and IJu.ih
some splendid edifices, so that it became a great city.
-!lefore the prince was born, he f=peror had resolved;
in his own mind, that if the Almighty granted his wish
es; he would go a pilgrimage on foot to t.bc shrine: of
K11tbul wasilin llhwajn Mu'inud din
Chishti. llav.ing prepared his "fferings, en .friday, tlte
12th Sha'ban. 977, he started on foot from Agra fo1
Ajmir. Every day he travelled or eight i<M. He
visited the shrine. and pcrformecl the usunl obser\ances
immediately upot\ his anival. He passed some days
there, and then left Ajmir for Deltli, where he arrived
in Ramazan, 977 .
. r
lliFTEE,NTB l'BAR OF 11-i . U.lGf'll
.... ,..,.,
The be1,>inning ' of cortesp.ondecl with
Saturday, llle 6th Sb'aw\valr 977 H: (14th March, 1570) .
... On Thursday, ll1e grd Muha:rr;tm, 978, the star of good
fortune shone, and the Emperor hac! another son, Prince
Murad, borne to him in the house of Shaikh Salim. lll
gratitude for this blessing. he opened the hand of
a,lity, !(nd gave away many munificent gits, and roeD
'i'vere-. enriched by his bounty. 'J:he nobles alld ofl!ce!!'
of the Court presented offerings suitable to ' .their ; ri!!
pective ranks, and received. roi?es of honour.
Kasim Arslan on this occasion WTote a couplet, of wnicb
the first line contained the date of the: birth Of P1ince
Salim, and the second that of Prince MutM.
.. MAR.Oit' OP TR l:M'PEROR. .TO A_Ji;!iR
The .Empe>or was . accustomed, wherever he might
Now known a.i Fatllpur.Sikri. $ee sutrn ..
.be:, to pay a vmt year to tomb of Mu'inu-1
.bakk waud din Hasan Sanjaxi at Ajmir. In this llappy
y,car, on the 8th Rabi' nl Akhir, 978. he started for that
place, in order to show his gratit ude for the boon ,grant
.cd to him, He stayed twelve days at. in orde.r
to make soll'\e necessary arr.mgerucms for his journey.
Hc, arrivcd at Ajmir in due cow-sc. To show his favour,
.and to improve the condition of the place, J>e orclcrcu
.a strong "all to be it, and a palace to be
erected in it for l>is owrf" The am.irs and
kha11.r, an<l attendants
of Lbe Court, vied , with cad>
O\bec in erecting dw.cllings there. He ui.stributed the
villages and l.ancls and houses of Ajroix among am)r.r
to enable them to pa.,y .. tbe expenses of the -bl\ijd,
ings. On 4th Jumada.l akbir, he ,left Ajmh, aud
ill sigl)t of Nagox; on the 16tb. I#re there is a
large tank, which he :his soldiers to dig and f.,Jl
with watet. He himself insl'!!cted the tmlk, and gave
"in the name of Slmlu taiao.
WhHc he was thus staying at Nagur, Cbandar Sen,
son of Rai Maldeo came to ,pay his allegi:tnce, and
make his oll'erings. Raja Kalyan Mal, the Raja of
-:&ikanir, <tlso came with his son, Rai Singh, to wait upon
HisMajesty, al'ld pfesent his tribute. The loyalty al)cl
sincerity of both ,, fli'ther and son. being, manifest, the
Empero> married Mal's daughter. For llft)<.days
he shed the light of his justice and equity :npon the poor
people of Nagor. From thence he proceeded to Ajodhan,
to pay a visit to the tomb of Shaikh Fari<lu-d din Mas' ud
(}anj-i shakaF. Rai Kalyan Mal, who was so fat that be
COuld not ride 0 11 horseback, now received permission tO
rerum to llikanir; but his son was,ordered to remain
,in :itUmil:mcc upon His in '?hicl1 he received
'high pro,motion, as will be related in the proper
There were man)l wild asses (gor,-kha) in this de-
:sert. country, and H.is who had. never hunted
.. 'Rulu of .Marw(1r."-B:ad4uni, vol. ii., P ' IJ!J.
.tllis animal. was desirous of doing 'so. One, day as,.hc
was journeying on, the scouts brought information that
there was a herd of wild asses in the vicinity of the
<amp. He i:ro:mediately mounted a fleet courser, and
.after a ride of four or five kos, came in sight of the herd.
He got oft his horse, and commanded. all his followers
to remain quiet. He himself, with four or 6ve Bilucbis,
who were acquainted with the country, approaChed" the
lterd with guns in their bands. At the .first BhOI be struck
an ass, and the remainder of the herd, being frightened
by the noise, dispersed. His Majesty . ca\ltiously ap
proacbed, and struck another, and so on, until sixteen
asses fell by his lland. That day he travelled nearly
seventeen kos in hunting, and at the close returned to
the c:Lmp. By his order the sixteen asses were
brought to the camp in carts, and their Oesh was distri
butcd in front of the royal tent amoJJg the '11mirs and
courtiers: Then he proceeded tow:lt'ds Ajodhan; and
on arriving in sight of the place, he went on immediate
1y, aqd performc4 all the ceremopies or. pilgi"image, an!l
.dJsti-ibU;ted his bounty amQilg- th_c poor . .' . , ,. ,
From thei)Ce l).e pJoce'eded towards l.ahore, 'Qnd
'when he arrived at Dipalpur, the jagirdar of that' 1J4T
.gana, Mirza 'Aziz Muhammad Kokaltash, who bore the
title of 'Azam Kllao, and was well known as Mirza Koka .
prepared an entcrtaimncnt, ancl begge<l him tO sta.f
there a few days and rest. His Majesty graciously con
sented, and remained there. For some days feasting
'went on, and upon the last day s.Plendid ofl'erings.fwere
'Presented to him. ArAb arid Petoiao horses, wit!\ rsad
<dles of silver; huge elephants, with cbaihs of gi;llt! and
':iilver,. ':Uld housings of and brocade; ttnd gQid :md
silver, and pearls' and jewels, .and rubies of
great chairs of gold, and silver vasq, and vessels
-Elf gold and silver; sculf:s of Europe, Tnrkcy, and Cbina,
and other precious things beyond all ..-concepcion. Pte-
'Sents of shnilar kind also were preseJ;J.ted! for the vnung
-princes and the Emperor's wives . . All the .mmistets

and attendants and dignitaries received presents, and
every soldier of the arn>y also participated in the bounty..
SlXTEENTJ f Y l ~ R OF Tll1.1 RE,(GN
The beginning of tbis year conesponded with Sutt
day, 17th Shawwal, 978 H. (13th March, 1571 A.D.).
At the beginning of this year His Majesty depanccl
from Dipalpur fo1 Lahore, and Hasan Kuli Khan. the
governor of that city, hastened forth to rccci ve him.
Leaving his crunp at Malkapur, tbe Emperor went on
speedily to Lahore. .He passed .that day and night itt
the house of Hasan Kuli, and next day the Khan pre
sen ted his gifts. On the following day the Emperor re-
turned to the camp, and aftc1 spending a few days in
the vicinity of Laho1c, he set off for HisarFiro7ah, on 111
visit' to the shrine 9f Khwaja Mu'inud din.
Nahid Be!,'11rn. was wife o[ Muhlbb 'Ali- Khan sou of
Mir Kbalifa, o.nd her mother was wife of Mirza 'Isa-
Tarkhan, tlte ruler of Thfltla. Mirza 'lsa being dead,
Nal>id Begam had received leave from His Majesty about
a year before l'his date to go to Sind, to sec bo mother
. and bring the daughter of Mil7.a '!sa to pay homage to
thdl, Emperor. Muhammad llaki Tnrkhan now oc:cupied
the seat of i ~ father, and would have notlting to do with
Nabid Bcgarn. She therefore rllturned , in anger to the
Emperor. and made a starC!lncnt of the barsblless and
l)'l'3tlt:IY of Mubamma'd Bald, and of the disrespect be
had sliown to the Emperor's servants. She said that if
the Emperor would permit and suppon her hushl\lldl
Muhibb 'Ali Khan, he could easily effect the conquest of
'l:lhattn. As Nahid Begam was returning from Thatta, she
had some conversation at Bakar with Sultati Mahmud
Bak:ari who was one of' the officers of Mh:za Shah Husain
Arghun1 and his J<oka; and, after the death of Minta
Sb:ili, > Bakar remained in his possession. This Sultal'l
Maltrnud Salai Samarknndi told Nahid Begnml that if
Mnhibb 'Ali Khan would undertake the conquest of
Thatta, he would join anct asst<t him, and that be would'
have no need of any further support. In consequence
of this promise, Naltid llegam was Yery desirous of going.
to Sind. Muhibb 'Ali Khan had for a long time givclh
up the military life, so the Emperor granted him a
banner aud a kettledl'llm, aod be gave hitn a jagir o.
fifty lacs of 14nhas in the sarkar of Multan, towards the
expense' of the campaign. He also sent with him his
daugbte1's son Mujahid., a young man of resolution and:
courage, and he' Wl'otc a farman to Sa'id Khan, the 'ruler
of Multan, directinghi.J.n to support Muhibb' !'Ali. Kltai'l'
When the Emperor left the Panjab fox Fathpur 'his.
royal residence (daml lthila/nl), he sent Muhibb Ali on
his expedition. Upon arrivi!'g at his jngir in Multan,.
Muhibb 'Ali set about collecting IUCJl, and got togctb.cr
nearly 400 horse. Relying upon Sultan Mahmud lhkari,.
he wrote to him, and began his march. Rut Sultan
Malunud was adverse to the entrance of auy Imperial'
forces into his territo1y, so, disregar,ding d1c promises be
bad made to Nahid Begam. he sent 'to. say that he would'
allow.Muhibb 'Ali to pass through !lis countq; ,but
that if Mubibb 'Ali woul\1 marclf by wity of Jesal.tnir,_ hc
would send_ his army to hili!, render him all the-
assistance be could. ..
Mubibb 'Ali, and his Mujabid, took a bold
course, and proceeded towards Bakar. Sultan Mahomet
sent his whole armr to oppose them, but his men were-
defeated, nnd obliged to seck refuge in the fort
Mujahid and Muhibb 'Ali Khan besieged' the
fort for six months, and at length obtained possession .or
it by capitulation. At this tunc Mubarak 'Khan, a 'slave
o Sultan Mahmud's who acted as his vakil, being
aggrieved with bis master, went and joil1cd ]\ft1blbb 'Ali.
The fatter baving inc1eascd his force,' laid s'i<ii!' e' to Dakai'.
Sultan Mahmud sent out army, amounting to nc;u-ly
2000 horse .al}d 40QO {oot, archers,, and gunners. They
were dcfeatc<t in battle ancl driven .hack into the forf ..
Ji'or three 'years Sdltart Mahlnucl somctiln'es claily', some-
times every two br tlirc'e days, sent, mncd sltips aotr
.g/uabs to Gght. T hree times he sent out his whole army,
.horse and Coot, !o fight a regular ba.ttle, but each time
.be was defeated. ln consequence of the large number
<>f men which he bad crowded into the fort, pestillcncc
.and sickness broke ouc and became very [atnl, so. that
500 to 1000 died daily. At length, in the year
983, MaJ1mud himself died, and the fort came into the
possession of the Emperor's adherents.
When the Emperor left the Panjab and poceeded
to Fathpur, l\'Iun'in1 Khan Khankhanan came from
Jaunpur, brh1ging Sikand! r Khan with hin1. Tbe
Offences of Sikandar Khan were pardoned, and the jagit
-of Lucknow was conferred upo11 hhn. Khan.kJmnan
.quickly ret.urncd to secure his Bengal frootier. Sikancl;Jr
Kl:lan nlso ,took his leave, and was sent along with Khan
'kilanan to his jagw. Each received a jewelled swordbclt
.and four horses with golden saddles. Soon after hi<
.arrival at Lucknow, Sikandar Khan fell sick, ant! died on
'<the lOth Jumadal. awwal, 979 H.
'The begimting of this yc"r conesponucd with Tucs
day, 25th Shawwal, 979 H. (lith Mal'ch, 1572
. .
. ' .
lo the plurt of Emperor ;conxersatil:m cot}tiiltt-
<lly tumcd upon the st;ttc of affam in Gujarat, and in
.formation was often brought about the oppression and
wilfulness of its petty rulers, and about the ruin of its
, , '
" ujunat o biPI!IJ.l'i." Badarmi (vol. ii., p. JJJ)
ca.Us i.t "waba.''
" "Gujarat had for a long harJ. 'no legitimate
1"4S!er, Md :its amirs were quarrelling with eac/1 otl<e,t.
Jl l)d , opp.cssing the peasants. 'Itimad Wllf minister
of the country,. but war not aide to keep <it in his grasfJ,
.an<l lr It if . oui11 cit)l .comidered
JUfJI'Ct!'tl. ruler ,at Cftiil"''at."-Tarikhi Alfi.
towns and cities. Now Lhat His Majesty's mind was set
quite at rest by tbe suppression of rebels, and t.he red1tC
cion of their lofty fortS, he" turned his attention to
conquest of' 'Gnj'arat. The order was given fOl'
assembling of the :umy, and on the 20th Safar, 980, in
the' eighteenth yeaT of the reign, the Emperor started and
proceeded enjoying tl\c chase bh his way, co Ajmir. On
tHe 15th 'ltabi'tl'l awwal, he paid a v,isit to t.he tolnb of
Rh)Yaja Mu' inn-d din Cliisbti, and gladdened the lJieai:'t'$
of''Uie silaikhs and attendants with his munificent gifts.
Next day he made a visit to. the tomb of Saiyid Husain
liliang-sawar, a descendant o Zainu-1 'abidin, whid1 is.
on t.he top of a hill 'at Ajmir. Next day, Mir Muham
mad Khau Atka, better, known by tbe title of ltban,i
kalan, was sent oll ill advance with 10,000 horse, and His.
Majesty followed on the 22nd Rabi'us sani.
Two stages fxom Nagor, messengers brought l)im.
rhe !'ews that in the night of ?nd Jumacta-1
awwal, a son W<'-' born to him Ajinir) " Kc
several qays jn lnJldC manx, haP,J>Y,- by his.
' f'S ql!a ,hom in ,the ho!'"e
of Shaikh Daniyal, itlie of the Most p10us and celebrated
!laikhs of the tirllc, J,e 'gave the ' pru1ce the name of
Daniyal. After the rejoici.ngs were over, be again maccb
eel and arrived at Nagor, on ilic 9th Jlimada-1 awwal.
There he remainect Eourteen days employed in an':lngfD.g;:
the supply of his Rnl\Y d , . .'
From , thence he marched to Miratb, ana there he
was informed. that when Mir Jlo!Ubrunmad Kban"eamc
near to Sir?pi,, !he Raja. 9 pfuce professed sy)>jec-
ti?!l and sc:pt some Rajputs as envoys to
the 'Tljc ' cnvoy,s and
their Mi.r Mu,llf.m,rhad _Kiian. SlV.,O; them
approp(iate, :ans wer au(( robes and according
to ,amqng. tlic. In<lia, ,ljl' .
.,. '
'J" I
.dismhsed them with his OWJ1 hand.' Oc of llwsc des
pcratc envoy at that moment stabhed the Khan in
the breast, and the weapon picn;cd through to his back
>n:lllcr the shouldCJ:. B:1badur Khan, a young man and
a of the Khan, who was standing behind Sher
Khan, but now has his anJ:oug the nobles, rushctl
forward, and seizing the Rajp11t, dasbecl him to the
gt-ound. Muhammad Sadik Kl1an, whp was s<:atcd by
the side of the Khan, arose and despatched the ar:cursctl
wretch witb his clawr. Wbcn. this intelligcna: l'cachcd
t.l1c Emperor, on the Same day be sene .Lashkar Khan Mir
balthshi to inquire :oftl!l' M:ir Muhammad Khan, and
next day be marche<l forward hhlbc!f. . Snclik. Mnhapl
.llJad ;md the other nmi>s called in surgeons, who
dt'tl:!Scd t.l>e Khan's woupds, and by the full.peror's good
the severe wound was cured ill d:.ys, and
the Khan tliOuntcd his bor.;e with his quiver girt upon
'his Joins.
The F.111peror c<mtinued his maxr.h, and on the 8th
formed a juuction with the advancecl
forct. When he reached Sirohi, eighty R ajputs in :t
temple and seventy in the l1ous<: stood ready to
perform the vow they had made to die. In a few
they all despatched. Dost Muhammad,
ron of Tatar Khan, perished in tl\e Raja's At
.this stage His 'Majesty resolved to send one of his officers
to make sure of tbc territory of Joltdhp\rr, imd keep the
road to Gujaxat open, so that none of . the R.anas might
' 1lc able to inllict any loss.. This duty w.as imposed upon
. ""When the was talting leave, accol'ding to
17ie t;t<.tlom of t(1c co!lntry, he as/led for pnn, a11d the
Khaw ta/ting s()me in his hand, called him forward 'tp
!rive it: to him. The 611voy then drew a dagger (jamdhar)
frr}m :hi( bosom, a11d s1ilbbed the Klum in the breast . .. :
The -att'emlants oj the Khan killed all the followei-s of
although they de11ied any complicity i11
the shameful deed."-T . .tllfi. '
Singh llikaniri,"' who wa,; sent witl a force
.Qf Imperial troops. FarmaI.S were written to the amirs
jaigirdars 'of that province, directing tl1em to ,1-ender
:Rai Singh every assistance he might require.
l\t stage Yar 'Ali Turkoman, . with '"' escort of
came as a11 atubassador from Sultan uham-
.mad Mirza, and fTom Shah Klng of Khurasan.
bringing with them .<U'Oi.> and Persian horses, and othet
presents. They were received by lis Majesty with all
.due state ancl bonour. The l'mperor then marched from
Sirol1i to Pattan N aiU1Yala, and when he arrived near
fort of ,Disa, w\ticb is twenty kos (rom l'attan, in-
telligence was brought tbat the sons of Sher Khan Fuladi
had taken oJf their troops and families towards Idar.
The Emperor sent Raja Man Singh ill command of a
tlctachmcnt after them. Ou tl1e 1st Rajab 980. the m1ny
.arrived ill sight of Pattan, and rested there for a week.
The government of the country was confcned upon
'Saiyid Khan Barba, a man of courag-e and,resolu-
tion, , who bad ,uumerous Wends a,m
ug tl\e
Saiyicls of .Hindustap. At Lhi$ Rai.a Singh
>;eturned, brioging.,ii.1 a lxage l;>ooLy, .. whlch lle had taken
.from the remnant of the Afghans.
The Emperor then m;uched towards AJuuadabad.
Sber Khan Fuladi bad been engaged for six 'months qc
Hieging AJ)madabad, wbich was held by 'ltiiDlld K.ban;"
bl,lt when he heard of tl1e Emperor's approach, ltc. tpok
to flight. The Emperor hac! hanlly advanced two s'tages
from Pattao, when Sultan Muzaffar, son of Sultan Mah
. . .
. Singll of Bika11ir toas to. ]ou.dht>Jr to
keep tile I'Oad lo Gv.j{'rDI open, and. to rneve'nt any a'n-
:'10)1/lnce from Rat!4 Kika, chief of and K01JI
balmir."-Badauni, vol .. ii., p. 11f
'The .tlave and fnime minister of Sllltan . Mn.l ..
. mud. vol. ii., fh 141. He :ua.t
originally ,. Hindu . slave. _See , Ain,i Akbari,, vol . ii.,
p. 385. ., <"
mud Gujarati, whom, 'ltimad Khan hntL kept continu-
ally in con6nc.ment, with a great display of respect-
to meet the Emperor, and on Sunday.'" the 9th Rajah,
was admitted t'o an huerview. Next day, 'ltmad Khan.
the of Ahmadabad, Mir Abu Turab, Saiyid Alt.mad
.Bukbari, 1khtiyarul Mttlk, Malik Ashraf, Wajhu-1 Mulk,.
Ulugb Khan Habshi; Jajhar Khan Hal,>shi, and otbCl""
nmiis and chiefs of Gnjarat, too numerous to mention,
came in to wait upon the Emperor, and roali.e their offer-
ings. 'Itimad Khan presented tbc keys of {\hmadabad;
and showed every sign of sutimission.
"ff1e officers of the Court were suspiCious of evil
designs on the pan of the Flabshis (Abyssiniaos), and.
brought the matter to the notice of His Majesty, and'
although he desired to act generously and royally towards
them, as a precaution he committe<l them to the charge
oE some of his attend:ults. The Emperor then marched
on, and on Friday, 14th Rajab, pitched his camp on the
banks of the river of Ahmadabad. T he lthtt.tba was read
in the n<ame of the Emperor, and all the people of the
cit)' and en vjtous came to offer congratulations and
ahanksgivings. On the 2001 Rajab, Saiyid Malunud Kllan
Barba and Shaikh Mubam1nad Bukhari brought theh
into the royal camp. On the same day Jalal Khan
who bad been se'rit 011 ali embassy t'O' a Raba tct\irncd.
. lbrahi1u ' :Husain'' Mirza and Muhammad Husairr
Mirza held Broach, Baroda, and Surat
in defiance of
IGI.fccoriling to A.buL Fatl, Sultan Mttzllffa>" sepa-
Tated from Shcr Khan Fuladi, attd wandered about
without" aim. or purpose. A.'kbar sent <i fiarty to
jot him. He W/1.1 found hiding ill a COTnfield, and WOS
/Jtoitght to the Empeio!',( who treilted very kindly.-
A.kbarnama, (1"/tere is h""e' a /acum of about six moniro
'in !he ' yucknow editipn of ihe Akpar_. nama). . .
"iliraltiifl.' Mirzo. he/if. Batoda, Muhammad '
h'eld Surar, a'nd Sliah Mina had
. .
rue Empcrox, so he l'Csolved to free the country of
Gu jarat from their teb,eUious pQWer. Ou Monday,, 2qd
Sha ban, he started from the river of Ahmadabail and
marched 10wards Kambay. ' ltimad Khan and other of
rbc Gu jarat ami1's were l\t the request of SOlOC of the:
great offiCials, allowed to remain behind in Ahmadabad
for a few days to arrange their affairs. Seiling this oppor-
tunity, Ikhtiyarul Mulk, one. of the chief nobles

Gujarat, ficd 011 the 4th Sha'ban from Ahmadabad t_<>
Ahmadnagar. As no . reliance . could be placed on tlre
nobles of Gujarat, 'ltimad Khan was given into the
cu$tody of /ihabbaz Khan Kambu. On the 6th the Em-
perm reached Kambay. He to look at the sea, and.
JeaviJtg Kiunbay oi1 tllC 12th, he reached Baroda on the
14lh. After reflecting upon the best means of guarding
lind governing the couutry of Gujarar, h e appointed
Mi.r?.a 'Aziz Muhammad Kokaltash th,e Khart-i 'azim t<>
be .the governor of the eoun!X)', !'Del especially of
, , ,, ,,
A 'nETActooNT' !lf.NT JNVES'r suRAT
l ""' ' " ., ' , ,
After the (ieparture ot the tne lliU:peor
upon attacking. the 'fortres5 of Surat, '<hicln
was the hon\e and stronghold of i.he Mirzas. To effect
this purpose be sent Saiyicl Mahmud )<han :Barba, Shall
Kuli Khan Mabr.un Khan-i ''alam. Bh.wagan .
Kllnwar Man Singh .... and se,eral othe11i to oyerpoll'et'
Husaip Mirza, who was in Surat. Nexr day, I?U1
when one watch of the night was passed,
brought in that Ibrahim Mirza Khan,' at
Droacb of tl)c Emperor's advance, had muiderec1;' :RW am
and' then left tlid town, ' to paSf
about eight kos distance f-rom the Emperor's camp,
to raise disturbances and rebellion .elsewhere.
On hearing thc: ll.mperor's

::- ' r' ,,._
u \ 'Who was 'of Tetttrning '1/s.
-11kbar-twma. , I , ,
. . ., .
He instautly orders that Khwajajabau, Shuja'at
Khan, Kalij Khan, and Sadik Khan should take charge of
ilie young prince Salim, while he went to chastise lbmnim
Mir1.a. He took with him Maliknu-sn Shark Gu jarati,
ho 1vas well acquainted with. the roads, and he sent
Sbahbaz Khan Mir Bakhshi in all haste, 'to recall to his
' side Saiyid Muhammad Kba1i, anii the forces which ha<l
Jnatched against Surat.
The remainder of that night,
.and the greater part of the next day, he kept up the pur
.suit for a lo1ig distance. Whell 11ight came Oil, he arrived
forty horsemen on the banks of the river Mahin-
.(Jti.'0 Ibrahim Husain Mi.rta WliS in the town of Sarna),
<>n the other side of the rivC!-. When they heard tllis, the
Emperor's followers eodeavout-ed to conceal themselves. .
At this crisis, Saiyid Mahmud Khan Barba, Kuli
Khan Mahram Kban:i 'alam, Raja Bhgwan Das, Kunwar
Man Singh,. ... nnoj, the son 'of Surjan, and others of the
f-orce sent against Surat, by a forced march came up and
joined d1e Emperor. Kunwar Man Singh. at his own
solicitation, was placed in command of the advanced
.guat;d. Although the whole of his followers did not nun>
l:)er more tban 100 men" the Emperor, without hesita
ti6n, determined tO attack. '!'hey dashed into tlle river
.i'nd aossed
Hwain Mina, who had wit11 him about
1000 honemen, on perceiving this bold movement, went
out of town of Sarnal by another road, telling his
The force he took with him numbered about
2000 men.-Akb4rnama.
Abu-l Fazl calls the f'ivcr also "Sakanir."-lb.
T)we a "Sinnole on the Maujarn river, 1/rirty miles
.south-east of Ahmadnagar. .
.. " The text says distinctly that the .whole of the 'Em-'
peror's men did not exceed one hmdretl. Firishta Makes
ilhem. Badamti ii., p. 142), that
Man Sing crossed the river with ldO men. See . Extract
from Akbar-nama, infra.
ahcn' that he ilitended to ghe batde ln the "the
road between the river and the fott was very broken, sp'
Kunwar Man' Singh, and the advance under his
nand, tbok another road, :t:nd t,he Emperor passed by a
to the gate of the' town' by the water side. Some of'
th"e tenemy, whose blood was up, made a siand in th'e
stt'cet, 'and showed fight. 'Makbul Khan, a Kahl)ucl<
s1ave, 'who on 'that day went in front of tbe :Emp'eroi,
one of them tlown, and wounded sevetnl ot11ers. ' '
It was now discovered that lbmbim Husain bad
quitted the town, and the Erupero1 gave orders for tbc
ptu'.iuit. The troops accordingly left the walls and went
out imo the plain, and t.hCle the two pa>tics confronted
.Cach other. Ibrahim Husain made an attack upon Baba
Khan Kaksbal, who l>ad been sent forward with a party
of bowmen. Although these made a stout resistance, tJ>ty
.were driven back. a $hort distance.. :But every man of tlie
.imperhll force fought killed a great.
lnany of the enemy. ' Bhljpat,. son of .Raja Bihar 1\fal,
very brave young !llali, made' a Cbargc 'upon the
and fell. Ihnbol'll'ened by liis fall, the enemy renewed hi$
attack. But the roynl forces 'were in a contracted spot,
where three horsemen could not pass abreast, ns it "'as alt
.hcdgetl in with thorns. The Emperor had, with great
courage gone co the front, and Raja Bhagwan Dils had
..k.ept 'ith Jurn. Three of tbe enemy's horsemen 'now
,chaJged them, and one of diem attacked theRaja. As his
adVJll"Sary was entangled among the thorns, Raja
Das huded l1is spear at .bim and severely wounded him,
,so that he withdrew. The other two ll.Saulcl!'d His
who received them so valiantly 'that tbey we(l:
.Obliged to ni:U<.e off. . . ;
.. At this. tilne Makbul Khan 'Ghulamand Surokb",
Badakh.shi joined His Majesty, and he sent them in pur
'$.Uit of his The royal forcesr. seeing the danger
iii) wh,ich the Empe>or had been. placed, were roused to
One MS. invariably calls l1im "Ira'i."'
desperation, and made a fierce onslaugllt upon the enemy.
lbrahi1n Husain Mirza disheartened, and took to.
flight. Some brave meu puriued him, and cut down
several men on tlleh way. But tile night on darkcc
than 'tile fate of that band, so tile Emperor gave ordct'S to
pu..Suit. Ibrahim Husain Khan, glad to save his life, .
made off with a few persons by tl1e Abmadnagar road to.
Sitobi. The Emperor went into the town of Sarna!, and
ofl'crod tllllnks for his victory. Every man who served ht
this engagement p :' ccivecl his rewant in increased rank
and h1 jagi?s.
Next day t)/e Emperor started on his .return to the
royal t-amp, bu't he sent on in advance Surokh Badakhshi;
'>'hose conduct in tllis a([-air bad the royal aproba-
t(on, to carry news of 'we victory in t11e When
the news arrived, the princes and the of tlte llarenl ,
and the am;rs and the officials, swcre filled with joy suffi.
cicnt to last them their lives. On Wednesday, the
Sha' ban when one watch of tlte night was passed. the-
Emperor rejoined his <-amp at Baroda: Next day be con-
a banner :md a kcttl<, drunt on Raja :Ubagwan Das.
')'lio,had greatly distinguished himself in this action,
1o!All(;!l SURNI'
Tlic fortress of Sorat is small, .but exccedjngly strong:
and secure, and temarkable among fortresses. lt is said,
tllat a slave of Sultan' Maltmud Gujarati, Safar Aka by
name, who received tb.e tide of Khudawand Khan, built
tllis fortress on the sea. shore' in the year !147, in order
to resist the attaclrs tllc Europeans, for before the fort
1<lis the Europeans did all kinds of mischief co the
Musulmans. Whtm Kbudawand; Khan was. engagcd in.
tlJe erection of tile fort, tile Europeans .several times fitted
6ut' ,ships to attack it; but could ''bdt d n (the1r
objec.t. l(hudawand Khan tllen. called foi: .his ii
very clevci" man, to provide for 'the security ofr the fort,
.. .. ..- ,.. . .. .
'" "On the sho!'e Of the Pe>;<ian gulf," but is really
011 the iuer ;rapti , ttuenty
wiles, from th_e
. '
.1\Itcr a little ,-cllection, the careful builder dctcrmin.;d on
Jus plan. On the two sides of the fort wllich face the
land, he formed ditches reaching to the water, whiCh
were twenty yards (dara')'" wide, and filled with watt:r;
they were built of stone, and burnt' bricks. T he
J.bickness of the double walls'? is five y.uds, and the
.height twenty yards, and these arc likewise built of stone,
.clumam, and burnt brick. The thickness of the four walls
is ftftccnyards, and the height I t ls a
:remarkable circUnmance that each stone, is firmly .Cast-
<Jncd to the next with cramps of iron having molten l e:id
poured into the interstices.' The battlements and crnhra-
surcs are formed of stone, and are formidable to look at.
,On the top of the tower there is a c/UJ.ukandi'
which, in
.the opinion of Europeans. is an invention of the Portu- .
,gncse. When the Europeans were unable to p1event the
.erection of the fortress by force of arms, they offered .large
:sums of money to prevent the raising of this structure.
l3ut Kbqdawand Khan, ill contempt of the E'uropean.s,
,their :11id ,
. Mter. !fc. d_catfl .ot KI[,an":, fht fbr.trcss ca)qe
nnto the pflssess1on "'of the Nfirzas. WI\eu the Ernperbc
4narched into Gujarat, the Mh"zas placed all their soldiers
in the pbce, and left it undet the command of Ham.-
..1,1ban, who had form.erl y been one of the orderlies (kor-
.chian) of the Emperor Hvmaytt\, but had fted fro!l: 'illt
imperial Court, and joined the rebels. The
.selves did their best to sti"t up war ana strife ou/Side:
... 1 . . . . . . . ' . .
(t{ol . ii:, 1' :u6) :g!iz": equf-
.valent" of .
2Sd' t t , If 'tfl'J
. IW/Ut"f.lll 12tU-. ,

word is tile 'liowcta/ . of.,pn .eleplul!lt,
-t!nd so by inference may mean a watch !ower t>r a cupola;
.-or perhaps it was something .in derision oj Christiaity,
iiadauni the wO,.d ''ghurfa, "f'Jitir . room" as an
.equivalent. Sec Sir H. Elliot's nqtc "m the Extract frolt'

When Ibrahim Husain Mil-aL was defeated and put
to flight al SanJal, the Emperor returned to Baroda, and
his design of conquering Surat. He sent forward
Shah Kuli Khan and Sadik Khan, wilh instruttions to
inl'cit the fort so no one could get out. Upon this
mol'cment becoming known to the garriso'n, Gulrukh
Bcgam, daughter of Prince Ka,Jrran and wife of Ibrahim
Husain MirZll, took bet son MUT.alfar Khan Mirza witlt
her, and lied to the llekhin before tlte arrival of the lm
pcrial forces. When the nmirs heard of her escape, Shah
Ituli 'Khan Malnrun put-,;ued ' her for fifty Ito,!, and rC
'turned umuocessful, but soinc of the
fell irito his bands. Somo days a afterwards the Enipero
sent Raja Todar Mal to examine and ascertain precisely
'Ute inlets and outlets of the forcrcs.!. After a week be
returned and macle ltis repoi't.
His Majesty, relying on the help of the .Ahnight)'.
left Baroda on the 25th Sha'ban, and encamped nt ti)C
distance of a hos from Surat on the 18th Ramazan. On
th\' s:une night lte " went up a11d reconnoitred the fot'l.
He distributed the batteries among his 11111irs, and t11ree
days aftenvards he 1noved his camp, and pitched his tent
so near the fortress that cannon shot and musket balls
reach it. ,But the chief brought to
It is J::noMeilge througb the amir.r that ne,a,r
hand a tauk call Goli-talab, and altl\ongb ,tbe bank of
'tlte tank Wl!ll close to the fort, the uneven grOWld ancl thCl
tTees would prevent ballS from readting it. So t11e order
was given for the removal of tlic royal tents to this spot.
T!H: siege was, pressed ,o.n, and i11 a short time the
for drawing 'Water was dosed. After it had gone . on
for nearly two months, ihe besiegers advanced their bat .
teries; so that every way of inlPiCss or egress was closed.
'('T 'e soldiers and the f61\0WCJ:s 'of the ll>flirs collected It
I ' ' '-"t ' '
He coruideretZ its ,.cil.uctipn an easy matter, not e
quiriig thti, presence of the Emperor.- ' Akbar-n11ma.'
Batlauni, 'llol. ii., p. 144.
:vast quantity of earth, and r:Used a high. mound, which
the fort. And the gu1mcrs and
stationed upon the mound kept up a !ire that greatly
harassed the garrison, and the inen rom
movil1g about or bringing anything up. Every hole big
enough for a. mouse was closed. The miners. pushed
their mines under tl1e bastions, and inade such progress
tbpt the capture of the place, was a mere '1'ntter of today
or. \Oioorrow. When the garrison perceived the slate of
a !fairs),'' they were reduced to the greatest a! ann ana.
The wretched .dil;loyal Ham-zaban. and all the
people in the fort sent out Maulana Nizamud din Lari,
who was a student and an eloquent man, to sue for
<[ untte1-. The Maul ana was conducted to tbe royal tent,
nncl made his plea Co1 mere) through the amirs and offi-
cials. The chief ami-rs reminded His Majesty that the
batteries Jmd been advanced very fqrward, and when
_tjley saw that be was inclined to they remar\ced
!hat .the. garrison had resisted and fought with all the'i!
1'1ilght so long as , they bad any P9\oe&; aud .now they
saw that the fall of the place was ,.imminent, they Were
ready to beg for mercy. His l'aajcsty, in hls
and humanity, granted the petition. Maulana NimnUI-d
cl in Lari was allowed to pay his homage to the Emperor,
and &eing dismissed, he returned to the foxtiess with the
t!ad news -of quarter having been conceded. ''
A royal order was then issued for K')sim AI( K,hati
"The fJassage in pa-renthesis is 1101 given in t!1e M$.
of the,J!. 1. Library, but is found in ,the '114Jgin of tlie
Nawab ]hnjllar's ,copy; f-rom which Sir H. Elliot's was
fta!scribed. It is written in a differmt from ,that of
the MS., and does 1101 fit -in very welL,. with W.e . context;.
,lmt it is found in Badauni (vol . . ii., fJ 11Jf). There arc
other similar additions, which are in accord with
Badauni, a11d the probabilit)' is tltat they /lave bee11
borrowed trorn ' his V{Or),. .,
I' U
.and li.bwaja Daulat Nazir w proceed into t.hc fortress
with the Maufana, to give assurances to Ham-zaban and
.the men of the garrison, and to bring d>em out with
them. An order was also given fm a party oE h'ustworlby
.clerks to be sent. iJi to seite upon all p.ropco'ty, live stock
.antl dead stock, and take care tllat nothing was lo.,t.
The names of all the people in the place were written
and t:be list 'was presented to the Emperor. Ka.1im
'Ali and Khwaja Daulat Naiir. by order of His Majesty.
brought liamzaban and all the OlCI\ be[ore rum,
Ham-zaban, for all his fiucncy. hung down his head 1oit.h
'-'llame, aod could not speak. In gratitude or the victory.
Emperor pardoned the common people and jutiahit
.ants of the place, bm Ham-zaban and some otbers, who
the instigators of ali t.he strife, were punished and
in custody? ThiS conquest was effected 0 11 the
:23rd Sb'awwal, in the year 980.
Next day the Emperor went in t<> iLlspect the fort
:ress. After much consideration and examination, he
gave order.< for tbc nccC$sary repair,; and improvemcnL<.
During his some large mottars (deg) and
-gtms (uwba-zan) attracted Ius attention. Those mortal'S
b'ore the' title of Sulaimani, from tbe name of Sulaiman
. :SII'ltan .of 'l;urhy: When he made his attempt to con
qutir ' the 'pclrts- of , Gujarat, hei sent : these' mortars and
,,ome gunsP which are in thd foit of }unag:lr}j; -vflth a
Jarge army by sea. A$ the TurkS :were 'U.,nable to over:
-come the difficulties and obstacles they encountered, and
were obliged to return, they lett these mortars and tl1e
:gun which is no:w 'in Junagarh on tbe scashore, and
etun\cd to t\leir country: Tbc mortars remained upoJl
.... . . . :
l'"'l'he tongue of Hamw.ban was cut out.-Akbar
qf Abttl Fazl tma FaiT:i. . '
' siege luiving ja;tea oue month afld seventeen
.days.-'Ak!lar-nama. ' .
"'i'he' plural is here used, but it i.ou/rl biat
.only one gtm was taken to
Ahe sea-shore until Khudawand Khan built the foruess
Surat, 'when he placed tbem in the fort. 'The om'
which was left in tbe counu:y of Surath"' was taken to
&e fort of Junagarh by the ruler o tbat country. As
there was no great necessity for these mortars in the fort
-of Surat, the .Emperor gave orders for their being rc-
mavcd to On tbe same day he placed the custody
-of tbc fort and the govermncnt of the country in the
hands of Kalij Khan. On the fast day of. llie montb
Raja llibar . Jiu, Raja of the country' of !laglaua, cal>'
and sent to His Majesty's presence Sbarafn-d din
Husain Mina; 'rho for ten years past had been engaged
in vadous turbulent and rebellious proceedings.
Majesty's anger been roused by the disturbances o
the country's peace, so he censured the Mil7.a and.
placed him under restraint.
When the had settled to his satisfaction
all the affairs oE the province, on Monday, 4th Zil ka'da,
980, he marched towards Ahinad.abad. Whon he came
to Broach, the mother of. Cbansiz' complained :th
!llim th.at Jajh:ir Khan!.Habsbi !iadh mjustl}' Wle'd fier
'son, and tbe order"'W.U 'given 'for ' ]njhii 'R.han's'beiiig
'brought up tO answer the chatge." l:.rpotl ques-
tioncd, Jajhar Khan acknowledged Ute deed, and the
Emperor, in his indignation, ordered. h'm to be cast
under the feet of an elephant. "
'While the Emperor was engaged in the of
1 30
Thc names "Sural " and ' ' Surii.Lh" are lddtticol,
.,both being 'dcritled. (Tom tfzc Sa1ikrit

but as
.. t}Jey b.elo11g li> very .a in
.. 1pelling liM . been mai1tainerl. 'u the city;
"Suatli': is a 'pra11r or ,fistrict o()f Kati!umr, oflwhicft
.Jlutlagarll is' the chief toiim. ..,
!He ' tvdS tried and founl! gtt!lty.-'.4kbar-narM;'
"'p5 ' ,<\
:vo . &rt.,.
. .
Surnt, several events occun-ed. Among them was the-
journey of Ibrahim Husain Mina to Hindust.ao, the
purpose of raising disturbances. After his defc;1t at
Sarna!, Ibrahim fled to the neighbomhood of Patlan,
where he joined Muhamn1ad Husain Mh-z.1 and Shah
Mirza, and informed them of his and of the siege
o( Smat. After consultation it was resolved
Jbrahim Husain Mirza 1;hould go into Hindustan an<
create disturbances, while the other two Mit"lRS, along
with Shcr Khan Fuladi, laid siege to Pattan: tlleir ex
pcctation being that the Emperor, on receiving intelli
gcnce of these p1occedings, would abandon the siege of
Surat, and fall back upon Ahmadabad, to repress Lhcsc
t'vo outbreaks. Havil1g il)duced Sher Khan Fuladi to
join them, they invested Patlan. Saiyid Ahmad Kha,tr
Barba (the governor) put the fore in aJld shut
himself up. He sent att account o the investment to tbe
Emperor, wbo, on bearing it, issued orders that Kutbnd
din Mtthammad Khan and ... all the jagidms of
Malwa, Raisin, and Chanderi, and all the othe1 nobles
and adherents of the Imperial throne, such as . . . . .,
should assemble undet the command of Azaru Khan to
this rebellious attempt.
;. 1:be nobles accordingly joined 'Azam Kbal). ami
marcb&hto Pilttan. When they were five o/ws distant
from Pattnn, Muhammad H-usain Mirza. and Slrcr E:ban
Fuladi came fomard to meet tbcm." The Mirzas feu
upon the advance and defeated it. They then attacked'
A.bul Fazl's vie11 is diffeJ'ellt. lie says that Ibm
Him, ,who' wttS as able with the swohl as he was wa.nting
;;, sense, quarrelled tuif.h hi,< lirolhtfs, left . I hem
'wit!, the crude design or makitrg an nlttmpt on the capi-
lal.-A libar-namti.
.. A.bdil Fazl ntd Fai;.i stale that the rebels emlenv-
ourcd to, luat and gain time for the arrival of expet:lelf
reinforcements.-Akbarnamn. '
Lhe right, jVhi,ch was lmder Kutbud dill Muharoma(l.
Kltan, ann ft alsc:i. Shah Muhammad re
a , woun9 and llcd. The5e two divisions being.
broken, fled towards Ahmadabad. Kutbud din's camP'
was plundored,. and Shaikh MublUlUllad Jlukbari" was
killed., 'When K1>an saw the defeat of his right
and left, and the C-alt of Muhammad llukharl, be rcsolv
ed. to make a.. bold attempt to retrieve matters, and to
d1sh ii>to the fight. 'But llidaf>h Khan, who was bjmself
iJ. man of war, held his bridle, and woulcl not fee him go-.
Whe!t the men dispersed in .o'f p)urider,
af\d there remained but ew in 'Azam KbaiJ, witli:
llidagh Khan, formed his ranks and fell upon the
enemy's centre. :Sy God's help, victory declared it\ their
favour, and the foe was scattCled on every siclc.
Khan Fuladi, in a fol'lom and helpless state, went to
A.,Yn Khan, the ruler of Junagarb, and there found re
fuge. Muhammad Husain Ued to the Dekhin ..
Tbis victory was WOI\ oo the 18th Ramazan, 980.
. after setting in at fatcan,
left Salyld . AbrnacllChan :Baihn lU comrnana a:s
and went to Lhe Emperor . . whom be joined tinder' the
(olt, of Surat, O!J the '20!h Shawwal, and reponed the de
votion and bravery of dte amirs and all the troops. On
his way back, he sent Kutbnd din Muhammad Kha!'
and some other amir.r to Ma'murabncl, in order to
tise Ikhtiyarul Mulk and the defeated troops wlio
\vere scattered in the jungles and forr,;. Kucbn.a 'din
drove I.I:Atjy:uu.J u!k and Lhe other Hli1Jshis out of .the
tool; ,possession' of the forts, and left his,
garris6ns in them. When the Emperor departed -1rom
\ l '
He held J. hf! iagir of Dulalu.-Pai1.i,. ,

Abu-! Fazl atl1'ibutes I he victory to i(.uWtL<L dinr
who ,allied his broken forces, 011d led again to lite
.f.ght., .
. He lta(l 'escaj1ed .. from prison a f.
vol. ii., p. /19.
Surat for Ahmadabad, Kutbu-d din Muhammacl Khan,
the nmirs who had taken part in his campaign,
joinecl him. on the road at the tO\vn o Mabmudabad.
The beginning of this year corresponded with Wcd-
.nesday, 5th Zi-1 ka'da, 980 (lith March, 1573). The Em-
_pcror a>Tived at Alunadabad on the Jasr day of Zi-1
ka'da, :mel tbcrc he entrusted the govc.rnment of
Gujarat to Kh:in-i'a7,aro (Mirza Koka)." On the lOth
.Zi-1 hijja, the he commenced his journey to the
capital. On the 18th Zil hijja, at the town of Haibat-
pur, <)llC' of tbc dependencies of he gave fine
robes at)d horses to 'Az:un Khan and the other am irs
.and cUsmisscd them to jagirs: At the same pla'ce
:Muzaffar Khan (late King o, 'GuJarat) received the . Im-
ticrial bounty. The sarhari of Samngpur and Ujj ain in
Malwa were taken from 'the Rani and granted !)im,
-with fifty lacs of tanl<as in jagir. He was then sent to
:his jngir. The Emperor continued his journey by Jalor
.towards 1-'nthpur. At one stage from Ajmir, he received
a. communication from Sa'id K.4an, tbc governor of
-Y:\lltan, to inform him of the of Ibrahim Husain
... ,. ,__ . . .
'"'-'fzt!: .. J. ' ; I
, " 'J:b"iil!itrf HU5:Un M,irta rom
:Cujarat, be proccep to the towp of ';Mirllia. At
kos !Totti that pla_ce, l).c j>hlndcred a carava1i
' .
"Pattan ,was lo Mir Muhammad Klum-i
ikalan; Broach to Kutbu-d din Muhammad; and Du.laha
:and Dandu/111 to Saiyid l:Iamid Bulthari.-Akbar-nam;.,
. vol. iii., p. 6, and MS. , .
(vof .. ii., p: 149) says, atld a half
in 'jagir,' Saraugpur, Ufjaill atilt tlze .of
. ae h11d with him his youngest brother, ,il.s'u.tl
Husain Mirza.-' Akbarnama,' vol. iii., p. $, ,.
:Sirhindi. '
which was on ics way {ron Gujarat to Agr-J. Upon
aching Nagor, l'anukh Khan, son of Khani Wan, !vbo
governed there 011 behalf of his father, withdrew
the fort," and the Mirza, after plundcri11g the
the poor people iJl the environs of the city, went on.
to Narnaul. Rai Ram and Rai Singh, whom rhc Eru
peror had leFt at Joudhpur with about 1,000 horse to
keep open the communications whet\ he marched illl<>'
Gujarat,. g"Jthcrcd their men and put-sued the Mina. On.
reaching . Nagor, they joined Farrukb Khan, and con4.
nuing the pur;;uit, they cane up with the MU,a. one;
evening at tbc vl!lagc of Katboli;
twenty l<os from
Nagor, but he loo.k. the alarm, aJtd managed to make his
Ou the 211u. Ramazao, \)80, the noops halted on the
banks of a great tank, when the Mirza, who was only <\
little in advance, turn eel back and attacked the ltoops.
'vhich wcr:c in pul'liuit o !tim. The troops -held their. ,
l:f9!'!ld and c;Tefended thcmsclve,s. 'fhrec..timcs the ll1iirza,,
foiming his men. in f)"O div,isionj, them on tv.:S:.;
sides, and sl,lowere{l' atfows 'upon them. ' t M
could make no :inmression, he again ftcd. 0ne division
separated i:u the dnrknc.,s, and t11e men were sc;ttcer ..
cd in the neighbouting villages, where they were takctt
prisoners, and of them were put ro death.
200 [ell alive into the bands of farukh Khan and the .
'amirs of Jouclhpur. ,, 'lil'
" Tlie with about SOO mQn who accompanied'.
him; plu,tdered..fhe villages and places in;
crossing lhe JWDna and Ganges, he proceeded 10f
pargana of 'A_2ampur, in rhe district :Pf Samba), whicl,l
bad been his- iag>r w)lile he .was loy.al to
He st.ayed tberc. fiv,c or six days, and ben,!laiP:d (or th<t'
. .
- ' . ' . ., !tp
UTile Mi= be!itged the fort, an4 was mrir upon
tal<i11g tiol. iii., p., 8. Faizi Sirhitldi.
, ""{(ahtoli.''-Bada'tl'Ji vol. ii.; p. 105. "Knll11tOIIi,t;._
...:.'Ah'bar-nama;' uol. iil., p. 8. "Kahtoli."-Fa,i%i. \",
Panjab. He plundered Panipat, Sonpat, K:u:nal, and
.oLhcr places on his route. Many plunderers and advcn
mrcrs joined him and inflicted great wrongs upon the
When he reached the Panjab, Husain Kuli Kllan
Turkoman, A11urn-! 11111/lm of the Panjab, was engnged
with the fo1ces of his province in bt-sieging well
as Nagarkot. On hearing of "Lbe Mina's arrival .
Husain Kuli Kl\;on set off witlt his brother Ismail Kban .
. . . . and other amit-s, and by forced .uarches came up
with the Mirza near the wwn of 'rulambha, Cony kos
from Multan. He was returning from hunting Cree from
apprehension and in disorder, when be ws attacked. His
men were dispersed and were unable to reach Jilin. His
brother l'.1a5ud Husain Mirza, who had come \1p before
lii.m. attacked the troops of Husain Kuli Khan, but wa
ta:ken prisoner. Ibrahim Husain Mirza being unable to
do anything, m11de off: Upon arriving nc;u Multan, he
wanted It> pas. the Gara, which is the name of the 1ivcr
'fonued by the junction of: tbc Biyah and Satlcj. But it
was nigla, and he had no boats, so he acsted on the bank.
A party of ]hil.t, who arc lishcnnen dwelling about Mul.
;ran, ' made an attack upon him in the night, and the
'?Vliria received a wound i11 bl$ throat ft'Om an anow.
-Se'eing"no 'otber means. of escape. be quickly change<l ' bis
oclotbes, and separating from his people, endeavoured to
-get away. But some of the people of that conntry rc-
cognitcd him, , took him ptisoner, artd carrieq him co
"Sa'id Khan at Multan, al)d' in the custody of the Khan
'he died.
' On the 12"th Mllhamipt, 981, i n the cigllteenth year .
-of the reign, the Emperor paid a visit to tbe tomb of. J
'Kbwaja Mu'inu-d din Chlshti, and observed the usual
-ceremonies, and dispensed his customary gifts. He rc-
' lta(t received a severe WQttnd, and died ' soOII'
dlfter his uol. iii.; fl. 12: iJad11uni,
-vol. ii., p. 15'9.
.n"taincd there a and every morning and evening
paid a visit to the tomb, showing strict attention to all
the observances: From thence he swrtcd for the capital,
:tnd on reaching Sanganir, he left his camp and went on
.cxpre$$, with a few attendants to fathpur. In two
.lind o'nc clay he reached the town of Bacbuna, twelve
ltOs irom Fathpur. To secure an attspicious time, he rc
nainecl there three and on the 2ncl Safar he arrhe<l
(There ivas a brahman named Br;,)uua Das, a bard
who was above aU his com
:J.>ecrs for his skill in celebrating the ncbicvctl_leuts of great
men, and he usc<l to make excellct)t Hindi verses. He was
rome years in the rorvicc of the Enlpcror, and was admit
,ted among the number of his private attendants, when
he rcceivecl the tiLie of li.ab Rai, chief of poets)."
When the Emperor's J'avour was ali,enatcd from Raj a
Jai Chandru;, Raja; he otders put
ting him ih c<in6n<!ment, The Raja' s son, Bacli Clfa1:1tl,
"ltbouglt a 1ninnr, assumed the place of his father, and!
-deeming bun as dead, bt-oke out in revolt. The Umpcror
having given to Kab Rai the ti tle of' Raja Birbal,
bestowed upon hirn the country of Nagarkot. Hereupon
farrnan.r were sent to Husain Kuli :&.han, and the amirs
<if the Panjab commanding them to take Nag:ukot front
Badi Ghant\, and place it in tlte possession of Raja
Birbal ... Birbal in Hindi signifies courageousand great,
his title means "Brave and migbty Raja".
This. t>assa'ge is marginal adllition appa
from .
Jn the MSS. the "ame is more frequently wntt.m
"'Birbar"; b111 lhe m01e familiar Jorm 'luis been lle,e i
' .. Abul Fa:l in t?. , S<:tliJCil
1centh year of the wl. u., fJ 426.
When the Raja arrived at Lahore, Husain Kuli.
Khan,. . . . . and other nobles of the Panjab, set out for
Nug-arkot. On reaching Dmnbari, the holder of that .
place, whose pame w:IS Choto, and who was a relative of
Jai Chand, relying on the security of ltis fort which he
!tad strengthened, kept bitltsclf in private, and sent two
valtils with his offerings . . He also sent a message cxcus
ing himscl from attending iu penon, on the ground of
his feat-s and anxiety, but he undertook the duty of keep
ing the roads cleat'. Husain Kuli Khan presented the
tmMls with robes and sent th,'l.n b"ck. Leaving a part r
of men at a village sintated near the opening of the road.
be went onwaxds.
On arriving nt the fort of Kmila, he pitched his ,-amp .
Trus fort is a very high one. It fo<medy belonged to Raja
Ram Chanda of Gwalior;" but Raja Dbann Chand aucr.
Raja Jai Chancj. bad obtained possession of it by force.
The officers left in chru-ge of lhe fort by Raja J :li
Chand discharged muskets and artows and agninsa.
the troops who had dispersed in search of: and
inflicted damage. Upon hearing of this, Husain
Kuli Khan mounl.ccl his horse with the otbct amis to
reconnditre the place. He ascended a bill which is oppo
site! t oJ and commands it. With great labour
some .guns were brought up the hill, .and .opened ,
upon the fort: lts cracketv was shattered by tho'
balls. A large number
men stood under, the walls, and'
great loss wa$ suffered. As evening approached, be t-e
turned to lhe camp, leaving a force in charge of lhat posi
't.ion. Durin.g lhe night, :the Raj puts who were i'n the
fortress, .and were terrified by the cannonade, made tbeh-
In the morn.ing Khan, !>eating his
'drums, marched into the fort of, Kutila, wlliclt he deli-
vered over to the Raja of Gwalior, to whose ances!ors if
1\ad formerly belonged; btit be left a gnrri.\on o hi's
there. ,
The Gwaliol' in 'the hillJ.
NlZA)WD DlN ,ftfiMAD
Continulng his march, he came to a thicltly wooded
country, through which itr was. difficult even for an ant
or a snake to creep; so a party of men was set to cut
a road through the jungle. On the lst Ra jab, 990, h<>
encamped by a field of maize near Nagarl:.ot. The fort-
ress (hisar) of :Shun, which is an idol .temple of MabamaiF
and -in which none but her servants dwelt, was taken bj'
the :valour and resolution of the assailants at. the first
nssanlt. A party of Rajputs, who had resolved to die.
fought most desperntely till they were all cut down. A-
munber C?f :Brahmans, 'bo for many years had se>.-ved the
temple, never gave one thought to flight, and were killed.
Nearly 200 black cows belonging to the Hindus, during
the struggle, bad crowded together for shelter in the tem--
ple. Some savage Turks, while the 'arrows and bullets.
were falling like rain, killed these cows one by one. They
tben took oft their boots and filled them with the
blood, and cast it upon the roof and walls ol the
The outer fortieatiops having fallen, the buildi_ng5'
were destroyed and l evelleq to make -a campinl groun,d.
After this the fort was invested. Sabo.ts were formed, and
a m6t1tld com'manding the fort . (sarkob) \vas raised. Some
large grim were also placed upon a neighbouring hill,
and were !ired several times a day upon the fort altd the
residence of the Raja. One day the commander of the
artillery fired a large gun upon a place which the Raja
had tbougbt to be safe, in which he was siitin.g ,at
meat. T"'-e )lall struc)< the walls, and killed nearLy eighty.
people "Who within tile Among. them. 'was.
Bhuj son of Raja Takbat Mal. . , , . ,
,l,_tn the beglnnin,g of C3JUP' ron-.
Lahore wirh the intcll!gence that lbrahin} Husain MirziL
had Satladn (S!ltlej), .and was upon
Dipalpur. Husain Kuli' Khan held a seq:et ,oouncil with,
t!Je amirs about the course nl!lcessary to be, pursued. The
army was suffering v-c,at lli1d the dogs in the
torq:esswere an.,iou$ for peace, ' o-Htbain Kuli fel,t:.

Tllc in!idcls unde(tOOk to pay
a large. mbute: five ma11s of gold, Akbarshahi weight,
.and\ various kinds of stuffs for His Majcsly. A mosque;
was founded in fro)lt of the palace of Raja Jai Chandat .
.and the completion of the first arch a pulpit was
and Haftz Muhammad :nakh: read the in
name of the Emperor on Friday, in the middle of
Shawwal, 980. As he repeated cbe titles of the Emperor,
,gold 'vas showered upon his head. When peace was '
.concluded, the klmtba and the ocins stamped wil11
.chd Emperor's name, Husain l(uli Khan marched away.
He tlten proceeded against. Ibrahim Husain Mirza.
At 'the town of J anl<tri . be paid a visit to chc jl()ly
Khwaja 'Abdu-sb shahid, who presented him with ' his.
garment, and sent bis bles'sings with him. When he
!reached Tulambha, he achieved the victory, whid1 has
already been described. Upon lHs Majesty arriving at
Fatbpur after his campaign in Gujar'\t, Husain Kuli
Khan took Mas'ud Husain Mirza with hirn, , aud
went to wait upon the Emperor. The other prisoners ..
nearly 300 in number, were presented to the eyes of the
Emperor with cow-hides placed on their necks in a
.fashion. The eyes of Mas'ud Husain Mir't<l
' .
Kuli O/ Mt !a'rm'rs' . to '!five.
him a written ofJ'iruon, signed and sealed, in favour of
granti11g a capitulation. Ab!J.ol Fatl gives a somewhat dif
fermt versio11 of the teims. 1. The Rtija wa.r to senti his
.daughter to the Emperor's harem. 2. To pay a proper
.tribute. J. To give his c/1ildren atld some relations . ILl;
hostages for the SttrretJdM of the fort, if the l!nnp..-or .re
fused to mtify the peace. 4. To compensate Raja Birbal
jor 'the loss of his V.ol,.' iii., p. ,10!.
Faiti Sirhiiuii incorporates the iJil1'sions .,, the 'Ta.IJaTcat"
.((n(L. '1?fbatnama.' "' ., '
c"u ,
ChMmahae gat> dar' gttlu tir.ldalthtah!' Such are
.the w(ml!s<>ln .the text an/J. in Fai1:i. Charm.-i gottntans n
Gr' tti!fl} the American "cpwflide"; but Abo! Fa:l
were sewed up, but the Emperor in kindness_ ordered
;them to be opened. Several of the prisoners wcre.libefc,.
-cd, but SOJDC, who had taken a leading pan among the
aebcls, were kept in custody. On the day Sa'id
Khan arcivcd, briuing with him as an offering the head
.of I!iralilin Hu;-ain Mirta, <LDd be received distinguished
marks of favour .
. , '\Vhen the Emperor rctumed l:rom: Gujarat, ,there
<remained no in that country, all the torts
"(ere in the hands of his servants, and snch of his 'troops
bad not ervcd on the c;ampaign were .sent to strength
.en 'Azam Kbnn. llut he hacl harclly been six months in
'his capital. when news of fresh outbreaks came in time
,., ftcr time, and 't\?.,m Khan wrote for rcinforcc-
Y.VJ." .. N'l';S WHICH OC..<;URKl-:1> fN GU.JARAT
'Wh-en the Emperor bad settled the all:airs of Gujar'\t,
aha ba<l returned to his the disaffected f&
''lielUO\Ismcn, who had crept. i11to an4 bidd!\Q.
rhemselvC$ in dread ob the,royaJ fi\!'Ce$, <,mcetf)Gre, raisc<!
tlidr heads. Having> ..Ssembled rouitd ., llhtiyar11r
'Mull(," tl1ey got . pooses..tou of Alunadnagar and the
surrottnding territory.
Mtibammad Husain Mil'za left the Dekhin" with
tbe intention of attempting t!Je recapture of Sucac.
Kalij Khan, who ,.as jagiHlar of the fort,_ ma'de, it
and prepared for a .siege; so Husain Mirza gave
'\tp me project, and made a rapid march uponi-{Knm
., J .
make$ miUter clear. He w;s, "1'ht! f}fiSontr.i 'weril
br,Jught in cow . from which the horns : lind 1101
ll>een 14k:e'ti away.".:.-liftbarnama, vol. iii., 11. <'J.(
-He, was in the neighbourhood of, l dar, and was
:.!tqJfJorted by Rai Na;ain, the 'mmintlar. of that place.\
,4/;bar-tl(lnla, v.ol, ,iii., p. H. , l : ;. . .
"The neigiJ,Iiotirno6t:! of IJ<i'uf.altibad.-I b. p. ,u
.\ .
36 AKilAI<.
bay."' Hasan Khan K:u:karah, the Sflikkda>; being u11r
able to make any resistance, fied to Abn1adabnd ...
Kbani 'azam sent Naurang Khan and Saiyid
Ahmad Bukllari against the Miv.a, while he himself
marched to Ahmadnagar and I dar against Ikhtiy3lul
Mulk." When Naurang Khan and Saiyid Bukbari ap
proacbed Kambay, Muhammad Husain Mirza came out
to meet him. Sharp fighting went on for seveml days,
and Saiyid Jalal, son of Saiyid Bahau-d din Bukhari,
was killed. At length the Mirza was worsted, and lied
to join lkhtiyarul Mulk. 'Azam Khan, who had march
cd against Ikhtiyarul Mulk. took a position nea
Ahma<Lnagar. He several times attacked him, and
ing went on for several days, between Alunadnagar ancf
ldar with no decisive result.
I ntelligence now c:u:ne that the sons of Shcr Khan
Fuladi, the son of Jajbar Khan, and Mirza Muhammad
Husain had joined Ikhtiyarul Mulk, and had formed
the plan of making a Tapid marc\1 by a different road t@
Ahmadabad. On being informed of this, Khan-i 'azan"
marched for that city, and when he l'cachcd it he sent a
messenger to sutumon Kutbud din Muhammad Kharr
from Broach, who accordingly marched and joinecf
Rhani 'az.,m at Ahmadabad. 1\Ultiyarul Mull:. and
Muhammad Husaitt Mirza, and the , other got
logether. a force ,of 20,000 ll\en-Mugbals, . Gujaratisr
Habsbis, Afghans, and Rajputs-- around Ahmadabad:
The Raja of Idar also kept up a connexion with them,
Khani'azam and Kutbud din, being unable to
pend upon some of their men, shut themselves up in
the towp, but sallied out every day, and fought under
'the walls. One day Fazil Khan, son oE Kbani kalan,
went out and made a bold attack upon tile enemy, and,'

.He g'?t . possessiim of BToafh 0>1 Ttis way:-1/J. p.
)J .
.,Abu-! Fll%1 imfJ!ltes to'' Hn.ia" )(fia'n:- -
lb. p: IJ: . .
!killed several men; but he was slai.n by a thrust from a
spear. Khani'azam c:Uily seuc of de.'!patches to the Em
peror, calling for assistance. 'lhe Emperor therefore
resolved once more to raise his harmer in Gu jarat, co
clear the country of the rebels, and to uproot their
'I'he, Emperor summoned his clerks and officials, and
gave thCI)"I directions to provide for the . outfit of an
army. The fonner campaign had lasted a year, and. the
througl1 the length of the nw:eh were without 3Jlo
coutrement.s. After returning they had not had suflici
. em time to get money from their jagis to replace their
necessarie.'l. His Ma_jesty therefore issued money from
the public treasury to the soldiers, and made libtr.l/-
grants for procuring the materials of war. He sent
Shuja'at Khan" on in a(\vance with his. camp equipage,
and he sent with it his horses under the cha.rge of
Khwaja Aka K.ban: He personally enjoined the diwani
officers co use t.\le greatest despatch in outfitting the
atllly. 'to. expedite matters he on the same day scn.t
men of his advanced 'guard, out of the city to join . his
camp equipage. He said that although he''
was exerting himself .in the organization and despatcll
of the nrmy, no one would be ready sooner than himself
to take his part in its work.
"When several R"lir< with their troops lUld been
in motion for Gujarat, he bestowed the title of Khan.'
jahail upon Husain J>,uli Khan, who had rendered
service, anli he increased his jagirs and allowances . . He
to him the government 'Of Lahore . and, the
s!'kar of tbe Panj ab, and then dismissed to his duty.
Each person who sought for an increase of dignity, or
for an increase of his allowances, met,, with a
hearing. Raja Todar was , ordeded , t.o j o'i'n }Ulan
jahan Husain ,Kuli. Khan, and to gi.ve him and the
' '
j . Raja Da.t 1md Rai Singh were sent wit/
lti"'.-i.lkbar-namo., vo/. iii., p-. 18. . .
amirs o( t.ltc l'anjab the beuelit of his experience and.
advice in the management of the province. All the
timirs of the PJutjab took their leave with Kban-jaban<
excepting Mirza Yusuf Khan. The Mirza :uul Muham
mad Zaman, who exhibited great intelligence, were. to.
accompany the Emperor. Sa'id Khan, the Ruler of
Multau, was sent lo his jagir, taking with him his
brother Makllsus Khan, who had been: pmmotcd.
In the carlr nwming of Sunday, 24th Rabi-u'l akbir,
!18), Ute l?.mpCI'Or, with his companions ;,nd
mow1tcd swift she-camels/' took their departure .
On .that day he ode to the town of Toda, without
drawing rei n. Thete he ate what he cotLid get a11d con
tinucd his jom'ney. On the morning of Monday, he
took a short rest at Hunsmabal, but quickly resu:m.ed
his jourpcy. One watch of the night of Tuesday had
when he reached the village of Mu"ir.,bad.
was now faiigued," and several oE his attendants had
dropped btbind, so be stayc'l a few hours to take rest.
After his attendants lta<l mmc up, he mnttntcd a fast
going <art,"" and travcllc<l :>IJ .oight. (ln he
Abu-1 Fazl (vol. iii., fl. 18) agrees. The wo1ds usut
a'i-11 ttln\mc.-t.a and uaha; om! t/u annotator of the Akbar
nama, g;vcs M a11 explcmatioiJ. t11c Hindi sandrti. Acc01
1fing to .Bailmmi (vdl. ii., f>. 165) the animals "IJ/ere- bukh-
tis; or two-humped camels. Ilnizi ttes bOth tll1'ms, jum
maza and bukhti. '
Abo11t seventy milt:! W. by S. fo,, Agra. "Ht:
f!roceedetf b) way of Basawar and Tocla, GJld accom J'
f11ishcd JQO ltos i1t two days. On tht: 26/h ftc a,.,ived at
A:J.rrtir.''-.Badauni, vol. ii., fi. 16J.
l '\; Tl!irty :miles S. W: from !aipur.
.. '"! to Faizi; /is limbs lidd to be .
taith to ass!lage the effects or tht: friction. , ,.
Here the T . . AI(i says they rode 011 swift female
1-amel$; 8ut- Abu-! Fazl agrees as td the carriage's;o-,Ait.bar-
nnma, vol. iii., p. 19. . .
re<ched he tomb of JUiwaja Mu'inu-d din Ghi.shti (at
"'hexc he went through the usual obseJVances.
and bestowed his girts upon the poor. .He rested of a
while in the palace, which he had built for his own ,uslip
but towards the end of the day he otOnnted his horse,
:uld continued his journey. Among his attepdants when
he started were Mina Khan, son of K.han-khana11 nai
rani, Asaf Khan Kokn, Zain Khan Koka, and .. . . The
night was bt,ight moonlight. In the morning they joined
Shah Kuli Khan Mahram, and Muhammad Kuli Khan
Taghbani, who had been sent on in advance from Fatb
pur. The intelligencers now brought the infomtation
of the royal army having marclu!d. His Majest)' alight
cxl at the town of" Pnli,"' which was near at llaud, and
then, having chosen K.hwaja 'Abdu-lla, Asaf Khan
Bakshi, and Raisal Darbari, he took them along witlL
him. On the 2nd Jumada-1 awwal, 981, .he reached the
town o Disa, twenty kos from Pattau, in Gujarat, where-
the s/likkdar .... came forth to meet him . . His Majescy
now $ent Asaf Khan. to Mul;lammad Khan directing hillll
to collect his ,aud join "die party .at (hl! tOWJi of"
Ralisana, fl:om Pattan. In: the middle of the
night His Majesty started from Disa for llalisana. ond
turning aside from Pattan, came in sight of llalisau:t
in the morning, and. there halted. Here. he \VllS joined
I Distance 140 kos-Faizi. "228 miles!'-1'/ioi'fl
ott> {.;:
'tt, .-oulc fron: Ajmir was /ry Milha, , thirty
miles. to .the N. W. ]itaran fort,yfivc miles S. W!>"Thirty-
miles farther to Sojltal, and from tll.enc,e t,wenty to -Pali.
FrDm thence t l> Bhagwanp,tr. He now wuhe"d. .to toke
t he shortest' road by SirDhi; but as that. was. dange>,
ous, /tis atie11dants raeri i11 favour of ]alor. The gtlide;
pretended to lose the tuav iti the night, and they went to
]alor, and .so, on to Pattanwai.-Akbar.fuJma, vol. iii.,
p. 20. . . t
About five m_i/es southeast of Patlan. ; .i
40 . . -\KAR
.by Mir Muhammad K!1an witll his army and all his
.amirs and attendants, sucll as .. .. and a. party of the
prin.cipal Rajputs, sucll as Khangar, the nephew of Raja
.llhagwan Das; who had previously marched {rom ],'ath
pur to support Khani'azam, but wilom caution had res
.trained from advancing beyond Pattan.
, An order was now issued for aU tile troops to <<ppear
fully . armed and accoutred. The amirs accordingly
!brought out their men, and the Emperor reviewed them:
Although he had full trust and hope of heavenly assist
ance, he neglected no material means of success . . He gave
:the coiXUll.and of the centre, which is the place c. the
Sultao, to Mirza Khan, son of (the late) Khankhanan
.llairam Khan, a young man' of great parts and pro1nise.
lie also a'ppointed Saiyid Muhammad Barhat a
man of great bravery, and Shuja'at Khan and Sadik
K11an to the .celltre. The command of the right was given
ro Mir Muhammad Khani kalan, and that of the left to
Wazir Khan. The advance, composed of a number of
brave fellows, was placed under the commantl of Mu
bammad Kuli Kh:tn and Tarkhan Diwana. His Majesty
kept under his own immediate direction 100"' horsemen,
,men who bad b.een picked out from a thousand-a
1h:sqve intended to' support any division which might be
:liard pressed. Strict were issued that no ma11 was
.to stray tom his place.
Althongh the horsemen under his colours were 'only
.3000 in number, attd the enemy had more than 20,000,
!he put his trust in God> and in the latter part of the day
nutrclled from BaHsana towards . Ahmadabad. A messcn
was sent to apprise Khani'azam of his approacll. He
m'arclled all night, and on Tuesday, 3rd Juma4al awwal,
1benre;tcbed Kari, a .town twenty kos from Ahmadabad.
'\!'be scouts now brought in the intelligence that a large
1rt -t .. ,1' I' , ,
. ": This is the number given by Abul Fazl, Badauni
.(vol. ii., p. 166), and Firishla; but one of our MSS. has
. .
! )
I '

force of che enemy bad come out of the fort io give
battle." Orders wer:e accol"dingly given to atta4 them,
and drive chem from che road, but not to incur any em-
barrassment by attacking fue fort. This was accom-
plished in the twhlkling of an eye, and lllose o che
eneiny. who escaped the sword, thl'ew themselves into the
fort , Leaving the fort untouched, in obedience td
orders, the army marched five [tos from Kari', where iti
rested till dawn.
As soon as it was ' light, the bakhshis drew up che
forces, and marched on without drawing rein to a place
about three kos from Ahmadabad. Orders were given
for every man to arm hi.nlself, and the royal armoury was
opened, so that every man who had lost or damaged a
weapon might choose one to snit him. Asaf Khan was
sent to Khan-i ' azam, to inform him of the proximity of
the Emperor, and directing him to cll'ect a. junction.
Thus, in nine days, fue Emperor marched from Fatbpur
. ,to the of Ahmadabad, a feat which it is diffi:
culc.. for the pen to desqibe.
lt Was now dlscoverecl that' tl1e enemy, drunk with
were asleep .on llle bed of heedlessness. quiti
unaware of the approach of the royal army. The feeling
ran lllrough the royal ranks, that it was unmanly to fall
upon an enemy unawares, and that they wollid wait till
he was roused.'' When fue blast of the trUmpets was
beard th.e enemy, in amaze and alarm, rushed to thei'll
h.oxses." Muhammad Husain Mirza advanced wir.h two
... Undef- the command of Roliya, an offiCer serving,
un<Ur Khan Fuladi.-Akbar-tl<lma, vol. iii., p. 2J.
This is probably figurative. (/,vol. ii.,
.p: 166) emplclys a more common sir,ilel . "the! 'sleep of.
"The battle wru fl!ught on tire .5t), ]ttmacla.-
.o.wwal.-Akbar-nama vol. iii., p. 26.
Senne a rcinf01'cerrnmt' ltad arrived for
.1 hemselvcs, and others that it was a force come fro!"
42 AJ.i.UAR
or three honcmcn to the bauk of the river to
the trutlt, and it so happened that Subhan Kuli Turk
had 'J]so gone down to lhe river wilb two or lhree men
from our side. Muhammad Husain called out tO
Subban Kuli, inquiring whose. army it was, and he was.
answered lhat it was the Emperor, who had marched
from . .f'athpur to punisb traitors. The Mirta replied,
''.My spies have infom1cd me that fourteen day ago the
Etnperor W<IS at lhuhpur; and if this is ibe Imperial
army, where arc t.he royal elephants which always accom
pany it?" Subllan ' Ali said, ''How could have
travelled wirh tts 400 lw.r in nine days?" Muhammad
Husain Mirza anmzcd and troubled lo his army,.
and drawing ont his forces, he prepared for battle. He
directed llittiyar Khan to. take. oooo, horse, ;md
Khani 'a1.am rom sallying out of the city.
" the time for delay dlew to an end, the En
peror directed tltc advance to cross the river, and that
Wazir Khan also should cross with the left. 'J'his being
done, he himself Cl'ossed over at tlte head of his cho.1c1l
Some little confusion occurred in tlte passage, but
ibe troops all got over togethet, and aclv;ulced a short
1\istance on the other side, when a strong force of the
view. Muhrunmad Husain Mirza, witlt
l500',Mughals," all devoted men of his ow11, came up
nd f-ell . upon 'tlic advanced force under Muba.rnnui
Kuli Khan. and Tarkhan Diwan.-t. Simultaneously the
Habshis and Afghans attacked Wazir Kban, and chen
the fight !,'l'CW close and warm.
The Emperor perceived some signs of weakness and'
distress in the adva1rced force, so he ga1'e the word, and
P'largcd the enemy like a fierce tiger. Anotl1cr bodl)' of
t.he 1'oyal forces pame .tp and took them in flank. Saif
Rattan to sPPort Khani kaliln.-Akbarnama, .vol. iii.,.
1' 26.
'File name is genernlly spell "Mughul" in
w()rk. ., ...
Koka made a l-ash charge and was killed. Muharo
lnad Husain Mirza and Shah Mirza struggled manfuUy.
but illlud:. .attended them, so they turned aud fled. The
royal troops advanced and cut olf H.is Majesty
with several of his men drew up and stood fast. Muham,
mad 'aus:.in Mir:m had .reccivccl a wound, and in
to make his escape, he put his . !)ou;c at :L thorn
llcdge. but the animal fell. One of the royal uoops', a
'lurk named Gada Ali, who puxsued him, threw
self from his horse and made him prisoner.
Wazir Kl1an on the left fought well aml bravely, but
t.he Habshi and Gujat-ati troops made cbal)ll' a(tcr
charge, lJJl ti\ they became acquaintc<l with the defeat oe
M ubammacl' Husajn Mitza and Sbah Mlr1.a. 'l'ben tbey
also turued theiL backs. Mir Muhammad Khan on the
right drove back the !!Dns of Shcr K.ban Fuladi, and put
many of their men to the sword. Victory now dedarcd
(t:Sclf on side, :md His Majesty :returned ttiumpq
ant to his couch, which was placed at chc edge of the
and there"lte off'ered up 'his' tbablil; for' the'
victorf ! it -1 ; "' 4'
. 'Gada and a sewant of Kbani' kalan;<
ilo.w brougbt in the wounded Muh;mtmad Husain Mirza
a prisoner, each claim to the honour of t1Lptnring.
him. R.'jn Birbal asked him who made hint ptisoncr.
;md he rcplfed, "Ing-atitudc to His Majcstyi" iuid
tntL)t. H.is spoke a few kind wor?s'.to
!lmk. \'nil . gave him mto tltc custody of R.u $lllgh.
Ainting taken wM a mlm nath&l. ,biatd'
Azamai Sltab, who iledared himself , '9f, Mirza
Husain. His Majesty him' tQ tb'<; . earth:
.wjtlt jJ?Car, and the attendants cut ltirq p1eces with:
their It was aftenvru:ds Found ollt' i:hat be bad'
killed in; the of Sarna!, brother of Raja
Bhagwan Das. '
.. ,
AccO?'tU!lg to Abu'/ .Fru:l, it WllS the knowledge.#,'
An l10ur after the victory was won, another large
.division of the enemy
its appearance, and the
ved.ettcs brought the information that it was Ikbtiyaru-l
Mulk Gujarati. He bad been chal'gcd with the duty of
dosing the road against 'Azam Khan, but when he heard
of the defeat of the Mirzas, he left the city roads and
came out into the licld. flis Majesty ordered a force to
ndvimcc and assail him with ru:rows. When he .came itt
sight, some lietce horsemen charged and the
troop which precec!cd him. Ikhtiyru:u-1 Mulk in his
f.right east a look upon the hill whereon the royal stan
'liard was planted, and he (and his men) rat\ off 011 both
sides o it in such disgraceful panic that the royal t1oops
pulled the arrows out of tbe quivers of tl)o fugiti.ves, .ap,d
used them against them. A Turkoman D.a.mcd Suhr,ab
ow recognised Il:.htiyaru-1 ?ylulk, and pursued him.
Coming to a thorn hedge, the fugitive endeavoured to
make his horse leap over, but the animal threw him.
Suhrab Beg dismounted and took him prisoneJ, lkbti
y.tru-1 Mulk said, "You look like a Turkoman, and the
Ttrrkomans are followers of 'Ali. l belortg to the Saiyids
of Bokhara, do not kill me." Suhrab Beg replied, "I
. rccognizc.d you and pursued you. You are lkbtiyarul
'Mull:..'' ,. ':rJlus l1aving said be cut off his head and rc
turnd:l' to mount Jiis horse, but some one bad tali:en it, so
J1e wrapped the bead in the skirt of his garrocllt and
'<Walked back. At the time that lkhtiyaru-1 Mulk advanc
ed towards the hill on which the Emperor was sta11ding, f
tbe Rajputs of Rai Singh, who had charge of Muham
!Jlad Husain Mirza, cast the Mirza off an elephant to the
:ground, and despatched him wlth a spear.
. ,After the victory, 'Az.am Khan and tbe other officers
been besieged in the city cante out to the Em
'this fact which induced the Empei'Or' to kill him_;....j
AJ.bar-nama, vol. iii., p. 36.
"More than 5000 in Jumber.''-Ahbat'namiJ., vol.
p. 37; Badltuni
vol. ii., p. 168.
peror, who bestowed upon the Khan many m<!J:ks of his
appro\-al. To every one. of the Khans he gave promotiOtL
or other diltinctions, and he had hardly finished. with.
them, when Subrab Beg Tutkoman came up ancl threw
down the head of lkbtiyarul Mulk. When the Empero,;
saw it, he praised him and libernlly rewarded him; and
thM he ordered that a pyramid should be raised 6 the
heads of rebels who had fallen in the t:attle, and
these were more than 2000 in number. After this be
proceeded into Ahmadabad, and occupied the royal
abode, which is in the citadel. The men of the city of
all ranks waited upon him witll their offerings and conr
gratulations. He rested ftve days m the citadel, and tnen
he removed. to tbe house of 'ltimad Khan, it\ the middle
of the city.
His lirsc net was w. sec :hat all those 1vho bad ren .
good service in this camp.tign, especially those who-
had distinguisltcd themselves in tbc battle, should receive
due reward, in advanced a..!'d increased allow
ances. ;Eloquent sctibes- were . employed to write des
patches 'of tlie .viFtory, and fhe heads of ' Muhammad
Husain ,Mitza and lkhtiyarul Mulk lvere sene ro be hung.
UP. over the gates of Agra and i'atitpuf.
Mter attending to the wants of the poor people of
Ahmadabad, he sent Kutbud din Muhammad Khan and
Nawa11g Khan to Broach and Cnampanir, to uproot the.
wwer of Shah Min.a. Raja Bbagwan Das-, Shah Kuli:
. Lashkar K.hau MirBakhshi, and scveral
were sent ldar, to ravage ,the country which R:IM ua;
Singli had a!)audonoo. Tbe governinent of 'Pattan was-
.'1-gaill confided to Mi.r MuhamrnaaKhan (Khani Kalan)!.
_Waiu: Khan waf to ' i:>ulaka arid .Dandtka, and
.he was t(\ support K.bani 'azam. ' .II ,
When the Emperor had =iic all hiS h.rrangemeutS,
b,e resolxcd to retu'fi:/ ' home, !.nd
or\" J6di
'Jumada.\ awwal, he left Ahmadal)ad for Mahmudabad;.
and rested in the lofty and fine palace of Sultan Maltmud'
of Gujarat. Khwaja Chiyasu-d din. '>\li Bakhshi, who bade
oxcn<lcrc<l good service in tllis campaign, received the title
.() Asaf Khan, an<t he was appointed diwan and l>akshi
.of Gujarat, so he remained behintl with Khan-i 'azam.
The Emperor travelled hy 1tight from Dulaka to Kati,
.. and from Kari nlstl hy night to Sitapur. Here a despatch
was reccivcd from Raja Bhagwan Das, and Shah Kul>
Mahram, reporting the capture of the fort of Barungar,"
ancl a letter of thanks was returned. He 1\lad.c no otltCf
halt Lill he reached Sirobi, where he gave Sadik Khan
.a cunmtission to chastise rebels nud robbers. On wcdo-
uc.tlny. 3rd Jumndal awwal, 981, he reached Ajmit, ancl
immediately went to visit the tonll> of Khwaja Mu'inu-<b
' din Chisi\Li, aud made liberal donations to the poor,
Next day he departed, and marching night and day, be
reached the village. of Puna, three ltos from Sangat).il;, it)
the' jagir of Ram Das Kachbwaha. Here Ram Das had.
prepared an entertainment for His Majesty and all hi$
-attendants. '
At tbis Tuclar Mal, who ha<l bec11
. directed co lit out a thousnnd boats (kisllli) nnd gllrabs
.at ,Agra, bad an interview with His Majesty. The reve-
nues of had not been paid up satisf:tctorily,
# the ;Raja_ was sent tO asccrwin and settle the ancl
. dtaw up aJl. lifCQU)lt, .of for the royal
The Enipc1-or started at midnight, and rode to
Toda, which be reached on the morning or the 6th, and,
after l'csting for a while, he a!.-ain mounted ancl -cached
Basawar in the middle of tlie night, where he was met
by Khwaja-jahan and Shahabu-d din Alunacl Khan, wl1o
l1ad cOJlle out of Fatbpur to meet him. At dawn he again
.'-started and went to the town, of Bajuna, where lie re
maitied till the following day. He then ordered his
attendants to march into Fatl1pur witli in
h.ands. He himself followed, riding . upon a gray '. h.orse,
;and l}oWng,a spear in )lis hand. Thus he reached 'Fath

..... l;
n A bl>iit: thirt)> miles cast of Patlan.
anu on Saturday, 7th Juruadnl nkbir, having been
.:>bscnt forty-three days.
' . ,,
., .
One the .25th of Jumada:l akl1ir, the ceremony of ci
the young princes was performed, amid great
nn.d congratulations. The ti'!le was now
for beginning the education of. Prince Sali(ll.c. so
011 the 22nd Rajab His Majesty 1\{aulana Mlr
Harawi tq be bis and to instruct hii!l ill ihc
.creed and the Kuran.l'
:,\{uzaff:ar Khan, who had been formerly appointed
to the goven1mcnt of Sarangpur, in the tenitories of
Ahmadabad, w:.s summoned to Court, and t-n the 4th
Rajah be was appointe<l tvazir or prime minister of Rio
-dustan, and received the additional title of : umtatul
Mulki. The general management of the nltairs of the
country was committed to his bands.
h :'!'he aebts of 'Shaikh Bukhari, who was
'killea the 'batHc or 'Pattan, Pima of Saif .M.ltan
who fell ln t!!_&' second-campaign" o'f A:nnadabad, were
ordered to be paid out of the public treasury. The total
:atbountcd to one lac of Akbnrshahi npecs, equal to 2&00
tumatM of 'l.rak. Such a fact hns not been recorded of any
king in books of history. .
Raja Todar Mal, who bad been sent to seitle
-revenues' of Gujarat having made the, necess"!)'
-inerits; no.v bringing the of .
and suitable to'r His He_ :,?a.'s
11tghl y applauded.. After a few days the J!.mperoll gave
llim one of \lis OWl) .swords . and sent him along with
Mir-bakhshi to -serve
'Mu'n!m and assist. in d1e .. .
, -- _Mir!tfuJJsil,l Ri;wi, who ,bad :been-sent _.\)!'\ a ffilSSton
.. i> : The tm'nf lation of ' this and
passages of this section. is a6.-idged.
other unirtfo1tant
; "t_t fo
to the n1lers of tbe Dekhin, returned, bringing with biro
tbc presents they bad sent to His Majesty.
On the '16th Sbawwal tbe Emperor went to pay a
visit to the tomb of Khwa)a Mu'inud d<in at Ajmir, for
although he had visited it thls year , on his return from
the second campaign ill Gujarat, be bad now determined
upon an ilwasion of Bengal; and as this campaign might
lnst longer than a year, he might be prevented from:
making his usual pilgrimage; so he determined to pro
cccd thiU1cr at once, and offer up l>is prayers for divi1u:
belp in his war against nengal. He accordingly set out on
the 16th Shawwal, 981, and rc1nained till the 20th in the
village of Dair.
At this place Dilawar Khan,. assisted
by the Emperor's orderlies (yasawals), was directe? to
protect the cultivated land in the vicinity of tbe camp;
'besides that, trustworthy men were appointed t<>
carefully examine the land after the camp bad passed,
and were ordered to place the amount of any damage
done, against the government claim for revenue. This
practice became a rule in al l his' c:unpaigns, and some-
times eveu b"b" of money were given to inspectors,
s.q that they might at once estimate and satisfy the claims
,of the.-rlli)!lliS, and farmers, and obviate any interference
with th\! .revenue collections. , Continuing his journey,
and bunting as be proceeded, he arrived at a spot se'1n
kos from Ajmir, on the 12th Zil ka;da. Next day he
went on foot to pay visit to the tomb, and from
be repaired to his palace in Ajmir. There be re-
mained twelve' days, visiting the to,mb everyday, and Cl)7
liching the poor with his bounty.
I ,. NINETEENTH YS.'Ut 011 TBf. R'&lCN
.The beginning of this year Corresponded
17th Zi-1 ka'da; 981 H. (11th Ma.rch, 1574
t! ' Mter paying his visit to the tomb of the holy
' '
p. 171.
kos. from Fatllf>ur.''-Badau?li, vol. ii.,
' '
- -

Kl_lw.aja, who ..is the helper and protector of .kings, the
Emperor starred on flom Ajmu' on: the
Zil ka' da. as he went al6ng. he arrived at 'Farh-
pur on: 'thc'll7th Zil ltijja. .
. .
Sulaiman Kirani, one . of the amirs, of Salim Khan
Afghan (Salim Shah), and ruler of Bengal and Bihar, who-
Jtad always in his letters acknowledged a vassal
of the Imperial throne, died while the .Emperor, was
engaged in his Surat campaign i.n the year H. His
eldest son .Bayazid succeeded, b11t he was murdered by
the amirs! and the younger son Daud was raised to the
clnone. Tl1e Emperor was informed that D.aud had
teppcd out of his proper sphere, bad assumed the title
of king; and through his morose te01per bad destrO}'ed
the fort of Parna, which Kban.z.aman built when he was
ruler of Jaunpur. A (armnn was immediately sent to
directing hlm to chastise Daud, and tC>
the country .. ;J 1:. ,, ., , .,; ,., ..
At :that ti:me Daud ."wai at'' Hiljipul>, , and. hls .
noble,r Lodi;' Who wlis 'in oPI!ll hostility to the-
fort of

and fse't up a claim to independence.
Khankhanan Mu'nhn Khan marched with the
against Patna and Hajipur. Lodi, knowing the
destruction of tbe Afghans to be certain, notwithstanding
his hostility towards Daud, made a sort of. peace. !With
The old friendship and respect which.
Khan,)s;hanan liad .for the late SuJaima.n Kirafii-led bim

upon the payment' of' two.- lacy, of

money aM:one lac in stuffs a tlie
.. ,.r:,,..
, ' :f , ;. ' . ;,L G 'l;'"t
u 'f "lfl oonjeque11/:e of his' erl// '(;Ondl<ct!':U.Jladau.ni.
vol. ii., 1/ :1.7 !J, ifcaot'ding. ttJ'Ill.bUl :Fazl, .the .ilniJ'
soninlaw :of< Bayatid, uihose. name ilrzs.-Hallsu,"l6ok a;i
aitive.parttif>lti's; renrovdl. Hein liiHurrvtinr,S. tkilled bY'
Lolli; and i.O<ittil1 tuns; plact!t. ' il-f>qn tire o..lhr.orie.-.Akbar"-
.ama.:t !., .. ..' li'1i1: t i I
' .

.50 AKilAR
forces should be withdrawn. Then having s4nt Jalal
Khan I<rori, he entered into a peace witlL Daud.
But Daud was a dissolute scamp, and knew nothing
-of the business of governin,g. A1. the instigation of
Katlu Khan, who had for a long time held the country
.of J and of Sridhar Hind it l3cngall, and
.tbroiigh !Lis own wanl of judgmem, he seized Lodi his
.ailtiru.-1 11rnara, und put him in confinement under the
charge o Sridhur Bengali. When in prison, Lodi sent
or and Sr'.dhar, and sene Daud t!Lis mcss:!ge, "lf
you comider my death to be Cor tiLe welfare of the conn
l'l'Y, put your -mind quickly at case about if; but you '"i'U
l>e very sorry for 'it a6tcr 1 am dead. You have never
given me'any good wishes or advice, but still I run will-
ing. to Adt upon my counsel, for it
yonl' good. A-ad thi's is my advicee . After 1 am ltill-
.ed, fight tile Mughals without hesitlltion, that you may
:gain the victory. If you do not clo so, the Mughals wilt
attack you, and you will not be able to help yourself.
Do not be too sure about the peace with tlte .Mughals,
they axe onlj bidi11g their time.''
T he power oE Daud and of f\ll t11c Afgha11s was .o11
'thcu vanc: it was God's will that they should fall, and
diat .. the power of the Emperor should be established
over of Bengal. So Daud :tesolve<;l to put
LOdi of the 1lray
and by so doing 'ro estal:ilisb. hiS
authority to his own satisfaction .. Katlu Khan I and
Sridh:u ncvgali had a 1 bitter animosity against Lodi;
and' they 'thought that i,f he were remove(!, offices of
va"il and wati would fall to them, so they made the
best of their opportunity. They represented. themscl'\les
1:0 Daud as purely disinterested, but they repeatedly re-
ininded him o those things which made Lodi's death
Daud, it\ th'c ,ptid.e. and intoxication of yo11!l1,
listl!QJl to .the wotds ,of, tbese sinincr
was put 'to 'death, and Daud' beC2!1le.<tlte
of .JJ.iselcpilants, his treasure, and hi$ troops.,' nut
:he was puffed up with . conceit and folly, and took no

;prccau\i<lns fdr 'coml:)ating his cneitrics a;td' ri!!.Ji'ili!' upoh
rhat :peace which ;f.odi had' cotidri1fc!\:lptie
harosL1ed ''all' care. ' 11 Jl'}"
When the'" death of Lodi i was reporred tO Kha:d-
k!tanan and his circle, which 1vas full of amir.s' <if
.renown, he at once set his heart upon the conqde"st o6
lengal and Lakhnauti, and marched against Paltia and
:Flaji')lur. Io. high pirits he arrived lti ' rhe ' '-'j'cinltY' o'f
!l,'atna. l)aud now deeply regretted. the ,mu}det, of
who', )_ly til's "wid<rJJt, and judg-ment, _and
'kept"thc affairs of Bengal io He marcheod"to'lllafds
Patoa 'and 'w(I.S' at lirst rcwlvc<lupon' battle; l.lu't lie
recoiled from rryiug an action, and fl>
shcltet in his fortifications. J(ban-khanan \va$ di!-
a ightCd wltcu )IC infomted of this l'CSOJutiOU, and lie
already the 'conquest of Palna and Hajipitl-.
Daud, witltout a sword or shooting au arrow, .
retired into the fort of
aud set abouf
ltJi'e' '<vo11s:' . l '' " ' l<l<: (<I
, lGI'!in-lauMtnl 'With_ qif c'6nctmeriC'c ."' JI tlte ' ahiw},
1>roce'&ied w inve8t 'I><!tpa. Upqo this, dlc''Ell!J.
,Perol' dt terruincU tb duect ti1e'l operatiolfs
iatiia and Hajipur. 'Acting after resting 'for a (e<V
days at Fatl\pur, he sont off his camp and elephants b'9'
Jand under the command of Mina Yusuf Kban
one of his cruef ami1s. He placed Agi:a in chatgei
din Ahmad Khan Naishapuri apd embarl<ed
i>:n lloarll . a boat on Sunday tbe la.st day of. Safar, '98'2 H.
'The went .,\/it.h bim. 'the
all his and csta6Jislnnc.ntJ,
\teasure, '1::trpe1s, kircbeii stud,- 'Two
1a,r.ge were prepared fox: his o,9i\l>>iicooriP
nibdati\lh, jn ''hJ witl!;J'hiS
'The boats requned tiy 'the atmrs fbr tbtirlsclves atilt
'their esililliisillnent\l
were in the''tear''of'llie rt:Sy:tr' boats,
and 'so ' thc!y' 0n'
at :''tile -' 1 o.e
line dE the dependencies

hf si:ot>Y,OO:
:and sent a letter to Klianrto
, infom)ation of his approach. On the 1st Rabi'ul awwal
expedition proceeded. .Every day he left the boat
and '"ent hunting on shore." Every day he was joined
. by fresh parties of troops. (Punishment of a brallman
guilty of Willi his daughter) .
. On the 23rd of the month the Emperor readied
Ji!ahabas, which is situated at the conlluencc the
.Gange.s. and Jwqna. This is a great o
for fhe Hind'!s, and contains some fine .buildings. It is
in all parts of the world as a holy place of
the Hindus, who tesort thither from all parts. On the
25tl\ he: ,Bcnares, from whence he sent on Siler
,Beg a' boat to Khan-l<h:man Mti'nim Khan, f
.tO apprisg hirtl of the Emperor's arrival at lleqares . . At
:that , cit);' he remained three taki11g On the
M\h hq reached the villagr of, KQri, a dependency of
at the confluence of. the Gumti" and
and there anchorc(L" Here he wM, waited !'POD
by Mil-za Yusuf Khan, who had broug)lt down the army,
_by land. He now determined that Lntil be 1eccivcd
accurate infclligcncc from Khan-khanan, he and the
prince and his wives go and stay Jattll'
So. )le left the army at this encampment, and
/lP in bc,>ats tq J aUI'\pur. . ,
sani .he reached -..:illpge 9}
a dep,eridenc;y oE Jaunpur. Jl'qre a .
. '
i '" "In the cveping. they edt anchor, .. a the /impe-
ror engaged in 1lpon science amL .poetry,''
,clfrBada."ni, .vol. ii., ,P,. , J'J6. , , ,
, , .,..,"Badnunj }las ]aunpur, and i; . p_rob,-
ablyJ. :f.gfot.. , , . , . ,
. ;Here called in t[le, ;M.s.- ,"Guda
' qnd by
and .by Abu-l Fatl "Kudi". lt'
,ex_pedition. enc11untered three fl<>rms,. ,
and sank.-A)<qar-nama, vol.
,"f:h51, T ., A.lfi wriles ,tqc indi!Jerentl)'!, f.'Jaun
.p.nd ,
. 1,,
.anivcd from urging him
to march on
with speed. So bn the 3rd lie sent on the' young
,pl'inee 1litd ladies to Jaunpur, and then departed on his
campaign against Beng-al. . On the 4th the boats f<:ll
tile Gumti to tile Ganges, and Mirza Yusu:
the tbnfmande' of the llrlfi'y, ,(!aiicil on His Majesty. It
wiis llOW arranged that the army should keilp within
sfght' o the 'royal flotilla. On the 6th the
, plain of Gbazipll!. and the Emperor went
On the 7lh be halted at Gangadaspur, ancl 'bere
>net by 'the ennuch 'ltimad Khan, a distingtiished
who had bee>i rendeti'ng' good service in the siege bf
Pai:Jla, and wi>o now made a full report of all the occur-
r erices t,o His Majesty, and urged him to hasten forward>.;
His Majcscy thereupon directed Saiyid Mirak Jspaha'ni/
one of his principal atte>\dants, who was learned in
charms, tO' seck an augury in bis ' books by sortilc!le. Tbc
augury was favourable, and a few proved its 't.rut,
Od .Tuesday, the 8th Rabi'us sani, be 'encamped ati
we J errY' of {l'rid '.IJ.i.e.t:C a: tlcph't<;b' arri'vell troln.
Khan:J:;hanaq, 1oeP,Orting &!it all
renowned for his ha'd .iliade" a : s<>ttie wiili
pbants and :/. large force 'fl'Om Paton, and had attacked
the besiegers. ' lsa Khan was slain by Lasbkar Khan, one
n the En1peror's men, and a gyeat number of Afghans
!'ell. This news was sent on to the princes. . ; ,.,
On the following day Dilawar Khan was
. ttampq!t the army at the ferry of _ChaunRa, -abd
dte'.) 6th .the army encamped at Lbc ,viUage of! Donnh,
belonging to nhojpur. Kasim 'Ali Khan was now senli
to'itUorm Kban-khanan of the ncar apprdacll <of 'the 'Em
peror, and to l..nquue what he advised rcrbe,ldolie.
. arriiled' bri;'ihis llay . of cohqtiesi oJ
JlllaMr" . T /lis il in 'text, 'but liqs 6ui( placed
a 1tote. Badauni's version is "News arrived . of t.he'
death of S!lltan Mahmud of BiMko.r: 1ind of MuhiWAlf .
.lOtan's oblaining of that country." '
-han adyisc'<l the .Empemr to atl .. ancc as hit.l\erto, him-
by boat and his ar_my by land; and he req ... estccl th;lt
&ome hon;cs might be sent to replace those that bad bccrt,
l'!)ncle.rcd .useless by rains." and atms were
accqr$\iqgly ;-ent. Kh<!ll'kb;ui:m :md the other llmi>:r all-
van"l\d IJYO l1os from Patna to meet His Majesty, who,
qn,!Jot\q lJiJ.h Rabi'ui sani reached his <!.estinntion, :mel
tgJl}'. HP !lis abode in U1e tents of Khankbanan . . .<;>rt'llt
followed, ami rich offerings were made.
, ,, Ql the 17th Akb:u called a cmmcil of waJ: i11 the
tpt).Lii . of Khan-kbaoan, w,ben lte obsCivccl that the siege
h,afl JJ:OW la.jtcd a long time, that he was rcsolvccl upon
place, and upon t-rushing the
,tl1ey ,sb9uld l>c u,naple to 111akc ony funbe,r, rcsist-
in tbe c(ty_ or itt the counm. He
tjli\t beAt to pursue. was to fu-st reduce the fort
which .rendered very materi>tl t<>
tJ!e,g::\lrison of Patna, and that their operations must be
cW"ected to object. The Khans greatly applauded:'
this scheme. At tbat same council Khan-'alam was sent
qll' with tlucc thousand men in boats, with tbc materials;
r.cqy.ircd fot a siege. Raja Gajpati, the zaminclar of
tAAk who hatl many armed adherents, was db:cc-
tei). t9 S\tpport .Kban'alam. ,
#Y. 18th, Khnn'alam , tt1c .r1ver,.
embarked inuncdiatC;IY! . went to siege, to-;IiajiJ>'I'r, ..
'\VIile the by Jand.
It} 01'de.t to see the
field, ,His a battery of Shaham Khan
" 'as up,op. a. hill on tbe bank of the Ganges,..

The rueatlrcr VCI"j st01'my; heal!) raitiSI
ft.JJl " aJJd the wnter.r ruen: much out.--Akbar-nam.a, vol ..
Iii., 1' 76. '
C<?1 .. which stood., opposilq !o Pam a; the Ganges,.
ill ruidth, [lowing .between the'fl).'' -A./tbq>-
'!am.a> J.if., fJ. 73.

!'P tire Gmrdak, -Akbar-tlama; iii.;.

p. 75. .
and from whid1 Hajipur was visible. As, however, he
could get D!> tenain information of what was passing, u>,
the evening, he sent a. party of men in tlu:ce boats. ... to:.
wards }lajipur tO' gain intelligence. Wilen the enemy
s"'"l boats approaching, they sent eighteen boatll-
fpll fighting men <lgainst them . . :But .the thrC<! Impe-
rial. !>pats prevented, them com advancing,, and by Jlard
figbti.t1g ,c,ut their way through, and
Victory now in f-dvour of the lfNP.
:Barha, cOIDll\<llldcr of Hajipur, and ,many Afghans,
were slain, and. the place fell into the hands . of
alam. The head of: Fath Khan Barba and the heads
other Afghans were thrown into boats and sent to the
Emperor. After offering his thanksgiving for this victory
he scot the heads of l'ath Khan and of the others to
Dnucl that he 11\ight sec with his own eyes what had hC-
Eallen his officers, and. might be led to reElect upon his.
o'Yft 1 P9Si!:\6n. Whc'!_ Daud's eyes fell o,tpon these
he plunged into dismay ;wd set his min<l, upon,
, On the same d.ay, the 16th, the QU.,tr,
upon , co

the . and the
cnvioru.s .of the city, , a13d. be asc!!ndcd t11e .
w)lich is opposite the fort. Tills or ".Five
dames;: is , a place built in olq times by the infidels
" iith burnt bricks in five stages. The Afghans who 'vere-
on lhc waUs and. bastions of the fol'tress, saw the EmR"CfOI;
nnd ).tis suite as he was making his survey, and !n,
and recklessness they fired some guns, 3,t the;
Panj-pahad, but they did no injury at all any oJ;>c.
When.,lMud: saw the Impedal in:
the pJai11., and. .when l;le was inform,ed of the Wl o..f
. P.ur;. although he 29;000 borsc;
l.ery; an4
.mi!Jly eteehants, h,e detenni,nell,.. lo ,f.y and,
midnight of Sunday the 21st Rabi'us sani, he embarked:
in a m.ado-h.is escape. Sridhar the -Bengali, who
"FaiziSirhindi follows'> this but Abu-1 Fad $
version is somewhat different. , ..
'"as Daud's 'greaL supporter, and co whom he had givea>
the title of Raja lli! .. cramajlt, placed his valuables andl
.crcasures in a boat and followed him.
Gujar Khan Kirani, who was Daud's minister"
.brought the elephants out, and fled by the rear of tbe
city. On that 'dre'adful night, a foretaste of the day of
ju:dgment, the inhabitants were in a state of bewilder-
ment and despair. Some endeavoured to escape by the
.river, but Lhrough the crowding and struggling many of
dtcm were drowned. Ochers endeavoured to fly by land,
.but were crushed under the feet of elephants and horses
jn_ the narrow lanes and streets. Some in thci'r despaia
C!L<t dowir from the walls and others perished
in the moat. Whe!l Gujar Khan came co the Punpun
.river, he hiseJeph'ants over the bridge; but the
fugiti'i-es in hls rear --so ' Prc.Sedo and crowded upon th'c
:br'ii:lge thai it b'i-ok<; ddwn an<i numbers were precipitat-
ed into the water. Those who c'ame up afterwards tlrrew
1\way their artns and clothes at1d cast themselves naked
into tle l'iver.
Late at night, when the !light of Daud was reported t
die Emperor gave thanks to heaven, and as soon as it
wasl !ight K.hanl:.hanan having assured himself of the
fact, Uie royal' entered ti1C city with great display.
Fifty-six' -elepnants, which the enemy unable to'
carry. olt, were' fonnd in the city atld' paraded o'efbrc-IHis-
Majesty. The date of the tau of Pam a, which was indeed
!the conquest of Bengal, is found in this line "Mulk-i
Sulaiman zi Damt .-aft.'l '(9H3).
' .. :The E:'!lperor rc,m'Ained in the city till four hours of
1tltc ' day had passc.d, "and b 'aving made proclamation ol'
.alnn'esty to the 'inhabitants, he left Khan-kbanan in corn,
.inarla' of ihe 'army; while he hlmself dashed off with a'
i ._u J> . ' ' I ' ' '' h ill
'tiflc ;.,as \R.JJmu-ll v&l!;
t: .. KM"wliicli runs ' frOni'' the s<>itoi,' titla: _into I
Ganges near Pat1'1tJ. ' '
.detacbmenr 'in'. pmsuit .of Gujar Khan and the elephants:
When he reached. the Punpun, he swam over on hotse-
back, and the amirs and soldiers followed his example.'
Then he (gave for every ofl\cer and man to press on
with. all Ills might in the pursuit of the enemy, and be
.himself spurred forward. The amirs, drivingi Gujar Kban
before them; secured Daud' s elephants, and brought
them to His Majesty. On reaching the pargana
twcntysiX kos" from Patna orl the banks of
Ganges, they drew tein und it 'ivas found that nearly
400 elephants had been taken. His Majesty. halted at
Daryapur, but ordered Shahbaz Khan Mirbakhshi and
Majnun Khan Kakshal (d' continue the pursuit.
ent on co the river Balbhund, sc:veo. hos from Darya-.
yur. There they lcaTned that Gujar, worn out and half
<lead, hac! passed over the rher, and that Some Of !tis
llicn had been lost in the water. Sbahbaz Khan and
Majnun Khan then rcrurncd.
II Q.n M'ondlty, the 21st, Kh:m-kjtanan, accor(iing to
.order!\,.teimfby-'watei' to wiiit up<lif b'ring
ing with' liim th'e tl'o"}ral b'oal'ar anc1t<a:tten,d!!nt estalllish-J
ments. The' at Dat)laput six days.'r He
appol,nrea Khankhanan ro the government of Bengal,
and. left !Jim an additional force o( 20,000 hotse. He
increased his military alfow:ine6 t,ventyfive or thirty
. per'. cent, he gave him all the boats which he 'had
brought ' down from Agra, and invested him witlii ful\J
and authority. Then he raised the standard of
retui:ii, "and dismissed Khatt'khanan iurd , other
.amrrs. 'Next<day he marched to the town o ,Ghiyaspur
-on the bank of the There he resteaa ourdays,
.cropl'oyedit! the pleasing 'occupation ofviewing,the ele-
t , ' , \.'
1' 1' ' t ,\
' qIY
" On the >ight bani< Of tire Ganges, sixty miles east.
if'r01'1l Pal!uz,- . ' ; '' .. ; :'
': .ai 'makes it tlii'l'ty 'ko'J:"-'-Akbnrhaina, vol
p. 78. ,I,\ '. ,': l ,, .... . ' . .
hundred arid sixiyfive."-lb. ... :/.;
pllwts captured from Daud and his -Afghans. From.
thence he determined to go on to Jaunpur rapidly ..
Leaving the command of the :mny as usual with Mirza
Yusuf Kha9, he started at tnidnigbt of the 2nd Jumacla-1
982, mounted upon an elephant. In the morn
ing be hrltecl at au encampment of ,the royal fotces-
Daryapur and .Ghiyaspur, where be witnessed
smuc elephant
At this stage Muzaffar Khan. who was formerly a
clerk, but now an amir of reputation, was sent alc>ng.
with .Farhat Khan, one of the late Emperor's.slavc.) and.
enrolled in His Mnjes[y's service to besiege the fol't
r<-ss of Rohta,s, a , very lofty and strong place:
And be

its .. t;!p,ture it shquld be< placed
unden the 'omrnand of

and. cpat
reto,U'Ir to QQI,ltt.. <l:ln 8rd Jumada-1
aw.wal, -he pro<;eeded and spent a short time
iu examining the buildings of Daud.
Fro1n thence hc-
stal'tcd to make the best of his way and on Saturday, the
4th, he eacbed the viUage of Fatbpur Sabina, which is
twcntyOlle kos distant, an<L on Monday, 6th Jumada-1
awwal, at mid-dl,t)'. he anivcd at j nu11pur. Mirza Yusu
11 an , !l.nivedAyitb the army ou t!e 7th. The
at 1 Jaunpur tbiny-three days, devot:lng his-
tim6ll<? Wking, ar!-IU1gements for the, army apd #)e.gp;v:,
the country., He placed .Jaunpuw
tl1e fort of Chunat, .ana sundry other ma/.als ancl parga
Khall, nlh'O was ap1ointell P1'ime Minis
(see supra), had /Men :titJce emoued from office, .fO>i.
t'61lSOtlS tuhiclt tuill appeatl in an Exlract from t)le IJ.kba ,
infra: IJ./Ju-l Fazl sa,s he was sent on. this C<fm-
paign to Rohtas in vol. iii., p.
8J.. 1 . . ' .
""It is a curiou.<, fact that in this place .there ,arJ!
thatche.d houses called 'cltliapparband,' which althougn
they are covered only with ruood (chob posh), are wOTth
30,000 or 40,000 rupees e!<cl."-Badlluni; voJ. i.L p.
I ..
1as dirccllr under . roya}. , lle,,gave the-
J\lanagcment. them to Ritwi . ShllikJ\
S9'ri. On the 9th Jumadias sani, 982, .be de,
parted from Jaunpur, and went to Khl4lppr, ,w,here
stayed fqur ,days. -!'!ere he was waited upon by K.azi
Niz;IIJI who (being graciQusly. received and.
api?QintJ,,to .office) afterwards nebievcd a position
ampng the nobles. , , '
.. A ,d,:&patch. now, arrive(\ from Ji.hankhanaJJ, report
iJ)g,tJle capwrc of the fort_ of G:rrbi.
0 2
When D;iud fled!
h:ol!i be \fCQt . Leaving some _trusty
Jllll!' t here., 11c proceeded, to the .to\vn of Tanda. He
m,a4c sueb e((orL to . the fon of Garbi that in:
bis. vain. idea it was impregnable. Kbankhanan march-
ed against Tancm ;md arr ive<l ncar Garbr. As soon as.
the. eyes of the terrified Afgbans feU upon his army, they
fl,:d and atiaodoned the fot't, that he obLained posses ..
sjQJt of Gar hi whbol!t . striking a blow. This illteUigcuce
E!llllP,rpr, of com,.
mend:v,\OJ) til Khanlj.h"!tan a11d J tbP !?,II!Jlf Con,tL;
,his jouqtey,. hwuing Jas,;J>e vent?
on. tho

S8j\i, "" t the qf ,:l'skar(datp>ll";.
JSG-t:ived inteUigenec of tbe fall of Tanda ..
tilking pQSSession of the fort of Garlti, the lro ..
perial, foroes marched on towards Tanda, ' vhlcll is the
capital of 11te kingdom (of Bengal). Khankhanan's '
at first :reported that Da!Jd intended to
stand there, and had made his dispositions. Kha.n;;l:l!ao;tru
tb.e/'CU.(l91JtJ.&IWlmoned. his am.irs, and roo):. every. P)tcau
t.ion for, seFurity JU'lll:Y Next qay he marshal
I;. .'' I ''' 't '' Jl \ll Ift-1 '
s,6 . from A k..-ttama,
Garhi ' 1 .,

. He.,h4tl made' liT' Suraj
ghar, on the Ganges, about eighty miles from Patna; of
l\4?Jgir, rqith the help of, l/.aja. Sa'!gr!/1/'l of GO'fllhiJpv.
<me( l'uraYl Mal R!lfa . ,of . and of .JJflagalfmr.-v
Aftbar-11a1110, vol. iiiv ,p .. 81. .( ...,
.led Ius forces, and a&vanced in great force against Tanda.
When Daud's spies carried him the intelligence of
.Kbankhanan's advani:e, he and his associateS thought
,Qf the black night of and fled in dismay, aban:
.donillg the town. Thus on. the 4th Jumada-s sani, the
.capital of .Tanda won for the Emperor without
.fighting, and a proclamation of protection was issued
' to the people ..
Again tile Emperol." 1vns delighted with this 'good
.news. He cletermined to go on co Debli and he arrived
:there on the lst Ra)ab. He made a pilgrimage to l.bc
.tombs of the sahlts ' and holy men; he also visited the'
.comb of his f!!thcr, and be dispensed !Us bounty
.the needy, \t!ld, up prayers .. suitable to his P.9Si"
.clot}. To' 'give !)is escort rest he rexiiliinedat ;Debli !'<luie'
.da')'s, and" employed himself ln'lbuntihg. ;In t'be tiegin
.niilg of Slii!'ban he started: for Ajmir, and bunted "s he
weht. At the ' town of he was waited upon by
JU.talljahail, who came from Lahore to see him. The
:Empcro.r much pleasccl co see the .Khan, and gave
:him some princely marks of his approval. A few days
.afterwards 'Aza.n Khan also carne from Ahmadabrtd' ex
prcssly to offer his congratulations. Ii1 the bcgrnriing of
. .Walnai:!n,' 'tll,c' Emperor reached Ajmir, and hastened
immediatel.y,<to pay !Us visit'to the 'tomb: :Out
' :spoils' '!If Jl'enji-ll' he prejen\:ed )to
'hak11ra-hhii'nd> . of ' di'e-
Khwaia a pair of drttms ivhictl had'belonged to Dau\1.
He alsi> dispensed the usual gifts, ' .
I t now carne to ' his knowledge that Chandar Sen,
.son of Mal Deo, was/ oppressing the rai'yats in the nciglt
oourhood of the forts of Joudhpur a11d Siwanab, and
was creating clistm:bances. His Majesty' sent Tayib
Khan, son of Tahir Khan Mi.Yi faragltat the
of, Dehli, and Subhan l<uli Turk, with a, suitable '!.force,
\..'! ! it I t J
. .
l'JIIIis intelliffence was. brought fro.m
Raja; 11.'a . vol. iii., p.
:is aqout sixty milt!S S. W. of ]OIdhpur.
SitllaniJ.II by
87. Siwanal
. '
to chastj:;e hi.l)l. Whrn they approached, the rebel with
<hew with his dense jungles and places.
hard. 9f But some of the fugitives were caught
alld to tl)c sword, and tbe' royal Lroops reCUTlled
with qmsiderable spoil. In. the middle of Rama-can the,
EIfP'?.'OF started on hls. return to the capital, and on the:
$ams, day Khap-j 'az.1m, departed for Gujar-at. The Em-
an:ived at l'athprir on the last dar, oE:Ramazat\ . ..
It had become manifest that much of , the cultivable,
land o Hiudustan was lying uncultivated; and to erl
conJ:.>.ge cultivation, some rule oF dividing . the profit&.
of the ju-st . year between the Government and the cnlti-
hior seemed to be required. Alter c.trcfn! considcra-
pon, it arra1gcd that the various paga11as shouHt
pc examined, and that those which' contained so much.
land as heiug cultivated would yield a M01 of tankas,
should be .divided olf an<l given into the ch:uge of at
hones.t , and intelligent officer, who was to receive the
name of krori. The clerks and accountants ot the ,);x-
cbequer 'were. to make arrang-ements these officet!i:.
and send tllern to .. theil' respective districtS, 'Vl1ere by
vigilance arid in, j be .course gf thrJ:e, years ,the
uncultivated )and be brought into cultivation,.
and the revenues recovered for Govemment. To carry
out these views, a number of the most honest and tmst
worthy servam:s of the State were selected, such as . . . ..
and appoiutcd to . the office of krori. The amirs <dso.
were called ttpon severally to appoint kr.o-ris, :who W4,et
scllt .rj.n,tp) t.l).e country upon their ,., ;
. At" this .t;itn.e. ,Sh<dt Knli Khan Maru-am, Jalaldc{hall
.Korchi, <a11d some olher. amirs, were sent to effect,'t,he re-
<lufti$11' of. the' tfo.rt of Siwanab, son of.
Rai :T)ll: fort . was .. besieged for.;'\ time,
and jalal ,Khan. Korc4i; one o .the ojlicet's pf the Court,.
was killed there. After that Sbahbaz Khan Kambu was
-t' I
. ... . . . . ., '
""by '""Y . of Ramtmr.";-AI/,-1)4ma. Rnmpur in-
Tonk, seve111y rrJii4f
.S. ;from ]aipur. ...
.. .
sent there aml he took the place in a very short time. A
stalelllcllt was now teccivcd from the ministers (wulcala)
,., Sultan Mahmud of Bakar, 1epotting that Sultrui'
Mahmud '""'' p:cad, ru1d that they had no confidehcc ill
M9hibb 'Ali and Kim: If,
Hts Majesty would send one of b1s offtccrs, they ':ould
1enaer up the rort into his charge. His Majesty accord
ingly sent lllir Gcsu Balwwa/-begi, -who had reccivecl the
rtitle of K isu Khan.
In Otis year a great pestilence (toaba) and famine
.occurrc<\ in <Uld histcd for nea1ly sL'< months!
'From the severity of these calamities, the inhabitantS;
rich and poor; Jled the couJury, and were' scattered
.nbroad. For a11 this, gtain rose to the ol' 120
1kns per man". and horseS and'' cOIII$ had to
1hc 1nrk of trees. ; . .,
Khwaja' j\minu-cl. din Mahi:nud Kilwd;a:jahan, \lilio
\vas of the territories of Hindustan,
.died at Luck.nc.mr.
' Tbe bcgiolning of tJo.is year corrcspomlcd with Monday,
Z-i-1 l:<a'da 928 H. (13th March, 1575) .

1 1
, J
Aftor - the congU.est of Tanda and the llight of l'Jau'd to
{)ri'ISa, Kltan4thanan devotee\ his attentibn to 'tbc settle
ment of tile alf:t'it-s of country. Then he sent Raja
Todar Mal ' with some otbCl' a1flirs towards Orissa, ill'
pursuit of Dau<l. H'e nppointe'd Majnun Khan Kakshat
to the government _of Gboraghat. Whe11 the :K.han pro-
.i!ecdcd to Gbora-g"hat Sn1aiman Mangili, ' the
--of'the place, and one of the bravest of the Afgharrs, cofJ
'let:ted a force to resist . liis taking possession.
\J) ,I,,,
]awari rose to the tmce of 120 b/Jlck Lankas per,
iloi.an:-:-:-Bailiiun.i, vol. ii., p. 186, '
''Foty(igltt mile-s S.1lJ. of- Diriaifmr. ,,
sharp fighting folfowed, ana Sulaiman was' .kiJ!ed; and
.Lhe wives and children of him and other Afglfans were
made pri5oi>.ezs. Immense booty fell into the band$; oof
the Kakshals, . Majnun Kh:in married Sulaiman's
.daughter to his own son .Jabbari. He ".then went on to
Ghoragh'at,,,and after dividilig the whole of the country
..among. the Kakshals, he made a report to l<.bail.khanan.
.,>rJ Raja Todar Mal, who had been sent in punuit of
.Daud, when he reached Mad:aran, was illfornied. by
l1is scouts d1at . Daud was engaged collecting men d o
.tlinkasari, and, that l>is forces 'lere daily increasing.
Todar Mal .stopped at Madaran, and wrote a full :report
from thence to Khankhanan; On receiving it, thc
KJ>an sent M\Utanlmad Kuli Khan Bnlas . with re-
inforcements for the Raja. Upon their arrival, all the
.chiefs concurred in the expediency of m:ucbing to
Gowalpara, teu hos bom Djnkasari, with all
When Daud heard this he did not fly, but stood his
,ground at Dharpur."
, The, spies JlPW brought <in' io:fo<matioii that Junaid,
-SOI:ll(!f ,Dat(<l's -tllkle; a-,man: off bigh repUte among die-
Afghans and ..:esplutil>n, wtib had Jonuetly
COme into thp' service of the Eiupcror, but Bed from
.<\gra to and afterwards came from Gujarat to
l3cngal, was now at Dinkasari, seeking to f.ron1 a junC-
.tion with Daud. Raja Todar Mal, with the approval of
the other amirs, sent Abu! Kasim Namaki and Nazar
Bjlha<;lur . 11) attack. These men, making, !light of
l!ic matter, neglected t!Je precautions necessary in war
faie;;d' nd by Junaid, thus. bringing dis-
upon tl\cmselves. . .
Raja Todar Mal. on ,.cceiving th'c with the
of'l,lis' marched ag:>.inst Junaid;"btit be-
. . . .. .
1 n lite R!<gli, distril:t belwt'en and MitL-
!;ce Blqchmqpn'i Aini Akbari, vol. i., f.>375 .
. , ''"A f!lqse ,l)>ing be'tween 1Jcflgal . 'lind Orissa."-
.. z' .... ... 9.9'
\1/g . If .. ,.
fore he could arrhe, Junaid fled into the Jungles.
Todar Ml\1 .therefore stopped at Midnapur. Muhammad
:Kuli :Khan )Jirlas ,dtcd here after a few days' itlness. He
was an able man, and his loss was a great cause of weak
nC$s .in ,che Imperial forces.
In. cot>Clll'rence with the remaining amirs, Raja
:Todar' Mal returned from Midnapur to Madaran. Here
:Kiya Khan Gang, being offended with the other
' withom reason, went off info the jungle. Todar
Mal reponed the fact to Kbankhan;on and remained
!ot some days in Madaran. Hereupon K.hankhanan
Sbabam Khan Jalair and .... to support Raj1L
Todar Mal. When d1ey joined lhc Raja at llardwnu.
the Raja. l.th .d>etn, a11d went out into the jungle after
Kiya Khan; and having pacilied him, ' brought him back.
hiin. From Madran they marched. to 'I here
informed chat Daud, with his forces, had go11c
prepartions for war.
into tlte fort of Katak 1lanaras.'
and. was engaged 'in l
Raja Todar Mal halted, and scm swift mcsscogcl's
to infonn Khankhnnan of the position of affairs . . Khan
kbanan then left Tanda to ma.rcb against Daud, and he I
formed a junction with Raja Todar Mal. Daud had
his army and !low advanced to meet him. Thc-
their camp.
On .the 20th . .Zil ka'da 982'.
the arro1cs JJ).et:'
. '
. >With Kltankl1anan 'in. particular.-AI<barna.ma.;.
vol. iii., p. 98.
""Attock and Cuitack,, al the two extremities of the-
Empire, both have the world (Bctmrc.r) added tO
their iame.s in th'e Tao-Ghat.
J f
This dale sholils.that Abu-l Fazl is'right inpliJ.c-
;ng the battlr. in the nineteenth year of the . .
are . occupied witli the ;,ames of tile alnir.<
'jn of the varioUs. aiviSlOIIS Of the two armitS

Daihora."...:.Dad4uni, vol. ii., p. 19'if. Thc-
MSS. of tft.e Akbar-na111<1, have Thc-)lam/ is
Aftc( the array was formed, the Afghans- rapi!l-
ly and boldly to the Khan-kbanan
to open' upon them from the ,swivels (zarb-zan) , a(ld
light guns. (zamburak), which were mounted on arabi?-$
in front of his line. The fire of, the. guns drove back the
elephants which were placed in front of the Afghan at
lack, and. the musketry mowed, the Afghans who
<Were in the advance. Guj>J:: Khan,, with his division
excellent order, now came up boldly, and, drove back.
Khan-khanan's advanced force upon the Altamsh;.
Khan-i alam. who commanded the advance, held his.
ground, and "'as killed., l 'be, Altamsh clivi..sion next
defeate<l and driven back. upon the centre, which in it.!>
turn was in great difficulty. Khan-kbanan did all in his.
power, but could not remain his men. At this time,
Gujar Khan attacked and wounde<;l .Khan-kltanan, and
as the latter had no sword, he returned Gujar Khan's
<lilts with slashes of his whip. In this conjuncture Khan
kbanan's boiSe took and althougb. his rider was
anxious,to., stop him an<J, rall y
the fygitives, - ]je could'
not. restrain him,,- :Afgban.s f 1<-ll"!"JPlanan
. for half a lws, when &1ya. Xhan r Gang attacked , the
Afghans,, and. showered arrows upon them. The Afghans
not given in MSS. of the Tabahat, not in t he Akbar-
nama, of Faizi Sirlti111/.i. Blochmalln firid.r the loca-
of the bai!le in the T,.igo,.omctrical Map of Orissll,
in two places caltet! Mughulmari (Muglzal's fight), ana
a village about miles southwards,
wa')rttbetween Mt<ghalmMi ant! ]alesar !Jellasotc), llnd
'miles fr.om the left bnn4 of the
:lat> :uo _;3 . . 'J!he battle extended O!!et" a-large! space.
Badllu.U, i.i., of. ?' f.our 'kos,
obot fix tmles.-See Azn-1 A.kban"'!Jol. 1.,1 P 375.
"'Aitamsh is n. 'l!t<rl<i . wortl..mtaning "sixty," am!
1t is applied to a force placed at the head of an army
between the advanctit guard an.d the generaf.-See
supra. , \ . ,
were exhausted by thei'( long ride, and could not move.
Then Khankbanan -got his under control, and
l'allying his men, led them back to the fiel.d. They dis--
-charged showers of ar.rows, -and by the guidance of fate,
.an an'ow stlilck Gujar Kh:m, and brought him down.
When the Afghans saw their leader fall, they turned
their backs and fled; but-many oE them were cut down
6n their !light. Raja Todar M'<ll, .Lashkar Khari, and
-others who were upon the right, now chnrged the left
-of the enemy. Shaham Khan and others, who were on
the left, also attatkcd their opponents of the right, de-
feated t11em.. and' drove them back upon Daud. His
bcing worri:ed by the ar.rows, turned round
the body of bill 'army, and tbe stone of dismay .wa&l
-cast among them. c The banner of. Kban-llban,an now
bctame visible, ina the death of Khan <!arne tm
the knowlc?dge of Daud. This shook. his' resolution, and
he turned and Red. Immense booty fell into the l1:mds
of. the victors, and Khankhanau encamped victorious
on the battle-field. He remained there a few days, to
have his wounds tended. and sent a report of' the victory
to the Emperor. All the prisoners taken were put to
'the Lashkar Khan JHir-balthshi, who bad render-
ed: such, ,&ood . service, died of bls wounds before the
army IDoved'.
\ ,.
Alter his defeat, Daud llcd to Katak Banaras (Cuttack)
;n the centre of Orissa, and Khan-khanan, who remain.-.
-ed stationary oil account of his wounds, held a counhll.
il'i which be and his iimirs determined to pursue
Rnja.Todar Mal and .... directed to
proceed after bim, anci it was agreed that Khan-khaoab
ll!fusel follow as sOon as his wounds penmtted.
' .
1oo ,1 [<irge ; tltlmber of Afghan prisoners were put
.to death by order of Kha11-khat1at1."-T. Alfi.
' 1
'The Raja and hiS amirs accordingly started; ana did-noi
halt until tbcy. reacl\ed -Kalkal-gbati.l" Mter tescingt
:there a 'vhile; . !be $COUU brougl\t i_n the intclligerice
!bat and d\c Mghans, . wi!b their wives and chiJ-.
-d!"l!I1J l>'Cl'e sbut up in the fort of Katak Banaras. Reduc
.ed to .cxucmitics, and having no other refuge, the men
we,re resolved upon fighting, and fugitives from the field
.Of llattle daily gathered round them. Raja Todar Mal
4Cnt a report of the state of affairs to
.and 'the Khan set out for Katak Banaras; never resting
tiU he caJ.nc "Hthin -two kos of that place. Then he held
.!I' with )1is anirs, and having pitched his camp
-on the banks of llic Mahanadi, which is half a l<os from
iKatak, l1e began tO collect materials for a siege.
Daud' h:td snlfcrctl several .in succession, and
>Gujar Khan, bis mainstay and support, was slain. Deaih
stared him in the face; so, it1 his. dcspait and misery, he
sent a messenger tp. 'ith a t!'l
,'711; ,to a gatty Musl!fmans
, . is _nO' nobte _ro
-subject; but I 'beg. t,llat 'it corner' of tilts cli'tfiltzy' of
.for lilY support may be a:ssigned' o me.
if this is gtantcd, I .will rest content, and never after
-reSefi . ..:...The amirs oommunicated this to Khan-Klian
an, and aftc( considerable discussion, it was determined
to aci:ept the proposal,'
upon tbe condition tbat Daud;'
' ' j (I
Fnzl callS the f?ltiCe "Bhadrak."
of Thornton, north of Badaun.
-and. Faizi follow .the Tabaltat, ant/. ' IKal
ghtft. i." . ' '
to A.bul Fazl, the Raja's .;nett were 'c!S::;\
1ond611t,:,,a.1Jd. he was obliged to az/lr for rup.por.t.-
./Jokbar,nam4f vot:. iii:, p. 10'7. -
' " Rafd 1odar Mill, who well understood tile trrut
pbsilidn of ti.fjai'TSI though he wffing. his and
his feet (to prevent armiStice), met
himself should come out to meet Khaukhanan, and COltr
lirm the agreement by solemn binding oaths.
Next day
Kh:m-kbanan ordered a grand Court 10<
be held, and all the nobles and attendants to be present.
in their places in fine array, and the troops drawn up in,
arms in front of \he tents. Daucl came out of the fort,.
attended by his Afghan . and officers, and proceed-
ed to the tent of Khankhanan. When he app1oacbcxL
it, Kban-khannn, with great courtesy and 1espeet, rose.
up and walked l1alf-way down the tent to meet him.
WJ1en they met, Daud looscn.ed his swo1d !Tom the belt
and holding it before him, said. "I am tired of war.
since it inllicts wounds on 'votthy men like Khan-
khanan took the sword, and handed it to one ol\ his 'l.t,
tcndal\ts T,hen gently taki,ng J:?aud tbe b.and, he
seated. him by his side, an'd mad'g, the most kind and.
failietly' inquiries. FoOd and dririk and sweetmeats were
served, of which the. Khan pressed him to partake.
After the were removed, th'c terms of peace
cnme under discussion. Dauc! protested that he would
never take any cowse hostile to the Imperial tlu-one,
and he confirmed his promise by t11c' most stringent
oaths. The treaty of peace was drawn up, and then
Khan;j<.hanap brought a sword with a jewelled belt of

of his stores, and it to ,Daud,
said, npw become a subject of tbe.
'throne, and have promised to give it your support. I
snppo-t.': He reYilsed to t/lkc al-y ' fmt in tlic set,l]e-
ment.- Akbanama, vol. iii., p. 10&:
The 'terms were that . Dau<l wa.t to 'do liomage 'or
to his best elephants, and pay ufi his
'tribute. Eventually he was 'to go to Comt ana do hom-
age in ,person, but for tle present some relations '-fliert>
be stilt llS hostages. His' nephew Shaikh Mlhammait
was the;, hostage.-Akbar-nama, Vol. iii., p. 108 . . ,
'. \'
-,.W,Muharram, 983 .(12th 4pril, 1575).-Ak/)ar-
nama; vol. -iii., .p. JOB.

have therefore re<fuested rbat the country Orissa may
be settled upon you for your support, and I feel
tha't His ' Majesty will confirm my prop<ition-granting;
rh.is to yoU' as my ta11k/lwah bas been granted to me. I
now girt! you afresh with this war-like sword." Then
he bd'und on the sword with hls own hands; and show-
i11g him every afld making him a great variety
of ' gi!ts
l1e him. The Court then<broke up,
and started 011 his return.
On the iOth Safar, 983, be reached Tal\da the capi
tal; aud sent a repbrt of his arrangemctltS to the' EmL
peror, wbo was greatly delighte<l and satisfied with the
concrucst of Bengal. Splendid robes aucl jewelled swords,
and a ho(se with a golden saddle, were sent to Kh.art<
khanan, and all the arrangements he had made were
While Khan-khanan was occupied at Katak nana
ras, 'the sons of Jablud din Sur, in concert the
zamindat'$ of Ghoraghat, attacked and defeated Majnun
K:ban, droVe him to the ::Vanda; ' aridt
tlie of' Gau:r. Mu'irl 1<1han and_ Majnun!
Kllii:n provided .fo'r 'tht sect1rity of Tanda, and' awaited
intelligence of 'Kbankbauan's success. Wh'en his return
beeaurc known, the insurgents scattered and hid t.bcm-
clves in the jungles.'"
. I'
Th.o Emperor had. from his early youth taken in
dle $Ocrety of learned and accomplished men,, and
founii 'p1easure itt the assemblies of men of imaginatipn
and geni\15.- He always treated them with the
.and honour, and {Tequcntly graced their <beaven-
ly 'meetings. He listened to their discussions of nice
points of .science, of the ancient and modern histolJI of
' ..
>uAbttl Fazl says
Gh.omghat, ana '. suppressed,
maina, vnl. iii., P-" 1110.
Mwnim Khan went 'to
religions and people and sects, and of all matters .of
wordly interest; and be profited by what he beard. Hi!<- .
great favour for such men, led him at the time of his
retum, rom Ajmir in the month of Zi-1 ka'da, 982, and.
in twentieth year of his 1eign, to issue !,>.is
fon skilful architects and clever builders to .ctect in, the
gatcj.ens of the royal palace a refuge Jor su(I.S, and "'
home for holymen, into which none should be allowe<l
to enter but saiyicls of high rank, learned. men etlama}
and ShaiM.<. In obedience to the lmpc#al commands,
sltilful arcl1itects planned a building, . containing fou_l"
haJis ,(aiwan), and in a brief perjod cOPlpletcd Wbcn
'this 4appy, abode was finished, tl1e Emperor I,ISC<l to . go
M friday nights and, on holy pal\S
Qjght ttntil tl?-e 1isitlg of the s,uu.in the J\f
tinguished men. It was arranged that the western
.s!lot.W:l be ptcupietl by saiyi{ls, south by the learned'
:('.ula.ma) and tl)e wise, the northern by. shaikhs and men-
of ecstasy (arbabi hal); all without confusion or inter-
mixture. The nobles and officel's of the Court,
tastcs were in unison wit:h d10se of men of
aml excellence, were to sit .in the . cnste1n hall. . His.
Mll.jesty graced each of the four halls with his
an!l ,presenc with his gifts and bounty.
T he members of the assembly used to select a numbe,
. . '
of the most worthy among t:hose present to be presented
to Majesty, and ' to receive from l:iim' handfuls of
nshm(IS and rupees. Those, who :from evil fortune diet
n'0t participate in tile' royal bounty in the evening, used
to sit down in rows before' the 'ibadat-khano. 011 Friday
mornings, and receive handfuls of ashra(IS and rupeeso
fl'Om His Majesty's Ollin han.ds. T:his assemblage used
frequently to last lley'ond mid-day. o'n F1idays.
time4. when His Majesty wa& tired, one of the atteil>
.ants of. the Court, in whose and gc:,ntlencss hc-
h.a9o conl,idCllcc,. was dep,uted t.o perform this duty
,_ . ...
. ll! t11is year G11lbadan Bcgam, daughter EJD-
pcror Babar, and
aunt of Akbar, piously !l!lder{ook the,
journey to Mecca. Whe11 Cujarat was annexed the.
Imperial dominions, he detem>ined that every year one
of the officers of his Court should be appointed
Haji, or Leader o( the Pilgrims, to conduct a
from ..Hindustan, -like the .caravans from Egypt and S}Tia,_
to the holy places: Th.is design was carried out, an.d
every yeax a party of enlightened men of Hind, of
Mawarau-n nahr, and Khurasan, received provision for
their journey wm the royal treasury, and went under
the appointed !cadet from the ports of Qujarat to. the
holy places.
Never before had any monarch proyi,do-
ed for the annual departnre of a ca1-avan from India,
11or bad any one furnished ;neans to the needy, to enable
them to perform the pilgrimage. Gulbadan and Salhna
Sultan l3egamm now obtained the Emperor's permis-
sion to go the pilgriJOOge. and received from biro a sum
of money for the expenses of the journey. All the piou9
poor who desired to join in pilgrimage obtained th.e
of . J;.ravellhtg; .: ' . , , ,,
ov i.ml7:/. suUn.iA,,''I -' t . '

Lime of the Emperor :Baoat:i . l!e had a .son, lbra".'
ltim, a fine intelligent young man, who wa,s pri
SO)lCt in battle a!ld killed by the adherents of 'Pir
Muhammad Khan in the year that Mina
Sulairnan invaded Balkh. Mii-za Ibrahim left a
Sh$ Rukh by name, whom Sulairnan cafefuUy .
. np, and to whom, in spite of his tender age, be gave
severaL districts oE Badakhshan. . . ,
When Shah Rukh arrived at years of d'iscrctiqp, .and
grew ql.d, p.eoP/cr incit
. \ {)' , .

('lle or:six years, this. was se!
asitle'\-Badauni, vo/. ii., p. 21.3 .

of Nurud tli11 Muhammad Mirza,
who W<IS married. to Bairam Kh(l(l" .(see
f'li . vol. ii., p.. 21}> , ,) ::'J
ed rue youth with stories of his rights. ilut the Mirza's
wife was a cle-ver woman; she kept a sharp watch O'\ler
S1,all Rukh, and prevented any .But when she
di<d, these same people stirred Shah Rukh's amhi
cion to be ruler of Badakhshan. He came from
to Kolab, and being supported by ills party; the whole
o[ Badakhshan, from Hisar Shadman to Kabul, fell into
his hands, and he wanted to send his grandfadlcr ro join
bis father.
Mirza Sulaiman fled in. great disrrcs:l to seek. assist
mite from Muhammad Hakim Mirza. But be did not
meet' with the rcrceptioll he expected, so he begged to be
sc'Jit on to the Indus. Hakim Min.a did not comply
with thiS" trifling fh'quest. He sent him a party of pre
tended guldes, who !.eft lllm at the fmt stage and flct:l
t'O' Ka:bul. Bul 'Mirza Sulaima.n, trustihg in God, con

ana althougl\ he \vas sometimes
opposed by the Afghans, and had to fight his way, and
was wounded by an arrow, he at length reached Ute
lnclus. Thence he wrote to the Emperor, who sent him
50,000 rupees, horses, and by the hand of
Khwaja Aka Khan, . . . . and aftCl some days Raja
Das n can1c to the Indus with an escort, and
him to Lahore.
" . ;.,t. this time a j'a.rmall "'as' sent to SUmJUOl)
Khan frilhl Gujarat," and he arrived ilt Colirtuo
speed and alacrity! ' S'ome cavillers 'and
made insinuations about his management of affairs,'"
, ,.. l-Ie had hi.r with him.-Badauni, vol.
p. 211. . .
:ou Then mler of' Lahcrc . ....:Badauni, vol. ii., p. 214.
,.. Otl the 4th R.ajab, 98J H.
, .
Abul Fazl (dkbarnama, vol. iii. p. 126J says
charge '111M about the braflding of the horses; but
Bnilduni (vol . ii., p. 214) states that there were complaints
also again-it T1is revenue, military 'and adtninis
'!ration. They agru that lie was sent into retirement.
aud the Khan, in defending himself, passed
of prudence and respect, and made we of unseexnly
words, which brought upon biro! the displeasure of the
Emperor. Thereupon the Khan, forgetful of his duty,
retil.:cd to his garden at Agra, shut himself up alone, and
refu.4ed adll).ission to everybody.
' '
ina Sulaiman, after staying a few days at Lahore,
startell for Fathpur. On reaching Mathura, twenty kos
from Fathpur the Emperor sent . . . several noblc!s to
meet him, and to armnge for his meeting the Emperor
on the 15th Rajah, 983. All the nobles and officers were
out to the distance of five lws from Fathpur to
receive him. And when in tel Ugence of his having l eft
Lbis st.'lge was brought, the Emperor himself went out on
horseback to meet him. :Five thousand elephants, witll
housings of velvet and brocade, with gold and silver
chains, and with white and black fringes on their necks
and tl'Unks, were drawn up in lines on each side of the
road to the distance of five kos from Fathpur. netwecn
each.' two 'elep'bants' there a ><:art (nrabd), tb1! chit as
in whicl had <vitb gold and housings of
fme cloth; also t:Wo bullockcarts, "il\iclrhad tliat
wore gold-en\broidered headstalls.
When all the arrangements were made, the
went out with great pomp and splendour. Upon ap
proachiug, the Mirza hastened to dismount, and rall
forward to His Maje.,ty; but the Emperor observing the
ven'!'ablc age of the Mirza, also alighted from ,his
f)prse, and would not allow the Mirza to go' throngb
th'e us\lal observances and ceremonies. He fondly (m
braced him; then he mounted and made the Mina .. ride
on his right hand. All tJ1e five hos he inquired about
l>i<J circumstances, and on reaching the palace he' seated
him 15y l:iis side on the throne. The young princes also
were present, and were introduced tO" the Mirza, and
after a great entertainment, he gave the Mirza a house
near to the royal palace. On tl)is occasion an onler wa.i
issued to Kbanjahan, the ruler of the Panjab, to take
5000 horse and proceed to Badakhshan in attendance oD>
the Mirza, to recover. the country and restore it to biro,
and then to return to Labore.
When Khankhanan, with his mind at c:tsc about
Daud, returned to Tanda, the capital of the country,.
under the influence of his evil destiny, he tool:. a dislike
to Tanda, and crossing the Ganges, he founded a !tome
{or bh:nscl at the fortress of Gaur, which in old times
had been the capital of Bengal,
and he orderc<l that
all the sold.icrs and raiyats should remove from Tand:
to.Gaur. In the height of the rains the people were in-
volved in the trouble of expa[J'iation. The air of
exl:rj!!DelY , pnbc!llthy, .and. in fonMr . t:\rt\es, th,e Jllnn)\
)'\hicb dis):iesscd , iJ:s inhabitant,s ) 1.\s\uceP,, the
to, the place. . and . raise the town of
':fa,nda. Bickness of many kinds now brol:.c om among
the people, and every day numbers of men departed
froLU Gaur to the gl"nVc,n nnd bade farewell to relatives
and fri e11ds. Dy degrees the pestilence reached to such a
pitch that men wc1e unable to bmy the dead, :md case
Lhe corpses into the river." ' Every day the deaths
ami>'$ and officers were reported to Kbankbanan,
but be .. took no warning, and made no J'csolution tqo
change Jl,is residcpcc. He was so gceat a II!} nO;
one bad the to remove . the,; cotton .of , heedless-
u l:Ie was influenced by two reasons .. It was on the
silk of the river nearest t,o Ghora-ghat, the seaL of !ht::
ra/Jellio11, and it containett mav handsome u.mJ. conve.
"ol. iii ., p. 110. , .Z.'aid
SMtmtli. . . , .
, "' Az gaur ht1 gor; the tu:o t'JO{ds bciug wtittel1
e.,actly.,,alike. 11 neat t flcugh pun. , ,
. ; of the mal!y f)wusand men that were ..sent.
to J hab, C9U!11r,l, not more. than a huncl>e4 were ,fltllf)wtr
t.o havt: ret1lnud .in s,q.{ety."-Badauni, vol. if., ,p. '217.
TlC$5 from his ears, and bring him to a, sense of the .actual\
poSition. His .own health became affected, and he grew
worse, .and .at the .end of ten days, in the month of Safar,
be departed dlis life. His nnd officers, who
had -so often met to congratulate him, now assembled to
lament J;oim. They placed Shaham Khan Jalair in com
m311d>'" and made a report of the facts to the Emperor.
Kban-khanan had no son, so all his property
to the royal exchequer, anti an account of .i t was
out. When the despatch reached His Majesty, lle ap
pointed K.banjaban, who had been supreme governor .
of the l'anjab, to be governor of Bengal. He tais''tl him
. to the dignity of llmiru-1 umara commended the raiyat.!
and people to his tender care, bestowed upon him gifts
of embroidered coats, jewelled swords, and richly<apa,
.tisoncd horse, and dismi$S<!cl hint to his govcrnmcllt.
Khan-jaltan, furrusbcd with fttll credentials, then
ed co .assume his authority .
. .
,,. T.Jte O( Sun
day, 9th Zd hiJJa.,98S H (l>lthMa'(Cb, J5,76
, SUC.,UlotAN'S JOO!t!.'EY, TO MCC/
. .. The Emj?eror had determined that Khan-jahanc.
should march witb the army of the Pan j ab to reco-:er
country of lhdakhshan, but f:tc ruled otherwis:.
Khan-khanan, the ruler of Bengal, was by
d,eath;, and the Emperor deeming the rctention.,aqd ad
mfrustptron of . that country more iroportan.t
cpnq,ucst of Badakbsban, sent When
Mirza Sulaiman saw this of . be .
leave of the Emperor, through tbe <>fficers, o st-a: c, to go
J.. ( ., ., '
*'[he ,t1kbar-nama sa:s Rajab, wllich m,ig/t be tme.
. .r;,pon this -.appoi,ntment, BaC/!ltlni, in l1is causliq
the provf!rb.-"ln .the, treeless land
'sh'l'!'b Palma {s a tree."

.on the pilgrimage. The Emperor complied with llis
.request, <tnd fumished him wilh 50,000 rupees in cash,
besides othe>; things required for the jc,uroey. He sent
wilh him, to attend upon him in ltts jonrney to the coast,
Muhammad Kalij Khan, one of the chief nobles, who
.had been appointed governor of Surat. When .t'be
l\iima went on board ship, twenty thousand rupees more
were given to him out of the revenues of Gujant. The
Mirza performed the pilgrimage in the same year. and
. afterwards returned and recovered his kiugdom of
Dadakhshan. ,,.
On the 7th ZH ka'da, 984. the Emperor ser off on a
""Visit to Ajmir. He bunted as be went, aud on the 4th
.Zi-1 hijja he cncomped at ten kos from Ajmir. He .
. afterwards, as usual, walkedd\:ve "os on foot to lhe tomb>
-of the saint, and after going clrtQugh all. the observances
of; the pilgrimage, be gave away two thousand .rupees in
The beginning of this year corresponded with the
:20th Zil hijja, 984 H. (11th March, 1577 A.D.).
While the Empctor was encampe!i at Ajmir, the
intelligence was brought to him that Daod Afghan had
fl!tng aivay the ueaty which he bad made witll Khan
khnnan, bad risen' against the roY and li.a'a:
marched against Tanda. The Imperi:li of!iw-s In: 'tliat
quarter, having no chief among them on whom they
-coi11d rely, had abandoned tb'e country, and retired to
Hajipu.r and Pama. All this commotion had arisen
'llecausc :Kllanjahan had taken' his tiine in going there in
.aiitseiJuencc of hi's army being at Lahore. Upon
receiving this intelligence, the Emperor sent a Jetter by
S,.bhan Kuli Turk to Khan-jah:tn, directing him to ta\<e
'With hiin all the .amirs and jagirdars who had abandoned
Bengli!, and to march against Daitd. In twenty-two aays
.subhah Kuli travelled nearly a tblmsand kos," (/) and'
m Bo'dauni (vol. ii., p. 227 confirms tltis. " .
delivered the fannan. to Khan-jahan. The Khan tool:..
lhe field, and advanced into llengal. He had an action
with three thousand .men whom Daud had left in charge
of Garhi, .and tool:. the place. Nearly fifteen hundred. o
t/le enemy were s.lain, and many chiefs were made.
Whilst the I:dnpcr:or was staying at Ajmir, he sent
Kunwar Man Singh, a brave and able man, with fLve
thousand horse, against Rana Kika." He also sent Kazi '
Khan lladakl1shi, . . .. and other ambitious young men.
'vlth him. Asaf Khan was appomted Mir-bakhslti of
this army. His Majesty Kunwar Man Singh
and all the amirs and sardars of the army wilh robes and
horses. After fitting out this army, he started to return.
horne on the 20th Mun:nTam, and reached Fad1pur on
the lst Safar, 985 H.
After his arrival at Fathpnr, messcngct'S atTived witb:
the intelligence chat Khan-jahan, after the capture of.
Garhi, had advanced to the vicinity of Tanda. There
tllati Daud bad.evacuated. Tanda, and.h'adta'ken.
up a position in; the village to AI(."' -Qn one flank was
the--river, onr.the other a lroorlntain, and he bad throWJb
up entrenchments to his position. Khan-jabalL
marched against him, and sharp lighting followed. One
day Khwaja 'Abdn-lla, one of tlle lmpcl'ial officers,
advanced from bis battery to the edge of tl1e Afghan
entrenchment. The enemy sallied forth and attaake<b
him, and be fell, lighting bravely. On bearing of his fall,
the Emperor's anger was roused, and he sent 3ll 'tirdcr to.
Muzalfa, .,. Khan, the governor of Parna and Bihar, to
"Against Kohanda ancl Kombplmir, teri-
tory of Rana Kika."-Badauni, vol. ii., p. :228. Kombal
mir is in the Aravalli motmtairu, forty miles
nMth of Vdiput. ' "
Or ' ' 11/t-mtthal" or Agamallal, af'terwards cal/ecf'
"Raj-mahal" by Raja Mall Singli, when gove?"nor of
Bengal. The name was 'Ra'iagriha. ' J''
. assemble ali the troops in his province, and to march-' to \
the of Kban-jahan. In a few days, a letter
.ardved from Kb:m-jnhao, the news that there liad
been a battle with the cneny, in which the royal troops
.Jad fought brnvel y, and had won a victory, in which
they killed the commander of the enemy's army, who
-was called Khan-kbanao. '
:RANA Ku<A was chief among rhe Rajas of Hindustan.
,.After the conquest of Chit01, be built a town called
:Koknnda,'" witlt fine houses and gardens; in the moun
. tains of Hindu warn. There he passed his days in
.rebellion. When Kunwar Man Singh" drew near,
'Kokanda, Raon. Kil;.a tailed all the 1Rajas of Hinduwara!
10 his aid, and came out of Ghati Haldeo'"' with-a strong
force to oppose. his assailant. Kunwar Man Singh, in
. agreement with his amiYs, put his troops in array and:
m!txched to the battlefield: Some desperate charges 'were
made on both sides, and the battle raged for a watch
with great slaugllter. The Rajputs in both armies fought
fiercely in emulation of each other." Nearly 150 horse'-.
of the toyal -army were killed, ancl more than 500
RajputS of the enemy's amty were sent to pcrdition.u
""This is ille spelling of: o11r MSS:l 'of Badauni aid:
.of tile Lucknow, edit-ion of the Akbar-nama. .. Tuddc;ills
place "Goguonda." Blochmam (Ain . i-Anbari, vol.
,i., f1. J)9) writes it
Man Singh ruas suppurt-ed by Asaf Klla11, ana.
-mmcllecl from Ajmir by ruay of Mandalgtwh.-Badmmi, ,
"'Or Haldi-ghat. ' .
m The Rajputs oj oyal army ivere commim<UJtt<
'by Raja Lon Karnn of Sambhar.-Badauni, vol. '.iil,
:p. 'JJL ,
.,. Bad.auni was in this -battle and gi11es a 'detair.ed'
of it, The, 'Imperialists had a har.d victcn:y, and
' .

i .
'The enemy lost Rameswar Gwaliari and his son, o and
:the son of Jai Mal. On that day Rana Kika fought obsti-
nately' till he received wounds from an arrow and from
.a spe,r; then turned to have his life, and left the field
<>f battle. The Imperial forces pursued the Rajputs, and:
.killed numbers of them. Knm'l':lr Man Sing wrote ,n
.acoount of his victory to the Empe1or. Next day he went
through the' pas.> of Haldeo, and entered Kokal\tla. He
, took up his abode in the house of Rana Kika, and again
returned thanks to the Almighty (Sic). Rana Kika fled
into the high hills for refuge. The Emperor rewarded
'Ktlhwar Man Sing ,ucl his amirs with 1obe.o; and
WHl.'.N the battle fought by Khanjabau became known
to the Emperor, he sent live lacs of rupees by do.kclrauki
itowa!'ds defraying ,the expenses of the al'llly. OrdCl'S
were .given for the despatch of boats laden with grain
'hpm h,gra, fqr the .use of the apny. . .. ' ,

. .tQajpati ,wa&' a ,;am.iml.af'!.in tlw .. of,
Hajipur ;uid. l'atna,. w.h9 -had, l amQng; t]le
-partisans of the ,Emperor, Wben Muzaffar Khan wentc
with . xeioOtC4fficnts toe Khanjahau, leaving this country
ruere much indebted to their Hindu auxiliaries on this,
ru on othc1 occasion;-. But 'IUltwitiJStanding thi,s
Otld the cnliglltcncd poJir.y of the Empl!'for, t114 Musul-
'l,l'ln could 11ot repress . their contet}'lptuous
!11a$red of the infiM!. Badauni (vo!. ii., p. 211)

he was with a party of the adva11ced force, llnd .. in
the. middle :of the he asked .tlsaf Khan how they
were to distinguish 'between t[teir Raj{Jitt fr.iend.l and
'foes. , They tuere told to .shoot at a venture, let the con
sequences be what they might. "So" so.ys he, "we kefJt
up the disc}1arge of arrows, and o.ur . aim at tha.t moun-
!tain-(ike 1noss .(of men)' neter
Named "'Salibo.han" (Badauni; vol. ii., p. ZJJ),
M'al reierfed to was tht"< hero ot Chitor:
void of troops, he coUected a party and attacked Farhat
Khan ancl his son Mirak. Rawi, who were Lhe station.
of Arab. In the fight whidt ensued Farhat Khan
his son were killed. Great disturbances foUowed, and.
the roads were closed.
When intelligence of this reached tbc Emperoo;
at Fathpur, on ilie 25tl set off. At five
l<os distance he made a halt, and issued ol;dcrs for th.c
nsscmbling of troops, and for the pteparation of boats.
and artillery. Here he was waited upon by 'Abdu-ll:L
Khan, whom he had as a ruesscngct to Kban-jahan.
and w!to now returnee! to east the head of Daud at the
foot of the Emperor's throne. Rejoiced at tbe victory,
he teturncd to the capital.
Saiyid 'Abdu-lla Kban thus >:ehearsed story 6f'
the victory. Muzaffar Khan arrived with the forces of
:Bihar, Hajipw and Patna, acounting to nearly 500(}
horse, and joined Khah-jahan. On the 15th Rabi'u-1
akhil', 984, they drew out their f<lrccs attd attacked thc
enemy. Daud also, supported by his uncle Junaid KJr;mi
and other Afghan cltieEs, made Ws dispositions. Junaid:
w<IS struck by a cannon-ball. His leg was broken. After
a' while the armies clo.1cd with each other, and the enemy
was defeated. Daud being left behind, was made pri
sorier,' and Khan-jahan had his beacl struck off, and sent
it to His Majesty. Great Spoil and many I elephant& felt
into the hancb of the victors. . . :
At this time, Sultan Kbwaja \vas appointed Mir
Haji, and a sum of six lacs o rupees in casb and goods
was assigned for the benefit of the poor people about
to inake tile pilgrimage to tile holy places, and given into-
l\'is charge. He was dire-cted to furnish what was neces
sary to any one desirous of being pilgrim, and many
benefited' b}' this liberality. ' -
'(The annual pilgri;,agc to the tomb of Kllwpja,' . .
Mu'inu-il. din at Ajmir)
It alreadY,, been how Man Singlr
' j
Rana, Kika, 1\nd .occupi ,his , the .
Rana Jied into tllfl high bills, and how. the romy pene-
trated to Kokauda, which the Rana's bometl 1');1$!
roads t tQ. tbi,s pla-ce were sor difficult that little gra,ip:
readrtCl it,. and the_ army wa.- .. neatly famished, ,TI,te
oer 10ls given for Man Si11g!l \O fall back. quickly, aud
bee 'Yeqr so<;m arrived at the Emperor's throne. When
the distress of the .army was inquired ,jt)tq, aJlpeared
although ,the men w.ere in , -s\lah great' strai'rs, . Kun-
wab Man Singh would no't su.ffer any plundering Rai)Jt
Kika's country. This cause<l the Emperor to l.le
pleased, with him, a11d be was [rolf\" for a:
time.'" After a while he was forgive!\, and was sent. a,t
the head .of a force to ravage the Raua's country. It must
be 'understood that in the langaugc of Hind " Kunwar"
signifies "son of a Raja!' On the 19th of the 'month
the army marched ro.m Ajmi'r towaTds the Rana's
": ''' > ot <:J.'< , ln';.tl ;, ' A' I "' !..!:- 1! <I !'
.JW'f-v,iJ"R a, :;iDIF!lZI G Cif<J, 3} 9,I ,ms
ca)'eer 1n .. file
But .was then ,Ill po}.'ler, and hi: cauWt
P,e.,f.ir:s t impriso!lccl and banished f?:.om
t:o,tqt. He then entered the service of K.ha'n-khanan
Mu'nim Khan at Jannl>ur, and r6se to. be, Thn
COJ)Versation of th'c Khan' made . his a):li)iclbs
tile' Emperor. and after' death,
was summoned to Couh, and appainted to the offil:c of
diwan in drief. . , , ;_
Sulta"n, Khwaja ba<,l been appointed, Mir H;aji, , or
Leader of the Pilgrims,' and as the road to Gujarat t1ia
1 . . . t
. ' " Badauni (vql. 'ii., p. 2,10) (el4 tiS AS(lf Khart
fell into (dong tuith' f,he ,-K!nw(lr; '. tM that the

pron}otzO?l. ,
'"Abridged translation.

Ko"kanda was nearest, Kutbu-d din Klian . ;. and the
.other amits were ordered to escort the caravan through
Kokanda. They were directed to plunder and lay waste
lhe of Rana Kika, and to follow him up, and
harry him they m!ght bear of him. :when
Sultan Khwaja was about to dcpan o1i. the pilgrimage,
the Emperor, acting after the manner of pilgrims, strip-
.ped himself, put on the ihram or pilgrim's:grment, and
went some steps after ' the ,Khwaja: ua A cry arose from
:cbooc present, aitd their vo(ces were raised m tencdic-
tion :ultl prJisc.
' Wheti ' Hi& . Majesty teacbcd. the pmgana of
Mobi,'' ' news C'nie' in rom the front that ,1\.o.ltbu-d din
Khan and the. amirs, on arriving at Kokanda,
found that th'el 'R'ana ' had ' lied into t\lc hills. Orders
were tbetl ' giyen ' 'o'r (lin and Raja Jlhagwan
Da?'to remain at Kokanda, -and' for Kalij Khan and the
other amis to accompany the caravan of pilgrims as far
Jdar. The amis were to stop at Idar, and lay siege
to it; but they were co send on au escort with the onvrut
as far as .l\.hmadabad, forty:cigbt kos from Idar. When
l<,alij Khan atTived there, he found that the Raja
,. b'ajl
l!eq.ihto tlte l,lills, but that a party of Rajputs remained
Jnl'tl\e' tc.mp1e resolved upon death. They were all killed
ill "a sb:brt,' time. .Next day Kalij Khan sent on. Timut
B dakl
'"" ' th ., " d ' b a ., a um w1
tue. caravan to ma a a . . nere
Sbababuo dih Alimau . , . : . and of M'al-
'1" came in, to pay their respect!.
,. '
:"'hell EmpO:or relldled tfdipur, a despatch arrived
. '"Accordi11g to th,e Al;barnarna (vol. iii., p. 165)
hlld a str,img. d8sire to go . on t i:e pilgrimpglf
bN_,'wiJ.1 dissuaded liy 'hj_s frietldl and
"' '" "Mohani."-Baaauni, vol. ii.; p. 241.
uG"Narain Das" by . Mme-+Baudatni, . vol. ii., 1'
Nc>m Sultan Khwaja: the Mit Haj;, from the of
Surat, reporting that, owing to no pass (kaul) l)_aving
l?een obtained from the Europeans, the ship was
The Emperor directed a messenger to be sent to Kalij.,
&ban to bring him quickly to Surat, in orde.r to secure
the departure of the vessel. During Kalij Kban!s
absence, Asaf Khan wa; to tlte command of ,_ his

. Kntbu-d din Khan and Raja l3hagwan Das J:ccure<l-
from Kokanda, and waited upon cbe Emperor. .1Sbah
Fakbrud din and Jagannatb were left in Udip.ur,
Rajt Bhagwan Das aod Sniyid 'Abdu,lla Khan were lut
ill Dhaulighati of Udipur.. When His Majesty came
into tile territory of Banswala (Banswat-a} and Dungar
jlllT, the Rajas and ;:aminda1s of the country came to
wait upon him with their ofiming:s, ami were r ight royal
ly received. Here also Raja Todar Mal came from
Bengal to wait upon him, bringing nearly 500 deph:tnts
froin the spoils of .J3cngal, .with other presents avd(offcr
iogs. Kalij t Khan 'also arrived to
-was sen.t to Surat to d.cspatth .the >Sllips. ' 'He ..along
with Kalyan Rai, a merchant (bakkal); . and having got
passes (kartl) ft-oro the :Europeans, .he sent .oR: the ships:
He quickly returned, and waited upon His Majesty,
while he was in Malwa, After at-ranging his posts .(tJzana,
'fat) to his satisfaction, and securing tJte loyalty ofJ#J.c
tat}lindars, be entered Malwa. ';V.tW)
' . , , . ,..,. ... '
' ', ; \'EAR OF' TJ:t& Rt!CN .
(,; 4 {'
The llegmning of this year corresponded Wf_tll .J;uesday,
the 2nd M'uharram, 986 l:J.l" (11th March, lg78).

_ti A.bu-1 FQ.Zl specifies , -ilf

:{lanswata, ,a,nd Rawal. Askaratl, clue{ (triJ!rtban) of -P.-!'h
ga-pm".!..Akbllr:nama, vol. iii., p. 1'69. . '

The ' MS. ltas 985, inti this is 11r11nifest . error:
"I: he

(vol .' iii., fi . . 20h iS correct. Tilt
ye11r began .'(supra} O.t ttre 20th Zi-1 hifi!';.
. .. . -.,
The festivals of tile Nau-roz and of the Emperor's.
accession were celcbratccl in the pargana of Dipalpur, n.
dependency of Malwa. Tltc Emperor- devoted his. attenr
_rion to measures for increasing Lhe prosperity of this
country. 'an& the raiyats waited upon him in parties, ai)Jl
nia-d6 of their circumstances. He paid the
\iliidest attention to every one's case, .<and made .a satis-
factory settlement o the :tiiairs of the pt-ovince. Manx-
i:aminda-s became &ubmissive and obedient to .his will.
' ' Raja Ali Khan1 tlt6 ruler of A.sir :md
J\itd duly suboxdinate, and it being
n"edessary to chastise him,- several ami..-s, su'cll as.
Shahabudl rub Aliinad- and .. with Other fagidlWSI
M'l,lwa>we.l1e sent agalost him.' Shababu-4 din was ae-
poio,ted commancla. SIL'rllhai K.bah, the i Miir-bllfthslri)-
lillcck the 'brands (of tihe horsts} aud1 the mmtCll
ot the army . The other amir.s were to exerdle.thett dili
genre; a<nd the speedy departure of the force.
At this same place Raja Todar Mal was commission
e<i to setdc the revenue and other affairs of tlte province
of Gujarat. . News also was bt-ougbt !rom the force
l dar,-, th:u a batde had been fought with Raja Narain
Dai>:aud: n 'victory gained. The particulars of the ocaw:
' When Muhammad Kalij Khan, in
olJl!dlep<le"tq ordexs,t.repairedt'd the Imperial cam.p along
with ''AliI MuradlUzbek, the army-wasl-left thide-c die
command of A.saf Khan. Imelligehce came 'in tliat the
Raja of Idar, with a number pf Rajputs who had been:
driyen from ihelr. homes, toge'ther ' ith' some zamintlars
of tile CQunur, an'd su'llporte?/ by Raja Kika, ltad gather-
1 J ! ' ., ,') f t " ,.
and. bei ng a, sola. y,ea.r, it 'extetldctl over the tvho/c
8'!/l'a ?B.'; a_nd enaed on: !11e_ day of. 986. T_'w,
of tltt.r tact hat gwen nse to some confuswn
in the ,da,tes abOllt .ihii' period, and ihe events Mre rc
'"' . 1 il.l _, 1

-p:$ nav11_1g OCC,tti'reu- m. t 1,e fwenty-thtrd year ,af
tJte' ""' :it'tvl Fa;:l i11 tire t,w.!-n,:;,_se.co
" ;.,.., ;. rJ' , f \ 'o\\ o\ .,. ; -
o>Ce J iJ <C, Sl:J1rra. . ' . ' '

NIZ.-\M,UD DIN AlDf..\1)
.ed a force wbicli was posted ten kos distance,, and,C9l1eW.
![llatcd a night attack. When this intelligence .was l;()ll;
fumed, Asaf Khan and . ' . held a c.uncil.
.men were left to ' secure .. the G\IDP .\11c;
lforce was called out at midnight and marched
.the enemy. On Ute morning of the 1$
illiarching seven hos, . they tb.c IJ:oc, .a
11iateJe 'llegal: Mil'za Muhanunad Mukim, . wb
, !edi
.lldv:tnce, was k.illo!d; . but Ute enemy was' defeated/ )!;aj;ll
Narain Das fled, and the chiefs of the , ro:yl}l
victoq. Asaf Khan's despatch gave1 Hi
'Majescy-1.niich pleasure, and he ordered lett.erfo of
to be wiihcn to the amirs and olliccrs of the arm,y. . ,
When His Majesty bad arrange(l the alfain ,.oE
'Malwa, and settled the matters of the amirs of Ash
'Bul"i>:mpur, he turned homewards; a11d, hunting ,as be
went, be arl'ived at Fathpur on Sunday, 25rd Safar.
:After ("IJ.l"ee tn<iotbs, ttoubles arose . in Cujarat, flu:Qqgl).
-the coming of MUzaffar Husain l Mirza, ...
wl'fo bJ<thC> cl;t.ugb!er '?f. Kamra11
'Miria'. The Oircums(ances of hh case :lre ,these: ,;'SVlJ!IP
the Emperor '"as engag'Cd in the siege o& 'Surat, Gu).nJ,lo)t
daughter of 'Knmran and ' wife of Ibrahim, car-
ried off her child Muzaffar Husain, as bas been related
in the account given of the c<inquest of Ahmadabad., *.
odisaffectcd man named Mibr'Alk a servant of. the
llbrahim Mirza, who accompanied Gulrukh . Bcgatn
when she fled from Surat to the Dekhin, now stirred up
The!' am\)ition Muzaffar Husain, whO fifteen or
. years of He induced him to .Joave, the
!Dekhin, and collecting a nu)llber of. adventlllm from
, 111 directions, be entered Cujarat , intent . upon lrt$1\lTee;.
ot.ion. i 1
At tbiS'tirde Raja' Todar Mal was m .Pattan, engag-
ed in (he settlement of the revenue. The insarrcctii:Jn
'spread, "and 'thoi!isall'ected were everywhere rnisingtheir
'tieadS: War.ir Khan, the ruler. ot Gujarat, had 3,00.0
lborsemen, but there were amongst them many ' :!ldven-
twous men upon whom be c6uld not ely, so be ctircd
into a fortress, and sent an account of tile occurrences
to Raja 'todar Before the. Raja came to his assist
ance, Baz Bal1adur, son of Sharif . Khan, and :Saba
Gadai, the lliwan of Guja"rat; attacked Muzaffru Husain
i'rl"the pargana of Nandurbar, "" and were dcfeat(.'Cl.
Mdzaffa Husain then went to Kambay, '
and a
st3ying' two or three days, J1e wetlt oil' towards Ahmada-
bad. Raja Todar Mal turned back from Patta.n, and
anived at Ahmadabad.
' Wl1en the insurgents heard of this, t11ey fell back,
affll ' wcl'l\ towards Dulakn. The Raja al)(l Wazil Khan
pursued them, :lnd coming up with them at Dulaka, a
battle ensued} .in I which. the royal force$' wl!lt victorious.
and the enemy dreW'Joff to.>Junagath. naja ;Toda1
tlien departed'.oxl hJs rctm:n to'Court. " , . ,
. ,);U.Muzal!:ar Hitsaio, as soon as he of the naja's
f1eparturc. came back and besieged Wazir Khan in
Ahmadabad; for altbongh Wazir Khan's fo.rcc was
large, it was not trustworthy. and so he w:t< obliged to
seek the shelter of the fortress.>< Mihr 'Ali, the Vllhil of
Muzaffar Husain, and the prop of d1c revole.
forward scaling-ladders to altempt an assault,
hbt hC.)Yas sent to he\1'
by a bullet 'from the fortrcs.<.
Whell' he. 'Wll.9 'removed,- Muzaffar Husain withdrew, and
went towards, Sultan pur. So . the insurrection to
an end. ,. ,
'"l1i Khandesh. This is ruritten Notlarbar Olji.l
Nmyadaba i" thtt has "Pat/ad.."
.,.But failed to gain f'IOSSC.<fion of the fort.-A.kbar-
'nama, val. iii., p. 181.
""The rebeLt had a n"mber of f)(Jt'Lisans in the cit-y
' puo, who acted i n concert with ,l/Jetn.-'-Akbarnamo., v'tll.
187. . . '"
, , .... " .l!'C.Jits chmitnblc e;(frrCs.tion, 'though,, cq1Jit1lalllr
'i'/.s'ed jorJ,t1te 'Of infut4/s
i.r not reserved excl!Jf.i,iJ.ely
for {him; t .1, . r , .. '' l .,
ARRIVAL O>' 'UtE. AMJII.S Wrfl1 AN f>.n>1UAL AAMV. A:f
It been mentioned above, tbat Sbahab Khan and
otber am1rs were sent with 10,000 horse against Asir
W.hen Raja ':Ali Khan h<;aTd of t.he
aj>proatb 'of this force, he drew in his horns and crept.
into his fortress. The nmirs entesed> the country, . and
did stop till they reatbed

Great dis-
sension arose iri the country of Asir, and Raja' Ali Khan
was reduced to beg pardon for bis offences. He promis
ed the amirs to send suitable tribute and some elephants
in charge o his people tO the Emperor's c;ourt. At thls
time, Kutbu-d din Muhamma<l Khan separated from the
ot11er amirs, and went ofF to Nandurbar ancl. Sultanpur,
in consequence of distttrban<:A:s which bad al'isen in his
of Broach. and Baroda, through the proceedings
of Muzaffar Husain. The <lisorders in .A$ir and :Burb:m-
pur. which the ttmirs had been sent lO settle bei11g ended,
by submissi,ofi. of' R;tja and
tile aniirs retired to i tJicir When
HaJ:.im 'Ainu-! Mulk, who l1ad gone on .art .;,ub;lSSY to
'Adil the ruler of tbe Dckhiu, returned, he was sent
the elephantS and the !l'ibute to the Imperial Court.
(7'/lq Annual Pilgtimage to Ajmir)
f.he Emperor, on bis retu.rn journey, when he
tjl,elpcigJ,lbourhood of Acibir,"' ordtted a fort and town
fowded in the village of Mulathan,' one of the
C::iepeilCiei\c;ies of Ambir, on the sif.e an old city whiCh
llad been l-h rnins for some thousahd years. Walls anll
{o;ts, i-\tcs and garden! we1e allotted' but the
llm;f-s, injunctions were gi':'CO fot 'the c_6afpietion o!
"''!JJijagath", about seventymi/es N. W. of Bur-
lumpur? ,, .
Four miles N. E. of ]aipur,
wor as B<id11uni ('flo/ . .fi., f! 251) rurites the 11am<: )
. '
At\: BAR
the work. lio a building ('imaro.t), which might have
taken for its completion, was 'finished in twenty
-days. Orders were tlren! gtven for 'Yaiyat:s and all sorts of
meChanics be collected from all the parganas of
povincer to !populate the fortress (hisar). The land .of
this place was an ancielt possession of Rai ,L.on Karatl,l
and his so11, who was young and was being brought up
with the princes, was named Manohar, so the town w,as
-called Manoha.r-nagm .. after that -child. This child bas
now grown up a clever man, and composes poetry
under the tnkhallus (nom de plume) of Tausani .

At tbis'' perioo, uhe .time of evening. prayer, a comet
in tho sky >t'ow:Jl'dg the .east, inclini.J}g, the,
nortll, ani:!' co'ntinued very awful for tt>urs. Tl,te
{)p'illion of the astrologer$ was, that the effects would not
he felt in Hindusta.n, but probably in Khurasan and
' ! rak. afterwards, Shah Ismail, son l.lf Shah
Tahmasp Safawi, departed this life, ntl<l great
:arose iu l,l':l1)in.
I '' Q.n <It N arnaul, tl1e Emperor paid visit
t 6'-Sbaikh Nizam Narnaul'i. . . . 'From tbcoce he pro
-ce<ldcd Dchli, and encamped ncar , the liauz-i J. hiJf,
and pnicl visit to the tomb of hi,s fafber wid1 due
uwuy. Thh1 J1c )'isftcd the of' tlle holy 1"ho
.sleep at Dcbli \arge He 'next
J1alted at the saiai of aild 'Hc'rt he was waitctL
-lfpou by Haji Habih'!-1f.a,
ivho had visiteil Elrope, and'
.l.l,a#,. qrought wifb :\lim fi.he glloos 11bdcs. His'
lifaies,\y's iuspccl;iqri. He started ft'()m and pass;
-cd tlirough the f>ill'gana o Palain, He passed the night
-in.thc:_house of"thc inttkatldam of the village, aod in the
iUQrning be directed that tbc revenue (llliccrs,
''""RuiBr of . ...:.Badauni.

(vol. ii., p. 240) places the appearance
l .
. !h'e -..o rested in the bouse .
E a cultivator, should- retnit
tax and tribute (baj o khirlit): o his roltivated Jm<l-.
by or Ol' help ,for subsistence.'!'
. W.Den -he al'rivcd at' the pqrgana of Ha.nsi, he wenc-
topaya visit in the town to.Sbaikh Jamal Hansawi, and
nade' iliis offcrhlgs and alnls. Here a despatch arrivcdl
.:lbnouncing tbat Muzaiiat Hus'ain .Mirza,. after flying
flom Gujarat, had been taken prisoner , b)' 1 :Raja' AU.
Khan, the ruler of Asir and Burhanpur. On. the .1St
'Zi-l .. ka'da the camp -moved fo1 the Banjab, and. a 'frl"
man was sent to Raja' Ali Khan, directing him" to send
Muzafl'ar Husain Mirza with his (the Raja's) son to
<Court. (The rnaulud.-uama or horoscope of Hi< Majesty).
The begillning of this ycax .corresponded with Tburs"
-4ay, l$th Moharram, 987 H. (12th March,
15?9) .. , . .
'(l;lJ,mt(llg . . ,
, The Emperor marohed to the. towQ
J3')hira, and
was brought o.f 'tbll of
Highness Mnryam M:j'kani .from, tjle,.capital, aud .t'rincc
-of this comet in the twcuty4CCOJul year of reigu. He
.a/so records . a joke of the time. Shah Ma11stlr, the di-
to wear a 11r/um ruith l/11! end hanging
his back; so he got t/Jc of "1'he C<lmet'l,;,vRii
Star!' A.b11-l Fn.tl
in tltc twenty second ycaY of the cig>,. or, L5?7,
A.Q., rand, accooding .to J:'ergusson, the i.ts
,f!erihe/_ion on the 26Ut October, 157.7
Ast1o11omy, vot.' ii., p. 231). Abu-1 Fazl er>ttrs inlp '4
learned discussion up011 in
nama, vol. iii., fJ. 192.
, w'Tflu is t/Je title of a Vel')' common /a-khiTaj
:tenure. '

, .. This passage, and Cl few mor-e lint!s of no im-
fPortance, ' fou-nd in only one 'copy. '
'The tex"t liM "986" Vttt see 11Dte, sttpra.
Salim was si:nt to meet her .. , . Aftel confelTing the.
government of the Paojab on Sa'id Kh<'n, the .Emperor
started on his return homewards, and on reaching the
village ol' Sultanpur, appertaining to K.hiuabad,
ordered boats to .be .collecte<l, so .the rest of the.
journey might be perfdrmcd by water, Muhammad
K-asim Khan, the M i1..1Jahr, collected the vessels, .and on
the 8rd ]umadas sani 986 .H., the .Emperor cmbarkc<l.
The camp returned by land. He reached Dehli, and the
boats were moored, opposite the tomb o( K.bwaja Kbizo::
on the 29th of the month. This being the time of the
'ars, or anniversary of Khwaja Muinu-d din, he left tile
on the lsc ],tajab, and set off. Travelling t,hirty'
!tos a day, he reached Ajmir on the evening of the 6th,
which was the aat 'of 'the ' lcstival, and . pafd' his visi't ti>
the tomb: > Nexelday start:cd for Fathpnr;. and travel-
liRg. fif{y l!os a day, be arrived there on \D'e of-
the 9th.
There he spent much of his time in the
building called the 'lbaclaLI<Itana, in the company oE
teamed and holy men, cvcrr one of whom he enriched;
wid gifts of gold auci silver. .Kvcry Friday llc used co.
pass the night tltere, making o[crings and dispensing
'>. lnl those days thcte was a reservoir in the court-yard
of Fathpur, twenty ga% 'lotlg l)ycwenty
bmad,: a'dd three g111; deep. This le t aused to lie'illlcd
with red; "whUe and money. (i.c., gold, iilvcr, and
copper), the whole' of which he gave away to the amirs,
the poor, the bol y, and the learned. T he total o this
money amounted to twenty kros of tankas,"
and th'l:
cllitribution o 1t lasted for three }'cars.
'""S dh " B . d . I . " 251.
a. awa. - a autu,. vo. u.,. ,fl. .
... :! ""The journey. was performed on horseback, with
ai. ,tj/orl Of nine persons. The diJUL11ce was 120 ,kos .; ,.
two vol. iii., fJ . 211.
"'"R.aja Tod.ar Mal . collected scventee.n kr.ors of
t!ams fo ' this p,urp6se."-Al<l!ar-nm1Ul, , 110!. ifi.; .fl. 210.
In this year Ma' sum Khan, Koka '>f Mh7<1 Hakim,.
:i youl)g man of courage, -who bad done some great:!
things, being offended with tlie Mirza, left him and.
came to tlie Court of tbc Emperor, wbo received him
with' ' gl"Cat kindness. He g:.ve him a numsab of 500, an<b
a tfagir in Bihar, whither he sent him. When Ma'snfll'
' went there, Kala Pahar, one of .the and bravest
of the Afghan amirs, attacked him; but he was viciori-
ous, although he received several wounds. The Emperor
bestowed upon him as a rcoognition a mansab of 1 ,000,.
with a horse and a robe.
In the month of Shawwal he appointed Mulla
Taryib to the (/itualli of the province of nihar antl Haji-
pur, Purkhottam to be bakllslli, Mulla Maj(\i amin, and:
the eunuch Shamshir Khan to the charge of the llhalistT-
of that province.'' In the same momh Maksud Jat-
.hari, who sent to fetch Mit-z.-. Muzaffar Husaitt from
Raja' Ali Khan of Asir, arrived at C.(turt with the Mil;m
a'Ucf'thc 'Raja's' -and it tQ His 'ajestf.
.rf {/' r" t. , , ((t l. .. t
' ' ' 1
His Majesty's mind was alway's intent upon clearing the
land of Hindustan from the troubles ,ancl disturbances
created by infidels and evil ntctl. He sent Shahbaz
Khan Mir-bak/JS/Ji .. and several other amin, against
Rana Kcika, to ravage and occi1py liis country.
Khan laid the country waste, and ptir$ued'
QreltR1inq into the mountains nnd jungles. Upori reach-
ing th'e 'fcitt of Kombalmh, Shabbaz Khan Jaid siege .to
it, 'andCa.ptur'cd it in a few' da).S. The Rana liis-
escape from the fort by night. ' .. , . '
''"'Sultan Khwaja, whom His Majesty had appointe<!
Mir-i haj,- now retttrned;from Mecca, .and ivaitcd upon
r . . ' r.

'" Badiumi. was not pleased with'l t'he appoim.rnehi:
of:'lltcse officers. He sa-ys they wrre 'lOlli bose men, and
n.cted as .!ILCII, serving n.tilher God nor tltt king.-vol. ii.,
p. ' 266.
Jilin with presents-fabrics and stuffs of Turkey and of
.Eul'Ope, borses,. Abyssinian slaves, holy relics and
.curiosities: These His Majesty accepted with much
-satisfactioit, and he raised Sultan Khwaja oo the mamab \
-of Saar (dii<'f judge). ,As it . hal:) been determined to
send , a leader of' the ;every year, -Khwaja
'Multammad Yahya .... was. now apppinted, and he rc-
.ceived four lacs o rnpees ('Or CJ<pcnscs. ,
At the cncl of this yeat, 987, intclligcuce arrived of
-the death of I<ban-jnhan, Ute ruler of Beng-.ll. His.
Majesty was much grieved, aud SCllt a letter of con.do-
tehce to lsmail Khan, the brother of the deceased.
M;u7.all'ar Khan., who had been .appointed diwan, , l Will'
-promoteCI govCttrt.or of Bengal, Rizwi, Kban,t6,,bq
bakh$/li, a,l)d ifa,t)t; an,d Patat/ Das to, dis
tl).e,office of aiwar'
.;., i , ... ,,.
!The beginni ng of this yell! oorrcspondc<l with Thurs-
,..Ja), the 24th Mubarmm, 988 H. (12th March, 1580).
The rulers of Kashmir bad alw:tys been well-wishers
. a.nd of the Imperial house. Hi> Majesty now
aftet' perfonuiug his usual pilgrimage to
A.jr:nb:;' to pay aJ !Visit to the tomb of Sbaikh Fa>:id
:Shakar:ganj. and to visit the Pan jab .. So 1te M\jlla
Ishk.i, 'one of .the oHI. servants of U1c !"oun, al<wg
Kazi Sadtud din, to Kaslunil\; 'A:li Khan,. $e ruler
Gf Kashmir, emertaiiled .them nobly and respectfully .
1nd CJ<bibited hi's ' li.delity 1-at\d: devotion. Along
'the two cnvor.; he sent his own, vakil,
'Xasim, to carry his tribute' and .ptoductions of l(ashmir
As presents to tlte l?.mperor.....sall'ron.,- mmk, , paper,
shawls, etc. They act:ordingly brought then\ to His ..
'Majesty, and reponed what they had seen aJJd knew of
"Ali1 jltltanls c<>rdlality and good wishes.: , '
Mu.zallar Husain Mjrza, whom Maksud
,..l ....
T he has ttoru got the date correct.
bad broug)lt hom Raja 'Ali Khan, was " pardoned.
through His Mlajestys! clemenby, ancl. released'' from.
prison. ,
" 0be day, when! His Majesty was taking
occurred to his mind that probably , the eyes of some
hung\)' ' one l\ad fallen upon the food;' how, , therefore,.
could he cat it while the hungry were debap-ed from. i\?
He tbere.fore gave orders that.. <Sf/Cty day' some hungry
persons should be fed with some of the Eood lprcpared
for i;limself and that afterwards he should be strvetl
<Hakim 'Ali :was; now sent to Bijagarb a!ong
the envoys 6f 'Adil Khan Dakhini, The ntlers of the:
Dakhin, every one of them severally, had been accus
torned to send envoys e-very yeax with tribute aticl
presents to the lmpcrinl Court. 'When Kbwaja
lla brought ptesems and elephants from
the ambassador, and his son Shahi Deg were presented
with robes, one hund.rcd ' AkbaHhabi a.shm{.s, one
fi.ye hundred and one and twent)"fonr
'tanka$1 ; ' tt ; i'li
., -Mir Nizam, husband:of the . dater 'Ot'U\Iit>Za \Shah.
Rukh, the ruler of Badalbsbin,-'C3.me on a ti:Ussion to the--
lmpcri:il Court', bringing l;l'urld hone's bred in. :Sadakb.
-sb'an, 'fine rubies, several camals, and othrr gifts.
The Empe.ror used to keep cvi:ry year the annivcr.
' sary of the Prophet' s birth: This yeru: be kept it oil
tbc.l2th, .Rabi'ul awwal, and lte gave .a great
!Jlerlt, at which the saijids,o learned men, shliikhs-, oncl
/J.mirs ' aftended. Open table was kepl.\ -and -no otlc.in
the dt:pY,oa's debarxed from pa.rtaking of tl:re"Jrcfteshmen,t!>'.
O'n -this':occaSion iHvas>lrepresented to liim tliat the:Pro-
pliec- and the 'fouro lalttul.

utecl thel!llelves t<>
preach. The 'Abbaside Khalifas al$o observed this:
tradition, and '' such
'"' rU$mau, lind 'Ali.
"Kiiutba ni khwandant/.i"''
not the teclmic(l1 Khu.tbtt, htit s'itift>Iy tt SJ'eccH.
as Sahib Kiran Aroix Timur and 1\.lka Ulugh :Beg used
.to.follow the examples thus set them. Hjs Majesty there
Eoxc felt it to be his duty to carry into practice ou .some
Frid;ty, the custom observed by tlte Khalif'as and Imams.
On l'riday, Jst Jwnadal awwal, be. went into the
Maijitli ;atlta' of nod motmcing the pulpit, lte
)tjs speech with these lines:!
The Lord who. gave me empire,
. Gave me a wise heart and. a strong arm,
Guided me in tltc way of justice and equity,
And dmve aU but justice Crom my ti\Oughts.
His praise surpasses understanding!
Great is His Power--Great is god I "'
'1l'o these eloquent lines briefly "d<1c<\t some verses of tiV'
Kuran, expressing th:tnks for mcrcies,atttb {-avouts) then.
.he. the fatilla, and c:nne . down from the pulpit
.and said his prayers. ., ,
Muzaffar Khan, since his appointnJeJtt to the .gov
-.ermucnc of llengal, h:1<l not sent a single atticle of tbc
productions of the cotmtry, or :my ponlon of its revenue,
.CO the Imperial lt'e:J.Sury; but be uow sent lhc lacs or
'rupees in cash, various goods and articles of tlte country.
and elephants an<l rarities of great value, which was
accepted. Muhammad Ma'sum Kabuli also
sent thirty-nine, as tribute.
On a F\jday in this month notice was given for all
.dtc poor i!nd needy to assemble 011 the chaugl!irrground.
Sultan. Kh,vaja Kalij Khan distributed the alms to them
<Jnc by one. Nearly a Inc o persons assembled, nod
there was such, a crow'd crush that eighty weak
:women and children wexe trampled to death. When -the
.Emperot was informed of this, be ordered that for the
. ,.; Badau11i (vol. ii., p. 268) says t hese verses wi;e
"tlie.jiroduction Of Shaikh Faizi, ,and tlmt the
tre,rnbli1tg. <t'!d i11 great confusion, go I half
tli,ern .wjth tile help of. .
Iutw-c the people should come a few at a tiJne, and not
make a crowd. ,
.Kutbu,d din Atka, a noblem<\11 of high rank,
now. appointed tutor to Prince . . Itt cclebration,.of
tllis appointment he g-ave a grand feast, and d>e youqg
prince honoured him .. with his presence. There ,was a
grand. and Kutbu-d din made many
of and Arab horses, jewels and cloths.
cling to the usual custom, Kvtbud din Mul,ta.n;unad, A \:eta-
carried tile prince upon hi. back, and raised his aspiring
head to the pinnacle of grandeur. He made presents of
money and jewels to the prince, and tlw clamou1 o con
;j,'l'atulations reached the sky.
'Abdu-lla Khan Uzbek, >uier of Mawurauu nnhr,
dtad always kept up a friendly intercoul'Se and corrunu
uity of reeling, and used to send his envoys to the Impc-
rial Court. His Majesty now sent Mirza Fulad with
Khwaja Khatib, a native of :Sukbara, as his envoys to
':Abdu.Jia Khan, beariqg a .Jetter'" full of l:.ind , woro,
and a 'S!i:at variety of !Jli:oscnts. ('11. legal ,cliSf)'SSf(}!l
Tlie =al journey' to <311 the 2Jar..Sliaw.w;U .be
teturncd to Fathpur. Mi.l.itat< iSaladat. wl\ose, title
l'eshrau Khan,. and who hM>been sent on an embassy to
Niza.oiul Mull< Dal<.hlni, now returned with the Dakbini
envoys, who brougi1t them el.epl!ants and
Co)(TCSP,Onding to !lSi! H.m .l' '
. Af order was abolishing tl.a,c
!tolls) and.tfbe mk:a!
(customs) . throughopt the
I Sec Imhae AbtLI Fat.l, Daftlir IV..'
'"'ISec Tt1ll/e published 011 a previo11s
,.. Ba!Jatmi {val. iir) p. 276) substit-utes "J'ir.ya'l for
.. zakaL" and sajls tho! the 'pro4wie of'1hese taXCS amount:
ea to several k:rors (or dam:s?). AbllL Fllll .calls them
"baj (misprintea taT) ami tamgha" .-AkbarUl.ma, vol.
iii.; p. 258.
Farmaru enforcing this abolition was issued: 'I:bese-
ta.xcs amoumed to as much as the whole revenue of Iran.
and it is clear that no king would have remitted them
Mtho\H guidance.n It' this year Muhammad
M'a'sum Kh'an; son of Mu'inu-d din Ahmad Khan
Farankhudi, who held the goverhroenr of Jaunpur, cam'
to Couh, and was allowed to retdrn ro that place. Mulla
Ya1.di was appoimed cble'E Kazi of Jaunpur.
Tbe government of Dchli wris given In Mubibb 'AU.
Khan, son of Mir Khnlifa.
OF BJ>.'i{;AJ,
M01.alar Khan, on arriving in, Bcngal, sc.t about
ing. the affairs oE that province. W.\$
on the wane, and his day gone by ... Jrlp,
lus.nieasbres, he offended .men witl> his w.ordS; IhC' depriv-
ed! many dmit'S> of their he 1 dlnnanded the dagh
{brandtax), and brought old practlces.up a!!"in.
Baba Khan Kaksbal, although l1c was conciliatmy,
and begged that l1is jagir ntigbt be left' undisturbed, was.
called upon for the tla"gh, and received no attention. The
of which was the jagir of Khaldi ,Ktt,w,.
was- taken away h-om him at the beginning of the spring
harvest) and was added as to the jagir of Sb;lli
Jainallttl>tdin A sum of money due from the
spring harvest had been received by Khald\ 1 antl
co recover this .Mu;;Ufar , K))a,11 put hill[l,.;ip prison, and
ordered him to be soonrged ttnd basrinailoed.
At this time a faman froro' '"tll'e Imperial
Court, duecfiog ' Mutaff:if''Kha1\ to apprehend and put
to 'death a scNant of Miiz'a Muhamlfiad Hakint nartled
:Rosban Beg, who had le1 Kabul and gone, into B'cngal,
and to send hishea4 to Court. Tl1is Roshan:<Beg was
"amohg Kakshals, and "Muplfnr ll.eg issued an order
foJ> his exeaution.. He alsdspake 'some harsh words aJ;>Gut
BaUa .ICban Kaksh'al.. The soldiers who were present,
'" "taufik na-Jafla".

and cspeciillly Baba Khan and tbc. Kakshals, u:einblecl
together. and resolved upon mutiny. They shaved tbcic
heads. put on tbci'r high and broke out- .b>.to
revolt. Crossi:ng the river, they went .to the city of Gaqr,
old' times under tbe name of Lakhn:mtj.
There_ tltey collected nien,; and having found property of
Muzalfii' Khan ' in scvetal places, they took it or destroy-
ca lit. ' Muza!fac Khan collected !Joats, ancl sent :!;{akim
Miil-1 I;ath Patar' !With irn army against tbero.
on the banlis of tlle rivet. . .:
When tbe clisaffection of tlte was reported
tb" the ll.mper6r; he sent a farma71 to M01.affat .!{han, h1
which he said that the Kaksbals had )ong been servants.
of the throne, and that it was not right to hurl. tbC\Il<
Lhcy were therefore to be conciliated and encouraged
with hopes of the favou1, and the n>atter of
tb:eir. ;agii'S, was to be scllled. The farman arrived a.1.
the time when Muzaffar Khan m1s in E:icc of tb.c illsur-
' t..... , i .1
: : Upoh
tbe atit'ivaJ of the fllflmanp.BabaJKltallJaP.d.rtl}t
ocher rebels tnade a s.bow of s-ubJtti5SiOoJiahd St!llt :a
sage to'Milzaffar ' Kiharr! lasl:lng!Jiiln.,to >Semi :Rinvi ,Chan
and Patar Das to ru'rlmge ic.r>dlS w.ith them, and to se\
their' mfn.os ease. He accordingly . sent Rizwi Khan,
Mir Abu Ishak, son of Mir' Rafi'u-d din and Rai Patat;
Das. Baba Kha11 put all three of them in
and so stirred the fire of warfare. ' : . . , , ., . .
..... 'Coincident -with thisr it so happened tltaJi1...-MJ1!lJt
T:iiy-it)!i'Purkhottam Ba-khslli, and. Lhc revenue Q.Qkinls-of
Biltar,(aJS<> lerliered upon harsh , dealings .. ! 'r.ltey -. .topk.
:iwa,t of Muhammad Ma'ruth Kabuli,r ;Arab
:. ' _,.l ! J
f 1'l . - I tfi ".l 1 .1\f.
-''Miighhl 'cnps.l'-..JBadni, voL
... p "'s'o ... ' ,, .
u., . . u J : .\
'Biidauni (tiol. ii .. :p. 281) ., o'bse'n!es A bu-1
Path wa.i fo'l!dir of ftllS!s titan- of wa'f,, ilhd Patar Das_ was
a mere 'Hindu clerk, so tltat no vigorous action .could be
expected. ' \ , :
:Oabadur, :md all the a.nd so laid: the foundatiOJl
o0f an evil MMum Kabuli, who after this insur
;rection obtained the .of 'Asi, lcaguccl
with 'Arab Babadmo and Sufa1d. lladakhsb, resolved to
l'Cbel, .and kiU Mttlla Taiyid and Rai Purkhottam,
Having put . them to flight, they ,plundered their dwell
ings. After a few days, Purkhottam rallied some loyal
"!llbjccts, and crossed the river Jausa .with the intention
of attackh1g the rebels. ollut tho rebel 'Arab Baladu,r
Jlllcicipated him, took him unawares, and killed him.
Upon iotcWgencc of 'Asi Ma'sum's rebellion l'eacl
i11g :Saba Khan Kaksbal, a correspondence was opened
them, and when the Mu
>.alfar Khan, 'Asi marched to assist thew, al)d anived at
Garhi. Muzaffar tl{han then sene Khwaja S)).arnSUd din
Muhanulll!d Kliw.af1,with 1a dct!l<;hment al).d gups
to the passes of Garhi, to ' arrest th.e progre.1s of 'Asi
Ma'sum. : But the latter had ;< mong force.; be broke
thtongh Garhi, and attacked the Khwaja and defeated
bim. H'e then formed a junction with the Kaksh:lls, and
the r evolt gathered suength.
The Kal:sbals then crossed the rivet, all(l advanced
against Muzaffar Khan. Wnllr Jamil,
.. one of the old
li'mlls o the State, along with Jan Muhammad Bihbudi,
ann:'som<! others, deserted Mutaffar Khan, and joined
the iruutgents. Mu2:Ufar Khan then took
in, tpe
fort of: Tanda, which was nothing better. than four, walls.
Tbco rebels occupied the town ' of :rand a. t,'J:hcy took.
1:bkim Abul J.'ath, Kbwaja Shamsuddin and others pri
.. oners, and bcg;m t<> piilagc. , Hakim Abu-! Fath wit!).
the Kbwaja andoRai Patar Das effected: their escape by
artifice, and fied on foot. By the help of the
.they inanaged to reaclt1Hajipur. ' The ;ebels made them
selves masters of the fort' of Tanda, brought
"Kebab ouf of his bouse ' upon a solemn assuranGe" (of
!S;U'etr); and. put him to They took possession
.. '
" " Khan ]amil Beg."-Badauni.
his property and effects, and all the CO\Ultry of Bengal
and Bihar fell into their hands. Nearly 30,000 horsemen
assembled round the rebels. The some .time
before this had taken. Mirza Sbarafud din Husain O\l t
prison, ,and sent him to Bengal to Mu..-ffar Khan.
rebels now 1eleascd him fr01n confmcment, and placed
bini at their head. SO the revolt
, 'J U.eon the facts being cmnntunicl)tcd to the, E!Ilperor,
be sent Raja Todar Mal . .. and otllCJO arnirs to
it. J:o'armans wesc sent to, Mubaxmnad Ma'sum
kbudi, govesnor of Jauopur, and Samanji Khan and th!!
jagirdars o that country, directing them to placl: them
sci ves under the command of To<lar Mal, and render
every to quash the rebellion.
While the Imperial army was on the ID;ucb, Sbaham
Khan Jalair fought wi th Saiyid lladakbsbi and .killcd him.
When the army roached Jauopur, Muhammad Ma'sum
joined Todar Mal wit11 :lOOO horsemen fully armed, anc:1
marched on with him, llut Muhammad Ma'sum ,a
.weak-minded Jmau, hi& dignity and. the strength JYt
army. bad tUIned his Jrebelfdll tp $qw rp'<lj1y
little actions savouring' of clisalfcction,_ ao,d tQ
.expressions indicafive of disloyalty, Raja .Mal,
like .a prudent and experienced man, temporized with
him, and dicl..aU he could to reassure and conciliate Jilin.
Whe11 the lmpedal anny reacled 'Asi'
Kabuli and the K<lksbals. and Mirza Sharafu-d . din,
HU.sain with 30,000 horse, :tnd 500 elephants, arid with
WaJ"boats artiliCly, in battle order, advanced to meet
cllc Imperial army, Raja Todar Mal bad no
iti the (cohesion o tle) adventurers composing
.enemy's army, and deeming it inexpec,lient bt;
occopied. tle foxt of ,r Moob<ir, . and throwing up .. other
aroupd itl he kept that position, Every day
combats' occurred .be"ween 1the men o the outpots ..
'When these proceedings were reported to the Emperor,
: , , . I I
'" To be kept in r.tutoay.-Akbar-uarna.
he on one occasion sent Zainu-d din Kambu by
chaulti with a lac of rupees for the expenditure of the.
army. Some days after, he sent the same amount by the.
bands of Darya Khan ab-dar, and so on by different per-
sons. At different times be sent a great -deal of
At this time Humayu11 Farmuli and Tarkhrul
Di-lvamL deserted the Imperial army and joined the in-
surgents. For fo1u months the loyal forces and the in
surgents faced each other, but at length some loyal
'wmindars of the vicinity cut otr the frotu the
instlrgents, ,nnd gtear scarcity prevailed among them.
llaba Khan Kakshal fell sick at Tandn and died. Jabbari.
son of Majnun Klum Kakshal, who was the main prop
of the' rabble, being -informed of the ;sinking condition
of lliaba' K'han1 'ivan'U!d ttl gb- to ;.fanda.. !Ast , (.Mjl'suni),.
not bHng able w ' maintain his ground, withdrew tO<
:Bihar! ''Arab ' 'Bahadur mhde a rapid maroh to Pattin.
seized upon the city, and appropriatcrl the treasure.
lliliar Khan KbassakliaiP went into the fore of Patna,
and held out. Raja Todar Mal and his supporters sent.
Muhammad Ma'sum Farankhudi with a detachment tO>
'the relief -of Patna. On hearing of his approach; 'Arab.
:Balfadur- raised the siege, and went off towards Gajpati,.
QYft bf ilicehief zamindars of that country.
' ' TJ:ie R3ja land Sadik Khan, and!' .. and thc.totber
llmirs rnarch'di to Bihar after 'Asi Ma'sum, who
an <i>ppbrtunity to make a night auaCk upon Sadik.
Khan's camp. ButSadik Khan a:' warycommander .
anti bn that- night and his men were Jan
llllg itlld Ulugh Khan Habslti ,were in cornll)and of his.
a\i\lan'cctl force1 and: the l!nemy attacking them unawares,
ja1\l\Beg was killed and Ulugh \Khan feU back. Sadik
K-harthad to resist a sha-rp> httl!ck;' ' but

aided him, 'lind. de.licated Ma'sum, wb&
t1H'.,._,1JII, f., , , ! f
w ''Complonly fmorun as Saiyid 'Arif."-Badauni,
ii., p. ,-.:. ' . ' ... ' . ' . ' tc
avent olf to Bengal in sorry plight. ; Now, Garhi fell into,
.cbe J,lands of cbc royal troops.
Among cbe strange occurrences of the time WM
.tlli.s : A letter sent by the hands of Hasan
bashi tO' Shuja'at Khan, ruler of Maha, summoning.
J>im to Coun, Accordingly, he and son Kiyam Kban
set. off from Sarangpur to attend , upon His
His attend:!nts were seized witu the desire to rebel, S<h
rthcy. killed both him and his son, and then dispCJ;Sed,
-each one taking his own way. When the Emperor )lear<!
he sent Sharif Khan Atka to be governor of Malwa,
.ancl called the young smviving children of SbujaJat
Khan to Conrt.
In consequence of the state of a[-airs ill :Bengal.
'Aam Khan who had been living for some time in re-
A.ircmcnt at Agra, was aga.in received into favoUI, an.d
lle was sent witb 5,000 horse to assume the government
of Bibar.fP
For . greaco security,. Shahbaz . Khan
Kambu, who was engaged against _lUna. ap<l
"I'Jearl y driven, tbe Rana. iiom. !!he country,. .was snmroon
-ed and sent with an army to the.!support of th.e for=
in Bengal. When Shabbaz. Khan came near to Hajipur,
where 'Arab Bahadur had taken refuge with Raja
Gajpati, he marched to attack him. For one month he
<:arried on operations against hin1, clearing away
'jungle, unril at length l1e d!ovc 'off 'Arab and:
the Raja succumb. , , :
. (!h11 Emperor pays a vi.!it to Sharif I(han. ..
1-lakimu.-l Mulk Gilaui app'ointecl. of
) /ie,
Pilgrimage:") . 'I :
.. A now <\l'l'ivcd from Raja .fl10Jlar Mal,
..Stating that he had kept Muluurunad Ma'sum Farank
ihudi along,. with him by concilitary treatment ' and all
,.,The MSS. af!.ree' in tl1i.s, ln.1t Ba.dauni \:ol. zi.,.f''
:285) says "JJengal." Abu-1 Fazl sdems mon 11ccuratc in r
he w/JS appointed to the comm:mfl . ill the Eti<Jertt.
1Ptovinces.- :1kbar-nama vol. iii., p. 2.75.
' l02
l:.iilds of expedients. That Khwaja Mansur (the diwan}
had written sharp letters to. him, claiming a good deal.
of moncr due rom him. He (the diwan} had also writ-
ten letters tO Tat'$un fdullammad Khan, one of t he
great amirJ and c.ommandcr of an army; holding out
threats to him, at a time when ;vas ncces-
$at'J. The sharp practice of the diwau having been re-
peatedly mentioned to l-lis Majesty, he removed him:
from office, and placed him in cltarge of Shah Kuli
Khan. An order was promulgated appointing Wazit
Khan' to be diwa11 in ciiicf instead of him, and K:tzi
' Ali, sotr of Kutbu'd din Baghdadi, to assist him in.
deciding questions.
A great natural curiosity was . brought to l the
11otice of the Empcro'r at tliis time. It a mail born
l\'ithont cars or .any orifice of , tbe ears, .wlio yet heard
:Ill tbat was' spoken, just like people with cars.
Majesty was greatly interested in the lllall, and scttle<l
a pension upon him.
(Pi1rce Dtmiyal 111alws the tM1ral (Jilgrimagc to.
Ajmir instead of the EmtJcrDI).
Raja Toclar Mal, Tarsmt Muhammad Khan, and
the "other ami:s took up their quarters in Hajipur
during the rainy season, and Ma'suJh Fal'ankhudi, wio.l't
tbclr permission, went to Jaunpur, whiclt his j<rgir.
'J'here he began to show signs of uisalfc'criuu. His.
Majesty therefore sent l'cshrau Khan, daro'gha of tbc-
fii'Tcish-lthiJ.na, to set him at ease; he also gave !tim "the
rotintry of Oudh instead of Jaunpur, and bestowed me
l atter upon Tarsun Khan. Ma'sum spoke dutiful wordS:
"tof i'eshrau Khari,. not show his &isalfcction; but.
asl Oudh was ntiat, h,c went ' there.
I Niyabnt Khan, son of Hashim Kltan Nalshapuri':
'vho bad grown up in the nurture of the Imperial
Court; 6roke out; in tebclli'orl in his jagir of Jausa and
Payag .and 'atiacked tb'e fort of Kair:i.
which' was the "jagi of Isma'il Kuli Khan. Illyas Khan,
who was Shikkdar o lhat plaCe: .for Jsma'il Knli, foughL
with rum and was killed. He tltcn invested the fort oE
Garha, and began to pillage. This being reported to
His Majesty, be sent Ismail Kuli ;Khan, .. and several
other amirs to repress hun. fie also sent "Raja Bitbal
and Shalt Kuli Khan Mahram io excite the hope
Ma'sum Khan Fatankhudi ancl bring him t<>
Cout:t. '
' When Watir Khan had departed; Kliwaja Mansur
' iias released from confinement, and again appointed to
tbe office of dituan.
As soon as Niyabat heard of the approach of the
royal army he raised tbc siege of Karra, and went to
wards Kamal, one of tbe dependencies of The
amir followed him, crossed over the" river, and came
up with him. Niyabat Khan attacked tbcm, and a hard
fight ensued, but at last he was defeated and went on:
to Ma'sum Kban.
At this time, also, 'Arab Bahadur fied before
Shah bat Khan, oand took refuge with Mal Sh,\\b:
l)az' Kban, .in purmit ofll.i!n; . .Went tO }a.l\llpUr, and f1:our
thence to Oud.b against 'Ma'sum!r Butr Ma'stutl adviU)c
ed to meet; him, defca.ted him, and put him to flight.
Inonc day Shahbaz Khan' travelled forty to J aun
pur. Tarsun Muhammad Khan, wbo commanded the
xight wing of Shahbaz Khan's force, had been bidden
by the jungle, al}d when M,asum:s armr, was disordereB,
. tbiSI force came up and. d*ated it. .. When
l{han ,
was informed of t))is be, eturned i.nun,edt;ttelj";
join,e_4 his right wing, a.nd, rallying l1is forces, pursued
the enemy. Ma's11m again in tbe of
9 FY' of Oudh, and. was again defeated. .. mot11er, aml
sisters, wives, and children, property and troops were
taken. He himself fled to the ,Siw'\lik. hills.. This
I Ill , \
'"Ma'.fflm Khan . ,had a11 immdJse stock ot the
mate"ials of "lf.ll;r, ruefe' thrty ,or forty batr,
ners, tughs arid kettle-drums itt his army." -Badduni;
. 290 .., . .
vo . " p. . .
happened in Lite mouth of Z.il hijja, m the year
988'' H.
'l \ VP..NTY SEV&N'fl-1 YEAR. OF 'f "HE REICN
The beginning of this year ,corresponded with Sunday,
t5t1l Safar, 989.
In the beginning of this year intelligence arrived,
.that MiLzi Muhammad. Hakim, allured by the
mems held out in letters.' to him by 'Asi Mjl'sum
:Kabuli and Ma' snm Farankhudi, aud urged on by his
maternal uncle l'aridun, had set out from Kabul with
tile object of conquering Hindustau. He sent his scrv
.ant Shadroan ower.:the lhdus (in advance), but
Mau Siugh, sop. of ,Raj" . attacked him
nnd killed hlm.i1' On. hj:atjngr 9f ,
this, the Mirlj!.
.ed , the iver, and in
tb.c of Sa1yidpur.
The Emperor assembled his forces, and having ad
vanced to all the sbldicrs eight months' pay out of Lbc
lreasury, he matche<l towards the Pan j:tb. Prince
Daniyal xcmninecl at Jiathpur; and Sultatl Khw11ja and
.Shaikh Ibrahim' were left in chatgc of aJiairs.
Upon the Empcmr's reaching the .sa..ai of Bad, 6C1een
Jr:os from l''arllpur.- he received. imclligcnce oE the victory
-of .. Sbahbal: Khan ovet Ma'smu Fatankhudi, Decuing
.this an auspicious omen, he ,continued; his, ll)al'oh. :$f,.
When K.u'nwat' Man ' 'Singh defeated Sltadhlan, hd
.obtained from Shadmau's portfolio three fwm
M.irn 'Muhammad Hakim': one to Hakimu-1 Mul)(, one
tO' K.hwaja $bah Mansilr, and one ro Mtlhmrt1ad Kasim
.Khan Mir.bahrj all in atlswei: to letters of invitation
..ind encou'r:l'gemcrl. llfarl 'Siugh sent these
. ,,._,
'' be 989.
. " "This should /1e R90 (lith March, 1582).
''"'\.";<!'f.oi:.cf fent 'in: t{is .had lleert dcfea.ted
'hy 'Y.tisuf.!Oo,u, gm;cmor of the

11ariui; .v'oT:-ii:i:.' : ' JlO. , '
to the.Emperol,. wqo ascertained the contents, but
" I
.kept the fact . concealed. .
After .. the Emperor marched from Dcllli, Mina
Ml!hammad Hakim advanced. to Lahore, and encamped.
in t,lre garden of \'v{ahdi Kllsim Khan. Kumvar Man
.Singh, Sa'id Khan,. and Raja Bbagwan Das had gone into
tltl fortress. On tbe El.llperor's ,reaching Panipat, Malik.
.Sani KabuJi, <l iwan of Muhammad Hakim, who
bad the title of W:uir Khan, tile Mirza,', ami
<a me to t11c Imperial . camp. He alighted at the tent
of Khwaja Shah Mansur, and made him. the channel
(or offering his services to the Empcrol'. When i<.hw1lja
Mansur am1ou.nced his ardval, the Emp<!lor's
picions were aroused, and he thought that Lbc t!iwM(.r
arriving at the time .when his mastc1
Hindustau must have some policy in it. He Will! already
suspicious of Mansur, and his doubts were now con
.{i1med. So he disn1issed Mansur, and showed him tl1c
Mina; s . b\Jt
'*' .. ,.,.: ... ... ..
. The proceeded to Shababad, . . "'ffl f, Yalik
'Ah brought hun a letter 10 , t:f,l' .followmg r effect:
:When !l'Y scouts were coming from the ford of l'..udi
.ana, Which is roy charge, and reached tbc Sbmi
of Sirhincl, tbey found a footman with swollen feet. , This
footman to them, 'l belong to Sbam.f llcg, the set
val),t of .Khwaja Sbali Mansur. He is the Kliwaji\'s
in his jagir of Firc:npur, thirty kos fro,llji,>L3hore.
'These letters arc to be delivered co tile liS my
feet :i:<,e .in a bad state, do you tile .. quickly_
to him/ These )etters my men have bro11gllt, to, me."
'When tile secretary opened them, one was a letter nom
Sbara. ro Mansur; abo11t ,Lbe _:IHairs .. of Firoz
.Pur, other was a !'rom .one person to an
other person, and of the purport:i "l rnet
Faridun Khan. and he carried JllC to .wait . upon Muham:
mad H:akini Bad$hah. Although he had sent his
collectors into -all the fJarganllS of this quarter, he-
, . '
not sent any to ours, but has held us exempt.'' On.
bearing and considering these letters it appeared to
Majesty that Sharaf Beg had written one of them to
Khwaja Mansur, and thnt the other was certainly con-
nected with the c,oming of Mirza Muhammad Hakim's
IJ{wan, Malik Sani, to Khwaja ' Mansur. Many of the
a'mirs and oflicers of State were on bad terms with the
Khwaja, nod these exerted their influence to secure his
death. So the Empet'Or the order for his execution,
and he was hanged next morning.
Three days afterwards, intelligence came in thaD
Mirza Muhammad Hakim, having been info1med of the
Emperor's .marclr towards the had passed tho-
river of Lahore,- arid gone olE to Kabul. The Emperor
:ravanced from Sirhind to Kalaoo,,m> and r6m thence
td Rohtas. There he received go6dT news, and hunt
iogas hi: went. alolrg, be l'l!ached tbe indus, In t.be
month of Rabi'n-s sani, he ordered a fort to be built 01;1.
the banks of the Indus, whkh i.s called Sindsagar, ancL
be called it Atak Baoatas.',. Boats were scarce, so be-
ordered the ami,s and solclicrs to search for and p1od.ucc
some. He assigned their respective posts to the vati61ls
Man Singh, with Shaikh Jamal Bakbti'
ylir and Madhu Singh h.is brother . . . andl others were
sent ovetl tjl'l! river towards Pai:sho1' (Peshawar)1 When
they possession. of that dty, the Emperor senb
Prince Murad along with Kalij Khan; Rai Singh, Mir'l:t
Yusuf, and other amirs' to effect the conquest of Kabul.
At this time Khwaja Abu-t Fa.zl, and . . came as
envoys from Mirza Mubam'uiad Hakim, co beg pardon
for" his offences. The Empemr sent Haji Habibtllb
t i
According 'to Abn-ll'azl, he paid a visit 111 Nagdr
,Tibt b.ejorc reac!ling 'Killrmo>.-Akbm-11ama, vol. -iii!.-

l'>Ba<iauni (vol. it., p. 293) sttys this wa.s "irl 'con:
',., ... , '"'"'' x' . ' .
t!' atak Bana>as,'' at the other txtremot:y:
of t he empirt!. 1 ' 1 '

,along with them. io Kabul, promising . him forgiveness.
on condition that he repented of the past, w:oUI<l
bind himself by' oath (for the future), and would !send.
llis sister to the Imperial Court. Prince Murad passoo
through the Kbaibar Pass, and on the 15th Jumada-s.
san!., the Emperor crossed over the river Sind-sagar
,(Indus), ancl there encamped.
Here he sent the least o his servants, Nizamu-d din
Ahmad, the author o this work, to proceed npidly itt
advance of Prince Murad, and open communlcation&
with the amirs who had gone on first, and 10 ascertain
whether they could get to Kabul without the Emperor,
or if dtcy needed his presence; by what road he ought
to proceed; and whether he should come wiU1 a.ll his-
army or tmvel express (jarida). In one night and day
I reached Jalalabad, a distance of seventy-live l<os, and
delivered my message to the Pl'ince. He was determine<L
lipiin proceeding to Kabul, and 'thought it advisable to
send me' back speedily to tile ' J!:mperor. He' also stnv
along wfth me Haji l{ai)ii'>Ulla, who bad (Omc
Kabul to Jalalabad, and I was to 'report' ''tbat 'Mirza
Muhammad Hakim was sincerely repentant o the past,
- , dlat he had taken oaths, and that he was willing to
his sister, but that Khwaja Husain, her husband, ha<l
carried her off to Badakhsbau. When I antl Haji
Habibu-lla joined His Majesty, he on the following
l!lJifclted to Pershor (Peshawar) . . There he left l''rind:
in camp with Raja Bhagwan Das, Sn'id Khan l(etc),
aild wenl lin with spe'ed travelling about kil,i- ' a
'day. ,When Prince Mufad tame to wiUtin seven lios:of '
Kab'ul, Mirza Muhammad Hakim issued fonh to the
village of Khurd-kabul, and attacked him; but be!" '*aS''
defeated and 'put' to !light. The vit1torious' PtiJite then
entered KabUl> "
On the night before this action Faridun, the l!nclc
of Mirza Hakim, attacked the rear of the Prince's army,
killed a good '!itany men, imtl carJ:ied off considerable
spoil. This day the Emperor advanced and encampedr
.at .Surkbab, fifteen kos from the army of the Prince.
'"'ben the rear of the Prince' s army was attacked and
_plundered, it so happened that I-bji Muhammad Ahadi,
who bad gape 011 in advance as messenger (dak-cl111.uh,)
.to the Prince,' arrived upon the spot, . aml beheld the
:rom. He t urned back and reported the .disaster, which
.annoyed f:be Emperor. llut notwltbstandi11g , this news,
next day the Empcmr wem on a stage, and then recciv
accoums of the victory that had been g.tined, and for
which he , offered up his th>mksgiviug.
On k'tiday, I Otb Rajab, l>e eptered Kabul, and . re:
_rnaincd there for twenty days visiting t.he gardens. 'Here
Jtc was informctl that Mirza Multainmad l;J;akim
.ed to abandon . rcfl'ge tli!!

a . qjsgt:!CC n,nd he
La!if l<hwnja to. Mirza' .Mu)laqun.ad fj:ilkim, , who was at.
oGhorbanQ, t to tell him that his o1Fc1ccs were forgiven.
'11tc Mirza, having in the presence of Latif Khwaja
.n pr01uisc and a vow of fidel ity, executed :m cng:gcment..
.and sent it by ' ,\Li Mu.hautl\1!\cl Asp along witb L:1tif
J(hwaja to the Emperor . .
, His Majesty thc.n turned homewards to Hindustan,
conferri11g Kabul . upon Mir1.a Muhammad Hakim.
ti).e anny, he went on quickly to Jala.htbad,
-where vtas a large Sa!.im ..

tle were with him, hastened (o!:th tO meet
His Majesty, .and , to 1 congratulate. on his victOl')'
Khwa jagi r.luhanuna.d Husain, ' the brother of Kasim
Khan Mir-ballr, wbo was , one of .. Mirza Muhammad
Ha,kim's nobles, came . to, profl'cr \tis S<:J.'\Iitcs to the
and was. admitted, among the number of his
.llron1 Jalaiabad he a <Wtacbmcnt to attack the
hi,lls o! the Kator infidels. Travelling by regular
"he, tbc banks of the Sind-sagar

tl t .. " .

t!Je ' 12th voi. ii;,

p. 295 . . , !.tt. ..,. '
NIZAMUI) urN AtWAn l09o
MubamJuad Kasim Khan who had been -loft behind tO>
make a bridge, bad constr\.lcced one. of" boatS. \fbc
j ourney to Kabul had been performed in one' month.
l n one day be (and his escort) crossed the river and went.
on to Lahore, where he arrived on the last day of Rarna-
zan. He agaiu
entrusted the government of the l'anjab
10' Sa'id Khan, Raja :Sbagwan Das, and Kunwar
Singh, and went on his way hunting to Fathpur. At
Panipat Shahbm: Khan came co wait ' upon him. On the.
25th Sbawwal be anivcd at -Debli. :Prince Daniyal and.
the amis who bad remained at Fathpur, and Her High
1fess Maryam Makani came forth to meet l1im, a11d on.
the 5th Zi-1 ka'da he llrrivcd there.
While the Empero.1 was in the Kabul cam
paign, J3ahadur 'Ali, son of Saiyid Bad:kbsb i entered thc-
COlltltry of Tirhut, and !fdVC limsc\( the title of Bahadur
" but be was prison'cr and killed by tiH:
men of Kltani ' azrun. Masum Kha:n Fan\nkhndi., being.
distress and. anxiety in th.e .Siwalik hills;.

1n consequenc<; ihe,Khan
s IJlter,wlOf li_ e fl\lT<10il --
cd. !h.cn be

,-!}ban-i :azain. ,11u\nllle

was , aftcr\1-ards w , interview witl!
tl};9. Emperor at :E'athpur.
When the Emperor' waited up\)11 :.l Kabul
the confidential servants of Miria Muhammad Hal<iiRr
N:. inquir into
to Badauni (rio(. ii:; p: 29$),'/ie 'r.aiised
to.be reaa. a-!\a crff!s be .f.1!
WtJS soon llfUrwdrds tn\l.rclered; tiS he tUtJS 11
.'home frorrl the. .. t!T'iyabal , wa.l'
doned tor the of uittle. ill"
KhaiJ; ruler ,of Malwil; 'but he sent, t'hr, elf
Rania'rrrblior, u.nd' confined. ,. There he'' tuai ' g.iiity , of
tftillgs 1111!ith clmnclf .. . mentioned}
an'lJ. .tlii.Yetl" up ti
i:ifl!bt mui:in"oo qmcmg the pris9ners:.- .w in 99'8 ro'n--
aeln'ned 'and "exctttleti:';...:.IJadaulti; vol. -u . f>. '299:.'
:tnd it appeated Utal K:muu-ljn, brother of Sbabbaz, J;lad
<olluded with others to concoct letters, and that he ba<l
forged tlte last letter on the evidence of whiCh Kbwaja
Mansur was c.xecuted, After tws was rfiscovcred, the
Emperor often .regretted the execution of Kbw:oja, He
now remained for. some rime at Fathpur, administering
justice, dispensing charity; and arranging public l.nu;i
ness. .
On the 19th Mubarram, 990 H., Kltani 'azam, gov -
cruor of Hajipur and Patna, came to wait upon the Em-
peror, and to give an account of the affairs of Bengal,
After staying scve.>:al days, he was sent back to llengal,
and several nobles and soldiers who bad )leeo to Kabul
vas sent with him.

' . L j I , ., f
The peginning of. tltis with.
Safar, 99('(lltb' March,' 158S A.D.)
Shab:un Khan Jalair fmm Bcnga.l, and Raja Bbagwan
Das fron1 Lahore, came to wait upon his It has
been mentioned in a previous pag'C bow Kbani'azam
with a number of jagirdms from Bengal to wait
upon the Empcrox, leaving the .ruba empty. Evil-mind-
ed . t<?ok. advantage , of their c?DlillJl
om of c\'e:rf, cornhr began to excite dtsrutbdncet A
"Servant of 1\{a'suin Kabuli, by nam'C' Khaoifu, in 'c'oncert
with 'ra*han Diwana and Surkb Badakbsbi, raised com
motions in Bihar. Mubammfld Sadik J:.han, .with
Muhibb 'Ali Khan, defeated . him and killed him.
; .. (Return oJl Gulbad<m Begam ancl Salima Sultan
Bi$,ar? from Mecca. ' ,Prince Salim sent 't o Aimir lo
1?.\eeJ; Htetp, and to vifit the sllri11e of Mu'inu-d din.)
, Mhb:immad Sadik Khan came from Bihar, and was
but he was. sqoiJ sent to assist
M\ tbc revolt . of .' Kabuli. Shah
Khan ,;tnd.'.otllcr amirs 1vho bad been on (he Kabul cam
.. .
paign were sent with Jilin. About this time Mil.: Abu
Turab and 'ltimad. Khan, who '(isited the ho!y tem-
'Ple together, came to Court, ,and bad an interview with
His Majesty. Abu TUlab had brought a stone upoh
which there was said to be an impression oE the. Pro
phet's -foot. .His Majesty . went out four l:os to receive
thiS stone 'vitb every mark of honour. An orde.: was
issued Ulat all the amirs in turn shonld cany it on their
a few steps. So each ore carried it a little )vay,
a.od brought it into the city. (Weighing of Princp Salim
against gold ant! The traitor, Muliamma<J:
by name, was brought a prisoner from Tirhut, and suf .
fered punishment in tbe market.'"
'1WF..N1'\'N.L-.."l' ll Ot; Tfl lllll:C"
Agreeing with 991 H."' (l'eslival of !lit """' 1'Citl').
The news from Bengal was, th:tt K.h:tn-i'azam IJad occu
Tanda, that Kbaldi Khan, Jabbar Burdi, and Mini
Beg l{akshal had separated fxolTl 'Asi ]{abuli, and . had
come to Khan-i 'ilzam, and that 'Asi had sought refuge
with certai.l:l ,All o1 llep.gal ' rl\af
.were in . the possession of came'
under the of t!'e Imperial
As 'ltimall Khan bad held the government of Guja
rat for several years, he was better acquainted wiJ.h the
prosper.ous management of .the . country than others
could be, and if the govcm!l'cnt were confinned _ to hi!'i
' it might be the means of exciting tbe emulation ''of
rule.q in other countries. ' for reason he ti'!is' &p-
FP!nt_e!l- ,governor of Mir Turab ap
amin, Kasim, brother

' . I T
. wa; " Xarkl1a11, an4,had bee1i a irl J!en;
gal. H<1ving attocketj. a caravan of . tl!PY
made a breastwork of thei,- bags, and .b4at h,i1,n, off. He
was afterwards taken near. GtWa.-11/ibanama, vol. iii.,
'f1.)88. ,. , ,.. . ,,.; . ., _,
't ."'Short14.we 992 (1584 A.-D.,
' .1\bdu-1 Kadir was appointed diwan, and the bumble:
se..-vant Nizamud din Ahmad, the author of this work.
was appoimed bakshi. Muhammad Husain Shaikh and
. . : were made jagi1dars of Gujarat. .
Amir Fathu-!la, one of the saiyid.1 of Shiraz, a very
wise and' learnesJ man, bad gone from Siraz to 'Adil
Khan in tlte Dakhin, and had there held high office. Ori
22nd Rabi'us sani he came to visit the Emperor at
Fathpur: and' Hakim Abu! Fath were
sent fonh. t(l meet him, and to bring him in with due
!)Onour. He was appointed to the office of Sadr,
The suppression and dispe1:$iOn of the rebels ht
Bengal was 1eportcd td the Emperor. It was known
that 'Asi Kabuli was b:\ , the country, of :4isi, and. Khanf
'azam was desirous of home. For 'these reasons.
to Bl!t!'..
.fils:. whole of' tl!at !arliar
in'. jag irs to the
and to' do his beH'to externiinate 'Asi Kabuli.
On tile 17th Jumadas sani, be started to assume his
. Jn this ):Car, :ul order was given for ' the'
i nto Persi:m of the Malza-bhamt, which is the chief book
of the Brahmans. The translation was com-
and received the name of Razm-11ama (Book of
rv;r .. l h h
now . K'IiilliPazam
had scqt JTarid to make peace w1tb IJcatlu l\fgttan
'(in bri5sa)', ' When the. Shllikh and
hlld m,l I_<atl)i' was. llcry .
. B;tl>adnr Gaunya, one of Beng_al, ancr
a high ollii:er in tbe arrn'y
'c,f Kadt\, ' came to see the '
Shaikh, who then travelled on under the eye. of the
r \ d ' f
;ram1rn.ars an the servants o Katlu. Baha'dur, m a bos-
t.J.Ie rfiP.ru}di-, blocked up :road by which tbe Shaikh
and attacked him. Many of his ' tn'etl
wJre !iiiile'd; but the Shaikh' eseaped without iojuty.
Bllrhanu-1 Mulk, llrother of Murtaza Nlzamuf
Mulk, rulr of the Dakhin,
'fied 'fiom his brolber t<>

Kutbu-d din Khan.'" and by command he came from
thence to wait upon the Emperor in the mon,t,Q. of
Rajab. Bu,t before this, a -person ca)ling,
Burhanu-1 Mulk bad waited upon the :md had
obtained a jagir. Now that the real man had, c;omc, and
the' imposture ,wa.s displayed, the impostor lied a.ud
h)iu!elf; but he 'was discovered after the lapse of a week.
amtmg some jogis, and -Was cast into J?lliW.l1 1
An order was"given: to 'lcimad Kha'n to takc. awaj
tile' cotlntty of Sirohi 'frorn: Sarman Deoii, and to give .it
to Jagmal his b'l'other, wb:o was an adherent of the 1m-
penal throne: J,bOO mdhurs (muh;-s) was sent in chaTgc
of tbe wriu:r of 'this wo'rk towards payment of the ex-
penses. When 'Itimad ]{han arrived at Jalor, the author.
Muhamnad Ma'sun1 Bakhari, Ka>llbar Beg Ishang Aka,
Zainu-d din Knmbu, aid Paluaw:m ' Ali Sistani, who was
appointed kotwal of Alunadabad, joined 'Itimad Khan.
Husail 'Shaikh' and several jagi1'lUIYS of
GLijara'f . rell).ainedJ';bcltilld. After .' Itimad Khan ;artivcd
at' 'fa!dr; toSirohi, l 'removed
Sarman Deori, he ibsL'alledt'.)'agynal, wh1lm h'c left th.CJ1e-
witb Aghzan Khan," Malm\Ud Jal&P, Bijll'd Deora(l Ral
Singh, ron of Chanaar ' Sen, son of Rai Mal- Deo.
T:beh he pl'ocetdcd t011Idrd!J Ahmadabad, Md on ap-
proaching the city,
Sllahabu-d din Alunacl Khan came.
out and ?ostecl himself in 'Usrnanpur, one of i the
sUburbs. On the 12th Sha'banr ' ltimad Khan 'Went .ffifo
city. Two days afterwards it was discovered
'Abid, Badakhsl ..... and a large party of the servants
of Shihabu-d diu Khan had left him, and gone off to:
Katbi1Yar, to invite Muzaffar Gujarati,
'who''was. there
JNing in the retirement to which be badJ beeri' driveil
. ' '
,;. f"o
110"[11' (>!alllJa".'.!...iJddauni; vol. ii.,' P.- 324.
''Who' had.
'/Ud fronl '
ihe lffl{>M/il Court, a111!
ie!iige ioiih ''h'if
Batkumi, vtll.
ii.,- fi- 32'!. ilb11:l 'ftar.l says he was etllJy -
l '
'l'>y J,c Imperia{ arms; their object bcing to promote . a
'Itimatl Kh:m thought it dcsitable to have a. con
.fercncc with Shahabli-d din upon .1he subject; so he
sent me, the' autbot of this work. to bim. When I saw.
' biro,
he told me that this .band.;of conspirators had a
ngainst his life, arid that they had for a long '
.time been prcpa>ing plot. Now ' that tlicy had torn
tltc veil from their desigm, they would 110 en
.couragewrJlt ox , help (rom .him. , When . 1, repqrted t!lc
!t:llc "f tl>e case '"' Khan, he th.,ught it .cxptc.H-
Cnt co conciliate. the . conspirators; s.o be sent me and
two other .. persoJls to appease them. Dut rejected
OUl' ' ov.crturcs, apd COntinued 'tbCiG, j9,urner..
dhV ,and wem to Kari., twqnty lws
AJl!padabatl, Wt ))CIW ro. Shabab,u-d
.cl1nturging.il)jm,t.o;d;cii1Y .liis fo" a few days;
tbut making no stay, he, went on his way. ' " ,
on the 27th Sba'ban, .the intelligence :urivcd that
we l'ebcls had come to l)ulaka,' bringing wi th them
Muzaffar :md soJne Kathiwar people.
Kambar Beg lshang Aka now came in from
Shababu-d din, reporting that he hac! promised to stay
ab1Kari. !Jtim.ad Khan, Mil Abu Tul'ab. and I, tlterc
f'Ore went forth tp see Shahabu,d din, to him,
-ntl b'l?ing him back w.itb us> Towards the close.of day,,
'ltimad Khan set o[ for Kari. It ba!f. bee11 upon
'biro that it was oot right for tlte of a city to leave
.an obsc11re individual namtd Ta!ltlu, 'Who took. t.he.
Mme of Mut.tJ.ffat; and . called. himself son of Sultan
.M!ahmtul of Gujarai.-'-A.Itbar.nant<t vol. , iii,, p. 404 .
. Acconting to lilockmann he was calle<l "Nathu",
;which mcar!!' vol .... i., p. ;J$, .

'Jjlfl ll!ll!lor'!.: Wf!;.'cfs ,P,:r.e. eifP.licit, though .they
.. fCC'!! 'ffJ..\ fC Wit/r What follows. , . j
l1,'\" '1'welpe kos frnm. &llma.tfaba".- Badauni, vol. f
.ii:;"' {>. 3Z7. r ' f.
NlZJ\,.\CUD DI.JI' -Alt'MAD Uti
.when the en . was at a distaucq, ot pnl y tweLve, koS'"
.'But it was of avait. ,He left his own son A.Jllil.
Mn'sum Baklxlri a11d . . , . . and my sol\,. and .
'When .be arid I reached l{ari
we talked with S,hababud
<lin, anQ. we him; .upcn om promise that the
parganlls which be bad for a long, time held j.n jagir
.sboul!b.bc relinquished to him> and ''e shoura be
pald aJsubsidy of two lacs of mpces. . In fact, ,all, l1c
.as1(ed was T<owards c!Qse of day, l ltill)ad
.&ban and he set. our from J(iari, to return. to' AhlliJ!la
bad. On 'tba: same day tbnt ' ltimad Kb'm went to Kari,.
Muzruf:u: G'!jllrali: -canxc to, Ahmadabad. The m<ll: of
.the city gave Jtim (access to) the fort, and as P'll't- of the
was ,broken down; lie made his way in inulle;.
At J:uidnight, when ('.llimad Khan mld) Sbahabu'<l
.dill were ten kos from Alnundnhad; they were m)lt hy
Mir Ma'surn J.lakbnri and .Zainud dip :Kambu,
<eOJl!C ,out and t!Jc. ne',lls.,
.ed,"Haudl"aftJ!r, as tb'e .!!DQJU}'l'
J1ad gail'i'cd . only oue dn.y
G he
.batl ihad no time to
strengthen and that>. we mn g-et into the rcity
.as he had done. So we went on to the city, and in the
noming ar-rived at Usman.pur; w)lld1 is on the side of
<the river . near the qity. MuzaJEar Gu jarati came fortl;o..+,
:and dre\v up his fortes on the salJCly bank of the .civ<:>>
din c1uice helpless, because his men ;\Vdre'
.nont-.cr,llstworthy, and many of t,hem. ran i)fl!. .Ldill:,a11:
OC could.;with a.(cw men, but lvlthout cffe'<lt. My sdn wbcP.
!had been l<!ft .in the' oit)l in 'cliargeof the fort, was }1l.unr
<lercd of .everything. Shahabud din Ahmad Khan and
J<J>an' took. tp flight, .a11d }vent 1.t0:\Nahrwala,
better known as Pattan, fort y-live kos from Abmadaf>ad'J,
I, cbe author, ,report of the occnrrel}r.es' to <the
Emperor. -! .1 i '
' Three days l\>1l.lhai,J!XIIad -Husain Shaikh
. ltDd Otj.ler of.Grrjarat.'<;amC, to Patt;m,,-andj
set t.he fort in order, prepated to hold out, _l.\{U!;i!"l
fl'a.r Gujarati gave away jagiTS and titles to tb.c
:rebels, 'ahd husi'cd himself in col(ecting forces. Sher
Khan Fuladl had been governor of l'attan for mati)C
yean, '!lui l!ad (since) lived for' some years' in adversity
irtl the country 6f Surath. He joined Muzaffar Gujarati,
who se'nt hint with four- thousand llorse cowards Pattan:
When Stier Khan arriYcd at' Kari, he setlt forward Ius.
men' to the town of Jutarta, twenty luJs. from Pattari.
1: atta'ckcd them and defeated ,them, and left Mir
Muhibbnlll\ , . ' .. and a detachmcnr of soldlccs at that
phtcil. Zainu-d dirt Kambu was sent w Kutbud diu.
governbr of BJoaclt and :Bruoda, desiring biro to ad:vance
from side against Ah_madabad, so the enemy
, . might' be attacked on two' sides alld ' overpowered.
Zainud ' din went to Kutbud dln. and brdugbt
himlds:t :BaxOda. :when' inf!)rmccl of his
a.iiYit.l" thetc; Ire led a>Nlttge ' forll<l' to attaal;:. him, . arut
K:utbu-ddin, having fdught in "an way,
wits defeated, and had to take refuge in tlie fort of
:Baroda. l'ifany of his men and officers joined Muzaffar.
Shcr Kltan Fuladi now advanced as far as dle town
ofJiMa..ana," fifteen l<os from Pattim, and great
nlil.iorufell upon the garrison, so muclv so that they were
on tl\:c point .-of abandoning llattan, and off to
Jhlor\' J,resolvcd at h"azard' to fight,-and went to en-
c.ounrerJShet> X.han. Sbahabu-d . diwAhrilild; K,hanr ahd
' l timad stopped in Pattan,\ft the ,,otbl:r.r'amir.<"
joincii lrot. :When WC rcacltcd Masdna, we found that
Sher Khaw bad drnwwup bis forces, and he advanced to
attall'k, us .with. Jive'thousandl horse, whlle we. did nod ex-
,,,... .l;_,l JJt ,ull ' J I l ll(t f!. . iii , , 1l
.r M-south of I'llttmr,"dn<L 'iibout truelvc ndrth of
J{'art! f.1.1H '/ trt t ;1 I - ') ,,. 1;
. ,,r,
W.M:ysana" in thc"mapsi :Abotlt twenty miles
north of Kari. ,q ,u
,q, litse -two 11o/iles ' " hhd'd.t!tel"minecf to fl'J i.&wards
the 't(j'Orts' of< -Nitltmud 'llin' 'Ahmad"
'tlley fe>li!tin.t!l 'lladatmi, Vol: fJ'. ' JJ9.
... ccd !M'o dJ.ousand. Sher KlJan was defeated, and went
off to Ahntadabad. Many of his men were killed,. :ind
.a large .booty fell into our hands. I strenuouslyi \lrgcd
that we sh-ould: vance ag-ainst Ahmadabad,
but the
-amirs who were 'vith me would not l'itp:ee.
When 'fC reached Kar_i, we emained there, awaith1g
the :rtl'ival of the. soldiers who had been -sent to :Pattall
:with the spoils of our victory. We waited twelve days,
and during that time several persons wetc sent . to !l'aUall.
GO collect men. We now he:u:d that Muzaffar , Gujarati
!>ad bombarded t!lP fql:t of Baroda, and that Kutbu-d
din, having a promise (of safe conduct), bad
sent Zainu-d din Kambu out (to treat). 'Muzaffar, re-
gardless of his .pledge, put Jainu-d din , to 'death.
Kutbu-d din, although the pexJidy and vow-breaking of
Muzaffar were mauifcst, was so dementctl, so blinded by
t:ate, that he to the promise of that promise
breaker, and went out to- him.
"then, at . the instiga"
tion 6 f.L'al!Wari, Zammctar of Piela, he pt(t lto lleat4-
UP'oh bearing o this, l; lilld tb'eup.en:twbo!w.are wilh ;lim;
at Karl, rel!urncd to Brittan. , .. , ,
' h1 , !"1
From Baroda. Muzaffar went to B>oacll and tlie oOi
ce-s of Kutbu-d din s\rrrendcred the forhess. He obtain-
ed there f-ourteen lacs of rupees which were in the royal
tqeaswy ;ot Kambay, and had been conveyed to l3roach
by Kh<vaja 'Imadu-d din Husain. Aud he also got pos-,
session o all the property and 'trcasttres of . Kutbud
whlch exceeded ten k1ors. Collecting the soldiers ; and
Rajpul< from. all parts him, he 1-aisetl his-force .to
nearly ' thirty lhousand men. " : , :
Wben these o=eoces were brought'to the )luow-
' I ' ; f '
1'h'is wa.r the fJrope'r course tlnile1 circtlrlt
stances, tclr intClligeiiCe of Kutlmd din Muhammdd's
affair had ',lot tis y'lt oten vol. ii.,
'P- 330.
'"He was lit first ruei11ecL 1vith great kindness a11d
1/tonour.-Badatltli vol. ii.,_ p. 331. '\ \
ledge ;of the Emperor, lte sent M ir1.a Klta'U, wn ot
)hiram KJ1an, along with the jagittltm of Ajmir, . such.
as l'ayinda Muhiunmad Khatt Mughal . . . and other{>.
tOO numetous to mention, by way. of 'Jalor and
and be also sent Kalij Khall, who W(\S the jagird<t of
Surat, witb .. jagirdars; of Malwa, by the way of Malwa .. .
'11his latter force bad axri.vcd <tl Sultanpur :u1d Nandm
bar' .. while MuUllfur was engaged at llroach, buL dl'eml
of Mthaffar prevented them from advnncing a step fnr
ther. ,I, the author, eve1y ,daylwJote !etten from l'atl;llb
to Mirta Khan, urgirig his speedy approach. When he.
arrived' with hi force at . Sirohi, I went forth w meet
him, ancl brought biro 01,1 witb nll speed. He l'cmaiuc<.L
one day .in l'iiHari, nndJ thell' advanced. < ,,,,
., .. }WltenMir.a Kbanls. ani.,vab became .to.
f!'ai:.lGiljarati,' b&.ldt.,lltoacb, an <tO Abroad a"
bad; lca,vingthe <n of Nasir,
broihe's son, and Cha,kas R"mi, one of the Impedal
servants who had deserted 'to Muzalf,.r. Mirza .
and his army encamped at Sarkaj, : three Ito. (rom.
Ahmadalmd. Mur.1lfm pitched his mmp opposite the
litiperial army,. two fws ue.1r the toiOb of Shah.
llhikan (God resc his soul!). ,
'" .!-0n the day ti.Jc two anuie. were thus llroughc ncar.
to .. e;toli other and sob.te lighting \vcm OD;r.J<>
the ad\WJltag! of the Imperial' Friday, 1 '1:6tb
Muharmm, .991, When -Muzaffar maxsballed hfs ofotccs.
and attai:kM us-.> Mii'-a Kbttn, on his s(del lind made
di.spositions, IJ,. the -4\.Jthor: <tn<L .. , , were directed t<>
keep the town of Sarkaj ou rigb.t, add to fall upon.
the rear of the enemy. , rrllc two annies met,. and' the
battle began. Sai rid Hashim and Khilr Aka, of
l\1ina Khan, slajnl

men fell. While

engaged ' ,. Kha\1, f broHgbt.
IUCP., ami fell J<pon ,hi,s car, Rai Durga, i\!S'I"
\ .
) lies ,,Jb91$L. t"!!elly miles .1lO'l'l lJi\Of . tile
1' af>li; Na?ldurbar dislancll' St))lt h of it:.

otN AHMAO 1191
of the lc.h wing, under . tb.e orders of Miqa Kh,an, fol
lowed to support me . . Ml!7.alfar 'vas put to flight, . and
great numbers of l1is men were slain," Next mom1ng.
Mirza, Khan entered the city, and iss1.1.ed a
ofuamncsty, so that every one felt reass\'tcd. Muzaffar
fled, to oMa' murabad. and the banks of the Mahindari
.river. From thence. he went to Kambay. Many of the
f11giti\f<!S rejoined l1im there, so his force again rose-
to nearly ten
thousand roen.'
' ,
Three days after the victory, Kalij .Khan .arrived
Ahtuadabad wi.th the >trtny' .of Malwl!. M.ipn Khan and
all. the amirs then , marched. wwards Kambay. On their
arriving at ten kos from the place, went off
towards Baroda. When Mirza K.han reached the village
of Basad, near Patlad, on the ban\:. of the Mallindari,u
he sent Kalij Khan and . . . on in advance to overtake
and attack the enemy; but this force, cteccrred by the
difficulty and narrowness of the toad, came to a halt.
Jgot <>ff t.o a1!,4,,Nadot,l: ,..,r 'r
Min.1. K;h'!JI , awj., h,.arnw, Jleroda QD,
1 n t ,

Fatl says . I lie Imper-ial force amomllecl 10

lJ.nly LO,qoo, horse, while. their opponents numbel'et!'
1/JJ)OO horse aJICl 100,000 foot.- Akbar-nanuz, vol. iii.,.
(1. 465. . .,
1Jatlatmi (vol. ii., (1. iJJJ) makes the number to
'f2,000." vl ,
Fazl blan>es the Imperialists .f.or. 11at. pur
stting-;he. enemy, and fot allowing him. time to .levy. con
on Kam/JOy and q.ssemble
4kbarnama,:.vol . . iii., p. 4671 , , .,,.,,, .,, 1 ,
rw -!''This .1hows : tha( ,-"Mahindcn'i'' jSI , a?Jol.h,'er nanur-
fln:tth./1 Mphi <1r . for there ,is , tto<plher. river near
Pat/ad,. atJd- .t he mq.psrgive,. q, ' !W.a.s.swl". ? its
Raj-pipla is soutl J>f almost 011 a
line 'fl'ith Bro9ch: NocLot i.< no dqubt Nandod, betwcc111
the Nerbadda and R<lj.pifl/a ..

16th, and 1bere 1-csted. While be was there, intelligence
.arrhed dlat Sai)'id Daulac, one of the officers of Muzaf,
far, bact entered Kambay, and overpowered the royal
forces in the place. Khan'"" was sent to re
press this diversion, and having driven our the insur-
ge'rit, he recumed. Saiyid Daular then c:tmc back and
the l:owo agaiJY.l Khojam 'nurdi, an officer of
Mh'za Khan's, n>arcbed hi'ln'
f.rom Patlad, and
him. Mirza Khan nil>:rcbed With his tumy to
Nadot, and Muzalfat ofl: ! into the mountains .
.'\!!alik Bahadtir now from thc' Imperial army,
.a!la joihcd Muzaffar. So (he were agahi set
notion. '
' Miria KMu impl'iso'ncd ' San Bahadur U zbek, of
wl)oin: be was suspi'c.ious ob aecount
of liis relations with
.A'talik :Sabacrur, an'd he resolved t'O attack 'the l'ebels:
:Sll!arif Khan and l'fatirarig':Kbati ;ere appointed to che
Tight, K:ilij and 'Tolnk Khan to the left, Pa yin'da
Khan and some other amis co the advance. I was sent
forward (0 recbnnoitre, and lind out the best way of
.anacking the enemy.'"
When I rcad1cd the foot of thc hills, I attacked the
infantry; and drove dleoi back for a good ltos
to where' their main force was drawp up in array. A
.sharp action ensued. The discharge of arrows and bub
'Iets waS' 'quit-e bewildering, ancl many men -and\'borses
.on both sides were wounded. 1 dismounted some of my
best men, ani:! rode-on with' them to the mountain, ancL
I sent some. weall up Kalij Khau: I also sent Kbwaja
'Mul>ammad Rafia', a mil'n renowned fdr his courage.
Kali j Khan came up on tile leff, ancl becoming engaged,
lie' bote back the enemy' a ' little: But reinforcement
iver<; brollgbt up by tlre . enemy; and Kalij' Kha1r and
Kltail were repulse<!; lind fell a' bowshot 'diS!
J :>-.. ' .Tolak i.izan in . .
la ,
,, . , -ir' Ma'mm Bakhari' 'was associated with him,-
vo'l'. iii., p. 42-9. i

tance. The men whom I had dismounted,. while 'the
.enemy was pusb.ing after K'lli:lj Khan,. 6n(H.rg the way
dear, ascended the hill: 'When the enemy retmncd, tliey
attacked . apd many men wtre killed. Kali )' K.Iiau
'bad foub(J: some sheltc and held his ground. l sent to
Mim Khan for tlie elephant guns (llafh-nai). They
w<*e' brought up upon the elephants, and we discharged
several guns against the spot where Muz-affar' 'vas stand
ing. Naurang Khail. uo\v 'tame up the m'?urltain which
covered the encniys left, and got the command of his
position. When the balls from the elephant guns fell
in' the midst of Mnza.lfur's division, he fled, and great
numbets of his men were taken prisoners or killed. The
Imperial :ums 'obtained a complete victory." Mirza
lthan rctruncd, and tame to 'Ahmadabad, where be
busied himself in nrranging the alfail'S of the army and
the peasantry. He left Kalij Khan and ... the other
M'alwa to proceed against Broadt. For seven
molitbs he temained in- 'Ahmadabad, and, ht the cl)'d 9f
th.1t time the f6rt of BroaOh wds Gn'ptu'ed, 1>t 'Gha:r!GtS
Ruitii, ' 'vlio hi d deserted
lt1ltbu-'d din
Kl.>an to join' Muzalf!lr; was ' appointell by hiln c6m'
mandant of 'the fortress of Btoach, takcu ' in tlic fort,
a.ncl executed. Nasir, i1ho was also. an officer, escaped,
rholiJih halt-dead.
At the time Mir1a Khan w'a. seot to Gujarat,
His Majesty commanded a city and Con to be built at
I':i:}:ag, at the confluence of the Gauges ana Jumna, to
whicll the name of Illallabns was given. H.is Majesty
wen.t there by boat from Agrn. and spent fquJ! months
there pleasantly .... When intelligeocc of tho !<illing of
'Kmtbu'd din and the spread qE the revolt in ,Uujarat
arrived, His Majesty 'started for Aghl and Fathpur, sCi'
Fazl placi!S .tlte of tlt'is near
Nanclod, .ioitl of the Nerbaclda, tmd estimtJtes the loss
of tit<: enemy at ,2,000 a11d 500 prisOirers.-A'kbal''
nama, vol. 'iii., p. 4 30.
thnt be .might set. out from the latter pl:tcc .to Gu jat'llt-
On Ec,awa, intelligence of the victory an'ived,
and so he stayed at f(lthpur. He sent farmo.ts to the
4111i1'S in To Mirza. Khan he gaye cbe title 11f
Khan-kiianan, a horse. a . rol,>c, a jewelled dagger, and
the of ,5,000
' (t,unr<>n tttgh). ,9n .the author,
he bestowed <1 horse, a robe, and increased cmo)Uli\Citts .
.1\fl :cite of!kcnj received. marka. of,, pis favo.;r. .
After second defellt., . MmafFar (!ujarati
l>y way .of , (;4mnpanu,. Birpur,' .. and , Jhala')'nr, ,.. w
thp, COilJ!t\')1, Surath.O" and, rc,;tcd at , the town. Q[
Gondol, twelve li.Qs
rpm the fort ,of J.unagarb. , :A is
stat,teretl forces .g;tthcrcd ound Jtinl .
rom; fill ,so
that he must,ercd tho,usand horsF all:! fqot:
R!; 1\ 'la.c. ,of , Jll\d a

qf hi, ,
JlOrt."::ije1 ga'!e . a simila,r sum tWt Ja,m M-sal,'.'" Raja o.f
Jh:Uawar, 1wbo was at th<>:heaclo. a body of troops and
clansmen.. He once more formed designs against
Ahmadl\bad_ Amin Khan, heing cautious, said w
uzalfat', "Go to tltc J am, and take him nloog wjtn
y1>u. I will attend to the .provis!ons for the :ll'l!IY,.
follow you." When Muzaffar \Vept to the Jam, he
lltj:.'j!,.bac)< and said, "Ypu marclt and advance agruost.
Abmadal!ac): I will follow!' On the ;u:1:iya\
ol }:;!!zl!o!'-.
hr at . .sixty lu>{ .&q.nt I'JnJJi the
f f - . ( ,.
(vol.rii:,. p., H6) clen-r l>y
'the .tvor.ds ponj ltatai. . ., ' .
.. . or "Virpu-r' 1, f:ifi'Y 11<>>'Jl!Co.st , pf.
)1/u.na<U.bnd? .. , , . .
i.r o.11e o{. t/lej Len pt'Oill.< or,. dist.,icts of
TL is 011 the nortltsr,t
side. :.
Mte suf>n.
:. "
>.<:) reading (vol. ii.t p,, JJ59) is
Wojy., c:01'1't:t;( .... . \,
u \ \"-"' t ,, .,,.,, ''
'"The or ' W obi" .< of ihe maPJ, , in . lht
intelligence of his advance being brought. to Khan
kban:m, the :Khan set off with all diligence to encbunter
hini: When Muzaffar reached l'a,ramgnm, forty! ko.<
frottviMorbi, .a'D4 neither the Jam nor Amin Khan atxh>,
cd, he tehimetl disheartenc<l and distracted tOWal'd>'
the mountains of 'Barda? Then he proceeded. to Jagat,.
which ' 'is tbe exircmc town <lf Surad1! add ... known
under the name of
Tlic Jam sent his vakii.i to khan:khanan, to ..
sent that be was friendly to the Imperial Government;
that he ''bad taken money' from but lind not
joined him, and tlmt he was then r eady to the
army to the plllcc where Muz:i[iu was staying. Am.iu ,
Khan, also,' through the introduction of Mir Turab, sent
1i.i.<' sOJ) to 'wait upon Kbatlkbanan, and assure him of
his good wishes. The Jam's men guided Kllankham\lr
on , a rapid march il\to the monot;iins of llarcl:.\, which
1ocre' 'plundered and ravaged: A vast qu:t\Hity booCy
men wqc or Malle Pri'
l' '' J '11 ... { ft r' ,,.
' ; 1.t .'i ; , , ') :tf"rl f f. f t"'.
with hundred )ifughal . ami"
five Jwndred Kathiwar horsemeu, we'ilt off towards;
G.!lja.r,a$, anll proceeded . ,to .a place C:\Uecl Othaniya,
which is behveen the Sabarmati ,river an\\ t!tc
moontain defiles, and was held by , ;I rcbe!Hous. Kor
J3hai. away
he left Mhm Rat, -lthoJaD) Bard1, . ..,",i and
in .charge of die arrny ,at Had., Ia,. t<?, Dapdu-
"lP 'rh,e .. high Kambay:
" ' Jj lt ,. :
north of Kothiwar, Ol> tile !'Ollie tvhich !ht IVm.-
Darda or ]aitwa .is. a pratlL ,,of lt(istrict Of Kat hi- .
war. lt is bowuJed. 011. . by Jh,e sca1, and, ilre rivcr-
Bhadm is for sojnc disla11ct i(s .. ,l(>u!llem .botmdary.-
Thornton, s.v.
o,. the. coast.
"/.!bout twmty N. E1 of Da>tduka. ., lm''

Bahadur and . . with a division at P:u-anti,"' four kos
lfrom Othaniya. .
When Muzaffar .pt'<lcecdcd to Otbaniya, Saiyld
Kasim Barba .came frolJll l:'attan to which is
.tlrirty ko.r' .:from Othaniya; and the' force which was at
Hadala came and. joine<l tl>e one at .Paranti. Muzaffar,
supported bytd>c K.ols and Gras.sias, and all .the disaffec-
ted Z/1Jili11da>'S o the vicinity; 4 gave battle .to the force
which was at .Pat'af!ti; but he was signally dcfj!ated., an<l
his clcph:mts and q.nopy fell into the hands of the vic-
:ton. Many of his,.mell> were killed, and l>e.
.e<l: h,refoot and half-dead. , , ,
While K.llatl-khana\1 was
thus engaged in ,mo11n,
.t<'lillS of Jlar<!ffu it tl>at tbc ,was,
.acting "

,hil!l.! J}'m pfepare'f t<>; ll1 apd
1e9t,ec). am, .army of .wentl(, h,orse and innu-
infant)'y. When Khan-khanan came to within
seven l<os of hun. he 1ent an envoy to l>is apolo-
gies, and he also sent his son with three J;uge clephapts
and eightee11 Arab horses"" to KIJan-k.bannn,
1\is earnest desire to enter into a treaty, and to act. in a
[rii:ndly wny. Kbankham\n d>cn returned to' Ahmada-
'tia_"tt! and live months iften,vards he summoned t<i
1:1i<! itn'pcrjill Court, whlthcr h'e ' proeeeued iQ ai.l ha.\te.
Muz:iffar'Was then u' and 'lig!
:grieved witll Arni.J ' Kh,lui [or' hnving taken hiS money,
.md not haVing gi,ven .him any hclp. Supported 'oy tbe
people of
Kathiwa'r and the id!''i'tdctrs, be collected an
.ai'ltl'y, and against Amin JChan.'wbo took shelt
Cl' in the fort of Amartali. Intelligence of this was
'Thirty milesnoth of Ahmadltbad. ,.
' f twentf miles N. W. of Po.;-anti.
(vol. ii., p. J60)' makesthc numl>tl' only
" '8,000 horse".
"1lorscs of Kacll, which are like A.rabs!' -
.Badattni, !lob il.; '{J. J60J ' I '
broughLto'Kalij Ntan and who
Kali j Khan remained in the city, av.d I wept
cut ' Yith
JFasim Kbaf and .. . ,
mm,c;.ij,qd (Orl\ard , with. all speed .to Surath.
> ' l 1\
' ,When I reachell Hadala, Muzaffar, feeling unable-
IOl ontend with IIDC, the siege,of Amin ,.han, an(l
;went off towards :&acj1. I lh.CP. s,cnt Mit: . . .
to Amin" .Khan, proposing that
we sbou!Ji i!' C<?rcert
pursue Muzaffar iJ,Jto .KaUtiwar. I pushed .
went to Morbi. MuZ11fllr .ded and crossed :Ra,lll,
which is an inlet of. the sea,, ,and took the road, to Jessal
mir1 111 some .p)aces the breadth . of the water of the
Ran is ten kos,aud twenty kos. He went the conn
try which they call. Kach, on the other side of
When I reached Morbi, the Jatn and Amin lilian sent
their sons to me, and having entcre?- into
with me, I rctumed towards
lntelligenee now arrived of the de.rmurc of J>,baJ, ..
khanan from and of; his havi11g to, ,ll!,tc; 1J.Cigll-
bqurh09!i1 ot

tlte 9f ,
aud.Jalpr. ,I; )11/,ag:reeqJ.e.o,t .vt,iili; Klijhp ,Khatt, pro-
cce4ed wit.j.1 m:x men. tp join , of Sirohi'
came to Khan-khanan, p,aid a S)Jm, money as
mb.u.te. Ghazi;l , ;!{hap, of Jjllor, ai'IO came fo,tward. J.lut
Khankhanan was on, ,pis, Com;t, .
had: shown some FUdencss and stgns of he
was therefore , and possession of
,fort,?f Khan-)>\\anan wejlt and too)<: rc
a.t, .1\.ltiJladabad. , . . , . , !
" : .Toretu.l;n to home :affairs ... Twenty days after
at Court,. intelligence was of. W.e
death of Mirza Muhammad Hakim, the
4rother. '<?11dcrs given to .Raja Das . ancl
Kumvar Man Sing!\, the governor of the to &'0
I , '\
"'Or "Piramgam", ltlle?rlyfave miles of
Ahmadabad. , ; , .
' AKUAR ' '
.abil ' i:.oke of 'KabuL His Majciiy himself pro-
Cccdcd to tltc Panjab, i '
At Utis tin)e Mir Murtaza :md Khudawand Khah;
;r uler of the country of Dirnr iu the Dakbin, i:J:larcbed to
attack Ahmad nagar . .,. .. ' They wck defeated in hnttle by
Salabat K:l);l'n, the' of Nh.alliu-1 Mulk, and 1hen;
the l ttipel'ial 00tirt.
Afarmau .was
setit to 'Az.opt Kb'an, tuldr
1>! Malwa, ditecring him w
jnardt agninst the Dakhin; ahd &ubdue llii'ar. Farmans
were also . sent to Mir Murt<tZa'J Khuda\vand Khan,
Tir:mdaz Kl1an. 'men of the' J)ak.bin, Marly' .Oil
che gt'eat nobles, stiob as 'Jtbdul Matlnb K:ban, : . Rai
nurga'" , Raja. .. and many others; toO'
to . meutlon; " senv '"ith art,illeryJ !three1
rMili<lr'ed t'bis;odJ?J
pedition. "Mj bi'el:eiVltd ofi
'Azdu-d daula, "\vtfs"seh'll-tdh hl:ilcie in Ute
Da'khiit. l Khwajagi Fathu-lln was appointed
Mukhtar neg diwall of this anny. '
TJ1is. I-oree concentrated at Hindia,'" on UlC
..crs of the Dakhi u. 'Azain Khan had a feud ivith Shahbu-<l
.din Ahmad Khan, tbep r.uler of Ujjailt, because he sus-
din of instigated the murder
<lt lty f'dtller. 'Azdu-d daula 'endeavoured ' tO' assuage
.hi!; ' but 'Azatn ' K.bah wo,s a passionate m-:11'1;
.and iusultca both Sbahabu-d di n and 'Azdu-d ' cinula!i
tFor six months tlte force 1'ernainetl ina'ctiveat Hindia,
.and at length m3tters >:eai:he<i 'tich a pit,cb tHat Shababu-tt
-<lin, being offended wifb 'Azam Khan: 16-ent off to' his
jagi of Raisin: 'Azam Khan marched to ott:aelt him, and
calamity was upon ' the point of Wling . upon vbe'
"f):>i I' ' ' ;I , j
' a ' ' '
rt.n 'e o}!
Nizarim-i' -6/IE!
r: }11. ( !. . , ,, ; . . I ' 'If J;t
Ai11-iAf>.f;G!'i, vo{. i., p. 417.
2'111&. fi '4'58. . .
'"On so1Jt1t 1Ja111< '()j the Ne1badd_a; ! at.
' , f
o:oynl army; llut ' A2du-d, daula managed. to c!fect a re
.conciliation. , . ' n, " .
When Raja 'Ali Khan, the IUier 'of' Asir ' and .Bttt-
hanptir, s1t\il these dissensions in ' the Imperial ariny, li'e'
,gathered his forces and marched . agrunst 'Azdu-d .
.On His approach, 'Azdu-d daula W!:nt hi him, ' and
to win him over; but he diCl n>t suoceed, so he
.l'Ctreated to Gujarat to strengthen l<h.an-kbanan.
The above-namect (' Azain
Khan) went

Bi,rar, and plundered Eticlipbr; but not being; able' td
.niainltain his ground: procecdecl cowards Nnnduxbar: ..
The DakhirHs followed marclt bY' march;' ftnd 'Azmii
notwithsCandinp: )tis great strength, fell back be
.fore them, till he reached Nanclurbar. He '(rOte letter:;-
Kl>an-kbanan at Ahmadabad, rnll ing fot assistance,
.and sent me and n tuunbcr of such
, on in :tdvnllCc, and dccJarcd bis own int.cntiolt
of When 1

\Kli, 1:6, feft hts army at N andilrli31'; ' ahd !5r'6ce1X.led !wt tll
:\' few 1 atti!ndan'ts' t6' .Allinatl!ibadl
'" C.imil
.our quickli'"froiri they
mer at the p.Jace where l ''was resting, iiiid
to Ahmadabad: 'Azain Khanssrste'r wife of Khah-
'k'baoah, so went to see he, ana the two Khans : rc
solved to proceed afterwards against the Dakllinis.
I :tnd ,i\'y associates marclicd against tl)e to
'133l'oda, and Khnn-khanan and ' 'A2am Khan foUowcd
.the latter welit on quickly, in order to" the
.army llt -Nandurbar 1-el\dy. Khan-kltanan wrote '' tQ me,
dirccdng me to wait at Baroda tiU he arrived: -.WJien'
the Khan iirrived, he proceeded \ifHh .tlie'
i'tl:\ny to
'Broach; and 6!1 l'eadiirig that place "he t&:eiV'ed 'letters
'f-to.b. 'A:z;un Khan; in which lie 'said, tlift as rainy
hM 'must ,J?ost)\On_ell. to the
toll owing year;: and ' the they would togctbet:
.,.E'Iicl1pi.r is in Birar, oni( in
200 Miles west of the ft>rmcr.- -

agail)st the l)akhin. 'Azam Khan returned tq Malwa,
Raja Ali Khan went with the Dakbinis to their homes.
and Khan-khauan to Ahmadabad, where be
occupied ltipself in malters of. adminisu-atiou toi, five
months.: . , .
Intelligc,nce an'ivc!l the ):mpcror 'WS march-
il)g towards Kabul, an!l (tad arrivc!l a.,\

intent upon effecting the , coqquest o.f Badakhshan.
wrote. a soliciting the
.hOIWI.\f of
\>eing allowed to serve upder l]im, . the , Empct:o,
sent a. hlm to his J?resppcc., ;Kalij..
KllaJl, ,Kban, , and m:ysclf were COI\fuQlCd iq
041 cotn.mlU\ds in Gujar-.t. Khan-khfW-aJl and, 'Az4tHt
who had COil; , 'Azam K!ta\)< WCJ}t. off, to.
. th E 1
JOUl e t 4 ' '""' su .tl \.' t
rt ,.J\Is.t.as Iqlail,kjlan.au WM
iJ!. ,;that, fhc of \\5 alljcs
Guj'\rati, a.u:acJ<ed and killed Rai Singh, the zamin:
dar of Jl)ala.wat-. This Rai Singh was son of Rai Man,
Raja of Jhalawar; and , '"ben l1c succeeded his father,.
he attacked the neighbouring zmniru/ars, such as the.
Jalll. ,Khangar, and aud subdued His
llaii}C is cdebratcd in and story, in tlie towns of
, the ,courage he displayed, ;>nd qe r
great. .,
' t.,. ,

is 11/so . callctl Alalt,lJu;k.'',-Ba<hun.ir
vol. ii., p .. J62. l! has. bee!> sl.otu" (see .fupta) tluit Alak
and Kalak are ,alike tli.rti.'!guirhed by the additi011 of
'.'Bqnaras.'' .. .
11qtlauni here his account of tl\C campaign.
ita. G-ujarat. with these words: "Dur.ing the a,bsence of
. .Khfit>rkhafl(ln, N).zamibd din 1 Ahmad
on(! ll!:teplab,le serviw i11 he b(M
ju/Jr;.f!escriP,e,d, in his Tarikhi Nizami.'''"7Badauni, v'ol ..
p. j62. .
. . .f!f K (!C{I, chif of ]hareja tribe_
- Thornto1i, vol. ii., p. 48. , .
A f<;ud arose between Rayat and Sayat, tbe
of the . chief of Kbangar, and severe figltting occUJ'!,Cd.
in $ayat was killed, and many Jnen on both
JAi Singh also w.as ;wounded, and was fe(t
UJX>,!I rP,e Jield. Next day some jogis .found him, tended
_him, and hili w)th them 10 .Bengal.
l;l;'l' two years witb them in the S';l,isc of a jogi.
,!{h'\nkhanan Muzaffar Gujru:ati.
he to Khan, and told Jim his story. The Khan
sc.llt .\lim tv Jhalawar to .be by his people. He
the facts 10 them, and adduced his proofs, on
w.hicl> tltcy acknowledged him, and !tim. He
the people of K:tthiwar, and plundered scvci-al
of the tribes, and he also began to assail the O'Juncry of
the Jam of Khangur. He lllllstercci und took posses-
sion of the town of

one oJ' the dependencies.
of J,halawar. The people of that ucigi>bourbood, who
had }ong ,bccl at enmity him, assembl ed in force tv
t<? him be was in .t.!Jc u;n\Jlcdt-
ately came up .to ,in a
moonligj:lt Jtigltt. They sent a J>:efSOil to him. to , aay
if he WCl'e reaUy Singb he would not attack them' by
nig)lt. l;le m:tgnail.imously assented to their wish, ancl
restecl where he .was and went to sleep. His oppoucnu,
here found their oppottunity, and encouraging theit fol-
lowers they drew near to !lim, and when norning' 'brol<e
wh11le party >ipon him. Fie .an(L e}gPt)'. '\en
t.hat were him fought on foot, and he was killed.
of the . dcpar.te o,f
with Ips troops and famiiy,
he C.'llli,C to
Ai:np,u.n."' 1vherc the tomb of Ma1il::. ;Dawaru 'NiulJ<. is;.
"d' 1. a th ' f d'' . ' f K l K!
an . a1 e o.uu o. an army. . "") 1an rc- .
m"'ined 10 ,gu;u:d a.::t. X 'K.as.im .
and . . . went to <lisperse .U.e insurgents who had kiUed

the North of Katl<iwar, 11ea. the Rar1.

0r ,.A'f!zbani.n".
. ..
Rai Singh. When 1 cached Halwatl, I scm a detach
mcnl to ravage the villages in tlie piu-gana of Mali'a,
which to Kbang-.1r; and 1 sent :tn<;>tftcr
fbeu, Medlni .Rai, to Amarun, aga,inst Muzafl'at.
UP.on tbCJt' approacl\Jng !ltt ptace, Muzaffar went off to
J{a'tliwar and hid 1\imself. the Jnni sent his '\Qrl to 11lc
.to ' ilakc excuses for his cruel creatment of Rai
.and also sent his agents to rcl\ew his promise
of loyalty. I then rctm'ned to Ahmndaba'd. AUcr my
.arrival there Kalij Khan 5tart'ed for Surat, and cll'camped
othsidc Ufe dty. .
Jt then occm1ed to Muzaffar that after the departure
Of the aniiy itn'd th'c return of eacl\ ma'tl to his

"voul'd inake a d:ish tlpon Dttlalr.a an'd' KamoAy, as
migiu thu! be to disc. :t force before til'e rdtu-.'n o'E .
ai'p1y. So lie a:avaiicM rap'idjy Dulaka
::t't tl:le heat\ tllo.lslt,\d Karhis mid Jllarc
jf.s. On letters fi'O.n Me<lini Rai, who was at
'l])ulaka, I instantly took horse arid started Lhitlicr. As I
as rcs'ting till evening at Sarkaj."' Kalij Khan came in
a)u! joined me w'ith all the d1icf nobles and men of the
.city. Next 1horning we arrived at Dulal:.a, but tlien
. Muzalfal-. was. hos -away. Fpr when his scoues 'in
f6r\lied Lilm 'tat tb'c .army of Ahlladabad was approacb
ing, be 'felt 'tO Morbi.
..,.. \ . "(, v l " ' ' vd " \" ' . :,II\\
f .!'11e l1rmy Du an &,
to I ,affd my compa
mobs foUowed \'t.alfar. 0ne a!l<l t he next day
trav.cllCd we
'that vllage
'*11'c;\1. vJls. fbut 'los ) II';' and _shut up
Mnsmra, son ot s'aiytCI wlio to, b'c tpcre
Nigil! )\'ad! 'c\>.li" onl 'InC! {ve miaJilh'-
.1 { f,O'I _ l<"t:. o f 'U,
C9 - Wltb a
.of eltle:<lh1nls; ducctl\lg- th't!m to go allout a ltos from
... 't.he R.bn.
"'eppo.s.te A.4Wuufabad.
me ,ill:rgc, .:Uld heat them, Ulat M\lzaffar lllight $Upp,ose
(lur army to be ncar al:id give up the siege: By Gad's .help
my stratagem .,uccccd,>d, the people wcr,c
and Muzalf:tr went off ro t.bc R:m anp Xacll.
In tbc morning I mounte<l and hastened off in pursul\.
r went as r-ar as the Ran; then leaving. an outp0SL in the
wlagc of Jhajusa, nc:u lhc water, 1 retur,ncd to
, ,
Four momhs Lhe zami11di1rs of Kuch
otollectcd .:. forte ot n'-atly a thousand horse . and ten
11\ousand foot, the <.'01ll11l<UHL o[ Jnsa .and Uajaiu,
11ephews of Khangar. They proccc.detl to Lbc village of
Radhanpux, one of the dependencies of Pattau, an<l
laid sk>gc tO tJ1c forr. Whcu intcJI;gcn"c elf this at'rivcd
at Ahmad:thacl, I and . wem off to relieve the place.
{)n hearing of om approach, the ciJemy took
pasSed O\'CT tbc and wont: into their own countt)f
It *rus ncccssa.Ty to put an end to desc procccolings.
So ): OVCl" thc itan intO J<iacb > at a p1acc wuetc
the wa.tcr was not more d1an tbree kos wide, a.nd ,set l:o
'ork plundering and destt6ying. We bumt and des
uoycd nhe towru; of Kari, and Kat<uia, ewo pi aces well
known in .Kacb.' We realized au cnormc>us booLy, and
.tftet plundering and destroying nearly three hundred
viHagcs in the ' course of three days, we recrosscd file
Ran opposite Malin and. 'Morbi. Here the R-un 'II'QS
\twelve I<OS wide, and we were enguged from da-.n til)
ilv tbe passage. 'Fh'e water was . l.tp to a m<tl:lls naval.
A'ftllr ' Cl'OSSing we ravaged and destroyed the, par.gMtar
o( Malia and Morbi, 'hich belonged to &hang'tir ..
rCm.a;inecl at Morlii &hrec days. H.etc l wtote
to Khangar, telling 'liliu how 1 . l1a!l .been. if6rit1c;(i
the hostile prO<leedingll were the \vor,k of lJa!a and
Bajrun, anti had not been sanctione<l l>y bitn. I bad
therefore iuflictC<l a little punishment. Had it bectt
'"A 1owr1 sixty miles of Pattatt.
I would have attacked :Ubuj, his residelcc-
1 he i:lid' not henceforth act be would see .wha.t
Would happ.cn. Kbnngar seJJt his voitils to t'llc wich .hjs.
apologies. After this a barl'icr was . aised (agail\st
1In tl1c year .!J95 the younger son 01: Amin . .Kb:m rc-
belled. against him, and went to Muzalfar. and brough-t
him against his father. When I heard I . went
-with . . against Muzaffar, .to .repress this outbreak . .
On a.rriving at 80 ltos (rom Alnnadal'>ad, an!l
-tlii.rty' from .Juflagarh, Mu7.alfar made off toward. . the
Ran. 'Sidi Rilian, vakil .of Anin K.han. ;md n promoter
of the strife, .with Nokin Gobi!, and othe; ,:umoi?ular.s,
:and J]lir .. Khan Singh, .Malik .:Raj au, . a11d others of the
.cbiefr men pf. those
patts.1. neatly. fwe loJ:semen, .
seplU'atett from the insuxgents, , and . Clime in - to ,make
.peace. I ,treated them hospitably, and held om to thcot
expectations of royal favour. The -Jam and Amin Khttn
also sent their sons to me, and renewed
of IO)'nlty.
. , After rctun1ing to I 1urned my
,thoughts to the repression of the I1i the '-oursc-
.'oft fwo tmonth& 1 fitted out an army, and then marched
\ owJU'dS Othimiya and Ahmadnagar. I attackt-d and
l:Ud waste >nearly. f1fty o.E the Kolis and. Grassias,
and l Built>! forts .in seven different ,places to. keep tb.esc
people in check. Falling back with .my .focccs, I went lo
:'Wakanim and Sarna\,"
to . put down the mutinous pro.-
cecdings of t:be .Grassias. Having. puL..Chait Rawat to
death, I rcmdved Karmi Koli,l Kish'tla K-oli, and Lakba
Rajput, who were tbe principal! Crassias of thdse parts,
'anchleft forts an c). garl'isons. in their places.
I' , I n the year996 t.bc,Emperor.gave Gujarat to 'Azaro:
..K:him, and. recalled me to Court. By rapitl stages. I ;
'''Near the ctntre of Kathiwar.
""Wakanin or Wa11kani.- is on tile W.Airak
fifty mile.r 'N .. . ' of c.
:acll<lc.r the lm.perilll Court at Lahore in' fourteen days,
.lind was mos.t gtaci.ously received .
. The intelligence of the successes in Guj:trat
;the Emperor as he U':lvelling. He returned thanl:s
to God for his success, and continued his jom'lley i'n greac.
joy- At this Zain Kltan Kok:t, Raja Ra1n Chandar,
Raja of llittiah, a man o.f high repute among tbe Raja1
.of Hindustan, wbo had never before acknowledged al[c.
-giancc tu the Sulli'ans of Hindustan, now ell pressed. qis.
desire of d<>ing so, 'lind came to wait upon the Empcrotr
a.t F.athpur. He 'vas graciously received. He pr(l!cntc<l
.1s his tribute one hundred ancl twenty elephants, :ul(l
.a fine ruby, valued at fifty thousand rupees.
YEAR. 01-:- (l[_E.

'[;he thirtieth yenr of tltc reign :tnd tbe Nn11rozi S11lth>ii
.or New Year's Day of the Dal1i ern, now arrived.
(Rejoicings). Letters anived (rom Mirta Mubammacl
Hakim; relati.ng:rd.1at 'Abdulla Khan .U:.bek bad o\)tain
oed and
.an'd ' Mirza Sulaimail\ taming > Hi.adustan\ (M it'ta'
.9hah Ruk'h etwscs tle Jmltt.r and meets with a> {P'ttciou.s
from the Erti{>/'ror ;,. 99J H. Mttrri<lge ' of
Prince Salim 1oit11 t he tlau):hter of Raja Bllllgromi :pa.t.
'C>t:flt ceremo11y ant! ejoicing.)
.j ! I
'J'IItJR'('Vo.i\'JRST 01' TI>Jrt A..EWN
'The Nurozi .Sultani oHl'lc ibirtyfirst year of iMreiglv:
.and tbe'Jirst year of the k11rwo thc
'Upon Th\mday, 19th Rabi:'\11' awwal; 99$ fi.: ('fltlr
1\'Uorch': 15g5)f (T-he usual fejoicings.) . .
At tbe beg'itming of thls year 1\illr Murtaza an(l.;'
'Kb\lilawancl' Klian; ahoirs of the Dakhin',: came to uh-e
fjnperial Cdul:t. Their affairs Jinvc. been notii:c<l
in qcserib'ing' the occurrences io. Gujarat. Wh'cn theY'
were defeated by Salabat }(ban; and came ro 13urhanpon.
Raja 'Ali' Khan, the governbr of that place, took tbcit1
rri>ltl'them, sclft J5'0 of the"! in eb'argei
of his soil to l11c .l!:Utpcror. The Dakbini ll'Jili;,t. were::.:
received, and prescmcd their tribute on New. Year':;,
Mir Fathulln Shirazi, who bad the titl'c o[ 'li.t.du-<l
daula, was now ctcatcd chief Sadr of l-li'ndm;tan, and
received at the same lime :J horse, a rol:l_c, iWd live
thousand npces.
Lelttrs Rl'rivcd ftom Kabul, stating c!Ja1 . .... l'Yflimc
Sulaiman with rhc assistance of Mir1:a l\fullnmtwtd'
Hakim. bad rcmrne<l to Bad.akhsh.au, antl a
victory over the army of 'Abdu-lla Khan Uzf)ciL .....
Letters now a rrived from Atak,Banaras, f!'Om Kunw;u
Man Singh and Kbwaja Sbamsu:d,in Muhammad, wiih
the inf'Ormati.ou til at Mina Muhammad Ha\Uin was verr
ill. That liaridu" ' bad started' wit:l.i ii tiaraan froM
Peslill'l)'l\l' to :Kabul, but bceri py
iri> the KbnibaT Pass, ahd to rer,.ea.t to l.'csha-
'""' That a lire had broken out in th.c fort of Pesl\war.
ancl a thousand camcf.Joads ol" mcrdhmdi?.c liner
been consumed. That tJtrough lltis disaster Fariclun
bad got rcc, and had gone by another mad to
and that sevcmy men bad perished (Jil tf>c journey from
'Abdulla of Badakhsfta)l, wlten was iiJ
formed of Sulaimal)'s so_ccess, a stroJtg
force, which J1c sent to oppose him. Miha Sulaiinan,
unable to cope with tit is anny; J'Ctrcatcd to Kaliul, a ncr
all Baclakhs.hal) came into c;l)e of ;tJzbck.
, . IntcUigence tio1v , ths of t)1c
Of Mir7" Muluumn'W. -;rhe iM}r-t,a w:l$, die l!.t}l
peror's own bi:ot!cr, bu,t Empct;or !i.1d sJioJvn )iii'
and a([eel,jon than C\',Cil oE a
brothtr. F.or tbc Mil;Za ottcn _prcs.wnp,luo,u;;
;J"n,d aggressiv.e, anc,l the EQlpc,.;or "'ad. oot OJ)ly
hint a'Qli s!JOwcd him favour, l>.ut sent ami,rs ai.1o
a11nie \UrW)tain l,lip1 ,i n iJ>,;\b,ul, g,rjl,ntlr

wine, aniJ, cXC!lSSiyc dri,l)king W;I,S tlie of, }lis'

illness , af\ci/lea,th, He Aiod qn I2th 993'-
When t.bc news. of dcat\J reached the rppcr!l!
was fl\UCb grieved; aftc;!r ll1c period of moul;\pil;t_g.
was over, ,bis pprpose was to conlirru the cou1ury
Kabul to the sons of the MiJ:za. Bllt the nob,lcs
llla\ t?,c t.'J,irza's sons of ten9cr age, and i.ncapablc-
o. nnrl that the Uzbck army whidt baq alrendr
l)adak11shnn was on the look out for f$.abul also ..
These considerations induced the Emperor to
the Panjab, and ))c began his march 011 t119 JQd'l'
Ramazan . .. .
The Emperor travelled 9" b) successive stages with
out making any halt to Dehli. There he visited thc
tomb of his father '"'u the shrines of the saints, :uid
dispensed his charity upon the. poor, and cclebra.ted
'ltl. On the l!lth Sbawwal he reacbed the banks of thc
S.utlcj and encamped. There he was informed; that
Ku11wm Man Singh l1a<l sent a body of m.cn aooss the
to aud ll1at S.hah B,cg, the officer of
i11a MuhawJW\cl Hakia;n, hap . fled .,1bpl. .
Sadik Ji.han was sent . from Laho1c to taks charge ;o
' K ' '' b }. ' I
the Governmem of Bttn a.r. On the 17t Zil l:t;l'da t.l>e-
Empcror cnc:tmpcd by the side o( the Chinab; . : a11d
on the 28th he reached and t.hc llehut (Bcyah).
HeJ'e he \eccivc<l a despatch from Kunwnr Man Singh,
reporting tl>at the J>Coplc of Kabul willingly sub
mit ted to the Imperia\ rule. Muhammad 'Ali
chi, who. bad beet\ tent 1$) Kabu\,
.that t.;tuhammad Hakim died, bis
II!> )l9UI\g and incapable, that llte o,f '\!fairs-
at l{abtJ\ in tbe the nobles;
10 the of the fari
dun Khan, uncle of the late Mina, 1vhen Kunwar Man
Singh entered Kab\l,l itl hot lutste, fh1ding. he was
helpless, bro(,ghr the young ptin.ces to upon the
.. '1'1teir '!ante.r rpere "Kaikub,a and A{rtLfiyab."- \
l!.o/o!t'l'ni, 'I{Ol. ii., former wo.s fou,tee1l,
!alter nine Y,CGI'S of oge.-Aitbmnama.
Ku'nwar. They were received with great k.indncss and
:165urnnces of protection. Kunwar Man Singh left his
own sons in KabuJ in the charge of Shamsu-d din Kha6,
.and set orE with the yoons princes and the nobles of
Kabul to nieet the Emperor. On the 25tli Zil l1ijja the
Kunwar brought the princes and the Kabul nobles into
tbcf presence of the Emperor a:t the town of Rawal
piocli, which is situated between Rohtus and Atak.
They were received with princely generosity. of
the chief aucndanL' xeceivccl five thousand o1 six
thbusancl tUpees as a gift. Stlitablc ancl
jagirs were also granted.
Whcli the Empewr reached. Atak, he sent Bhagwan
Shall Kuli Mabram. al1d odl'cr well-krl'6\vn amirs, .
,vith about 5',0,00 t'o effett' tile .con.ttuest "of'
lllif., 0n tl\c' same dayJsm11'il Kuli Kl!m Mid Rai SinglY
" 'ere seiir against the Bil"uchi&. N'exC day zain Kbai1
Koka was sent with a force agaili;st the Afghans of Swad.
(Swat) a!'d Bajaur, to reduce tb'at turbulent people to
The Emperor enc:unped at Atnk on the 15th
Mubaxrmn, 994.
In 11mnet times"" a Hindustani soldier had come
antong the Afghans, and set up an heretical sect.'" He
i ni:luccil many foolish J>eOpl e tO become his disciple,;,
and he' himself the title of Pir RbshoMai. He
bu't his sort Jafala, a youth of ab\lht Pouhcen,
i'n 989 H., to -\..:tit upon the !j:ni.peror, as
he. wai;' rcLumin'g, (rom Kabul.., He ICin<lly received:
1>lit after. a few days his evil clisposit.iOLl ind<uccd him to
take flight, and gi> off to the There he mlsed
ahd gatl\eri'ng a good numb-er of rllen
m jTwenty-f,ve years before this time.'' -Iflltfamit,
-vbl, ii., .{>. j49. ;
"Mathab-i zandllha wa ilhad-.''
- ;JroLe a book callec! "Khai,ll bayan," in
uFtiiJMitt e><fiowlded his teu'ets.-B_adalini, vol.
ii., p . 149..
.:arouild' hi111, sllut up the roads bcl:lveen Hindus tan
Kabul . Ih order to this base sect of
Rosha111lis, whose baseness will be hereafter
His Majesty placCd Kunwai: Man' Singh in command;
gave him Kabul in jagir. .
When inteUigence arri"ed of Khan Koka
'haVing entered the country of Swat, and of his having
encountered this sect of Afghans, who were as' numerous
. .as and locusll;, ott the 2nd Sanr, 994 H., Saiyid
Khan Gakhar, Raja Birbal, and . . . . were sent witlr
co support him. A few days later Hakim Abul
Fath was sent rtEtcr d1em with' additional forces. Ntcr
tl1esc Teinforcements hatl joinecl, Z'ain Khan began co
plunder and ravage the Afghans, and great spoil ,fell
into his hands. When Liley reached the pas.' of Kharagar,
11 person observed r.o Raja Dirbal that the ACgbans
meditated a night attack on that night, that the extent
-of the mountain and of the pass was .only three or four
.ltos, _ and:, that if they got t!J,c; they
safe from. the attack , designed.; Raja,
-out making any con}lllunication to Zain Khan, pushed!
-on to get tlnough the pttss, ' and Rll his army followed.
At close of day, when the sun was abottt to set, tltey
reached a defile, the heights of whidt on every side were
-covered witJ1 Afghans. Arrows and stones were shower-
C<). down upon the troops in the narrow pass, and in the
-darkness aml in the narrow defile men lost their path,
and perL<hcd in rcces.'es of' the mountain. A t errible
,and, .slaughter (-ollowccl. Nc:nly cigllli th9usapd
men were killed, and Raj:1 Birbal, who fied for his life,
"Was slain.m Raj:o Dbann Singh, Klnvaja 'Arab, bolh.;hi
. "'""In his conceit", .<ays
!Jadar.mi, (vol. ii.,J fi. JJfl), who seulo:h' misses an o/J'(I01'l1t.
11ity of venting !lis spleen 11pon a Hindu.
Many reports of his /raving escaped tue1'e
-wards cunelt, but they nil prover! to be
-vol. ii., p. 357.
of tbc and .. . were On the !'irh
awwal Zain Khan Koka and Hakim Abu! Falb were de-
feated, :m,cl rcacb,ed the fort of Atak wit(\ clifficu\t)\
Tbio defeat greall y fl'oublecl the Empci'Or. He dis-
missed these commanders, ancl .sent Raja Tod,ar Mal
wiklt a large amiy' to .repair the disaster. :n ,,c Raja crt ..
Lcred the mouht:lin region with great catJLion. Here
and there he built forts, and and plundered con
tinually, so that he reduced the A(gbans to
Raja Man Singh, who bact marched against these sec
taries, fought a hard battle with them in the Khaib:u
Jlass; in which rnany of ther.lJ were slain nnd made pri ..
soncrs. .The Raja oljtained a great vi.ctory.
.Ntws n.ow arriVed tliat Mir -Kurailib was coming tO\
Co\!Fl! as' ah 'froril I A:btluila .J(Jjal'l' tJzbek';
K.inj Ma'war'at-ri ' .rfa'il'l, biingirlg
llc.' \vbo Via$ one of the gre-at noJ)lc,, of 'Abdtilla
Kl1an, being offended with the Kl1an, was also coming
with his three sons, K:tb7 lle, Shadi Jle. :nul Bal<.i Be, all
whom bad aturinc<l t he rank of' li!Jblc.<. The Enperor
sent Shaikh l'a.rid Bakhshi and Ahmacl Beg Kabuli, with
a party of al111dis, w meet the canl'an and bring it
tl>tough the .Kh<1ibar Pass. This armed part)', with the:
help '!Jf Kunwar Mnn Singh, brought the caravan
throttgh the pass, having beaten tbe black seetadcs whe>-
atiempted to block the !oad, ancl ki.lled 'l?""l' of cb'em.
Oh the lith Rabi'ul akbir, 995 {lltb Mmch, 1587'
AJJ.), wheu tlYe. sU'1 ftorn to Aril!$, 'tile
Nauro%-i Sultani was cclebi'atcd at the fort of Atak, a'nil
Kunwar Man Singh came to Lbe feast.
, .\Vbcn Miria Ruk!l Raja Bhagwan Das, ..
Shah Kuli Kban the . ,of
?. ...
. :l' ,dn Utbel:., aud ,111icr of
ii,J f>. )J'i. ,. ' I l I
:BhuJj:yas,' on the conftnes of YusH \<,han, .
the ruler of tlJat conutry, came np and blotkac\cd.
pass. 1'he Imperial for . dl!}'S !n,
act'ive, snow and rain came on, ant\ the of
were cnt off. Moreover, t.be news of tile o[
lilian arrived, and the army was in great The-
ao'nirs resolve(! to ma.kc They se!.tlcd a to
be pard by saffron, attd by the tp tl1c t;oyal "
treasury, .and they appqimcd YUSIJft was
delighted with these terms, ancl came to visit .a!!'i;s,.
:Uld they brought hilP along witl1 tbetn to see the f; n!
peror. When the)' came tC> Court, the Empeoor c)is
approved of the peace, :mel the a.mi>'.l were forbi.dden his
presence; but after some days they were allowccl w make
their obeisances.
About this time Lllc :unl>assailor of 'Abdttll a Klt:tn
with nc, and, his sons an-ivcdl and h:Ld OU\ inter
view. Kuli Khan :u)d Rai Sio]glt n)so arrived, .
bringing with them the omen ap.d Jeo.4.e!:'S
of tbc
DiJucbis. A .sum of ,(o;u lncs Qf lot)lt9-f ,equal to li,vs:
hundred tumans of '.Lrak, as. :1 gift to
Nazar l3e and bis sons . . :1\.ftcr the of Nquro:.
was over, K.unwar Man Sing!l was ordered Lo go to the
support of Raja Todar Mal, who bad been sent :og:tinst
tl1c Yusuf'lai and otlters. When Emperor
bad settled the co.urs.c tp be pursued with Lllc
aQd the alfah-s of Atak and Kallul, J,>e resolved ,to re_t,t{rll
to La.hore, and sL'Irted on tl)c 24th Rabi'us snui. Hum
i.ng and amusing himself as h.t be a\
L'lhore on. tbe 18th Jumacla s;mi.
'"Phulbas".-1Jadou11i, vol. ii., f>. :1.52.
"TMy gauc the 'cotsn.try eillin:l) t.o Yum{.ll"
-Badauni, vol. ii.; f>. J52 .
.,.The author'.! a>ra>tgernc11t lias been slightly
changed In his dimy IIY,It: qf several lit>cs
ore interposed. between /.he J!.mpcror's tf.eparLU!'C for at>.d'
arrival at Lahore.
When Kunwat Mao Singh ' as appointed to the
.&dvernment of Kabul, Isma'il Kuli Khan was sent from
the river :Schut (Bcyah) in command -of a strong force
.against the Yusufzai and Afghans. Au Imperial
.dr<tet was issued to Kunwar Man Singh, that when
Jsnta'il Kuli arrived; the Kunwar was tel go on to Kabul .
. :Buklwi also was appointed. to support Isma.il
.Kuli, and was d.irecte<l to occupy Peshawar.
Mir 'Amb Bahadtlr, who "had. fled [ot refuge in 10
.. the hills of J<:amaun, and had troubled the inliabit.:ults
.. oP the country nt the foot of the hills; was killed by the
ser\lants of Mir Abull .Fath ill the tm,.gima o Sberkot.
Oli the 13th Rajab the ccrcq1ony ,of -wcigliing the
Emperor was perfotmed; and a spleudi<l ,festival was
.held; and on the 19th Pxince Salim was mnni&lloo the
' dllllMtdit>( ).{;i; Sing!l: olic of thc gieac-:,\obles. ;, Thc
sent line presents' " 1i.th' his daugbtei, and' f-elt
..highly honoured by the alliance.
Muhammad K.asint Khan Mirbahr :tnd ... was sent
with n Jargc force to cll'ccc the conquest of Kaslun.ir.
Afcer scV<'Jl marches they entered the dcliles of the
,mountains. When tbey teacbed chc pass of Kartar-,
Ya'l:_ub, the son of Yusuf Khan,"' considering lumsclf
of came witb a force to
Utem. .He closed the pass, and there tooll his
. post. !!t!t'fol:tlme foiigbc for tire lmp<:!rial n\'n1y
a'lld :the
s'tone of ca.t among' the Kasl\m1ris.' The
. chiefs of Kashrrui were clistre.IScd' with the rnlc of
' Ya'kub, and several 'des'encd ftoml him and joioed
Kasim Khan. Anothct' party rniU<f cb'e st:tn'dard o 're-
' bellion in Srinag-.u:, which tbe capital of the country.
Ya'kub,' d.ecming it of prima'ry iinp"ortailce to crush: the
i'ntcrnnl rebelli<m, returnee\ to Kashmir. The Imperial
:army thcu entered Kashmir without opposition, 1il,nd.
.. .
. ... Kha11 had been thrown,. in1o prison-, "i>ml
:J.aku/1 .'''1rt:dttr.l /li.r fatlit ils vol, ii.,
if>. JJJ..
Ya'kub, unable to make any resistance, Jled to .. the
mounr:-.Uns. ,,Srin.agar was and reyep,uc
tors were appohtted to all tb.c porganas. ,
!The Emperor, on b!!ing infonned of the conql!c;st,.
scot !etten. of thanks to Kasim Khan ,the , .other
amirs, and bestowed and pr.omotion.s. upon a.tl.
of-them. 1 Yakub raised a JoJ'CC, and witb !tnsint
KbaJl; but was defeated. Another time be tried a l'igbt
surprise, but was unsuccessful. The royal pttrlii'C:il
him into hills full of u-ees and defiles, bcati!'g hi!" and.
d!iving him before them. He was ve1y nearly captured-
At last, in wretched plight and i11 hu.mblc mo9d, be
waitecl upon Kasim Khan, a.ncl enrolled himself among,
the subjects of the Imperial llnone.
"" The country of
K.asbmu was thus clcllrecl.
On the 19th Rama;.an the ambassadox of 'Al>dn-IIa:
Khan received leave to rctu1n. Hakim Humam . . . w;'

to .'.Ab,du.lla Jfhan, and Sadr

. . . , as a Yi8lf<{"\ tO tbe.
father of 'Abdulfa Khan. Neary a,.fac !<nd a
r upees,. eoua,l co three thousand seven bundrc(l
of 'Irak,' goods 'pl Hindustan, and curiosities were en-
trusted to 'Muhammad 'Ali 'Kha1.anchi for prescnt.Mi'on
th 'Abdu-lla Khan.
Saiyicl Hamid llukharl, . f!J'rmerly one of the
of .the Sultans ' of Gujarac, bad been received into'
service, ahd was sent to Pesh.awi'l' for l:he .1fe--
pf the Roslianai sectaries. They had :usernblccT
about foot a.nd &,000 horse to 'attack him. Her
\ I
He ruas elltmltlally sent i .. to Bihm to Raja Ma.&
Singh,' to join )lis falhe1'; and both YU.Suf- afid' Yalmlr
the1'e dietl it out with ]rouble tmd.
chagrin.-Badauni, vol: ii., tJ. .A btl! \Fat!, howelie>,
says that "Yusuf was released from prison, .antl recewca
trjagir, so that he mitrht lea!"rr better ma.11ners, and a(l-
f;reciate the kind treatmeit he hat/. cc'eilled."-AI<bnr- .
' ' l .:. t 549
uama vo . ur., p. . . ,...- ,
:and a few men who were will1 him at the time, fought
. and perished. The scm Zain Khan Koka and
. .. with a lat-gc fot'ce 'to sul)'due these heretics, who occu
pied tbe Khail>ar Pass, and clos-ed the l"Oad between
J(ab\H aWd Hihd'ustan. Kunwar 1\il.an Singh marched
1\'om K'ltbllt'; a'nd" al tltaked and defeated th'cm in the
ahd pllt a gn:at m:lhy ro the sword.
fie then occupied Jnin!ud, a'n'd loft a dctacbment in Lhc
Kbaibar. .
Mjrza ' bavi.llg tenuttCd ri-on\ his pilgl'im
O:a!l'e to' Mecca, o\1ce m01'e tried his fortune 'in Uadakhshan;
t1>'ut he was 'to co\uend ' A'bdu-lla Kba'n
and o.ca co KabYrl. Frotn thenee 'he 'Went to
' HindisiA' J\. a'n'd was by"'tlic IEi\tpc'l'dt_'lil dte
mooth of .Rabi'u-1 awwal. 995 ll! ' ., .JI
l ' o f r I 1{ I I
1.n'ilrv.lrf.tnl6 VilAi':t!'OV TtJ -1\':ElCN
J b'c beginning of .this year with Monday.
Rahi' u-1 aklijr, 990 H. (li th M:trr.b, J5S8). (Fe.<livtll
. of Yen.r'.r Day.)
Kunw:tr Man Singh completely ubducd Jnlala the
so t.hat he could no longer make any resiStance,
. .'ttld was c6mpellcd to take flight towards Bapgash.
'Ab4u-l ,Matlab Khan, and ... were sent after him will\
.a detachnent to BaJJgaSb. '\he r,oyal
. COnln)ande\-s, and gathcri'u,g a tllll'!lf"b\s ar})ut{d
him, l1c attac_ked, ,litem, and a ' fi<il'CC e1isucd. :Silt
r:hc mbblc and .put tQ Rigbc, and niany 'of
them were killed.
. ..
"'"Ne.t day t{le heretics _(l.<Scmb!ed ill great. force,
howling all tJighl 41\cl day like jaclwl<, they tft?
. n fight in cill ditectiotts. Af !his. p-isis M,an Si,ngh'.<
\bro.ther, M(Id{m Singh, who Wllf sta/.j(}ned at. Ohintl ' with
l.smb'il K"li. Klwit, arrived toith. strong force to -t11c
. .a.ssist(lllce ,'of 1lj.s bm!kf!t. 1-fghans tl! 'tte!l,; dnil
nearly 2/)00 were killeli."-Bad(<U.tti, vol. 3.55.
In this year a son w:ti born to Prio'cc Saliro"hY tl1e
of Raja Bhagwan J)as (Rejoicings).

lhi dU. Sa'dik Kl1'an, the goverl.or of llhakar, un:d'er
.<)nih&; proceeded to attack the co\l ntry of Taua. He
tile fort of Sihwa1l, ahd fani lleg, of
'l'atta, grandso11 of Muhllnimacl Baki T:lrkhan, follow
'ing tbc hmnblc pracli'cc of 'his ancestors; scJit envo)'s
.with suitan.!C :giflll to tbc lhJlcrial Court. Th'e Elllper01
:took C<)mpMsion ou ltim, and sent a far'lnan to Saclik
Khan, saying, "l besto\v tl)c country up!ln Jani Beg.
Withd,:tw fr0.ru its occut>ation.'' On the 25lh: Zi-1 ka'da
tlic envoys .of ]'uu Beg received lc:wc to depart; and to
show them greater lionour, Hakim 'Aimil Mulk ''"'
.sent with them, ancl the)' received many princely
_gifts. .
At the beginning o( sani the govcrny.<mt
.of Kab\il given to Z'ltin Kli:1il '!Cok:i, a1lil R'ajn M:ah
:Singh was recalk'd 1o <::o\hr. Al 'ilie e\l.d of

month Ntlt'za: Khalt \nacic {t f.lpid )o\lr'ilcy
f:rorn Gojarat 1v'itli A1.<hi-d ' diu Ia, and Was mast grlici-
-ously 'rccC!fved. Oh the 28tl Rajab Sadik Khan . eamc
Ii om :Shakar. Miu1 Singh arrived in Sha'bao, and at d1c
.end of ihe year be was appoil\!cd g6vernor of Bih31,
Hajipur imd Patna. Abour the same tlme the gcWe1'if.
n\eJit of Ki\Shmir: given to Miha Yus'uf Ki'ian
-:and K.iasiin Khan Mir-bnhr \vas 're'c.-,llcd. Satlik
\\r:l's to Swat anti llajaur agRinst the 'ius\lb.a'JS, .
the jligirs of M:in Siilgb at Sialk6t and i:Uc11ih'er'e ,Ji!fe
granted to him . . Jsma'il Knli Khan WM recalled from
:Skat a'od Bajaur, aDd scn't to 'Gujar:at, t'l repia& K alij
Khan, who was smilmoned to co.'ll't. '!'he rfovertl.ijt'cnt
-of Bihar Bc!rrgal w'iis conferred 011 Man
hURTYFOURffi YEAR' o'J: TH lm!CN t
' The beginning of this year c6rrcspon'ded with


4tb Jurnada-1 awwal, 9!li, (llth M:orch, (The
usual feslival of cightec
J(:Uij Khan arrived from Gujarat, and was appoint-
ed to assist Raja Todar Mal"' in Revenue :ond Civil
a!hninistratiqn. Hakilu ' Aiuu-1 Mulk returned from his.
to Tattlo, with the euvpys ol' Jani ::rarkhan,
who brought t)e offerings of the Beg along with )\ letter_
On the 22nd Jmpada-s sani, 997, tbe Emperor start
etl to pay a visit to Kashmir and Kabul. On .
:Uitimbhar.'' at the beginning of the mountains of
Kashmir, be there left the ladies of th,e luuem ,i.ith the
Crince Murad, and wel)t on express. On the 1st Sha'ba11
!Je ,S\'if!agar, where he rem:oi11ccl sgmc days, visit
jug tlJe city nlJfl JV!Jell _ !he ''ll;i_nj\
,W, ,letters.
vterc for !1'e of ,#Jf:
go tp af)p there.
a\vai t his return. Amir F:ubu-lla Shirazi ('Azduii daula).
died in Kashmir, tp lhe great sorrow of the ,Emperor.
Shaik Faizi wrote an elegy upon hino ...
On the 27th Ramawn the Em}'cror stance! fo
Kabul by way of _I'RkhaJi :ond the fort of Atak. Abu-1
.Vat!], one pf His Majesty's friends and companion!, died
and w:s buried :ot. 'Abdal. Prince
' I ..J
and the Indies, by of lhe .Emperor ..
,up tp At ak: froJn .Rohtas. Here Shahbaz Kl)an
the '!!maini l)g :.:His-
Majesty the ,Indus, nn-.d pn t<'
Kabul, where he a1Tlvec1 on the 22nd Zi-1 ,ka'iia. Hak.im
and Mil' 'sadr who' bali ' bel:n sent on a n
em'oassy to 'iio_w bringing,
; , ' i<O Biz_dau11i ii., p. 365) plp.ces f lhc fol-
ltwlpg in the (hi;ty-thi.r4 yea
, f !<i"Who had olr! ,a>Jd stupid 071C1 l1ad l!!!.ely
f'l!cewed wpwltl [1om a. sabre at the of on l!'P''"
who lay m ambush fm him."-Badauni
vol, ii., p. J6,.
""'"Which ppople of' I<.ashmi call
;rrpl-. ii[:J P
. . "

with w.cm an ambwadc5r ' fl:om 'Abdu-lla. Kbau, who
was the bearer of a letter and His: Majesty
spent two months at Kabul) often visiting the gardens
alld places of interest. All we people of Kabul, noble
and simple, profited by his presence.
Here intelligence reached biro that Raja rodar
Mal Waltilus saltanat, and mushrif-i dituan, and Raja
Bhagwan Das t.mint-1 umam bad. died at Lahore.<>
On t.bc Sth Mubarram, 99S. the Emperor startccl on his
to Hindustan, leaving t.bc oC
Kabul ht the hands of .Muhammad Kasiro Mi-bah,
with Tokhta Beg Kabuli, and .. .. ... several amirs.
"S co-acljustors. He gave the governmcm of Gujarat to
Mimt Aziz Muhammad Kokaltash 'A.uun who
held the government of Malwa? He recallccl me,
Ni1.:unud clin Ahmad, the aut11or of t.his work, to Court.
To Khan-khan:m he gave Jnunpru instc:ul of the
which he hacl held in Gnjarat.
Badtiuni cannot eprtw!' his' bitte religiott.i
hatred, even iri rccor<ll11g thl deaths of' -these faithftl
.<ervants o{.the throne. Ris tl!ords are (vol. ii., p. )71),
"They went to their evt:'flllJling abode in hell". l-Ie has
some verses also, co>lc'eivct! in tile same spirit. AbtLl
Fazl is more generous. Of Todar Mall he says that "for
honesty, ectitude, manliness, of and
administrative ability, he 'W/lS without a rival in 'Hinll{ts
tan't'-Akbar11an10, vol. iii., p. 595. . ;
' .... lie met tuith two scridu.i falls o1t' 'his fburney
homewards! One at a hytffla ht'mt; the ' other jl-dm. a
female elephmit which was attacked by a' fuYidUJ' male.-
Akba.vnama, vol. iii,, p. 597.
><Malwa viM given to Sluzhab Khd1i, buL Awm
Khan, in spi/4 against his ii!il.sted /.he pro'vin'cl:
and laid it tleslllate (khak-siyah) befoe leaving i t.-
Badauni; vol. ii.; p. J72. '
lOllS at t.histimi! tl1at Kihdnhhanan tuas eleva!
ed to the wakalattn premiCTshifJ. (This fac! sh01\ld af1
'fHfR'fYl!'lf.1U .'\tEMt OV THE R1GN
- rhc beginning of this yeat corresponded with 1 hurs-
lay, 14th Jumada-1 a"wal, 998. {The usual cc!cbrntiotl
.of T.llhOI"ej.
The author of tllis work, with his <'"SCOtt .of c;unel-
'ridcrs, arrived at Court, having .performed the
journey'" in twelve days. He was very kindly received.
llhagwan Das being dead, his son Man Singh, .one
-of the great nobles an<! govcrnot of .llihar and Beng-al
.succct'tlcd to 't he title of Raja, and the Em\Jeror sent him
-a letter hy one of his witb a rohc ancl
. . . .... (
A.:t.AM 1'-l'IAf:{'S .Cft-Ml,\lCt-/
'i'N GUJARA,. I'
.. '
W:ltcn ..:Az:pn Khan arrivc4 in Gu ja,rat, essayed to <;o1l
:tho fcrrjto1y oC'!Ctl\c
u,c, of. . .zan,itlf.lars
of q\larter . who a mlmcrou1 body of
men. T-he Jam, ill concert with Danlat Khan, .son of
Amin JUlan, ruler of Junagarb, and Jocllm lmem 1.1f his
f-nthc1, and several other uuniu(laJ:\, assc111blcd nearly
twenty thousand horse. Khan divide<\ llis amty
into seven. divisions, ;u>cl some severe lighting followed.
Saiyid K;tsim .Batba, in command of the ad.vanccd force.
bravely. Khwaja Muhammad Ra6a, comman-
der of the left, was killed with some other wnirs, old
sc1vants of ihc State. Mir Sharafud din, nephew o Mi r
Abu Turab,
'Yas .killed with the va.n. Four tbousand
fell in the The eldest son and rcprcscm-
tativc of the Jam, with his watir, were among the slain.
Victory declared itself ill favour oE 'Azam Khan, The,
the battle was 6th Shawwal, 998 H."
in page 597 Q{ vol. iii., of the Luck1uJw edition of
A_kbarnama, but there is au omission theJ"c of JtrliC
ti!.l lrnes.} .
"'"Six hunded. kos."-Ba4aurii,, vol. ii., p. 372, .
o,t"'Satlarsal" ! by .. n{lmc.,-.IJ<tauni, vol. -ii., '1JI 'J7 J.
tho..t ,;a.< no ruults {ollowecl.
NlZAi\.lUU J)lN AlUAf) 14J
'l'hc dty of Labore IJad beca for some years (chaiUt
.sal) the royal ;md many chiefs of
!lad come. to w;uc ,upo11 the Emperor. But Jan Beg,
Tatta, a:lthougb he had sent and tribute, had
.neve( couc in pcrsoll co .cnrql him.sciC 'unong rJ>c s,lp
poncrs of the lmpCl'iaL t)Jronc. Klmnkhanan was )loW
appointed governor ol' Multan aud Bhal:ar, and be was
.CoJmnan<lc<l to effect the c'Onquest of Sind the
Biluchis. In the montb oE Rilbi'us sani he was on
his enterprise along with ... and a numbel' of: nobles,
names arc too nun.c-ous to rc-conl. He had a
lttmdrc<l elepl)auts and a pf artillery. Khwaj(!.
Muhamrnacl lvtuk.im, au old servant of the State, was
.appoil\ted IHlki!Jhi. Tbe King oE Poets (F:tizi) found the
ul' this in the wmxls "l<astul-i Tttttn."
SX:nt \'1!.'\R OF THE RP.ICN
'The hes,>inning of this yc:1r corrcspoo<lcd wit.h Tlnm;
.day, 2"4th-Juma<l:t-1 awwal, 999 H. (I Jth Marcil. 159L).
,.,,o\'ci.ng!). . . ,
, r-. r . . , ,_
In of tli,i!f ye01 four' of the State
were selectGd to go on to the (our .l'Uicrs of
Dak.hin. ' The King of Poets, Shaikh Fnizi, sent to
R!tja 'A\i Khan, the r uler of Asir anti Burbanpnr.
Kltwaja Aminud clin WiiS scm to Uurhauu-1 Mulk, who,
supportetl hy the anus of the Imperial Govermuent,
pcld Ahruadna{l'ar, the seat . of .. his ancestors. ,
M;pham)Uad Anlln was sent to A<lil J{Jlau, tltc ruler pf
l}Jji ppr; and Mir Mil'?;, io Kutbu-1 Mqlk, the ti!lc o,f
Polcond,a. Shaikh Faizi received directions ,to pt"OCec?-
.to Bnrhanu-1 Mulk after' having. reli:ninatcd his owh
. fo . 1,

On the 28th Zi-1 hijja Prince Sbah Murad, bCttcF
:kuown by his c'?gnome'i', "Pal1ari ,Jii", wjlS. app6irltecl
to the Government of Malwa; receiving_ the standard,
' '
viclory:. 'J it was
Fi1ishto, vol. ii., fJ. 264.
most likely 11 tkjeat.-JJfigg.r,
kettle-drwns, the tama,., the tttgh banner, and all the
insignia pertaining to a prince royal, Isma'il Kuli Khat
was appointed to be his valtil (general manager), and
... were also cot to se1vc under him. ' When the Prince
reached Gwalior, he found that Madhul:.ar,
of Undachah, who held a pi:ominem position among,
the Rajas of these parts, on account of bis numerous.
adherents, bad seized upon the fJarganas of Cwalior.
the Prinee resolved to chastise him. Madhukar asscm
bled his numerous forces to resist, but he wts dcfcate<1
in battle,"" and obliged to lly into rbc jungles and
hills."' All his territory was ravaged, and then his son,
Ram Chanda.-, who was his eldest son and reprcscrit-
ativc, came ' humbly to beg {or mercy, tllld to be adroit
ted a subjecc of the Tinp'erial throne. waitCd OJ\ the
' Prince, and.. presented a. u:ib,nte. :)lid t11c' l'ril'lec-
$Cill ,bim, to 'tl)c Emperor, who, when ho airivcd, grante<l
_him pardon for his offences. The Prince took up his.
xesideuce at Ujjain.
'A1.am Klan, afte.r victOI')' over the Jam, rcm:lin
cd for a Uine at Ahmedabad, and then rcsolvecl upon ,
the conquest of Surath and the fort of Junagm-h. Daulat
Khan, son of Amin Khan, who bad succeeded his father
as chief, had been wounded in a battle with' tbc Jan\.
and was Having determined ';'POll tbi.\ caJnpaign.
'Azam Kban proceeded to the country. The s()>)
Daulat Khan, with his father's ministers, too);. in
t!le fortress (of Junagarb) and tcm,porizcd. But whcm
they found matters going ill witb the'm, the mihisters
for m:rcy, ab d brought the youth t'O 'Azaro
Klian, presenttng the keys of the fortress, and professing
their . allegiance. This conquest was effected on the !itf
ka'da. . . . . ,
, , who mar<:hcd to conquer Tatta, . laid
, .
/n vic;nity of Nat-wo.r,;-Badatmi, vol. ii,,
p. 37.8.
,.,Where he died a nalttral dea'!h.
,siege to the rortrcss of Sihwan. J ani Beg, with all the
.zamiudars of that country, came with gharabs and boats
.armed with artillery, to give battle. Khan-khanan t-ais-
-cd the siege, and mardted forwards. When he arrived:
N'asrpur, there was a distance of seven {ws oetween
1:he rival forces. J ani Beg t6 battle with more
tnan a hundred gltrabs and t\Yo- hundred boats (flislli)
:full of archers, gunners. and large guns. Khan-khanan,'
had only twenty-five ghrabs, weJit to meet
bun, and the 6gbt began. The battle went 'Oil for a
-night and a day, but victory at length declared in favour
-of the Imperial anus. Jani Reg had two tnen
killed in his ghrabs, seven ghrabs wete taken. and tlti!
'o:est made o!l'. This was fought on the 26th
tvfubnrrrun, 1,000 H. Aftct his dcEeat, Jaui Beg with
drew tG a spot"" on the banks of the river, which was
flanked by w-ater and morasses (chihla). Here he
.mtrenched -hls force. Kban-khanan raised batteries
'before i t, and besieged It for i.wo mo,ntbs. During this
'time W,c sent 150,000 then 100,000
rupees, then !00,000 mans 6 grai.n, wittdevera\'
-gUns and many gunners, tO. reinforce Kllan-kbanan. He
nJso sent. Raja Rai Singh, a noble of fom thousand, -by
:the route of Jesalmir.
'I'HlR'l"\.'-SEVEN'l'n Vl-:.AR OF TL>fE REf.CN
'The beginning of this year corresponded with Saturday,
1ltn J umac\a-1 akhir, . 1,000 H. (Ustut! re:joicings' at
I..ahbre_). I .
Jalala the scctat1' who had Jlcd to ' Abdu-lla Kl1a11!
' '
"'Firisllla transcribes t his account, but here he
.-;es the lllo:l'e specific word bin-i, a "":1 or promontory.
B,-iggs ,enders the passage by a paraphrase, "on n sfJot
cf sJmournled by a swam'fJ, which was floocled
.ot high water."
"'"'Badauni (vol. ii., fl. J79} t11e number os
'one lumdred' .

(in lladakhsh:tn), now returned, and engagccl i1r
J'evolt and robbery. On New Year's Day .Ja'fllr lie!(
Asaf Khan, the bal<hshi, named to lead :m ::rmY.
against l1im in communic:uiO!l wilb MuhaUlm:id Kasi1i1
Kban, governor of .Kabul. I, the .aul.hor, 'as appohllcd
lo tl1e post of /lnldt.rlti . . At tl1c end of Sha'bl\11, Zain
Khan K()kn, who had been sent to settle the count1')' <il'
Swat and Rajuur, and l.o l'OOt out those Afghans who had!
cicaped the sword. was ordercc\ to march and exter-
minate Jala\a. .
, On the 24th Sbaww:l, with 12th Amur<lac
of the 37th year of tb'e reig11, tl1e Emperor set off l)um
ing to the banks of the Cbinab. on the way to Kasbmil' ..
passed the Ravi, apd .f.or '.fJvc days, .enj<>YiilJ>
.gard<!n ot 1\a pas. fto.m tb'enee .1\e
march of three ltos. Tbc.i !1e apppointcd Kalij'
Khan an(l Mota Raja to take chJtrgt of affairs at
Lahore. As it was now thc.l.'ajny season. and the w;Jicrs-
wcre out, he left Prince SaliUl to march "" with
the cnmp. while 1te hancnccl on with his ltnnting at-
.teodants to the Chinab. Here be received inLclligcnc.;
that Yadgar, nephew or Mir1a Yusuf Klmn . Ri1.wi,
governor of Kaslunil, had conspired with sornc. disnfTc<:l
ed Kasbmi'ris, and haYing raised the standard of revolt,
J>ncl asMuned the title of Sultan. Kazi 'Ali,. the tli111a1t
or Kaslunir, and Hasa lleg Shaikh Umari, the collector
(ta!tsildar-i ak/lra/) attacked him with their hut:
Kazi 'Ali was kiUed, :incl Husain .Beg was glad to
half clea<l'" to lhjauri. His Majesty SJ!IIt F:uid. Bnkhsh
with a party of nrlrirs, such JIS .. . . a thomand .
.Badakhshani Aimak horsemen, into J{ashmir. He him-
self oossetl 1.he Cbinab, :md wailed there for a 'vbilc:
hunting. until Pl'incc 'Salim came up ,;ith the .c.'\mp.
, ' Kban-khanan had besieged Jani lleg for tli'<T
tnonths. Every clay lhere was ligllling, and on bot.
sides. ofbe Sindians .. l1acl got possessi,Oil of . lbe toads, .
"ThTouglt the passes of
and prcvcJited the paS$agc of provisions. Crain hacl'
consequently become very scarce. and hrend exceedingly
clear. Khankhana.n bad nb l'CSOUlCC but to IDOVC
so he set off Lowards r.be pargantt of Jun, ncar Tatta.,
llut he sent a portion bE his Force, und'Cl' Saiyid J3abaiHl
dill .Bukhari . . ., Mi( Mtiha'nnnad Ma'sum Bhakari.
nod other of his officers, to invest Sibwan. Jani Beg.
a'ssu.miJJg Sihwau force to be weak in numbers, marched
it. When hc:J.rd of this movcment.-
hc sent off with all possible speed Daulat Khan Lodi,
Khwaja Muhammad Hakim Bai<lls/Ji, DhaTu son of Raja:
Todar Mal, l>al Bitit son of Rai Singh, anti ... to
J'Cinforcc tlc division. This march
e<L eighty Ito.< in two days, antl effected a junction.
Next day Jalli lleg t:unc np ancl arrayed. his ;tn.ny.
Daulal Khan also made his dispositions. His force
:unoplltcd to only two thousalld, while Juni neg had
more tlJan five thousand. But confident in the Imperial
g06d f6rruhe, they wcrit into Raja Todar Mal's
son Dha'tu rougliL''inost' bravcly, 'lllns killed. The
wihd of vi'ctor'y blew ll}lOil tb'c r'i>yaf st'andardS, 'and Jani
Dcg Acw towards 'the' banks r.f die rive l-11! stopped at
the 'village of Unarptir," " on ' tlJc bank., of ' the river,
and again entrenched himself. Khan-khanan upon his
and the Sihwan force upon tbc other, bore down
liJXIll him and besieged him. There was lighting ever'J
day. At length Jani Beg's 111en were reduced to e:'it 'thei
hors& and camels, and mauy were killed everf day by
the fire of the guns and muskets. Jani Beg Was compel!
ed to make an offer of capi.tulhtion. and t<>' promise to
go ancJ. wail u'p<in the .Ehiperor. He beWd for the'
period of clirct '11ion'ths to mak. prepatacjons for his
journey, and was eollceded. lt .being the rainyllea
son, ' Kban-)<hanan i11 the 'llill:tge of Sann, in
the vicinitf of Silnvan, for fbat time . ... 'I'be foit o
Sihwan was surrendered, :md J ani lf.n'C his daugh
fe\ in malTiagc to Mina lraj, sou o{ .Kitan-khanan. He
also surrendered twe11ty ghrn.bs.
The intelligence of this victory gave the Empel'Or
great joy, as he deemed it a goO!-l augury of h is success
in -Kashmir. He then continued his journey to Kashmir,
and when he arrived llhimbhar, whicb is at the
beginning of tl1co mountain he t'eccived intelli
gcnce that bis army, having fll!l4c five or six mard1es in
the mountains, bad been tacked by a force of Kash-
miris and men belonging to Yadgnr, who bad blockaded
tlte pass of Kartav But these men. were .unable to
bold their. gronncl against the brave soldiet-s of tbc anny,
and took to flight. Yadgar _Fame u.p as far as .Hamirpur
with a large. to the progrtss 6 th9 roy.tl
army; but in the course o the night, a_.party of Afghans
and '1\r komans; belonging to Jf{irza ,Ypsilf JUlan.

upqn him hi m to d.eath. "I:qree days
his bead. was brought to the Emperor, and was exposed
as a warning. The Emperor's goocl fort une thus sr.cured:
au easy victory for him. It a cul'ious coincidence.
that the day on which t.hc Emperor crossecl the river of
La.horc to proceecl to Kashmir, MIS the day on which
Yadagar broke out ill l'ebc!liou and caused tbc
to he rend in !tis num".
On the 23l'd Zi-1 bijja, the EmpCl'Ol' left Prince
Daniynl behind it1 charge of the Jac:lies of the
because he was not wcll, and l1c was directed to proceed
wid1 them to t11e fort of ,Rohtru;. The :Emperor himself
went on rapidly to Kashmir, taking me with him ial at-
tcldance. On the 8th Muhan-am, 1,001, be 1cached
ancl stayed eight, days, riding about and
h\!ntmg water-fowl. He ,confctTCd the govcrnm.em of
Kashmir-,on Mirza Yusnf Kban..Ri.zwi, and left a num-
ber of oljicers will! hlm, SHch. . ., . . On, the 6th Safar
he on, his return journey, , and embarking in n ,
"'This iJ very doubtful name, ste
Xartal, Komarbal, Xa.-tal ana, Ketw.rbal.
' ,
It is writ-
!boat, he proceeded towards Bara-mula, 011. the. con.lines
<>f Kashmir, in the way to l'akhali. On the road he saw
a reservoir called Zain-lanka. This reservoir ,is _inclosed
Oil the west, north and south by mountains, and Jt i;;
iltirty kos in circumference. The river Behut (JilaQJ.),
}>asses through this lake. Its water is very 'pure and deep.
Sultan Zainu-1 'abidJn curried out a pier of stone to the
.dist;tnce of one jarib 'into the lake, and l!pon it erected
.a high building. Nothing like this lake and buildin'g
h to be found . in Iudja. After visiting this e<Ufice, he.
went to Bara-mula; wlierc he diset'llbarked, and proceed;
-cd by land to l'akhali. When he reached that placC.
there was a heavy fall of sn01< and rain. l,rom tbe{\cc
Jc wen.t on rapidly to Rolnas. I, tlic author of this t.is
Lory, and ... were ot"t\!!red to' (ollow slowly 1vith the
l;1dies of the harem. It is a <<trious fact, that whetl tb.e
Emperor on his return f:rom Kashmir, he obscrv-
.cd; . "It is forty ye'!l's since I saw snow, and there arc
many nien with me, b'otn and, bred in Hind, wlio have
never sec\ i t. If a snow-stonn should comd bpoh us in
the neighbourhood of l'akhali, it would be a diS
!Pcnsation Providence." 'It O<-curred just as ' His
Majesty expressed. his wish. On the 1st Rabi'u-1 awwal
ltc reached the fort or Ro!ltas. and there .rested. On the
13th he started for Labore. the ettpita!, and ori the 6th
Rabi'u-s sani be arl'ived there.
Intelligence here reached him tbat Raja Ma.n Singh
'bad fdught a great battle with the sons of Katlu Afghan,
who, Since his death, had beld the country of
and having defeated them, he had annexed that exte:il"
-sivc couhlry which lies beyond Bengal to the Imperial
-dorniolons. H l
! '
'flllR'l'VlUCB! !i Yf' .AR 01" 'J.H ... JttCN
The beginning of this year corresponded with the 17th
Jumada-s sani, 1,001 (lltb March, 1593).
In the of the rejoicings, on the 24th Jurnada-s
-sani, Xhan-khanao arrived with Jani Beg. the ruler o!f.
Tatta, :lnd was g>'tcicmslr J'ecclled. Shah Beg Khan, :.nil
. : . other amm wi10 hat\ taken p:tlt in this campaign,
also presented themselves Court, and were suitably
rewarded, with jagirs, increase o{ allowance.' and pro-
. . ... .
' At \!'c time ;vhc1i. the fort of Junagarh and
of Surath were subdued and atmcxed to dlC lm'
pcrial dominions, SuiLan Mmalfar Gujarari, who was in .
.that part of the country, llell arld bet()OI<. himself I<"
Khru>gar, of the country of Kach. 'AzanL
Khan aw\cl<.cd Khangar antl ravaged some of his tcni-
cories.' This induced hilit to proltcr his own allegiance ..
to 1n al:c pt'.U!oner. : Under this
mcnt the, son of 'A2an} Khan made a suddef5 tlrlci<pccted.
attack upon the place where Mtlza!Iat ;vas and'
rOok.) liro prisoner:'' AS''Ule'Y '\!etc b"'ihgral(mg.
made an''cxcuse for retiring into pl'ivacy, :ind then cut
h is r:Jnoat witJ a I'!ZOr so th:rt l1e dkcl. His bead wm;.
tl1cn. cut off and sent to '1\wm Khan. who ><:nt it on t<P
One huudtccl and tweut)' taken by Rlrj;c
Man._ Singh Orissa, now arrived <It and were
ptesented -to the Emperor. 'Aznlll Khan Mirza . 'Azi,-
Koka bad now been absent from Ct;nrrl ten years, so :L
jamum was written calling him to Court, to receive the-
marks of royal approbatjon. Meanwhile some mischicf-
11'\UkeJ'S had reported to the Khan son1c unkind words.
whicb the Emperor was said to have used. reg:rrding
him.'"' So on the lst Rajab he cmbarl;.ed in a ship with
his sons at>d family, atld sailed for Hijjur. When tb.c
Emperor was informed of tl1is, he gave the country ol' .
Gu jarat to Prince Sbab Murad. and a fmmn11 was issued'
directing birrt to proceed {tom Malwa to Gujamr.
Muhammad Sadik Khan, one o( the great noble. was:
. . . \ . _.
' ""He httd tile rlesire P. f gojn
J)f teen. - ' .,. ' . I. ., r
. 1
appointed j,js vakil, and the sarka>:ro{Surat, Broach
Baroda, were as5igned to J1im in jagir.
On the 21st Amurdad qf the rear of 'the
agtcl!ing \vitb 14th Zil kada, 1.00 IH, Zain Klhu\ Kokk'
and A.saf Khan, who had been 'Sent to chastise the
Afghans of Swat an(! llajnur; :mel w repress Jalala the
se'cta'r)', killed n gr-Jl many of them and sent the wil;cs.
mid fami lj' of Jalala -and Qf Wahdat 'Ali, h is- brorlic-r;.
wltJi aU their friends, neatly four hundtccl""' in n\am
to Court.
On. tbc 29th Zil Kadn the of M>alwa
1vas given tO Mh-za Shah Rukh; nnd Shahba1. Khan
Kambu, who had been three years' in prison . 1<:1s rc.lcas-
cc\, and appqinccd to be the ahi/ and gen("'al manager '
of the affairs of Malwa, tmdcr Shah R ukh.
On the 12th Muh:wram, 1,002, Mirza Rust:unP
sou o Sultan Husain Mirza, son of Bahnu11, son of
,Safawi (Shah of Persia), who pe)tl tbc
merit dt Zmu/ri .. dawar, dutic ttl tiring a cbri1pJ<iiot to the-
Einperor, by:J?.f! so& ,.nci. T11mily. :. (Grml<l '
reception). The Empcro;r "'it&eilrcd him witl1 a ltr'Or oC
tanlui.r, inadc ltim. a fJa.17J,fthZnri/-
tl ; :mel gftvd
tan in jngi1. '
At tl1is time the PdJ1ce pf l'octs. Shajkh J' ai7.i. rc
turucd Tom his 111ission tel ltaja 'All Kh'an and llnl'
hnnul Mu\k bakhini. Mu J\liubainm:td A min, 'Mir
Mitnir, and Aminn-d din also returned [rom mis
sillM. to the dilfctcllt of the Dak!iri. nffrhanu-1
Mulk lmd received favollrs aiJd. assistance ' toni '' l'li's.:
Maj eSty, but now he did not send suitab)e tribute, nor-
l,te in a and bcco.ming wN. , !lis, ttihute
. ""Bacuwni , (vol. ii., 1! . 388) gir.s 1 lu; ..
of "14/)00". . . . .
" ' He wM u11able lo 111aintoi11 h/i,.se/f ;, Znlilifl.-
darvar a'gaiitsl l.he, cnrnil) oj his 'brother, a11d the i1lcteM:
i'{'/J; P,<nuer . of h'e .
A romman<ler of 5/JIJO.
.did not exceed ftftecn elephants, some fabrics of the
.Dakhin, and a few jewels. So. the Emperor detenuined
.to effect d1e couqu,est of the and on the 21st
'llfubarram he appointed Prince Daniyal to command
:the invading army. Kllan-khanao, Rai Singh,'
Bil, I-Iakili1 'Ainu-! Mulk, other 11111irs of 'Malwn,
.:l\ll.d jagirdars of the subas of Ajmir and Dchli, were
.appointed to attend him.
Seventy thous;yul hone were
ordered on this campaign. The Empe1-or ltimself went
-out wid1 them, hunting as be went, as far as the river
-of Sui t:u>pur, thirty-five lws from Labore. K.ban-
Khanan, i11 attendance upon Prince D<n>iyal, hacl
.come as far as Sirhind . and was summoned to hold a
Council with the Ernpef9r. ,EJ:e joined tbe r,oyal party
.at Shaikhupur, ansJ. tbe campaign in, the n'a.khlll. Wast
-cons,ideJ.:ed. was , no,w. to proceed
01'1 .fPc, service alone, wthou't u;oubling p,;incc Daniyal.
An order was published that rbc army of the Dakllin
was to serve under Khan-kllanan, and Prince Oaniyal
was J-ccallcd. Witb higb marl)s of favour Klan-khaunu
.commenced the ma1-cb. He took leave of the Emperor at
.Agra, and His Majesty returned, bunting as he went,
r.to the capital Lahore.
I bavc tjlus written a history of the occurrences of
"We, reign of the. Emperor Akbar, :ts perfect as my poor
pen can accomplish, up to the dlirty-eighdt year of his
"'Cign. lf life, is spared and grace is given to me, I will.
-please God, also reccrd . the events of day,; to c.ome, so
t110t my volume. may be completed.

!He w:is callc(l T11,kri'ja, h-om tlic fact of his having issu
. "'Whom o11e might ca.ll Rai Sag, Badatmi (yol.
:ii., . p., .J89), sag mem1i11g <wg.
, '"The Prince at t{1is time married a daughter of, I
.IKIIallkhanatl.-Badauni, voi. ii., p.: 389,. '
,.,These trvo E.<tacts from tltc biogra[ihic'al
ed an order, when he was Govemo1 of Labore, 'to the
effect thai .Hindus should bear on their shoulders a dis-
criminating mark, which being dilled in Hindi, 1'ttkri,.
obtained for him .the nlckname of Ttthri)la. He was ..
nephew and son-in-law of, Imatn Mabdi Kasim Khan,.
and was a.mansabd111 of 2,000 . .He diep A.H.
I'n the year 990 H., conesponoing with r.l1c 26th of the
Uahi; the Amir arrived at Court from tile Dakhin, and:
received wifh 1-oyai favour. He was in con-
junction with the Ministers, to revise the system of ad
ministration, and to inquire into the Jnanagcmetll of.
the civil and revenue administration? On tuis duty
be was engaged for many years, and, in token of the
.King's sntisfac1:ion, was honoured with the title of
' Azdu-d daulah. He was a very learned matl, an'd wa!<--
better versed every kind of knowledge, tbcoretical
and practical, 'than any ma.n' in Khurasau, 'lrak . Ol'
Hindustan. In l short, irl the. wh'ole h'e' \bs
out a rival. He iv'as ltlso ail adept 'in tlie arts 'of
maglc and cndlantment. For instance,' be inade a ;vind-
' ' f I '
1>0>'tio" of the wbrk, tvhich comes in at tlu: end of Li1e:
reign of Akbar. They appeared in i.he oM vol. of 1849.
'"Some of the proceedings of this m.tlnuiast tvill
be fotmd ;,. the Extracts. from Bndtnmi. See MtmtaMw-
Tawariilh. " '
The Ma-asiru-1 umara tiS that this o1der was isst<-
etl in consequence of his l1aving one Jt,,)l a Hindlt,.
il(ho, po.ssed 'fi)i tvitlt a long l1eard, tfle nta'/1
o[ a We do tiOt leam. whether this edict
was ap-fJ?oved ortt11nulled. frt the -decline df the Tc(>ub
lie, tvh"cn a similar measure was proposed ift Rome tL'ith
TesfJCct to the s/iwcJ, a wise UU/1 C%CUlilned, ' "quantum
pericultun imminerd.. si nostri numerarc nos
coepissmt1" Seneca, De Glemeniia, i., p. 24.
bi!t ta1tih 1rw'ami/at 'ali tva ishtighal diwani.
:m.ill which pro<luced Aour l>y a nlCIVC
.)liCilt . . In Kashmir, he depat'lc<L for the ,of eter-
nit.y i n t he ,year 9!17 .. H.
ttHAN OF lfUI: fAS
A few qays . after, Sultan Mahmml assembled au army,
.an<l matclied on Sho'r,"' wbc11 Jam nayazid, leading
.out 'Alam Khan, with the consent of his follow-
Cf$, advaJ,Iccd w the distance of twenty miles from Shor
to meet l1im. When he rcad}cd the Ravi, h:tlted, 'an<J
. scm a to Daulat Kbru1 . Lodi, ac<tu,Unting him
f.hc particul:tt'S of the movement. U p<>n (!E
.this intelligence, Daulat Khan I.oc)1, at the head Qf the
Prmjab . Cow:$, to, the assistance of Jal)l
Jlcforc tl}e couRier. CJ?,d, a, co}}

PFaEc. -i\\ t).ltpngb ,,;$,
. il ,was 31T<t,nge.d. the tCI'fllS of wl11c11 lhc
Ravi was ln be the, bounda t")'. Daulat. Khatl then scnL
.Sulrnn MaJunuc) back to Mulran, nnd Jam w
. Shor; after which, he himself proceeded to Labore.
NotwiLhswnding that the tcnps of peace had ' becl)
.ndjusted ily so wise ;, man ;ts Daulat Khan, yet it dicl
endure long. ln Ute i uterim. Mir J<tku Zanu,
,.,, ..
""Th,esc nrc from tile separate IJiJ:tory of
Mullan. were (winted ill tlu: oltt unl. of 1849..,
Shor or Shorltotc, i.r trucmy,rix miles 11ortll of
ant! on the road from tllftl p/Jlce to ]llaug.
Amoug tiJ< ruitJ.S of, this place, the most re;
markf!ble is a t>W1tn4 of. Sltr>'qrmtl<:d by a brick
rua/1, am/. high CIIOltg" . .be from 11 circuit,. of si>;
-or eight miles. Native tmditiofl rcpre.rcnts ;, to be .tlw
cq.pital of a Raja of the tutme of $/tor, who was conquer,
.-1cd ,by " king [Yom the wesi.-BU?,'tcs, Bo!Uam, vol. iii., ,,
:P . . .
,..This tuitlt the !l<lll!e a.1 gi11811 -by :Qrigg},
:Jml'in the original of' Firqlzt11 it is Mil '!mad Ortrde%i.
with his. two . suus, name!J. Mil llahdad, and l)Ij Shah-
.dad, came to Multan.' from It \Val> Mil Shahdad
.that introd.uccd t,be principles pf tbc Shia creed in.ts>
.Multaq.. '
Langah family had great rC$pcct for
:Su).ll'llb' Dud-ad, Mir Jakir .Z:)nd could not remain in
Mulpul. He rbcrcfotc sought the P.rotctlipn of Jam
Bayazid, wbo nca.tcd him with rcsl'ect, :>nd was pleasc<l
to gmnt a portion of Ji is domain for ,the
.Q( Mir's fatoily.
Jam J3ayazid was " .wan of beneficent chatal:tct"m\cl
O( generops SJ\irit and was particul:u\y to pro
mote the interests of: the learned and virtuous. He J*
,,aid to have sent their pensions to Multan f!om Shot,
.even cluring dtc period of actual hostilities. His gt11cro-
1:'ity towanls men. of tn.'\ent was se) notorious, that :roan.y
persons of distinction q11i ttcd their h.omcs and took up
their abpdc at Shor. 1:Ie earnestly many
-tq that place, . and. a1nqpg them
. f Ma I ' II '.. '' ' I '
'Azlwlla. pupil o u ana .Fatull a, whom b!'.,urgent-
ly pressed wcomc. Ou. hi.i to Sbor, j i.n :&y:\-
.zid l'eceivcd him with much l1onour, conducted .li.im to
.his, private apartments, and ordered his servant$ to pour
.vatcr over the Maulana's hands, at1<l then, by way of a
blessing, to sprinkle the s;tmc water on. lbc four corners
-of his pousc.
ThCl'C is <\ curious anecdote concerning tl.te
n;t al)d, Shaikh Jalalud din Kuraishi, vakil , of' Jam
which, though ppt mpch to the purpo$.1!
1l1is history, }s yet h.cre recorded for an example; 'and. as
.au aw'lkening from the sleep of neglect. It .is this:.
When the Jatl)' received the wifh, such ).tnusu.a!
distinction, and to.o\:. him into,.his pr}vAte 'apartments,
. I ll ma;y otle. espects . hle>c if . . difference
between the original nnd tmn.slaticm, and it is ividenL
' .
the translator must have used a lil{fcretlt ma!IJL;
. totipt in tills portion of' his 'work.
, I
the Shaikh sent to the Maulana, antl. told him that Jam
Bayazid had given him his compliments, and desire<b
that the Maulana should select for himself one of the
slave-girls who had been ordered to attend him. The
Mau!'ana sent one of his O"!n servants to Jam Bayar.id.
and saia in reply, "God forbid that a man should ever-
look upon the women of , his friend; moreover, such
sentiments arc unworthy of my advanced age.'' Jam
Bayarid replied that he had no knowledge of the imput
cd message. The Maulana being much at
this, cursed' the person that sent the message co him,
saying. "May his neck be' broken!" and returned to b.i!l>
hothc without evpn seeing Jam Bayazid, who was no&
informed of his' depattur'e 'until he 1\ad actually left his
1):- 'so >tbat the curse' of tbe
lana , effect; fo.r a.fter Sha1ll'li ]alatld din c<ttnc uJ
Sh'or, h'avtllg .desC..fed tlie scrvlce''of s'u!tan 'Siltandar, be-
chanced' one night to miss his footing, when he fell from
au upper storey with !tis head downwat1ls, and literally
broke his neck.
After the conquest of the Panjab in 980 H., by the
late Zahini-d din Mubammacl Babar Badshah Gha1.i,
that monarch, at tile tiJlle of his return to Dehli, sent :t
commission to Mirr.a Shah Husain Argbun, governor of
Tatta, ordering him to take charge of Multnn and
neighbouring He accordingly the river
near the fort of Bhillat, and marched towards Multan
with a largt army. The wind of the llivine wrath began
to blow, and a great 'flood arose. When information of.
this reached Sult:in Mabmud, he trembled. Then he
fOilected all his. forces, and advanc'ed to the distance 6
t'wo days' journey from the city of Mulmn. He sent
Snaikh Babau-d din Kutaisbi, successor to the celcbra
ted Shaikh Bahadu-d din (may God sanctify his
sepulcllrcl); as an ambassador to Mirza Shah Husain.
and :ipP<>inted Maulana llahlol, who was noted for the
gf:lce of his',eloqucnce, "' well ' as the elegance of 'his
ideas, to accompany the Shaikh, ,'I'he Mirza received
.rhetu with much honour and said that be bad come with
.the view of chastising Sultan Mabmud, l!Dd of -visiting
.Sbalkh l3abau-d din Za}Wdya's 1.0mb. The Maulat\a
stated that it would suffice if the chastisement of Sultan-
Malimud 1vcre c!l'ected at a distance, in ,the same man-'
ntr as the Prophet had mentaUy admonished
K:un; and that Shaikh Jlabau-tl dip was already , come
:to' his presence, inasmuch as he himself was the reprc,
scntative of Zakariya. and that there was rhereforc no
need -of hl3 t-roubling himself to pt-oceed any furthet.
They werc
however, unsuccessful- in the
objects of their interview, . and l"Clurneq to the Sultan,
1oho died suddenly in the same night, poisoned, it is said,
rby Langnr Khan, pne of: his slaves. He died A.H. Q33, .
"lfter a reign of t1vent yscven years.
After' ,the qeatb , Sit1tan !Utwam ,
and Khan, who
.of Sultan ,arnw. deserted t11ei: kin,g, i\Dd
joined Mirza ,Shah HU3ain Arghun, and having met
with '\ kit)d [rom ltim, subsequently took.
possession of the dilfcrenL towns of Multali tn the mme
of the M.ir-La, while the remaining Langah clue., coil-
."founded at tltis intelligence, hastened to Multan, al)d
the son of Sultan Mahmud J.in!ft
tbe of Sultan Shall HusaiJ,l, and rc:td the /;tt uL}Jo. in
!lis he was but a child. "lluc lie was king
-only in DjlJ;nC Shaikh Shuja'u-1 fdUJk. ' l:l,ukbari,
son-jn-lmv- of Sultan Ma.hmud, pssurnirl!i the . . otlice of
rvlll"tr, secured to hir\),Self. ll\1 tl}c regal power. ' . ,
' By t11e advice of ti;Us man, l}tey took
refuge in . the Jort, w)iich had < ne month's pro-
visions in,_ it,;" )Vilile $!J,ab l:tnHiD, deeming the
<Ieath of, Sultan a most conveniem <.pportu-
r:U, ty for Ute COilqu,est of the COUtmy, imrncrliarcly laid
to the fort.
After a few days, the g-.1rrison fmcling cl1e provi-
sions of the fort were consumed, .antl that they WCl'C about
to perish, came to Shaikh Shuja-1 MulJ-, who '"M the
cause of bis country's disnstcrs, and s<>licitecl' .his per
uisdon to divide their forces and give de .enemy bat
tic, representing at the same time that they bad stilL
some vigour left, that their horses wore 'fresh and ' lhat it
was not improbable that the .of .victory might
incline to their side; and l.hat to remain' innctive ancl
beleaguc1ed as they were expedient only when U1ere was
some hope of receiving succour {Tom witbout,-whicb
was nbt at all a probable contingency in their case.
The Shaikh die! not make any reply, but to-
a piivatc aparhnent, he invited the oJ some
of the chiefs, and said: that as the. sovereignty Shah.
Husain J,:mgab .had I)Ot_, as sef well be
was afraiil lest most of their men, o1\ making a sally
!rolU fort, should tak.c the .opportunity to desert, and:
join Mirza Shah Husain, in hope of receiving :1 favour
able: and the small remnant who had re
garcl for then reputation, ariel who would make a stand,
would be sfain. Maulana Sa'du-lla of Lahore, a learned.
man of tbat Hmc, who was i.n the fol1: of Multan orr
tfus occasion, relates that a few months after the siege
had comi:nenced, when all the avenuci of the fort were
closed by the enemy, and no one was able to'' cntct'' for
the purpose of rendering assistance, or go out for the-
purpose of escaping pis doom (fdr the attempt was at
tended l,;ilh certain destruction), the gari:ison were at
last r&iuced to such extremities, as to be compelled to
ci>nsumc dogs and cats, which, were partaken of with ru; ..
much avidJity as they bad the' choicest' goats ancf
Ja'm'b's. Tbe protection of 'the fort was cdmmittecl by
Shaikh. ,Shuja'u-1 ' Mnlk to the ;charge of a vagabo11c!.
rianied .Jadu,' who hair three thousand militia of tile
'Jriin. That wretch entered all the h9Jses
wherever he ,h:id the least expectation of finding grain;
and plundered them so unscrupulously, that die people
.eamestly pmycd for Shaikh Shuja'ul Mulk's descruc
.t.ion. ..
At last, the besieged were reduced to so desperate a
condition they preferred being killed to a slo1
.death by famine, and they accordingly threw themselves
down from the '"ails of the fort into the ditch. Mirza
Shah Husain, being aware of their 'clisttess, refrained
from ldlli>1g them. After a siege of one year and several
months, his men, one night. toward.! the dawn, eucrcd
the fort, and made great slaughter. All the inbabi(ants
. the .age of seven and seventy were taken
soners. They treated most oppressively all the citizens,
.on whom there was the least suspicion of possessing
wealth, and treated them with various kinds of indig
nity. This took. place at the close of A. H. 984.
Maulana Sa'du-lla gives an account of what hap
pened lO himself in d'e following WOl'dS.
"When tl1e fort was captured by the Arg\luns, a
patty my house, my fadiCl,,
Mnulana Ibrahim J ama, (<vho, in .studylog teaching
vadous sciences for si"ty-live bad, il\. the evening
of his lost the.use or his sight), and made him p1i
Seeing the neatness and. comfort of our bouse,
they suspected that gold was so.mewl1ere concealed,, and
<:onsequcntly . treated us , with great in\lignity. Another
person came and bound me. and sent me as a present 10
<j1e wa.U> of t.he Mirza. The was sitting on a
wooden platforn1 in the open :trea whcu I reached.
auq 11e ordered 9e to be bouud with a chain, of
'vhich one, end was tied t.o OI)C of the feet of the p latform.
'l did not, g>.ieve for myself, but ! _. could not
bclp shedding tears, wbru- I my father's sad
<:ond i tion. ,
' "Afte.r a while, he called for his escritoire,
1tis pen, and. then l'Ose \IR, :)nd went into the botise, with
the intention of washing his handc& and feet, and pray
jng, befo,c.e he sat clown. to write. There was no one left
1n but myself, so I approacbedt the platform,
I 65-
Shaikh Shuj;l'lll Mulk .Bnkl\ari with various indignities,
and a large sitm of money was daily exacted from him.
The country of Mnltan had by this time been much
so tbat there was no hope of its attaining iL
fo.-ntct prosperity; but the Mirza, nevertheless, not tbink-
hlg ii.S restoration so very difficult, left the country d n
charge or Kltwaja ShamstHL din, with Lnngar Khan to
assist him, and he h.imself returned to Tatta. Under the'
judicious management of Langa.r Kbau, the country wits
again populated and he subsequently ottt the
Kbwaja, with the assistance of the people, and. made him
self muster of the coumry.
After the death of Babar, Humayun succeeded to the
throne of Hindustan, ;utd hcstowed the l'anjab in jagir
upon Mil''" Kutman, who sent a message to Langar
.rcqutsl.ing his nncnd:.ulc<:, anc.L on the Kl\an's waiting
upori him at Lahore, he was pleased to confer on him tbc
country of Pabal in e>:cllangc for Multan. In' the end.
the King ass.igned as h.is residence a at Lahore, no'
k,nown by the name of Daira Laugar whicb is OJIC
of tbc most celebrated quarters of Labore. From Lbis
time forward Moltan aga.in came under the domin.ion of'
the Kings of Debli. After the death of Mirza Kamran, ,
it passed to Sher Khatt (Sher Shah), from Sher Khan to
Salim Khan (Islam Shah), and from biro to the officers of'
!-lis Majesty Akbar, all which changes have bcctt tnen-
tioncd in their respective places.

.. :
. t
" .
. ..
Vol. 9. 1ll<bar-nnma by Shai_l(h Abu-t Fazl. Also com-
prises Takmila-i Alcbat-nanw of lt14yattt-lla,
ill<bar-nama of Sb:dkh Dlahdad, Sirhinpi
and Tflil<aya'-i AsacL Beg or Halcu-i A!ad Beg.
The reign of Akbar, which Jhe Eigbth volume ict
is in this volume brought to a close. It con-
tains F..xb:acts (rom Abu-1 Fazl's 1lhbar-namC1, a great
work well known to students of history. Ex.t1acts
relating to tllc dosing years of Akbar's reign bave also
beet\ wket\ hom the continuation of tltc A ltbM-11111/Icr
J>y 'lnayatu-U:t. Another and smaller Alcua-uma by
Shaikh lllabdad, otherwise called Faizi Sirhlndi, has also-
been included. Some curious and interesting pcl-sonal
details have .been del'ived frotn tbe Mcmoris of Asad
:Qeg, an officel: in Akbar's service. Price Rs. 4.
VoL I. AuRANC7-En by Kliali K ban
Vol. II. AuronrocRANtY 011 TtMUR AND ZAFAR
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Vol. HI. MocIULS by Kbali Khan
Vol. IV. SlmR SHAH by Abbas Kban Sarvani
Vol. V, SUI>UI('nCIN by Abu! Fazl llaihaki
Vpl. VI. AKuAR, Part I, by Nizamu-d Di.n
Vol. VII. At<BAJ!, Part lt, by Niz,'lmu-d Din
Rs. 1
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' .

. .

, ... .
' -
History of India, 15 Vola.
Heritare of India .
. -
Hymns of the Ria' Veda .
Vedanta Philosophy

Elliot and Dawson
Max Muller
. Manninr
Max Muller
Y ora..Sutraa of Patanjali . Bllllantyne and Shaetri Deva
Indian Philosophy, 4 Vola. . . Max Muller
Mediaeval India, 2 Vola.
Yoga Explained
Buddhist fudi,a .
. Dhamlnapada .
Life in Ancient fudia
Ramnl'Ohan to RamAkrishna
Leadine Icleas of Hinduism .
Social Life in Ancient fudia
Life of Buddha
a n ~ e s of India
Studies in Buddhism
Ancient India .
Hiouen Tbsana- in India
lndJa : Vedic and Post-V edie
.Civilizatiop of Ancient India
Inspired Writinga of Hinduism
_Theatre of tbe Hindus .
Ranjit Siqh
Shivaji and tbe Rise of the Mahrattas
. Lane-Poole
Rhys Davids
., Adolf Kae(li
Max Muller
. MonierWilliami
. Raeini Devi
. Max Moller '
. SaintH.L.lire
. Wheeler'

II '- )

Title:- A K' I A ll