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nstant Lesson

Denise de Vreeze
Kath McMicking
-
!i
Emerald City Books
First published 1998
Text Denise de Vreeze and Kath McMicking 1998
Illustrations and design copyright Emerald City Books 1998
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ISBN 1 876133 34 ]
Instant Lessons in Chemistry Book 1 are reproducible one or two page worksheets suitable for senior high
school Chemistry. Some of the sheets in Book 1 cover introductory chemistry topics which are prerequisites
for courses at the senior level.
The worksheets aim to give students experience in applying concepts, interpreting and presenting data
and building a core of chemistry knowledge. Exercises to augment English language literacy are included.
The worksheets are self-contained and are designed to be done by students with minimal teacher
assistance. Each worksheet contains information which should be read carefully before the exercises are
attempted. Answers to calculations are provided on page 48.
In the contents table below, the time estimated for an average student to complete the worksheet is
shown: for example, 30 indicates an average student requires 30 minutes to complete the worksheet.
Worksheets with specific literacy exercises are further coded 11. .
Contents
in"tnoduc1:ion
.. Physical and chemical properties
..
..
Examples; comprehension questions on descriptive passage; word equations 120
Mass and density M
Definitions and uni ts of mass, volume, density; calculations manipulating D = V 30
Pure substances and mixtures
Flow chart classification scheme; language exercises - points to sentences, text to pOints 1..10
_ Soli.ds, liquids and gases
Cloze passage; diagrammatic representation of Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter; change of
state - terminology and simple energy considerations; evaporation and boiling 1l..20
_ Soluble and insoluble suhstances
Terminology; solubility vs temperature graphs; precipitation; solubility rules 60
.. Dilute and concentrated. solutions
Diagrammatic representation of concentrated and dilute solutions; strong and weak acids 20
Atoms and molecules
Prefixes (deci, milli, kilo, etc.); scientific notation; simple molecules - chemical formulas and
diagrammatic representation 40
The Periodic Table
109 elements shown; s, p, d and {blocks indicated; Groups and Periods numbered; key provided
7
9
10
1
D Th.e Periodic Table and OlrganisatioBl of dements .Jl.8
Location of periods, groups, metals, non-metals, semi-metals, transition metals; graphs: Group 1-
density vs atomic number, MP vs atomic number; density and MP, Group IV 40
lFhllme tests and elements
Writing styles/text types (narrative, procedure and procedural recount); language features of
scientific report writing style; characteristic flame tests 1L4!O
DaUon and Thomson
Theories of atomic structure - Dalton and Thomson's; calculations based on Law of Constant
Proportions; properties of cathode rays and positive rays in Crookes's tube !L4}@
20
zz
3
I "N-j alrrn@ ll"tellalil:nwte al1l:mrrnn.c mal$$
Mass number; atomic number; isotopes; pri nciple of mass spectrometer; calculati on of relative
atomic mass 3(0)
Atoms an d nOIDls
Simple atomic structure; atomic number related to number of prot ons; cations and anions related
to Periodic Table Group; names and symbols of common iOns; ionic bond
RlUtherf ol"d <llill.d BOllll"
Cloze exercise - descriptive passage; label schematic diagrams relating to Rutherford's et scattering
equipment; questions comparing Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr models 1L60
28
El ecill"on arJrangemen t and atomic radius 31(])
Maximum number of electrons per shell = 2n2; electron configuration by shell; trends in atomic
radius; graph atomic radius vs atomic number in Period 3 60
lIonisatioll1l energy and electron affini1l:y 32
Graph IEl vs atomic number for elements 1 to 20; relate lE] to position in Period; trends in
IE related to electron configuration; identify elements with highest and lowest electron
affinity 50
IEfieiCtll"on cOll1llfJigull"atJion and v<lllency 341
'Complete' outer shell s; configuration and characteri stics of Noble Gases; covalent bond and ionic
bond formation; valency related to main Groups 1L20
Metals and non-metals: physical properties 36
Graph MP vs atomic number of Period 3 elements; structure of elements (metalliC, covalent
network, discrete molecules) related to physical properti es 40
.. Metals and non -m etal s: chemical properties 38
Trends in metallic properties (tendency to form cation, basic oxide); reactions of Period 3 elements
with H
z
' 0 z and dilute HZSO
q
20
.. Orbitals and subshells 39
Bohr model of Quantum Mechanical model of atomic structure; s, p, d, f orbitals; full
electron configuration of example atoms and iOns; relate subshells to s, p, d and (blocks of
Periodic Table SO
Radioactivity
JRadioactivity and haU-lif e
Occurrence of radioactive elements; half-life defined; graph counts/unit time vs time for two
radioisotopes; decay curve 14C related to age determi nation 60
All]jllJllla, llJiell:aI .lllllld galIDma crllec<llY
Defini tions; exampl es of unstable nuclei; decay series - exercises 50
411
Ifonniic componnnntdls all1ld! empRJrB.caU 1formnnials 4141
Basic structure of ionic compounds; cut-out representations of empirical formulas; ion for mation
related to main Groups; names and formul as of common ionic compounds 61!))
CuniJ: -mn1l:s Jfm exell"dses inn 'Uorrnnc compounulliIlls aIDltdl empnrulCaH formulas' 416
lFoll"rrnnunRas amdl walllenncy 417
Group number and valency; rules for writing formul as using valencies; characteristics of molecular
compounds; variable valency in non-metals; names and formulas of molecular compounds 20
4

tP tr [!) P le If tU rE! i
El Properties are th e characteri stics of a substance. Different substances have different charact eristics.
The properties of a substance distinguish it from other substances.
o Physical properties describe the appearance of the substance, e.g. colour, crystal shape and
measurements that can be made of the substance itself, e.g. mass of 1 cm
3
of the substance.
f2 Chemical properties describe the behaviour of the substance when it is mixed with other substances,
e.g. Does the substance burn? What happens to the substance with hydrochloric acid?
[;J Pure substances have constant physical and chemical properties. The properties of a pure substance
are always the same because the composition of a pure substance does not vary. Pure substances can be
identified by their properties.
El Impure substances have variable properties. The properties change with the composition of the
mixture.
Read t he following numbered paragraphs and answer the questions below.
Mag nesium - $ources, prroperth!!$ and uses
1 Magnesium compounds are common in the earth's crust and magnesium is estimated to account for
about 2.1% of the total mass of the crust. Naturally occurring compounds of magnesium include
magnesium Silicate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium sulfate and magnesium chloride. Sea water is a
major source of magnesium chloride. Magnesium metal is obtained by passing an electric current
through melted magnesium chloride.
2 Pure magnesium is a light-weight/low density, Silvery metal. Like other metals, it is pliable - deforming
under pressure before it breaks. It also has the metal characteristic of being a good electrical conductor.
Magnesium melts at 650C and has a boiling pOint of 1110C.
3 Oxygen in the air slowly combines with magnesium to form magnesium oxide - the normal dull grey
appearance of magnesium is due to a coating of magnesium oxide. If the magnesium is heated strongly,
e.g. in a flame, it combines very rapidly with the oxygen and produces an intensely bright light.
Magnesium, if it is heated, also reacts with chlorine, hydrogen or nitrogen. Magnesium does not dissolve
in water but does react with steam, forming magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Hydrogen gas is
also a product of the reactions of magnesium with hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid.
The uses of magnesium are related to its properties. Its low density makes magnesium suitable for aircraft
parts but it is not strong enough to be used alone. Instead, an alloy containing magnesium (90.8%),
aluminium (6%), zinc (30,'6) and manganese (0.2%) is used. Similar alloys are used to make parts for high-
performance cars. The aluminium increases the strength, the zinc makes it easier to machine and the
manganese makes the part less likely to corrode. Camera flash bulbs are filled with oxygen and contain
a filament made of magnesium. When an electric current passes through it, the magnesium gets so hot
it burns, emitting a fl ash of intense white light .
(a) Which paragraph refers to:
(i) the physical properties of magnesium? _ _ _____
(ii) the chemical properties of magnesium? _______
(iii) the occurrence of magnesium compounds
7
_____ __
Civ) how magnesium is obtained? _______
Cv) the uses of magnesium? _______
Cb) One characteristic of metals is malleability. 'Malleable' means a soli d lump can be flattened by beating it with
a hammer. Underline the sentence in the paragraphs above which refers to magnesium being malleable.
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5
(c) Which words in paragraph 4 could be replaced by:
(i) 'cut and shape using power-driven tools'? _______ _
(ii) 'break down through reaction with substances in the environment'? _______ _
(iii) 'long, thin coiled wire'? _______ _
(iv) 'combines rapidly with oxygen'? _______ _
(d) List four physical properties of magnesium in point form.
(i)
(ii)
(ii i)
(iv)
(e) Complete each of the following word equations to summarise a chemical reaction of magnesium.
(i) magnesium + ________ magnesium oxide
(ii) magnesium + ________ ___ _ ____ + hydrogen
magnesium + sulfuric acid magnesium sulfate + _______ _ (iii)
(iv)
(v)
magnesium + ________ magnesium chloride + _ ___ ___ _
magnesium + magnesium chloride
(vi) magnesium + nitrogen _ _ _____ _
(vii) ________ + ________ magnesium hydride
Information about nitrogen is listed in point form below.
11 combines with lithium, magnesium and calcium when heated
Iil colourless gas
I! generally inert/not very chemically reactive
fJJ used as a safe, unreactive atmosphere during silicon chip manufacture
f1! under heat and pressure combines with hydrogen lo form ammoni a
I;j obtained by di stilling liquid air
o melting point: - 209.S6C
boiling point: -19S.8C
Cl electric spark causes combination of nitrogen and oxygen to form nitric oxide
Q ammonia, made from nitrogen, is converted to nitri c acid and used to make fertilisers and explosives
(a) Rearrange these points under the following headi ngs:
Sources
Physical
properties
(b) Complete the following sentences:
Chemical
properties Uses
Nitrogen is a gas which is generally unreactive. It is a solid at temperatures less than
________ and a gas above . The of pure nitrogen is air,
from which the nitrogen is separated by fractional . Nitrogen is used to produce
________ and from that, ferti li sers and explosives.
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6
Mass
roll Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in any substance.
The standard unit of mass is the kilogram (kg).
Other units of mass are: microgram (j.J.,g) , milligram (mg), gram (g) and tonne (t) .
Volume
11 Volume is a measure of the space the matter occupies.
The standard unit of volume is the cubic decimetre (dm
3
).
Other units of volume are: cubic centimetre (cm
3
), cubic metre (m
3
), millilitre (mL) and litre (L).
Some of these units are equivalent: for example, 1 dm
3
= 1 Land 1 cm
3
= 1 mL.
Ii!!! Equal masses of different substances at the same temperature occupy different volumes.
Reasons: The particles of each substance are different and have different masses.
In different substances, the space between particles may be different.
El The following table contains examples of the volumes of 100 g masses of different substances at 25C.
tOO 9 soLid ... has voLume ... tOO 9 Liquid ... has voLume ... tOO 9 gas .. has voLume ...
Lead 8.77 mL Bromine 32.05 mL Oxygen 76405.9 mL
Magnesium 57.47 mL Ethanol 127.39 mL Ozone 50937.3 mL
Sodium chloride 45.46 mL Octane 143.27 mL Carbon dioxide 55567.9 mL
Sucrose 63.01 mL Petrol 145-152 mL Sulfur dioxide 38234.3 mL
Denity
III Density is a measure of the mass: volume ratio of the matter in a substance.
The symbol for density is the Greek letter p.
The unit of density is grams per cubic centimetre (g cm-
3
) for solids and liquids.
For gases, the unit is grams per litre (g L--l) .
I!! Density values given in data books are at specified temperature and pressure - usually 25C and
1Ol.3 kPa, respectiveJy. (This is because the space between particles changes with temperature and
external pressure. Most substances expand as they get hotter.)
IiII Pure substances, composed of only one type of particle, have constant density values - at a particular
temperature and pressure, the density is always the same.
The density of an impure substance can vary, depending on the numbers of different types of
particle present.
I!!l Calculations involving density use tIle formula:
Mass
Density =
Volume
I!! Examples using figures from tIle tabl e above are as follows:
l.
Mass
Density =
Volume
100g
... Density lead =
8.77 mL
= ] l.403 g/mL
= 11.4 g/mL
= 11.4 g/cm
3
= 11.4 g cm-
3
2. Density
: . Density carbon dioxide
Mass
Volume
WOg
55567.9 mL
Carbon dioxide is a gas, so change the volume to
litres.
:. Density carbon dioxide
100 g
55.5679 L
= 1.79960 g/L
= l.8 g L- 1
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11
11
11
Refer to information in t he table on page 7 (see under 'Volume') to answer the following questions:
(a) Which substance must be impure
7
Explain why. _____________________ _
(b) The mass of an ethanol particle is similar to the mass of an ozone particle. Give a reason for the difference in
the volumes of equal masses of these two substances. ____________________ _
(c) The substances in the table with the lowest and the highest densities are ________ (lowest) and
_______ (highest) .
(d) Calculate the density of each of the foll owing substances: magnesium ________ g cm-
3
; ozone
g L- ' ; sodium chloride g cm-
3
; bromine
g cm-
3
; octane ________ g cm-
3
; sulfur dioxide ________ g L-'.
A sol id cylindrical plug made of pure copper has a volume of 2.75 mL. The
density of copper at 25C is 8.9 g cm-
3
.
(a) Calculate the mass of copper in the plug at 25C.
(b) If the copper plug is heated to 50C, what will be the effect on each of
the following? Use 'increase', 'decrease' or 'no change' for your answer.
(i) the mass of the plug: ______ _
(ii) the volume of the plug: _______ _
(iii) t he density of the copper plug: _______ _
A bottle containing pure liquid mercury has a mass of 1.22 kg. The mass of
the empty bottle is 200 g. At 2SOC, the density of mercury is 13.6 g cm-
3
Calculate t he volume of mercury in the bottle at 25C.
(a) The diagram shows layers of three pure liquids which do not dissolve in
each other. The densities of the liquids are:
11 Liquid A: 1.00 g cm-
3
11 Liquid B:
11 Liquid C:
0.66 g cm-
3
1.103 g cm-
3
Label the liquid layers on the diagram A, Band C.
(b) Three blocks of different woods X, Y and Z are added to the container.
The densities of the wood blocks are:
fi!! Block X:
E!I Block Y:
Block Z:
0.2 g cm-
3
0.7 g cm-
3
1.03 9 cm-
3
(Wood densities are approximate because the woods are not pure
substances.)
Label the diagram to show the posit ion at which each block of wood
floats in the liquids.
Empty:
200 g
L
With mercury:
1.22 kg
?
"-
3 liquid layers
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8
D
11
f8 The diagram below illustrates one of the ways in which matter can be classified.
Matter
(anything which takes up space and has mass)
Pure substances
iI cannot be separated by physical means
III fixed physical and chemical properties
have definite composition
represented by chemical formulas
11 examples: FeS, Au, S, NaCl, Al
z
0
3

Elements
one type of atom
cannot be decomposed
examples: 0 Z' P, Pb, Na
Mixtures
is can be separated by physical means
!!.I no fi xed properties
ill no defi nite composition
not represented by chemical formula s
III examples: air, soil , salt water, alloys
Compounds
more than one type of atom
can be decomposed
III examples: H
2
0, MgO, CaCl
z
Present the point-form information given in the above diagram by writing complete sentences. Arrange the
sentences in paragraphs. Use a separate sheet of paper.
Read the information below and summarise it in poin t form. Add these points to the diagram above.
!ill Elements can be divided into metals, semi -metals (metalloids) and non-metals. Metals have a smooth
shiny appearance (a metallic lustre). They are usually solids and all of them conduct electricity well in
the solid state. Examples of metals are sodium, calcium, iron, copper and lead. Non-metals may be
solids, liquids or gases. They do not conduct electricity well. Nitrogen, sulfur, bromine, oxygen and
hydrogen are examples of non-metal s.
la Compounds can be classified as organic and inorganic. Organic compounds all contain carbon.
Examples of organic compounds include methane (CH
4
), octane (CSHl S) and et hanol (CzHsOH).
Inorganic compounds form when metals combine with non-metals, or when different non-metals react.
Some exampl es are NaCl, Cu(OH) z' HCl and HzO.
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Use the word bank below to complete the following passage. Some words may be used more than once.
gases state ethanol expanded compounds
solid gas liquid mercury non-metal
water matter most classified 25C
Matter can be according to the state in which it is found at a temperature of
_ _______ . The three states of ________ are and
_____ ___ . Of the 109 e lements,
elements, the metal
rema inder of the elements exist as _______ _
occur as solids. There are t wo
and the bromine. The
Compounds also may be _ _ ______ (e.g. sodium chloride, sucrose, calcium sulfate) or liquids such
as ____ ____ and ________ . Gaseous ________ include carbon dioxide, sulfur
dioxide and ammonia.
The Kinetic Molecu lar Theory of Matter says that all ________ is made up of particles which are
constantly moving. Their freedom t o move depe nds on their _______ _ ________ and
____ ____ are low energy or condensed states . The gaseous state is high energy or _______ _
11 Ki netic Molecular Theory of Matter
11
Particles in a solid:
a re constantly vibra ting
I!I stay in fixed positions
are close together
Particles in a liquid:
slide around each other
are close together
(a) Represent the ideas above by drawing particles in the boxes.
(b) Which states of matter do the following represent?
(i) Students on chairs in a classroom: _______ _
(ii) Students trampolining in a gym: _______ _
(iii) Students walking around the room: _______ _
(c) Which state of matter has:
(i) the closest particles? _______ _
(ii) the fastest moving particles? _______ _
Change of state
Particl es in a gas are:
moving fast
11 far apart
(a) How can a solid be changed to a liquid? _________________________ _
(b) How can a liq uid be changed to a gas7 ______ ________ _________ _
(c) How can a gas be changed to a liquid7 _______________________ . _ __ _
(d) How can a liquid be changed to a solid
7
_________________________ _ _
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10
(e) In which state do the particles of any substance have:
(i) the highest energy? _ _ ___ __ _
(ii) the next lowest energy7 _______ _
(i ii) the lowest energy? ____ ___ _
(f) Complete the diagram below by adding the names of the changes of state.
(g) How can the energy of the particles be:
(i) increased? _______ _ (ii) decreased?
--------
Two dassification systems
Classify the fol lowing substances by placing each one in the appropriate section of the table bel ow.
carbon
air
Solid
Liquid
Gas
calcium carbonate
chlorine gas
Element
Vaporisatio!!1 all1ld boiling
bromine
methane gas
Compound
pure water
soil
sea water
Mixture
o A liquid can evaporate at all temperatures. Some of the particles have energy high enough to allow them
to become vapour (gas). As the vapour builds up above the liquid, it exerts a pressure on the liquid. The
greater the amount of vapour, the higher the vapour pressure.
D Increasing temperature enables more particles to evaporate and the vapour pressure increases. A liquid
boils when the vapour pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure.
D A liquid boils at only one temperature. We can see when a liquid is boiling because of the large bubbles
of vapour forming within the liquid.
The table at right shows the relationship between vapour pressure
and temperature for pure water. Decide if the boiling point of
water (usually 100C) is higher, lower or the same when:
(a) the atmospheric pressure is 101.3 kPa but the air
tem peratu re is 37C
(b) the atmospheric pressure is 40 kPa (e.g. in the high Himalaya
Mountains)
(c) the water is put in a pressurised container at 200 kPa
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Temperature
(0C)
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
Vapour
pressure (kPa)
0.6
3.2
12.3
38.5
101.3
232.0
475.9
11
DSi []OWong
t:J Some substances dissolve easily in water. We say they are solubl e (able to dissolve). The substance which
dissolves is called the sol ute and the substance in which it di ssolves is called the solvent. (The solvent is
u sually a liquid.)
Solute + Solvent = Solution
Complete the following sentences:
Sugar dissolves well in hot water. Hot water is the ___ _ ___ sugar is the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . Sodium
chloride dissolves in water. The name of the solute is ______ _ the name of the solvent is
_____ ___ and the name of the solution is _ _ _ ____ _

Iil Sol ubility is a measure of how well a substan ce di ssolves . Solubility can be affect ed by different factors,
e.g. temperature.
IIi Solubility of a substance is expressed as the mass in grams which can dissolve in 100 g (or 100 mL) of
water at 25C.
I! When a substance does not di ssolve easil y in water we say it is insoluble (not able to dissolve). It has low
solubility.
The table below gives the solubilities of several inorganic solids at different temperat ures. (. indicates a value to
be filled in.)
Solid inorganic
Solubility: g/ 100 g of water at ...
substance
SO( lOO(
20
0
( 30
0
( 40
0
( SOO( 60
0
(
Aluminium sulfate 32.0 33.5 36.0

46.0 52.0 60.0
Barium hydroxide 2.0 2.5 4.0 5.6 8.2

21.0
Silver nit rate 146.0 170.0 222.0 11 376.0 455.0 525.0
Potassium nitrate 17.0 21.0 144. 0 152.0
l!!I 168.0 176.0
Sodium chloride 35.7 35.8 36.0 36. 3
I!)
37.0 37.3
Ytterbium sulfate 41.2 38.4
\ljj
21 .0 15.8 12. 2 10.4
(a) Construct a solubili ty curve for each substance. Plot solubility on the y-axis, aga inst temperature on the x-axis,
and draw a smooth curve through the points.
(b) From the solubility curves, find the solubili ties missing from the table above and fill in the table.
(c) What genera li sation can you make about the effect of temperature on the solubility of most inorganic soli ds?
(d) Calculate the percentage increase in solubility between 10C and 60C for:
(i) alumin iu m sulfate _ ______ _
(ii) barium hydroxide _____ __ _
(iii) silver nitrate ____ ___ _
(iv) potassium nitrate _______ _
(v) sodium chloride _ ___ ___ _
(vi) ytterbium sulfate _______ _
(e) For the substances listed in the table, temperature has:
(i) the greatest effect on the solubility of ___ _ _ __ _
(ii) the least effect on the solubility of _ ______ _
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12
The following table gives the solubilities of several gases at different temperatures. (The solubil ity of all gases
increases with pressure. The solubilities in the table are at a constant pressure of 101.3 kPa.)
SoLubility of gases: mg/ l00 g of water at ...
Gas
soe lOoe 20
0
e 30
0
e 40
0
e sooe 60
0
(
Nitrogen 2.60 2.30 1.90 1.60 1.40 1.20 1.10
Oxygen 6.10 5.40 4.30 3.60 3.10 2.70 2.30
Hydrogen 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.12
Carbon dioxide 277.40 231.80 168.80 125.70 97.30 76.10 57.60
Nitric oxide 8.60 7.50 6.20 5.20 4.40 3.80 3.20
(a) From the data, what can you say about the general effect of temperature on the solubi li ty of gases?
(b) Calculate:
(i) the maximum mass of oxygen which will dissolve in 1 L of water at 10C;
(ii) the volume of this mass of oxygen (density of oxygen at 10C = 1.4290 g L- l).
PreEipit:ating
When solutions of two soluble salts are mixed, they sometimes form an insoluble salt. This insoluble salt
appears as a cloudiness and, as it thickens, it often falls to the bottom of the test tube. It is then called
a precipitate. (Salts are chemical compounds made from acids, e.g. sulfates, chlorides, nitrates,
carbonates and acetates are salts.) For example, when solutions of sodium chloride and silver nitrate are
mixed, a precipitate of silver chloride forms. The silver chloride appears as a cloudiness or precipitate
because it has a low solubility in water.
sodium chloride solution + silver nitrate solution ---7 sodium nitrate solution + silver chloride precipitate
Solubility at 20C: 36 g/lOO g 222 g/lOO g 88 g/100 g 1.5 x 10-
4
g/100 g
Solubility rules for common alt
Note: TIle rules must be applied in order: Rule 1, then Rule 2, etc.
are said to be insoluble.
Substances with solubilities "" 10-
1
g/100 g
1
2
3
41

()
Sodium (Na-' ), potassium (K-I- ) and ammonium (NB;;) salts are sol ubl e.
Nitrates and acetates are sol ubl e.
Silver (Ag-l- ), lead P b 2 ~ ) , mercury (Hg-l- ) and copper (Cu -l- ) compounds are insol uble.
Chlorides, bromides and iodides are soluble except for copper iodide.
Carbonates, sulfides, oxides and h ydroxides are insoluble.
Sulfates except calcium sulfate and barium sulfate are soluble.
Draw a box around the insoluble salt in each of the following word equations:
(a) lead nitrate + potassium iodide ---7 lead iodide + potassium nitrate
(b) sodium sulfate ..l-. barium chloride ---7 sodium chloride + barium sulfate
(c) sodium sulfide + magneSium nitrate ---7 magnesium sulfide , sodium nitrate
(d) ammonium chloride + silver nitrate ---7 silver chloride + ammonium nitrate
(e) copper sulfate + sodium carbonate ---7 copper carbonate + sodium sulfate
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13
rn g wrlli: @Hm [j] cc: ern trn tr: ITTI 11: rr @tft CD]
DJ t ~
tll Dilute solutions contain a small amount of solute relative to the amount of solvent.
For example, 0.01 g of potassium nitrate dissolved in 1 L of water is a very dilute solution .
f.i Concentrated solutions contain a large amount of solute relative to the solvent volume.
For example, 300 g of sugar dissolved in 100 g of water is a concentrated sugar solution.
Draw diagrams representing di lute and concentrated solutions. Use to represent a solvent particle and 0 to
represent a solute particle.
(a) In t he box labelled ' Dil ute solution' draw 3 solute particles and 20 solvent part icles.
(b) In the box labelled 'Concentrated solution' draw 20 solute particles and 10 solvent particles.
Dilute solution Concentrated solution
Cl Saturated solutions are so concentrated that they contain as much solute as the solvent will hold. The
only way to make more solute di ssolve is to increase the temperature (assuming the solubility of the
solute increases with temperature) .
[3 In chemistry the terms strong and weak are used to describe acids and do not mean 'concentrated' and
'dilute'.
I;:! The particles of an acid break up to release hydrogen ions (H+ ions) : HA (acid) ---7 H+ + A- .
- Strong iI:u:id
III Most of the acid particles break up and lots of hydrogen ions are released.
ill For example, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and suJfuric acid are strong acids .
a Strong acids are very corrosive.
iI 0.365 g of hydrochloric acid di ssolved in 1 L of water is a dilute solution of a strong acid.
!:II 365 g of hydrochloric acid dissolved in 1 L of water is a concentrated solution of a strong acid.
Weak dlr:id
r;J Only a few of the acid particles break up and only a few hydrogen ions are released.
Ell For example, hydrofluoric aCid, acetic acid, citric acid and lactic acid are weak acids.
Il:l Weak acids are not very corrosive; many occur naturally in foods tuffs .
[l 0.02 g of hyclrofluoric acid dissolved in 1 L of water is a dilute solution of a weak acid.
13 200 g of hydrofluoric acid dissolved in 1 L of water is a concentrated solution of a weak acid.
The dots in these diagrams represent water molecules . Decide whether each of the followin g are: (i) concentrated
or dilute solutions; (ii) strong or wea k acids.
0 (a)
o Q
o
V (i)
(0
(ii)
:8: 0
0
0 e. 0 ~ ~ )
o f/?\. 8 M
A
- 0
08::8 0 \ ~ ~ < ~ o (ii)
. .
00: 0: 8 0
.8 0 0 (0 0
(c)
Ci)
(ii)
(d)
(i)
(i i)
Refer to t he solubility values on page 12 to classify each of the following as 'dilute' , 'concentrated' or ' saturated'.
Ca) 220 g of silver ni trate in 100 mL of water at 20 C ______ _
(b) 109 sodium chloride in 10 mL of water at 20 C ______ _
(c) 0.005 g of aluminiu m sulfate in 1 L of water at 20 C ______ _
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14
Aftoms
D
rn Atoms are the building blocks of matter. All substances are made of atoms in some sort of arrangement.
There are 109 different kinds of atom. Differences between substances are caused by differences in their
atoms and in the way the atoms are combined.
!JI Atoms are extremely small, about one ten millionth of a millimetre in diameter. A helium gas birthday
balloon contains about 400000000000000000000000 helium atoms.
(a) Write the number of helium atoms given above in scientific notation form.
(b) The diameter of a sodium atom is 3.12 x 10-4 j.Lm (j.Lm is the abbreviation of 'micrometre'). Calculate this
diameter in metres. Express your answer in scientific notation.
(c) The diameter of a silicon atom is 0.234 nanometres (nm). What is the diameter in metres?
(d) The diameter of a chlorine atom is 1.98 x 10
2
picometres (pm). Calculate the equivalent number of metres,
expressed in scientific notation.
(e) Angstrom unit (N ) is another unit used to measure very small distances.
10 N = 1 nm
: . 1 N = m
(f) Complete the following Ratio of Atom Diameters:
sodium: silicon: chlorine = ________ . __ :1
(g) Using an electron microscope (magnificat ion 2 000 000), the diameter of barium atoms was measured as
4 x 10-
10
m. Convert this to nanometres .
Information for Exercise 1
Prefixes and powers of 10
] = 10
Larger than one
giga(G) = 10
9
= 1 000000000
mega(M) = 10
6
= 1 000000
kilo = 10
3
= 1000
Scientific notation
Smaller than one
deci = 10- 1 = _1_
10
. 10 0 1
centl = -- =--
lOO
milli = 10-3 = _1_
1000
micro(j.L) = ] 0-6 = 1
. 1000000
nano = 10-
9
=
1
1000000000
pi co = 10-
12
Numbers are shown as one unit plus decimals multipli ed by a power of 10, e.g. 1142 is written as
1.142 x 10
3
, 0.03456 is written as 3.456 x 10-
2
.
Molecule
A molecule is a group of atoms. Two or more atoms can join together to make a molecule. In molecul es
of an element, all the atoms are the same. In a molecule of a compound, different types of atoms are
combined. Millions of different molecules can be made from different combinations of the 109 different
types of atoms .
11 For many substances, the chemical formula represents one molecule of the substance, e.g. the for mul a
el
2
indicates that there are two chlorine atoms combined in each mol ecule of chlorine. H
2
0, the
formula for water, shows that in one water molecule, there are two hydrogen atoms combined with one
oxygen atom.
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15
(a) Classify each of t he following diagrams as representing either separate atoms or molecules.
(i) __ _ (ii) ___ _ (iii) ___ _ (iv) ___ _ (v) ___ _
(b) Complete the following table using the key:
Hydrogen atom: e N;tcogen atom, @
Oxygen atom, C)
IOJ5l

(vi) __ _
Molecule name Formula Molecule diagram ELement or compound?
Nitrogen Nz
Hydrogen H2
Oxygen Oz
Ozone 03
Water HzO
(hydrogen oxide)
Ammonia NH3
(nitrogen hydride)
Nitrous oxide NzO
Nitric oxide NO
(c) Next to the formulas for each of the fol lowing molecular compounds, write the name and number of each
type of atom combined to make the molecule. The f irst one has been done as an example.
(i) sulfur dioxide S02 1 sulfur atom and 2 oxygen atoms
(ii) hydrogen bromide HBr
(iii) glucose C
6
H
12
0
6
(iv) methane CH
4
(v) oxygen chloride OCI
2
(vi) nitrogen fl uoride NF 3
(vii) phosphorus iodide PI
3
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16
6)
en
3

'" 0:
"
co
0
0
,.;-
en
>-'
'-0
'-0
?"
-1

en
=r
ro

3
'"
er
ro
"0
:::s-
o
S
n
0

ro
D..
-.,

::l
0
=;'
n
0
3
3

n

n

(3
0
3
5i
co
>-'
-.J
"0
C

I 4
II

H
1.008
Hydrogen
3 4
li Be
6.941 9.012
llthlUm Beryllium
11 12
Na Mg
22.99 24.31
Sodium Magnesium
19 20
K Ca
39 . 10 40.08
Potassium CalCIUm
37 38
Rb Sr
85.1,7 87.62
Rubidium Strontium
55 56
Cs Ba
132.9 137. 3
Cesium Barium
87 88
Fr Ra
(223) ( 226 )
Francium Radium
21
Sc
44.96
Scandium
39
Y
88 .91
Yttflum
57
la
138.9
Lanthanum
89
..
Ac
(2 27)
Actlnium
Key
AtomI c number 79
All Symbol of element
Atomic mass 197. 0
Gold Name of element
d-block
22 23 24 25 26
Ti V Cr Mn Fe
47.90 50 . 94 52 .00 54.94 55.85
TItanium VanadIum Chromium f.langanese I ron
40 41 42 43 4/,
lr Nb Mo Te Ru
91.22 92 . 91 95.94 98 .91 101.1
Zirconium NlOblUlll r-Iolybdenum Technetium Ruthenium
72 73 74 75 76
Hf Ta W Re Os
178.5 180.9 183.9 186.2 190.2
Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium
104 105 106 107 108
Db JI Rf Bh Hn
(261 ) ( 262 ) (2 63 ) ( 262 ) ( 265 )
Dubmum Joliotiu m Rutherfordium Bohnurn Hahnium
58 59 60 61 62
Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm
140. 1 140.9 144 . 2 (147) 150 .4
Ce rium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Sama rium
9C 91 92 93 94
Th Pa U Np Pu
232 .0 (231) 238.1 (237) (242)
lhorium Protactil1lllm Uran ium Neptunium Plutonium
- - - --
Group Number III IV V VI VII VIII
He
4.003
Helium


m
ill
d
F9
p- block
Wl
5 6 7 8 9 10
B C N 0 F Ne
10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18
m
c;3
Boron Carbon N1t l ogen Oxygen rtuorine Neon
Q;;lD
13 14 15 16 17 18
AI Si P S Cl Ar
26.98 28.09 30.97 32.06 35.45 39.95
.
Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Alumlll1urn Silicon
9

c!z!o
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
A
58 .93 58 . 71 63.55 65.38 69 . 72 72.59 74.92 78 .96 79.90 83.80
Cobalt Nickel (OPPPT Zinc Gallium GermanlUm ArseniC Selenium Bromine Krypton
45 1,6 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
102. 9 106.4 107.9 112.4 11/,.8 118.7 121.8 127. 6 126.9 131 . 3
RhodIUm PalladIum Sl iver Cadmium lodium TUI Antimony Tellunum Iodine Xenon



o;::n
77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
Ir Pt All Hg Tt Pb Bi Po At Rn
u=@
192.2 195 . 1 197. 0 200.6 204.4 207. 2 209 .0 ( 210) ( 210) ( 222 )
Iridium Plat.1Ilum Gold l-lercul'/ IhaUlul1l Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
109
Mt
( 266 )
Mei tnelium
f-block
63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb lu
152.0 157. 3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167. 3 168.9 173 . 0 175. 0
Europium Gadolinium TerblUffi Dy sprosium Holmlll m Erbium Thulium Ytterbium lutetium
95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
Am Cm Bk cr Es Fm Md No Lr
( 243 ) ( 247) (24 5) (251 ) (25 /, ) ( 253) (256) (254 ) (257)
AmericlUm Curium Berkelium ( alifol r1IUm Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevluffi Nobelium lawrencium
--

.mOO of
The layout of the fun Periodic Table is shown below.
r--
Period s 1
0
He
2
3
4
5
6
7
Li Be
I
Se
Transition Metals
Ti
I La
nth no ds
Actir oids
J I
B C N 0 F Ne
t
V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn
Normal Periodic: Table
The Periodic Table is usually in the shorter form shown on page 17.
Periods
D
!!! Periods are the rows of the Periodic Table. The elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic
number (number of protons in each atom's nucleus) across each Period. This is also roughly the order of
increasing atomic mass.
Complete the following table:
Number of elements
Period in the Period First element Last element
1 2
2 Neon
3
4
5 Rubidium
6
7 23 Meitnerium
Groups
11
11
11 Groups are the eight main columns. The Groups are usually numbered I-VlII using Roman numerals. The
elements in each group have similar properties.
El Group I (alkali metals) begins with the metal lithium. Hydrogen has some chemical properties similar
to these metals but because it is a gas it is shown separately.
EiI Group VII (halogens) comprises very chemically reactive non-metals .
SI Group VIII (noble gases) contains gases which arc inert (unreactive). These gases are the only elements
in which the particles are discrete atoms (separate atoms).
True or false 7
Ca) Sodium and sulfur have simi lar properties.
Cb) Fluorine is chemically similar to chlorine.
Cc) A helium balloon contains helium molecul es.
Cd) Light globes are filled with argon because it does not react with the hot metal filament.
(e) Calcium reacts the same way as magnesium does in many chemical reactions.
!J The zig-zag line in the Periodic Table separates metals from non-metals. Metals are on the left of the
line and non-metals are on the right. Elements close to the line are semi-metals and have both metal
and non-metal characteristics.
Cl assify the fol lowing elements as metals, semi-metals, or non-metals:
argon arsenic boron bromine germanium gold
silicon silver sodium sulfur tellurium titanium
ii! Transition metals make up the block in the middle of the table. Many transition metal s are used in
industry. Compounds of transition metals are often coloured.
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18
rrglj][Jir tiC . @llJtluB
a In tmf
Name a transition metal whic h is used:
Ca) as the main component of steel ______ _
Cb) in electrical wiring because of its high conduct ivi ty ______ _
Cc) in drill bits and light globe fi laments because of its hardness and high melting point _ _____ _
Cd) to make batteries, corrosion-resistant roofing and alloys, e.g. brass _______ _
(e) where li ght weight and strength are important, e.g. in spacecraft and artificial joints _ ______ _
Physical properties Group I
Atomic no. (Z) Element Density (g cm-
3
) Melting point (0C) Boiling point
(0C)
3 Li 0.53 180 1342
11 Na 0.97 98 883
19 K 0.86 63 760
37 Rb 1. 53 39 686
55 Cs 1.88 28 669
87 Fr ? ? ?
Francium is a rare, radioactive element isolated in 1939 by Marguerite Perey, who named it after her native
country, France. The density, melting point (MP) and boiling point (BP) of francium can be predicted from
the trend in these values for the other elements in Group 1.
Ca) Using graph paper, plot MP aga inst atomic number for the Group I elements. Draw a smooth curve through
the points. Extrapolate the curve to find a value for MP at atomic number 87.
(i) Estimated MP of francium = C
(ii) Write a sentence describing the trend in melting points shown by your graph.
(b) On another sheet of graph paper, plot density value against atomic number for the same elements. Draw a
smooth curve which best fits the points. Extrapolate the curve to estimate a value for the density of francium.
(Include the unit of density in your answer.)
Estimated density of francium = ______ _
Physical properties Group IV
Atomic no.
6
14
32
50
82
Element
Carbon
Iil diamond allotrope
III graphite allotrope
El fullerene allotropes
Silicon
Ge rmanium
Tin
El white allotrope
rn grey allotrope
Lead
Density (g cm-
3
) Melting point (QC)
2.25 (All allotropes sublime;
3.51 diamond and graphite
approx. 1.50 sublime at about 4000C)
2.33 1420
5.35 945
7.28 232
5.79
(Grey changes to white above 13 C)
11.34 327
(a) (i) Complete the following sentence: _______ are different forms of the same element resulting
from different arrangements of the element's atoms.
(ii) In the data given above, what evidence is there that carbon atoms are arra nged differently in diamond
and graphite? ______ ________ ___________________ _
(b) Is there a definite trend in MP in Group IV? Explain. ____________________ _
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19
Text itype = ttyHe !lJlf WIrHt Oll1Jg]
g The style in which you write something depends on why you are writing it. For example, a letter to your
grandmother to tell her about your last school holidays is in a different style from a letter to the Police
Department to object to a parking fine. Different styles have different language features - sentence
length, word order withi n a sentence, etc.
Nlll!"lrillit6ve text \type
The following passage is an example of narrative style. The writer is telling a story about the flame test
experiment to a friend.
Well, I lit the bunsen, then I dipped a piece of clean platinum wire into some barium chloride. I held the
wire in the flame and noticed a colour li ke ripe Granny Smith apples. 1 cleaned the wire then Ken gave
me some calcium chloride. This time the flame turned an orangey red colour. After this it was Kim's turn.
She heated some strontium chloride. This turned the flame a beautiful bright rose pink. When she used
potassium chloride the flame turned a sort of lilac or light purple. I got to do the copper chlori de. It
changed I.he flame not to blue but to green. The last one we did was sodium chloride. The flame turned
a deep bright yellow.
Procedure text type
!ll This style of writing is used for the instructions for an experiment and is set out under the headings Aim,
Equipment and Method as shown in the following example.
Aim: To find the temperature of boiling water.
fquiprnent: bunsen burner, tripod, wire gauze, beaker, thermometer.
Method: 1. Fill the beaker with water.
2. Place the beaker on tripod and wire gauze.
3. Light the bunsen burner.
4. Heat the water until it boils.
5. Measure the temperature of the boiling water.
6. Record the temperature of the boiling water.
The Aim section specifies the goal or purpose of the experiment. Under this heading you write what you
are trying to do in the experiment. The section usually starts 'To observe ... ', 'To measure ... ', ' To find .. . '
etc.
The Equipment section lists the equipment you need in the experiment.
Id The Method sect"ion comprises the instructions for doing the experiment written in step form. The steps
are often numbered.
In the above exampl e of 'procedure' text type, notice the language features:
1. Commands - Do thi s
l
, Do that!
2. The verb or action word is often firs t in the sentence.
3. Sentences are short.
Read the example of narrat ive style again. Is the language scientific
7
YES/NO
What features make you say this?
From information in the st udent's story, write the instructions for the flame test experiment in the style of
procedure text type. Use the headings: Aim, Equipment and Method. Use numbered steps and commands for the
Method section.
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20
We:<OHUHJ'ilti: il:ext
This style of scientific writing is used for writing a report of an experiment after it is completed. The report
is organised under the headings Aim, Equipment, Method, Results (often in the form of a table) and Conclusion
(a general statement which should answer the question raised in the Aim) .
El This style of writing is shown in the following example.
Aim: To find the temperature of boiling water.
Equipment: bunsen burner, t ripod, wire gauze, beaker, thermometer.
Method: The beaker was filled with water and placed on a tripod and wire gauze. The bunsen burner was
lit and the water was heated until it boiled. The temperature of the boiling water was measured.
Results: Temperature of boiling water = 99C.
Conclusion: The temperature of the boiling water was found to be 99C.
Lll Note the language features of 'procedural recount' text type:
l. no names, e.g. ' Ken' , or words such as ' I', 'we', 'he', 'they' or other words which refer to people.
2. no commands
3. usually uses past tense, e.g. 'cleaned' (not 'clean'), 'dipped' (not ' dip')
4. uses the passive voice. This involves turning a sentence around so that the object (the thing acted
upon) comes first, e.g. '1 cleaned the wire' changed around to the passive voice form becomes 'The
wire was cleaned'. The passive voice is used to direct the reader's attention to the import ant part of
the sentence. In an experiment, the important thing is what happened, not who did it.
11 Complete the following ta ble, cha nging the sentences around to conform with each text type.
Narrative text type Procedure text type Procedural recount text type
Feature: active voice Feature: commands Feature: passive voice
(a) I did it. Do it! It was done.
(b) I burned it . It was bur ned.
(c) I lit the bunsen. The bunsen was lit.
(d) I measured the temperature.
(e) The length was measured.
(f) Ken reco rded the results .
(g) Clean the wire.
(h) Turn off the bunsen .
(i) Heat the wi re.
U) I wrote the concl usion .
Rewrite the student's narrat ive style story on the previous page in sci entific procedural recount text type. Use the
headings Aim, Equipment, Method, Results and Conclusions. In cl ude the fol lowing completed resu lt table.
Substance barium calcium
sodi um
chloride chloride
chloride
Flame colour apple green
Due to element Sr 1< Cu
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21
D
!ll John Dalton (1766- 1844) is famous for his theory, published in 1803, that all matter is made up of tiny,
indivisible atoms. The theory was based on his own experiments and t hose of other 17th and 18th
century scientists. Two main types of experiments were used to develop Dalton's theory of atomic
structure.
1. Compressibi /i t)l of gases This could be explained if the gases were composed of widely-separated
particles; when pressure was applied t o the gas, the particl es were squeezed closer together.
p --{;>- _____ ....Il
2 Y P '"'V""'/ """""" Z""" / ""' Z""'Z""' Z""' Z""'z,.... / .,.... z.,....., / 0 : :
Ro bert BoyLe in 1662 fou nd that if t he press ure dou bLed, t he voLume of t he ga s haLved
2. The constant whole number mass ratio of elements in a compound, e.g. in any amount of copper oxide,
mass of copper: mass of oxygen = 4:]. The fact that the mass ratio in copper oxide was always 4: 1
suggested that discrete atoms of copper and oxygen combined. A possible explan ation of the ratio
was that each copper atom was four times the mass of each oxygen atom.
J oseph Louis Proust s howed in 1799 that copper carbonat e aLways cont ained copper, oxygen a nd carbon i n t he ratio 5:4:1
!ll Law of Constant Proportions: the mass ratio of elements combined in a compound is constant.
In copper carbonate, the mass rat io copper: oxygen : carbon = 5:4:1.
(a) A sample of copper carbonate contains 77 9 of copper, 15.4 g of carbon and 61.6 9 of oxygen. Confirm the
mass ratio Cu : 0 : C in the sample.
(b) What fraction of t he mass of copper carbonate is due to:
(i) the copper7 _ ____ _ _
(ii) the oxygen? _ _ ____ _
(i ii ) t he carbon
7
_ _____ _
(c) How many grams of oxygen are combined (with carbon and copper) to make 120 g of copper carbonate
7
(d) Cal culate the maximum mass of copper carbonate which could be made from 20 g of copper.
(e) How many grams of carbon are needed to combine with 7 g of copper to make copper carbonate?
The percentage composition by mass of t he binary compound, carbon fluor ide, is 13.64% carbon and 86.36%
fluorine (measured to two decimal places only). Calculate the simplest whole number ratio for mass carbon : mass
fluorine in carbon fluoride.
Sodium forms two different compounds with oxygen: sodium oxide and sodium peroxide.
In sodium oxide, mass sodium : mass oxygen = 23:8.
In sodium peroxide, mass sodium : mass oxygen = 23:1 6.
From these mass rat ios,
number of oxygen atoms in sodium oxide: number of oxygen atoms in sodium peroxide = _ _ : _ _ .
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22
Sir ... h]5eph ThomslD!ll.l
It
Sir ]oseph Thomson (1856-1940) earned the Nobel Prize in physics in 1906 for his work on electrons.
He proved conclusively that cathode rays were streams of negatively charged particles, for which he used
the term 'electrons'. Most importantly, Thomson showed that the mass of an electron must be much less
than that of a hydrogen atom; this indicated that electrons were subatomic particles.
glass t ube
'"
ano
/
<E
.-- -:-'\ cathod
de

ca thod e rays
.---1 EO
e
\,.
<E
" -:.J
: 1111' hig h volta ge
I!l! Cathode rays and positive rays were both made
of charged particles.
BI The positive and negative particles came from
the atoms of gas at low pressure inside the
Crookes tube (cathode ray tube) .
Ii!i Thomson developed a model of an atom to
explain the existen ce of positive and negative
charged particles within atoms.
Cathode rays cause a fluorescent glow when they hit
the glass wall of the Crookes tube. The following set-
ups are used to demonstrate some other properties of
cathode rays.
(a) Which set-up provides evidence that:
(i) cathode rays travel in straight lines? __
(ii) cathode rays are negatively charged? __
(iii) cathode rays are made up of particles? __
(iv) cathode rays are deflected by an electric
field?
(b) Complete the following sentences (one word for
each line space):
Cathode rays cause a when
they strike the glass wall of the Crookes t ube.
When a solid object is placed ______ _
the cathode and the glass, a ______ _
forms on the glass. Because this happens the
cathode rays must ________ _
gas at
low pressure
inside
sphere of
positive
cha rges
positive
cha rges
glas s tube
/
)
cathode rays I positive rays
)

high voltage cath ode
negative
electrons
embedded
much larger
t han elect rons
equal
numbers
of positives
and negatives
This model is often called the 'plum pudding model' .
A plum pudding is a sort of fruit cake. RaiSins,
cherries, ete. are embedded in the ball-shaped cake.
A
anode+
B
anod e+
c
cross -shaped
shadow
metal cross
rolling
paddle wheel
_ cathode
_ cathode
positively
charged plate
cat hod e
11 In Thomson's 'plum pudding' model of the atom:
negatively
charged plate
(a) which components are compared to the fruit of a plum pudding? _ _ ____ _
(b) why is the atom electrically neutral/uncharged? ____________ __________ _
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23
D
-
)
m The mass number (A) of an atom is t he total
number of protons and n eutrons contained in
the nucleus of the atom.
IiII The atomic number (Z) is the number of
protons only.
23
. ELEMENT e.g. Na
atomlC 11
number
Number of neutrons in an atom = Mass number - Atomic n umber
Complete the following table:
Element atom Symbol No. of protons No. of neutrons
Helium

Sodi um
23 Na
11
Oxygen
16
0
8
Phosphorus
31 p
1S
Cop per
63 CU
29
Iodine
127 I
53
Isotopes are different atoms of the same element which have different numbers of neutrons but the same
number of protons in t he nucleus.
III Many elements have naturally occurring isotopes. Isotopes can be made artificially by bombarding
atoms of the el emen t with n eutrons.
Examples of isotopes: l. Isotopes of hydrogen: 2. Isotopes of carbon:
- pronounced 'Hydrogen l'
H - Hydrogen 2 (deuterium)
H - Hydrogen 3 (tritium)
l2C - Carbon 12
6
J3c - Carbon 13
6
l!C - Ca rbon 14
11 Ca) What do all three isotopes of hydrogen have in common? __________________
Cb) What difference is there in the atomic structure of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium?
Cc) How many protons are there in the nucleus of every carbon atom? _______ _
Cd) The most common isotope of carbon has 6 neutrons. What is its mass number? _____ _ _
Atomic: mass
Al most all the mass of an atom is in its nucleus. A neutron has very nearly t he same mass as the mass
of a proton. Electrons have al most zero mass.
11 The real mass of a proton is l.673 x 10-
24
g and of an electron, 9.110 x 10-
28
g. Atoms are too small to
be \,veighed easil y.
Relative atomic: mass
11
11 Relative atomic mass (A,) is the mass of an atom compared with a standard atom. The relat ive atomic mass
value of sodium is 23: a sodium atom is 23 times heavier than the lightest hydrogen atom (i H) which has
a relative atomi c mass val ue of 1. The modern standard atom is the C isotope which has a value of 12.
Given that a proton and a neutron each have a mass value of 1, what is the rel ative atomic mass of:
Ca) the isotope? Cc) an atom which has mass number 9? ______ _
Cb) an atom containing 14 neutrons and Cd) the deuterium isotope? ______ _
13 protons? ______ _
C
e) 34 S ?
16 .
Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
24
---------
(j1] t [ill cm Em IDR El @J't[ 0 W @rft ern rTIrn 0 er:
[cent,, ]
MeaUIr Bll1lg] a 't Ol m h: m a
It
11
Iil The mass spectrometer is the instrument used to separate different atoms and measure their relative
atomic masses. The instrument actually compares the masses of ions which have one positive charge,
e.g. Ne. This is effectively the same as comparing atomic masses because losing an electron makes very
little di fference to the mass.
(3) mag neti c
fi eld /----:>"
CD detector
- -
-- ---------- --
I
CB meta l plate
with slit
vaporised
sample +
inj ection
point
- <0 vacuum
pump
conn ecti on
PrincipLe of a mass spectrometer
to printo ut recorder
CD hi gh voltage
'electron gun'
ci rcuit
ill The magnetic field deflects ions in the beam into a detector at the end of the tube. Lighter ions are
deflected more easily than heavier ions.
The strength of the magnetic field is gradually increased so that ions of increasing mass enter the detector.
The mass of an ion is indicated by the strength of the magnetic field needed to deflect it into the detector.
The greater the number of ions hitting the detector at any time, the great er the output signal from the
detector.
Ii A mass spectrometer printout shows: l. the relative at omic mass of each type of atom;
2. the percentage number of each type of atom.
The average mass of isotopes of an element can be calcul ated from mass spectrometer readings.
ExampLe: Mass spectrometer printout for
magnesium
Q.I
L
79
v
c:
I
'" "t:I
c:
:J
.Q

i2-
10 11
I I
23 24 25 26 27 28
Relative atomic mass
Refer to the mass spectrometer diagram above.
CaLcuLation of average Ar of magnesiu m isotopes:
Average = X 24 + 1
1
00 )1 25 + 110
1
0 x 26
= 18.96 + 2.5 + 2.86
= 24.32
(a) Identify by number the part of the mass spectrometer which:
(i) forms positive ions by bombarding the sample with high speed electrons ______ _
(ii) accelerates the positive ions ______ _
(iii) narrows positive ions into a beam ______ _
(iv) deflects positive ions ____ __ _
(b) Why must the tube be evacuated before the sample is in troduced?
(c) Which beam contains heavier particles, X or Y? ______ _
The three naturally occurring isotopes of neon have relat ive atomic masses of 22, 21 and 20. The percentage of
these isotopes is 9.2%,0.3% and 90.5%, respectively.
(a) Write symbols for each of these neon isotopes.
(b) Calculate the average relative atomic mass of neon.
Copper has two naturally occurring isotopes with relative atomic masses of 63 and 65. The average relative atomic
mass for copper is 63.5. Write the symbol for the more abundant copper isotope. _ _____ _
Emerald City Books 1998. Thi s sheet may be photocopied fo r no n-commercial classroom use.
25
B The struct ure showing main subatomic
particles is shown in the diagram below:
(!)
o Th e central nucleus is only about 1/10 000 of the
atom's diameter.
Eil The nucleus contains:
Q
nucleus ____
(p rotons and
neutrons )
electrons
protons - positive particles (symbol p+)
neutrons - neutral particles (symbol n)
ill The space around the nucleus is occupied by fasi-
moving electrons - negative charges (symbol e- ).
Il In any complete atom the number of positive
protons is balanced by an equal number of
negative electrons. A complete atom is electrically
neutral.
Ii!l The atomic number (Z) of an element is the number
of protons in its nucleus. For example, a hydrogen
atom has 1 proton, a chlorine atom h as 17 protons
and a uranium atom has 92 protons.
D Use t he Periodic Table on page 17 to complete the following table:
Ions
Element atom
Symbol
No. of p'"
No. of e-
19
Co pper Chlo rine
Ca
8
m lOll s are charged particles . When atoms gain or lose electrons they change into ions. Extra electrons
change a neutral atom into a negative ion. Losing electrons changes a neutral atom into a positi ve ion.
The number of protons in the nucl eus does not change when ions form.
III Positive ions (cations) form when metal atoms lose electrons. A complete atom h as an equal number
of protons and electrons. The positive charge is caused by the number of protons exceeding the number
of elect rons remaining. The name of a metal ion is the same as the name of the metal atom.
ill Negative ions (anions) form when non-metal atoms gain electrons. The n egative charge is camed by
the number of electrons exceeding the number of protons. The names of non-metal ions end in 'ide' ,
e.g. chloride ion.
W General guide to the number of electrons lost or gained by atoms which form ions:
1. Group I metals lose 1 e- ; 4. Group VI non-metals gain 2 e- ;
ions have a single posi ti ve cbarge, e.g. K+. ions bave two negative charges, e.g. 0
2
- .
2. Group II metals lose 2 e-; 5. Group VII non-metals gain 1 e- ;
ions have two posi ti ve charges, c.g Ca
2
+ . ions have a si ngl e negative charge, e.g. Cl -.
3. Group III metals lose 3 e- ;
ions bave three positive cbarges, e.g. AP-' .
(There is no gen eral rule for the charge on ions formed from atoms of Groups IV and V. Atoms of Group
VIII elements do not form ions or combine with other atoms in any way.)
11 Complete the table.
Ion
Na+
Ca
2
+
A13'
F-
0
2
-
Zn
2
+
No. of p+
Emerald Ci ty Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
No. of e-
26
D
D C D i l D ~ [[([]DlJlt]
Complete the following tables of ion names and symbols:
Metal ion (cation) Sodium Caesium Calcium Strontium
Symbol
Non-metal ion (anion) Oxide Chloride
Symbol
S2-
Cl- 1-
[]thetr lCOmmOIll met:aD iO!l1
131 As well as the metals in Groups I, II and Ill, many common metals are located in the transition metal
block of the Periodic Table. Tin and lead, at the bottom of Group IV, are also widely used. Common
metal ions not included in the table above are listed below. Some metals can form more than one ion.
Roman numerals are included in the names of these ions to indicate the number of positive charges on
the ion.
Complete the names missing from the table below:
Ion name Symbol
C02+
Coba lt (Ill)
C0
3
+
Cu+
Copper (II)
Cu
2
+
Gold (1)
Au+
Au
3
+
Fe
2
+
lonh: bond
Ion name
Iron (Ill)
Ti n (II)
Me rcury (II)
Nickel
Silver
Zinc
Symbol
Fe
3
+
Pb
2
+
Sn
2
+
Hg2+
Ni
2
+
Ag+
Zn
2
+
rn In any chemical reaction, bonds are formed between atoms. Only the electrons of the atoms are involved
in joining the atoms; the nucleus is unaffected.
Ell Generally, when metals combine with non-metals, each non-metal atom pulls a particular number of
electrons from the metal atom. This creates negative and positive ions.
m Once the positive and negative ions have formed, they are held together by an ionic bond - the strong
electrostati c attraction between ions with opposi te charges.
Complete the table below. Name t he atoms whi ch have combined by ionic bonding to form each of the
compounds. Name and write symbols for the positi ve and negative ions in the compound.
Atoms combining Ionic compound
Sodium bromide
Lead (II) iodide
Potassi um sulfide
Calcium flu oride
Barium chlori de
Go ld (1) oxide
Iron (Ill) oxide
Positive ion
(name, symbol)
Emerald Ci ty Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
Negative ion
(name, symbol)
27
11
l<l Before the experiments of Geiger and Marsden and their interpretation by Rutherford, the accepted
model of the atom was]. ]. Thomson's 'plum pudding'. This considered the atom to be a sphere of
positive charge in which negatively charged electrons were embedded.
Ilil Rutherford and his colleagues used the radioactive element plutonium as a source of fast -moving alpha
particles. (a particles are positively charged and equivalent to a i He nucleus.) They fired the alpha
particles at thin gold foil. A movable screen was used to detect alpha particles emerging from the target.
This screen was painted with a substance which gave off light when an alpha particle hit it .
!J The observations were:
1. most alpha particles passed straight through the gold foil or were deflected only slightly;
2. some alpha particles bounced right back towards the source.
Use 'source', 'gold foil', ' most a particl es' and 'occasional a particles' to label the fo ll owing diagram:
movable
dete ctor
evacuat ed
Fi ll in the spaces in the following sentences (one word in each space):
Observation
1. Most ex particles passed straight through.
2. Some positive particles were thrown straight
back.
Conclusion
1. The massive part of the atom is very
2. The charge on the smal l dense part of the atom
is ______ _
Rutherford deduced that atoms consisted of a dense core wh ich we call the
_______ . Surrounding the nucleus is a cloud of tiny particles, the electrons. As the
electrons were thought to be circling the , they were accelerating (velocity constantly
changing). According to classical electrodynamic theory, they should be emitting energy so would eventually
spiral into the ____ __ _
CD Emerald City Books 1998. Thi s sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
28
B[llti1ltr
n
In 1913 Niels Bohr proposed that:
1il electrons move in circular orbits around the n ucleus;
fZl electrons radiate no energy while in these orbits;
(] electrons exist only in fixed energy levels; each orbit is a particular energy level;
EiI when an electron moves from one orbit to another of higher energy, a quantum (packet) of energy is
absorbed;
IiiI when an electron moves from one orbit to another of lower energy, a quantum of energy is released;
Gl the value of the quantum of energy absorbed or released is the djfference in value between t h e two
energy levels.
Answer each of the following questions:
(a) (i) Who devised the 'plum pudding' model of the atom? ___ ______________ _
(ii) Where were the electrons in the 'plum pudding' model? _ ______________ __ _
(b) (i) Who performed experiments which led to the improvement of t he 'plum pudding' model? ___ _ _
(i i) In these experiments, what sort of particles were used?
(iii) What was the source of these particl es? ________________________ _
(iv) What are the properties of these particles? ______________________ _
(v) In the experiments, at which particular material were the particles fired? ___________ _
(vi) Why might t hat particular material have been used? ___________________ _
(vii) In the experiments, how were the particles detected? __________________ _
(viii) After the experimental results were ana lysed, what new model of atomic structure was devised?
(ix) What was wrong with this new model of atomic structure? ______________ __ _
(c) (i) When did Bohr propose an even better model of atomic st ructure?
(ii) Use a diagram to out line the Bohr model of atomic structure.
Refer to 'Flame tests and elements' on page 20. Write up the work of Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden as a modern
school experiment. Use the procedural recount style of writing, e.g. include a goal (e.g. Aim: To ... ), the material
used (e.g. Equ ipment: .. . ), a method written in passive voice (e.g. 'a particles were fired at .. . '), resu lts and
conclusion.
Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use. 29
Ifl1 r [f Ga] fflJ . m Ern Lt fm fli [IJ
!i
Cl The electrons moving in the space around the nucleus of an atom occupy different energy levels . Thi s
idea is simplified in diagrams which show the electrons in orbits around the nucleus. The energy levels
are called shells and are numbered from the nucleus outwards. Shell No. 1 is the lowest energy level.
Example: lithium atom Example: Neon atom
_--- nucleus --__
3 protons and
4 neutrons
Shell No. 1---__
10 protons and
10 neutrons
Each complete lithium atom has 3 electrons.
III As shown in the orbit-type diagram, the
electron arrangement is:
l. Sh ell No. 1: 2 e-
2. Sh ell No. 2: 1 e-
HI The electron configurat ion of lithium is 2, l.
Every neon atom has 10 electrons.
III The electron arrangement is:
] . Shell No. 1: 2 e-
2. Shell No. 2: 8 e-
BI The electron configuration of neon is 2, 8.
On a separate sheet of paper, draw orbit-type diagrams of the electron arrangement in atoms of elements
between lithium and neon. (Across Period 2, each successive electron goes into the second shell.)
Number [If elefi:'tnons per heU
I'i1 The shells can be compared to shelves in a bookcase. The sh elves can be empty or they can have books
on them. The books cannot be between sh elves . There is a maximum number of books which can fit on
each shelf. Similarly, electrons cannot be between shells and there is a maximum number of electrons
which can fit in each shel L
Maximum number of electrons = 2n
2
where 11 = the shell number (Shell No. 1, Shell No. 2, etc.)
El When the number of electrons in the third shell reaches 8 (argon atoms), electrons start to fill the
fourth shell.
o The electron configuration of potassium atoms is 2, 8, 8, l. There are places left f or more electrons in
the third shell. These remaining third shell vacancies are filled by electrons of transition metal atoms.
(a) Compile a table using the following headings for elements in order from atomic no. 1 to no. 20.
Element Atomic no. 1st shell e- 2nd shell e- 3rd shell e- 4th shell e-
Hydrogen 1 1
(b) After argon, how many places remain to be filled in the third shell? ______ _
A:tomh: !radius
f'l The nucleus is only about 1/10 000 of an atom's radius. The size of an atom is determined by the
space taken up by its electrons. The more electron shells, t he bigger the atom.
Ell The Period number indicates how many electron shells are occupied in atoms in that period, e.g.
atoms in Period 1 have 1 shell occupied; atoms in Period 7 have 7 shells occupied.
ril Trend: Atomic radius increases down each Group of the Periodic Table.
Refer to electron configuration to explain why:
(a) the smallest atom in Group VII is fluor ine and the largest is astatine;
(b) silicon atoms have larger diameters than nit rogen atoms. __________________ _
Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use. 30
11
11
rPeIl"Brm:!lO([ T i l b ~ e p1iBltterllll
lE ~ tr: t f 0 em r If mHiru g m mrtt mJ tn1 tritl
t [J l: rra [C[]!l1l1t]
L;l Trend: Atomic radius decreases from left to right across each Period of the Periodic Table.
The negative electrons are attracted by positive protons in t he nucleus. The greater the posi tive charge
in the nucleus, the st ronger the f orce on the outer shell of el ectrons in each row of the Periodic Table.
The table below contains data t o show the trend in atomic radius across the third Period.
(a) Complete the table.
Cb) Use graph paper to construct a graph illustrating the trend in atomic radi us.
(i) All the atoms are in the same period. What does their atomi c radius depend on? ______ _
(ii) Name the x-axis of your graph. ______ _
(iii) Name t he y-axis of your graph. ______ _
(iv) Extrapolate the graph to estimate the atomic radius of argon.
Atom
Na
Mg
Al
Si
p
S
Cl
Ar
Atomi c number (Z) Electron configuration Nuclear charge Atomic radius (nm)
0.156
0.136
0. 125
0. 117
0.110
0.104
0.099
The atomic radii of arsenic, selenium and bromine are 1.22 x 10-
10
m, 1.16 X 10-
10
m and 1.14 X 10-
10
rn,
respecti vely.
(a) Describe the trend in these measurements. ________________________ _
Cb) Relate the trend t o the pOSition of these t hree elements in the Periodic Table. ___________ _
(c) Refer to atomic structure to explain the trend. _______________________ _
In each of the following pairs of el ements, which atom has its outer electrons closest to its nucleus? Give a reason
for your answer in each case.
(a) hydrogen and helium
Cb) neon and helium
Cc) helium and lithium
Cd) lithium and beryllium
(e) lithium and sodium
In each of the following pairs, from which atom would it be easier to remove an el ectron?
Ca) hydrogen and lithium ______ _
Cb) calcium and st rontium _ _____ _
Cc) oxygen and fluorine ______ _
Cd) calcium and germanium ______ _
Emerald Ci ty Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
31
IPtE![i'"6IlJldOI[ PiBlitittE!!l"rrTI

f
BirJl ra" a 1: h::Ull lE! fJ1 e [f g
D
Sl In any atom, the moving electrons are held in the space around the nucleus by the attraction of the
positive nucleus. Electrons can be removed from vaporised atoms by using an 'electron gun' to knock
electrons out of complete atoms and change the atoms into positive ions. The voltage of the gun can be
adjusted to remove one, two, three or more electrons from each atom.
The first ionisation energy is the energy needed to remove one electron: X ----7 X+ + e-
The second ionisation energy is the energy to remove a second electron: X+ ----7 X++ + e-
I!II Other ionisation energies (3rd, 4th, 5th, etc.) are the energies needed to remove successive electrons.
Units of ionisation energy: megajoules per mole of electrons (1 mole = 6.02 x 1(
23
)
Successive ioni sation energies (IE3' IE
q
, JE
s
' etc.) compare the difficulty of removing electrons, one by one,
from an atom.
Neon, atomic no. 10, has the following successive ionisation energies:
IE1 IE2 IE3 IE4 IEs IE6 IE7 IEs lEg IE
10
2.09 4.00 6.13 9.38 12.18 15.25 20.01 23.08 115. 39 131.44 MJ mol-
1
Ca) How ma ny protons are there in the nucleus of a neon atom? _______ _
Cb) After the first electron has been removed, how many electrons remain? _______ _
Cc) How many protons in a Ne
9
+ ion? ________ How many electrons? _______ _
(d) Explain why IE
10
is much larger than IE
1
. _______ _
(e) How much energy is needed to form ions? ________ MJ mol -
1
Trends in ionisation energy
The following table lists first and second ionisation energies for elements atomic number (Z) 1 to 20 in the
Periodic Table.
Z Element IE1 IE2 Z Element IE1 IE2
1 H 1.32 11 Na 0.50 3.96
2 He 2.38 5.26 12 Mg 0.74 1.46
3 Li 0.53 7.31 13 Al 0.58 1.82
4 Be 0.91 1.76 14 Si 0. 79 1.58
5 B 0.81 2.43 15 P 1.02 1.91
6 C 1.09 2.36 16 S 1.01 2.26
7 N 1.41 2.86 17 Cl 1. 26 2. 30
8 0 1.32 3.40 18 Ar 1.53 2.67
9 F 1. 69 3.38 19 K 0.43 3.06
10 Ne 2.09 4. 00 20 Ca 0.60 1.15
r!I Trend: The first ionisation energy increases across each Period of the Periodic Table.
11 (a) Refer to atomic radius to explain t he trend in first ionisation energy across a Period. ________ _
Cb) Write symbols for the ions created when (using an electron gun):
(i) 0.74 MJ mol -
1
is applied to magnesium atoms _______ _
(ii) 3.45 MJ mol -
1
is applied to carbon atoms _______ _
Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
32
IJ
11
IJ
pliBJttre!r[f]
i !] &J1 t NTI Er g @J tc It El trFJ fB1}
affinity [f((1Jnto]
Trend: Ionisation energy decreases down each Group of the Periodic Table.
Ca) From the table on the previous page, select elements which are all in one Group of the Periodic Table. List
them in order of increasing atomic number and complete the table below.
Group __ eLements Electron configurati on of atom IEl (MJ moL-l ) Electron configuration of X+ ion
Cb) Use the electron configuration to explain the decrease in first ionisation energy down a Group.
Ca) Graph IEl against atomic number for elements in the table on the previous page.
Cb) Use electron configuration to explain why IEl value falls after each Group VIII element.
Ca) Write the electron configuration of Li - , Na+ and K+ ions. ___________________ _
Cb) Which complete atoms have the same electron configurations? ________ _ _ ______ _
Cc) Ci) Which elements listed on the previous page have peak IE2 values
7
Cii) Explain why these elements have peak IE2 values. ___ ______________ ___ _
11 The following table lists the first ionisation energy of elements with consecutive atomic numbers.
Element A B c o E F G
0.95 1.15 1.36 0.41 0.56 0. 61 0. 67
Which element CA, B, C, D, E, F, G) is:
Ca) a Noble gas? ______ _
Cb) a Group I metal? _ _____ _
Cc) a halogen? ______ _
El e ct r on affinity
III Electron affinity is measured by the energy released when an electron is added to an atom, forming a
negative ion. The greater the energy, the higher the electron affinity.
III Atoms such as sodium and potassium have low electron affinity. Halogens have high electron affinity
and form negative ions (e.g. Cl - , Bc ) easily.
B The general trend in electron affinity in the Periodic Table is similar to the trend in ionisation energy,
with the exception of the Noble gases (Group VIII) which have low electron affinity.
(g Electron affinity increases across a Period and decreases down a Group.
IllI ' Electronegativity' is a similar concept to electron affinit y but electronegativity cannot be measured. The
term 'electronegative' is used when comparing atoms' abilities to attract electrons, e.g. chlorine is much
more electronegative than sodium.
11 Ca) Atoms of the element _______ have the greatest electron affinity.
Cb) Atoms of the element have the lowest electron affinity.
Cc) Sodium is slightly electronegative than potassium but much
electronegative than chlorine.
Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
33
PIE!!ro[]/dilC
m [: t Er' n m: lUJ 1TIllr B [gj [l8 rr@'ttD(Q;) Em lrn GW
v
rE ec:t.IrOIl1 lConfDgurath]n
D
rIiI In orbit-type diagrams of atomic structure, electrons are shown in layers. When atoms join together,
electrons in the outer layer interact. The outer shell is called the valence shell. Electrons in the outer
shell are th e valence electrons.
!iii Electron configuration of Group VIII elements:
1. He ... 2
2. Ne ... 2,8
3. Ar...2, 8, 8
4. Kr...2, 8, 18, 8
5. Xe ... 2, 8, 18, 18, 8
6. Rn ... 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8
I!i1l Group VIII elements (Noble Gases):
1. have the highest ioni sation energy in each row of the Periodic Table; it is very difficult to remove an
electron from the outer shell of their atoms;
2. are in ert (unreactive); their outer shell electrons do not interact with valence electrons of other
atoms;
3. are monatomic gases composed of individual atoms; their atoms do not join together to make
molecules.
(a) Which Noble Gases have complete outer shells? _ __________ _ _ _ ________ _
(Formula: Maximum number of electrons = 2n
2
where n is the shell number.)
(b) Select words from the word bank and fill in the spaces in the sentences below:
although
lack
neon
incomplete
argon
eight
krypton
compounds
xenon
feature
each
case
The Noble Gases do not form chemical _______ --' ; they are chemically inert. Their atoms do not even
join to _ _____ __ other. Their _ _______ of reactivity indicates that the outer shells of all
Noble Gas atoms are complete but this is not the _ _ _____ ___ _ _ _ _ _ the outer shells of
helium and ________ contain the maximum number of electrons, those of _ _ _ ___ _ --'
___ _ ___ __ _ _____ and radon are incomplete. All those with ___ _ _ ___ outer
shel ls have ei ght el ectrons in the outer shell. This common _ ___ ___ _ of these unreactive elements
suggests t hat ________ is a stable number of electrons.
III Atoms combine to achieve a stable number of electrons in the outer shell.
Stable number of electrons in the outer shell = 8.
for small atoms with only one electron shell, stable number = 2.
i'j Two ways in which atoms achieve a stable number of outer shell electrons are as follows:
1. by transferring va lence electrons. 2. by sharing valence electrons with other
Metals combine with non-metals in atoms. Combinations of non-metal s occur
this way. in this way.
elect ron
transferred
outer ' - - - - - , , , - - - - - - "It oute r
shell ," 'It" '" shell
sodium ,' t::::\ @ "chlorine
atom Cl: atom
I
Ionic bond: strong attraction between positive
and negative ions
sha red
.. __ .... _" .
outer . ' . outer
shell , - - - - " " '- shell
hydrogen ," f.:\ @l chlorine
at om '- 0J /J) at om
Covalent bond: atoms held t ogether by pair of
electrons moving between them
CD Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
34
iPetrHlDltdlofC lPliBJititetrIT1l
rE (!C 'Lt ff fQ (b &Q] [B if 0 gj@jEl @ 1t B [tUrn @j lITHID
vale nC!I ([ontc]
VaHeifU:Y
11
I!'l The val ency of an element is the number of electrons which its atom needs to gain, lose or share with
another atom to achieve a stable number in the outer shell . Noble Gases have stable numbers of
electrons. Their valency is O.
Some examples are:
1. Sodium (metal) has a val ency of 1. After a sodium atom loses 1 electron to a non-metal atom it has
a stabl e sh ell of 8 electrons.
2. Chlorine (non-metal) h as a valency of 1. By gaining 1 electron from a metal or by sharing 1 electron
with another non-metal, a chlorine atom will have the stable number of 8 electrons in its outer shell.
El Trends in val ency:
Group
Valency
I
1
II
2
Metals and non-metals combining
III
3
(a) How many valence electrons are there in:
(i) a magnesium atom? _______ _
IV
4
V
3
VI
2
VII
1
VIII
o
(ii) an oxygen atom? ______ _
(b) When magnesium joins to oxygen, ions and 0
2
- ions form.
(i) How many electrons were t ransferred? ______ _
(ii) Which atom lost the electrons? ______ _
(iii) Which at om gained the electrons? ______ _
(c) How many electrons are there in the outer shell of:
(i) a Mg2+ ion? _____ _ (i i) an 0
2
- ion? ______ _
Non-metals combining Molecules of the compound ammonia form when nitrogen and hydrogen atoms combine
by sharing electrons. The valency of hydrogen is 1.
(a) In which Group is nitrogen? ______ _
(b) What is the va lency of nitrogen? ______ _
(c) How many electrons does a ni t rogen atom need to make a stable outer shell? ___ ___ _
(d) How many el ectrons does each hydrogen atom have ava ilable for sharing? ______ _
(e) How many hydrogen atoms share electrons with one nitrogen atom? ______ _
Diatomic elements: hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine are composed of
molecules in which each molecule contains two atoms. The two at oms are joined by a covalent bond. Diagram
A shows how two fluorine atoms combi ne by sharing electrons. Diagram B shows how three fluo ri ne atoms
might join.
A
sha red


\ I \ I
\ , '--0-0 .....// ' ... -6-0 ........
(a) Including t he shared electrons, how many
electrons does each fluorine atom have?
only outer
shell
electrons
shown
shared shared
(
pair (pair
_,-G-{1" / G'0" ,_Gi-i/"

\ / \ "
" "0-0- ' " -0.0"
B
(b) Is thi s likely to happen? Explain your answer.
(j') Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be phot ocopied for no n-commercial classroom use.
35
PlE!lru[][lnlC pattelfH1l
M it (ill @J!]1 ITlB trn D1J Cl it @ B g LID fhJ dJ B rt: CID 0
pr to.
pr[llpertirE: iOlfnld ihorrndnng
121 The higher the melting point of a solid element, the stronger the forces between the particles which
make up the solid.
I:J The higher the boiling pOint of an element in its liquid state, the stronger the forces between the
particles of the liquid.
!il The density of an element depends on the size of the particles and on how closel y packed they are.
a The ability of an element to conduct electricity is due to the presence of electrons which are free to
move.
I!;! A shiny lustre results if some of the electrons are easily ' excited' by absorbing light energy. Visible light
is emitted when these electrons fall back to their lower 'ground state' energy levels.
Il The melting point, boiling pOint, density (at 25C and 101. 3 kPa) and electrical conductivity (at 25C)
are li sted below for elements of atomic number 1 to 20.
Element MP (0C) BP (0C)
Period 1
H - 259 - 253
He - 272 - 269
Period 2
Li 180 1342
Be 1278 2970
B* 2300 3660
C (graphite) >3550 Sublimes
(diamond) >3550 Sublimes
N - 210 - 196
0 - 219 - 183
F - 220 - 188
Ne - 249 - 246
Period 3
Na 98 883
Mg 650 1110
Al 660 2450
Si * 1410 3267
P (white) 44 280
(red) 417 Sublimes
S (\ allotrope) 113 445
Cl - 101 - 35
Ar - 189 -186
Period 4 (incomplet e)
K 63 760
Ca 839 1484
Note: - indicates little or no conductivity.
* indicates a semi -metal
Ca) Graph MP agai nst atomic number for elements in Period 3.
Cb) Describe t he pattern of melting points across Period 3.
P (g cm-
3
)
8. 25 X 10-
5
1.64 X 10-
4
0. 53
1.85
2.34
2.25
3.51
1.15 X 10-
3
1.31 X 10-
3
1. 55 X 10-
3
8. 25 X 10-
4
0.97
1.74
2. 70
2.33
1.82
2.35
2.07
2.90 X 10-
3
1. 63 X 10-
3
0.86
1. 55
10. 5
29
10-
10
0.07
10-
17
21
23
38
10-
7
10-
17
<10-
17
10-
21
14
29
Cc) Which element in Period 3 has the strongest forces holding its particles close together? ______ _
Cd) Which element in Period 3 has the weakest forces between its particles? _ _____ _
In the list above:
Ca) Which metal has the highest electrical conductivi ty? ______ _
Cb) Which non-metal conducts electricity much more than the other non-metals?
Emerald City Books 1998. Thi s sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
36
Pii3Jititte!Ifll1l
@Dl]OOJ
[[:ont.j
True or fa lse
7
(a) All metals have higher densities than all non-metals. ______ _
Cb) All gases have much lower densit ies than all solids. ______ _
Cc) Semi- metals have lower densit ies t han metals. _ _____ _
General characteristics of metals, semi-metals and non-metals
Metals
Good electrical conductors
K values> 0.1 I.Lfl-
1
m-
1
Conductivity decreases with
increasing temperature
Form positive ions easily; do not
form covalent bonds easi ly with
other atoms
Semi-metals: B, Si , Ge, As, le
Poor electrical co nductors
K values 10-
3
- 10-
10
f.LD-1 m-1
Conductivity increases with small
amounts of impurities
Form covalent bonds with other
atoms
trrul:ture of element:
Non-metals
Very poor electrical conductors
K values <10-
10
f.Lfl -1m-1
Conductivity increases with
increasing temperature
Form cova lent bonds easily with
other atoms
Form negative ions when they
combine with metals
l1li Non-metals are generally composed of separate, individual molecules, usually containing two atoms.
The Noble Gases are composed of separate atoms. Most other elements, metals and semi-metals, have
no separate particles; their atoms are joined in various ways to make an infinite array Ca continuous
three-di mensional structure).
Metals
Metallic network
Example: Sodium (solid)
9999
9999
Valence electrons are free to
move through the lattice of
positive metal ions
Semi-metals
Covalent network
Example: Sili co n (solid)
Each atom is covalently bonded
to four others surrounding it
Electrons not free to move
Non-metals
Discrete molecules
Example: Chlorine
Composed of individual molecules
E lectro n s not free t o move
Refer to bonding within the element to explain why metals are good conductors but non-meta ls do not conduct
electricity.
Refer to the melting points of Na, Mg and AI.
(a) In which of these is the meta llic bonding strongest? ______ _
Cb) Refer to the cations of these meta ls t o explain why. _____________________
Emerald City Books 1998. Thi s sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
37


pnOperto2
Metal characteristics:
1. form positive ions in chemical reaction
2. usually produce hydrogen gas with dilute sulfuric acid
3. oxides are basic - they react with acids
IfJ Non-metal characteristics:
1. join to other atoms by covalent bonds to make molecules
2. form negative ions in reaction with strong metals
3. oxides are acidic - they react with bases
Some chemical reactions of Period 3 elements
Element plus ...
Sodium
Magnesium
Alu minium
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulfur
Chlorine
hydrogen gas and heated
Very fa st reaction forms
Na + and H- ions
Very fast reaction forms
Mg z+ and H - ions
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
Slow reaction for ms
HzS molecules
Fast reaction forms
HCl molecules
oxygen gas and heated
Very fast reaction forms
Na + and Oz- ions;
sodium oxide is basic
Very fas t reaction forms
Mg z+ and Oz- ions;
magnesium oxide is basic
Fast reaction forms
Al3+ and Oz- ions;
aluminium oxide is
amphoteric (reacts with
acids and with bases)
Slow reaction forms SiO
z
(cova lent network
compound);silicon oxide
is weakly acidic
Fast reaction forms P
4
0
10
molecules; phosphorus
oxide is acidic
Slow reaction
forms SOz molecules;
sulfur oxide is acidic
No reaction with oxygen;
chlorine oxide is acidic
dilute sulfuric acid (cold)
Violent reaction forms
and ions and H
z
molecules
Very fast reaction forms Na +
and ions and H
z
molecules
Fast reaction forms Al3+ and
SO;,- ions and H
z
molecules
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
Q Trend: Metallic character decreases from left to right across each Period of the Periodic Tabl e.
Choose one of the chemical characteristics of metals and use examples from the table above to illustrate the trend
in metallic character.
Cl Trend: Metallic character increases down each Group.
(a) List t he elements in Group V in order of increasing at omic number.
(b) Suggest the correct order for the following statements for each Group V element listed:
0 acidic oxide
[J
amphoteric oxide
El basic oxide
Cl acidic oxide
[J
amphoteric oxide
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38
P!E!!rD[JJdulC [plDlitittE![i[ilJj

The electrons circled the nucleus in particular orbits. The electrons in each orbit had a particular energy.
Bohr's model was based on a study of absorption and emission spectra. The model worked well to
explain small atoms such as hydrogen. For atoms with many electrons, the emission and absorption
spectra had a lot more lines than could be explain ed by the Bohr model of the atom.
Quantum mechanical model of Schrfidinger and []ircu:
Iiil This model was based on mathematical equations which gave the probability of finding an electron in
space around the nucleus. The multiple solutions to the equatiOns can be visualised by three-
dimensional drawings of orbital s. An orbital is the shape of the space in which an electron is likely to
be found.
Iil Similarity of the Bohr model and the quantum mechanical model: both have quantum numbers (n = 1,
2, 3 etc.) indicating energy levels of electrons around the nucleus .
ml Difference: circular orbits described the movement of electrons in the Bohr model; orbitals describe the
volumes of space around the nucleus occupied by moving electrons in the quantum mechanical model.
O.-bi1:al
Orbitals are named 5, p, d and fAxes ex, y and z) are usually
included in the drawings to indicate the three-dimensional
orientation of the orbitals. The atom's nucleus is at the
intersection of the axes. (The letters stand for 'sharp',
'principal', 'diff use' and 'fundamental' which refer to
spectral lines.)
I't 5 orbitals are spherical.
11 An 5 orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons.
Ill! p orbitals are dumbbell-shaped.
III p orbitals are in sets of 3.
I!!l Px' Py and Pz can each hold up to 2 electrons.
A set of p orbitals can hold a maximum of 6 electrons.
Iil d orbitals are in sets of 5.
11 Each d orbital in the set can hold up to 2 electrons.
IIiI A set of cl orbitals can hold a maximum of
10 electrons.
II! t orbitals are in sets of 7; a set of t orbitals ca n hold a
maximum of 14 electrons.
Subhells
y
_
. :: Zx
......
S
y y y
->:

. .
. ' .. x x x
p,' P, p,
y y y


x .... x ." x
d" ' , . . d"
y y

.... x .. x
,. d,' . d""
Subshells are different types of orbitals within the shell/principal quantum number.
o Complete the following table:
n
1
2
3
4
Number of subshells
1
Types of orbitals
5
5
P
5
P
d
5
P
d
f
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Maximum number of e- in each subshell
39
Fun elelL'tlron configuration
11
g This shows the electrons of an atom in shells and orbitals. For example:
Sodium atom electron configuration
Si mple electron configuration : 2, 8, 1
Fu ll electron configuratio n: 15
2
25
2
2p6 35
1
Full electron configuration of argon: 15
2
25
2
2p
6
35
2
3p6
Full electron configuration of calcium: 15
2
25
2
2p6 35
2
3p6 45
2
Refer to the ta ble in Exerci se 1.
Meaning
First shell 5 orbita l has two e-
Second shell 5 orbital has two e-
Second shell p orbital has six e-
Third shell 5 orbital has one e-
(a) Is the p subshell of the third shell complete in bot h argon a nd calcium? YES/NO.
(b) Is the third shell complete in both argon and ca lcium? YES/NO. Explain.
Rules for writing electron configuration
11
1. Subsh ell s a nd shells are filled in order of increasing energy of the electrons:
15 <25 <2p ds d p <45 dd <4p <55 <4d <5p <65 <4f <5d <6p <75 <Sf <6d <7p <6f dd
2. Orbitals which are in sets (e.g. 2px' 2p
y
, 2pz orbitals) have equal energy. One electron is added to each
orbital before a second electron is added to any orbital.
3. Maximum number of two electrons in anyone orbital.
For example, to write the electron configuration of bromine:
Step 1: Look up Periodic Table to find atomi c number of BL. atomi c no. 35 :. no. e - in Br atom is 35.
Step 2: Follow the order of filling to allocate electrons ... 15
2
25
2
2p6 35
2
3p6 45
2
3d
10
4pS
Step 3: Add up the electron s to check the total is 35 ... 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 + 6 + 2 + 10 + 5 = 35
St ep 4: If necessary, reorganise in orde r of principal quantum number. .. 15
2
25
2
2p6 35
2
3p6 3d
10
45
2
4pS
Write full electron configurations for:
(a) Mg (b)
Mg2+
(c) K (d) K+
(e) AI (f) Ai3 +
(g) 0 (h)
0
2
-
(i) Cl (j) CI -
11 Write the full electron configuration for nitrogen showing the distribution of e lectrons in Px' Py and Pz orbi ta ls .
11 15
2
25
2
35
2
3p2 45
1
is the full electron configurat ion of a complete at om.
(a) What is the atomic no . of this atom? ______ _
(b) Name the element. ______ _
(c) How does t he configurat ion show that electrons in thi s at om have been ' excited' above their normal 'ground
state' 7 ____________________________________ __
11 In e lements, the 'd-block' of the Peri odic Table, d orbitals a re being filled.
(a) What do atoms of eleme nts in the 'p-block' have in common? ______ _
(b) The sta rt of each new Pe riod corresponds to the introduction of electrons into the _______ o rbita ls
of a new
<D Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non- commercial class room use. 40
11
11
RiOldl i[)JiiJj[[itDwDity

Eil Some elements exist as stable forms only; others h ave some stable and some radioactive isotopes. The
elements of atomic numbers 84 to 92 exist only as naturally occurring radioactive isotopes .
!'J Some elements do not occur naturally on earth at all but they can be prepared artificially. These are
elements atomic n umber 43, 61 and 93-109. They are all radioactive.
(a) Shade elements 84 to 92 on a copy of the Periodic Tabl e. Key them as naturally occurring radioactive
elements. (Alternatively, list t hese elements by name.)
(b) Using a different key, shade elements 43,61 and 93 to 109 on the same copy of t he Peri odic Ta bl e. Key them
as artificial radioact ive elements.
11 Half-life of a radioactive isotope is a measure of the rate at which it decays.
Half-life is defi ned as the time taken for half the nuclei in a sample to decay.
Radioactive decay is exponential:
1. after 1 half-life, 50% of the sample remains
2. after 2 half-lives, 25% of the sample remains
3. after 3 half-li ves, 12.5% of the sample remains
Half-li ves vary greatly from very short (e.g. 4.2 x 10-
6
s for to very long (e.g. 4 x 10
12
years for
I%Re).
III A gUide to the amount of isotope remaining is the number of counts recorded by a Geiger counter. The
number of counts observed has to be corrected by subtracting background radiation. (Background
radiation is the radiation in the atmosphere from other radioactive sources. Normally the background
radiation count is low.)
The half-life of the artificially created radioisotope 1 ;11 is 8.04 days . What fra ction of the original atoms of
1 31
1 will
remain after:
(a) 8 days 57 minutes 36 seconds? ______ _
(b) 24.12 days? _____ _
(a) Use the information below to calculate the number of counts due to the decay of the radioactive isotope,
Re. Background radiation = 25 counts S- l.
Time No. of counts S- 1 Corrected number
Monday 8 am 2441 2416
Monday 8 pm 1827
Tuesday 8 am 1233
Wednesday 8 am 629
Wednesday 8 pm 478
Thursday 8 am 327
Friday 8 am 176
(b) Using graph paper, plot this information as a line graph. Put time on the x-axis and the number of counts on
the y-axi s.
(c) From the graph, estimate the number of counts recorded at 8 pm on Tuesday.
(d) From the graph, determine the time for 50% (one half) of the sample to decay. ______ _
(e) (i) From the graph, the half-life is _____ _ _
(ii) From information given above, the half-life of 1% Re is _____ __ _
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41

l: "'V&J
tt a
D The following results were obtained from a sample of Corrected count = Observed count - 20
11
Time Corrected Time Corrected
h:mi n counts S- l h:min counts S- l
9:00 560 9:07
9:01 500 9:08 220
9:02 446 9:09 196
9:03 400 9:10 180
9:04 355 9:11 160
9:05 315 9: 12 140
9:06 280
Ca) Using a second sheet of graph paper, plot this information as a line graph.
Cb) Find the half-li fe of Pm. ___ ___ _
Cc) Why was 20 counts S- l subtracted f rom the observed values?
Cd) Use t he graph to fill in the missing count at 9:07 in the list above.
Ce) What count would you expect to be produced by decay of this isotope sample at 9.18
7
______ _
Cf) What proportion of the original number of nuclei would remain at 9:18
7
______ _
The radioact ive isotope of carbon, 1: C, is produced naturally in the upper atmosphere. This radioactive carbon is
incorporated, along with non-radioactive carbon, into the bodies of living things. When an organism dies, no new
14C is added to its body. The amount of radioactive 14 C remaining in the skeleton, hair, wood, etc. is compared
with the amount in an organism living today. The age of the material can be determined using the half-life of 14 C
which is 5568 years.
Ca) Complete the following table. 100
% originaL 14C
remai ni ng
100.000
50.000
25.000
12.500
6. 250
3. 125
Ti me eLapsed
since death (years)
o
Cb) Complete the decay curve for 14C on the axes provided.
Cc) If fossil bones contain 10% of t he original amount of 14 C,
approximately how old are t he bones? ______ _
Cl
80
c:
c:
.;;;
E
60

-;;;
40 c:
'0,
0
'iF-
20
0
Years elapsed since death
11 Ca) What would you predict about the intensity of radiation coming from an isotope with a very short half-life
7
Cb) Why do you think medical diagnosis is carried out using radioactive isotopes with half-lives of hours or days7
11
Ca) Find five different areas in which radioisotopes are used.
Cb) Give one example of a rad ioactive isotope used, its half-life and whether it is an C'i , r3 or "I emitter.
Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
42


Radlh:]OlrcitIDWIE? tnllUltCOeB
D
III Some nuclei are unstable. They break down (decay) and t he composition of the nucleus changes. We say
these nuclei are radioactive. When radioactive nuclei decay they emit different kinds of radiation. Some
of these types are listed in the table below.
Type of ray What is it? Symbol
Alpha (ex ) particles 2 protons + 2 neutrons
(equiva lent to helium nucleus)
Beta ([3) particles
Gamma (-y) radiation
Alpha decay rules
Mass number decreases by 4
Atomic number decreases by 2
The element changes because the
atomic number changes
Example of alpha decay equation:
U ---c> Th + He
1 electron
Energy
You will need a Periodic Table for the following exercises.
Complete the following alpha decay equations: 11
(a) Po ---c>
(b) At ---c>
(c) Rn ---c>
(d) Ra ---c>
(e) 199 Bi ---c>
Beta decay rules
Mass number does not change
At omic number increases by 1 (one neutron
changes into one p+ and one e- . The prot on
remains and the electron is emitted)
The element changes because the atomic
number changes
Example of beta decay equation:
Co ---c> Ni + e
Complete the following beta decay equations:
(a) Se ---c>
(b) i C ---c>
(c) Si ---c>
---c>

After beta or other decay, the nucleus which is produced is in an excited state. It may emit high frequency
electromagnetic radiation in the form of gamma rays. The nucleus then returns to the ground state. For
example:
Mo ---c> Tc + e ---c> Tc + 'Y
223 Fr emits a beta particle and produces an excited nucleus.
(a) Write the symbol for the product, including mass number and atomic number.
(b) Name the product.
(c) How will the excited nucleus reach its ground state? _______ _____________ _
Dercay series
Radioactive nuclei often decay to products that are unstable. These decay to produce other unslable nuclei.
The process continues until a stable isotope is reached. For example, the process of U decay continues
until the stable lead isotope, Pb, is reached.
(a) Write a series of equations which could produce 207 Pb, using only ex, !3 and 'Y decay.
(Hint: mass number decreases by 28 so 7 alpha particles are emitted. Emission of 7 alpha particles would
decrease the atomic number by 14. The atomic number has decreased by only 10, so 4 beta particles must
also be emitted.)
(b) Write a possible series of equations for the decay of U to the stable isotope 206 Pb, using only (x, and 'Y
decay.
Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-co mmercial classroom use.
43
me!] - m[:
f .. r
~ [}) fl1I H iC fC [jj m g:u:nJl (f1l d i
El These are composed of positive ions and negative ions in an ionic lattice which is a type of infinite array;
there are no separate particles.
!lI The positive and negative ions are held together by ionic bonds.
~ An ionic bond is the electrostatic attraction between a positive and a negative ion.
o A crystal of ionic compound is electrically neutral because the total number of positive charges equals
the total number of n egative charges.
[] Ionic compounds usually form when metals combine with non-metals.
Example: Sodium chLoride composed of Na + and er ions
equal numbers of Na" i ons and Cl - ions
D (a) What is the size of the charge on each positive sodium ion) ______ _
(b) What is the size of the charge on each negative chloride ion) _ _____ _
(c) Explain why there must be equal numbers of sodium and chloride ions in a sodium chloride crystal .
Explain why there are two F- ions for every one C a ~ in the ionic compound, calcium fluoride.
[F [] IT' m lUl iBl i [] f ~ (IJ) !lll f.C f.C [] m lPHDlIlll rnHdl
GI The chemical formul a of an ionic compound shows the simplest ratio of the number of positive and
negative ions .
In a piece of sodium chloride there may be millions of Na+ and Cl - ions but there are always equal
numbers of Na+ and Cl - ions. The Simplest ratio is Na + to Cl- = 1:l.
o The chemical formul a of sodium chloride is Na] Cl ].
EJ Usually the subscript' / is left out and the formula is written as aCt (Chemists agree that if there is no
subscript written it means '/-)
o Empirical formulas are chemical formulas which sbow only the simplcst ratio of atoms (or ions) and not
the actual ratio.
All for mulas for ionic compounds are cmpirical formulas .
(a) Wri te the chemical formu la for calcium fluoride. ____ _ _ _
(b) Why is this an empirical formul a? __________________ _______ ___
D (a) What is the simplest ratio in which Mg2+ and 0
2
- could combine to form an ionic compound) _ _ ___
(b) Write the formul a for the compound. ______ _
ID Emerald Ci ty Books 1998. Thi s sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom us e.
44

f rmula [(([]mJfL]
Radicals are charged groups of atoms. Another name for them is 'polyatomic ions'. Some examples are:
l. (NO
z
)- nitrite ion
2. (CH
3
COO)- ethanoate ion
3. (HzPO 4) - dihydrogen phosphate ion
[] Brackets are placed around the group of atom symbols to emphasise that the whole group has a charge.
In some formulas for ionic compounds made from radicals, the brackets can be left out. However, it is
best to always include the brackets until you are very familiar with writing chemical formulas .
El Some examples of ionic compounds containing radicals are:
1. Na(NO) sodium nitrite
2. Ca(I-IzPO 4)2 calcium dihydrogen phosphate
Naming mo nic Eompou n d!
Cl Ionic compounds always have two-part names.
!l'l The name of the positive ion comes first.
Ilil The positive ion has the same name as its atom, e.g. Na+ is sodium ion.
Ill1 The only common positive radical is ammonium (NH4t.
[]I The name of the negative ion comes second.
Ilii The ending of the atom is changed to 'ide' to name simple negative ions, e.g Cl- is chloride ion.
III The names of negative radicals usually end in 'ate' or 'ite'; the exception (OH) - is hydroxide ion.
You will need a minimum of three copies of page 46 to do this exercise.
Example question: What is the formula for the ionic compound, magnesium sulfate?
How to use the page 46 sheet:
III Cut out magnesium ions (positive) and sulfate ions (negative). Join sufficient
magnesium and sulfate ions together to make the smallest rectangle possible
Mg
2
'
(see the diagram at right).
Ill! The number of each type of ion in this smallest possible rectangle gives
you the empirical formula of magnesium sulfate .. . Mg(S04)'
(a) Use the symbols on page 46 to write chemical formulas for t he following ionic compounds:
iron II sulfide zinc carbonate iron III sulfate
ammonium iodide sodium carbonate potassium phosphate
aluminium nitrate ammon iu m chloride magnesium hydroxide
silver oxide copper II oxide copper II ca rbonate
lead iodide sodium hydrogen carbonate calcium phosphate
(b) (i) After part (a) you will have cut-out symbols remaining. Join positive and negative ions together t o make
as many electrically neutral ionic compounds as you can .
(ii) List the names and empirical formulas of the compounds you have made:
Name formuLa Name Formula
Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
45
Zn 2+
Al 3+
zin c
aluminium
Fe
2
+
iron II
Fe 3+
Pb 2+
iron III
lead
Ca
2
'
Cu
2
+
calcium
copper II
Na+
Mg 2+
sodium
magnesium
K+
potassium
Ag
+
silver
(NHY
ammonium
mill
S f
cqeJ:lLU
j ' ON)
aleuoqJeJ
Ua50JPALj
j ' O)H)
apLJonu
_cl
apLJolLjJ
_D
aplWOJq
_J 8
aplpol
_I
apYlns
_, 5
Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be photocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
aplXOJPALj
_(HO)
aplxo
_, 0
aleuoqJ eJ
_, (' 0))
aW:!lns
_/ ' 05)
aleLjdsoLjd
_, (' Od)
46

@In r.1
WrstJng formuli:J using vaHenoc::y
11
Ell Valency is the number of electIOns an atom must gain, lose or share to achieve a stable number
(usually 8) in its outer shell.
Group guide to valency
Group
Valency
I
1
II
2
III
3
IV
4
V
3
VI
2
VII
1
VIII
o
The rule for writing formulas, e.g. of aluminium oxide, is as follows :
Step 1: Write the symbols of the elements combined in the compound: Al
Step 2: Under each symbol write the valency of the element: 3, 2
Step 3: Swap the numbers over so that the valency of the first becomes the subscript to the second
symbol: Al
z
0
3
(a) Following the steps above, write formulas for:
sodium bromide ______ _ potassium sulfide ______ _
magnesium nitride ______ _ carbon hydride ______ _
nitrogen chlori de _ ____ __ _ oxygen fluoride ______ _
sulfur chloride ______ _
(b) Unknown element X forms the compounds XO, X3N2' XCI
2
and XH
2
, but it does not form compounds with
Group I elements.
(i) What is the valency of X? ______ _
(ii) Using the Group guide, in which Group does X belong? ______ _
The guide to valency given by the Group number works well for ionic compounds in which metals in Groups I, II
and III combine with non-met als, but less well for compounds of two non-meta ls. The foll owing are molecular
compounds of non-metals. Tick the compounds in which the valencies of the elements are as shown in the
table above.
carbon tetrachloride CCI
4
______ _ carbon dioxide CO
2
______ _
carbon monoxide CO ______ _ ammonia NH3 _ _ ____ _
nit rogen trichloride NCI
3
______ _ dinitrogen tetroxide N
2
0
4
_ _____ _
phosphorus trichloride PCI
3
______ _ tetraphosphorus decaoxide P
4
0 ,o ______ _
sulfur dioxide S02 ______ _ sulfur dichloride SCI
2
______ _
Molecular I:ompound
III These are composed of separate molecules.
.. Each molecule is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds; each covalent bond is made when
one pair of electIOns is shared between two atoms.
I!II Molecular compounds are made when non-metals combine with each other.
El The formula of a molecular compound gives the actual number of each type of atom in one mol ecul e
of the compound.
I!ll Non-metal s from Group IV, V and VI have more than one possible valency; more than one formula is
possible for a compound containing the same two elements, e.g. PCl
3
and PCl
s
.
!iI Names of molecular compounds of two non-metals have:
1. the name of the non-metal with the lowest electron affinity first;
2. the ending of the name of the second non-metal changed to 'ide', e.g. carbon disulfide, sulfur
dioxide, oxygen difluoride;
3. prefixes to indicate the formula where more than one valency is possible, e.g. dinitrogen trioxide
N
z
0
3
, dinitrogen pentoxide NzOs
B Write the formulas and names of the compounds in which:
(a) nitrogen has valency 1 and oxygen has valency 2. _______ (formula) _______ (name)
(b) fluorine has valency 1 and sulfur has valency 6. (formula) _______ (name)
Emerald City Books 1998. This sheet may be phot ocopied for non-commercial classroom use.
47

Mass and density
11
11
11
] (d) Density - magnesium = 1.74 9 cm-
3
; ozone = 1.96 9 L -1 ; sodium chloride = 2. 2 g cm-
3
;
bromine = 3.1 9 cm-
3
; octane = 0.7 g cm-
3
; sulfur dioxide = 2.62 9 L - 1.
2 (a) Mass copper = 24.5 g. (b) (i) No change.
3 Volume of mercury = 75 mL.
4 (a) and (b) x
y
Solids, liquids and gases
5 (a) The same.
Soluble and insoluble substances
3 (b) (i) Mass of oxygen = 54 mg.
(b) Lower.
(ii) Volume of oxygen = 37.79 mL.
Dilute and concentrated solutions
3 (a) Concentrated.
(b) Saturated.
(c) Dilute.
(ii) Increase.
(iii) Decrease.
(c) Higher.
Atoms and molecules
1 (a) 4 x 10-
23
m. (d) Chlorine: 1.98 x 10-
10
m.
(e) 1N = 1O-
1
m.
(g) 0.4 nm.
(b) Sodium: 3.12 x 10-
10
m.
(c) Si licon: 2.34 x 10-
10
m. (f) Na: Si: Cl = 1.58:1.18:1.
At omic s t ructure
D
Dalton and Thomson
1 (b) Fraction of mass of copper
carbonate due t o:
(i) Copper 5/1 0 (1/2).
(ii) Oxygen 4/10 (2/5) .
(iii) Carbon 1/10.
2 Mass carbon: mass fluorine = 3:19.
(c) Mass of oxygen = 48 g.
(d) Mass copper carbonate = 40 g.
(e) Mass carbon = 1.4 g.
3 Oxygen atoms in sodium oxide: oxygen atoms in sodium peroxide = 1: 2.
11
Isotopes and relative atomic mass
3 (a) 3.
(b) 27.
(c) 9.
(d) 2.
5 Average rel ative atomic mass neon = 20.19.
6 63CU.
Radiocu:t.ivity
D
Radioactivity and haU-Iife
2 (a) 1 /2.
(e) 34.
(b) 12.25%.
48
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