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Augusl Term, 2013
No. 13-1228-cv
}OHN COOK,
=1.5</5>>'2??611.</,
+#
NATIONAL ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMINISTRATION,
@6>6<:.</'2??61166#

AeaI from lhe Uniled Slales Dislricl Courl
for lhe Soulhern Dislricl of Nev York.
No. 11-cv-8624 Kevin T. Duffy, AB:C6.


ARGUID: MARCH 10, 2014
DICIDID: }ULY 8, 2014


efore: LIVAL, IOOLIR, and CHIN, ,53*B5/ AB:C67.

AeaI from a |udgmenl of lhe Uniled Slales Dislricl Courl
for lhe Soulhern Dislricl of Nev York (Kevin T. Duffy, AB:C6)
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
-2-
dismissing Iainliff-aeIIanl's comIainl under lhe Ireedom of
Informalion Acl, 5 U.S.C. 552. IIainliff-aeIIanl soughl from lhe
NalionaI Archives records reIaling lo requesls for archived maleriaIs
made by or on behaIf of a former Iresidenl and Vice-Iresidenl of lhe
Uniled Slales. The dislricl courl granled summary |udgmenl lo
defendanl-aeIIee NalionaI Archives and Records Adminislralion,
concIuding lhal lhe records feII vilhin Ixemlion 6 of lhe slalule.
"##$%&'(.


MAXWILL S. MISHKIN, Lav Sludenl (David A.
SchuIz, Suervising Allorney, and }oshua S.
Weinger, Lav Sludenl, "< /46 D356>), Media
Ireedom & Informalion Access CIinic, YaIe Lav
SchooI, Nev Haven, Conneclicul, and CharIes S.
Sims, Iroskauer Rose LLI, Nev York, NY, >"3
=1.5</5>>'2??611.</.
1

DAVID S. }ONIS, Assislanl Uniled Slales Allorney
(en|amin H. Torrance, Assislanl Uniled Slales
Allorney, "< /46 D356>), >"3 Ireel harara, Uniled
Slales Allorney for lhe Soulhern Dislricl of Nev
York, Nev York, NY, >"3 @6>6<:.</'2??61166.


CHIN, ,53*B5/ AB:C6:
IIainliff-aeIIanl }ohn Cook, a reorler, broughl suil under
lhe Ireedom of Informalion Acl ("IOIA"), 5 U.S.C. 552, seeking

1
The Iav sludenls aeared in lhis Courl ursuanl lo LocaI RuIe 46.1(e).
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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discIosure of records heId by defendanl-aeIIee lhe NalionaI
Archives and Records Adminislralion ("NARA"). Cook seeks lo
oblain records of requesls for archived residenliaI and vice-
residenliaI maleriaIs submilled lo NARA by or on behaIf of former
Iresidenl George W. ush and former Vice-Iresidenl Richard .
Cheney. The rinciaI issue resenled is vhelher lhe records faII
vilhin IOIA's Ixemlion 6, vhich ermils lhe vilhhoIding of
"ersonneI and medicaI fiIes and simiIar fiIes lhe discIosure of vhich
vouId conslilule a cIearIy unvarranled invasion of ersonaI
rivacy." 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6). The dislricl courl (Kevin T. Duffy,
AB:C6) granled summary |udgmenl lo NARA, hoIding lhal
Ixemlion 6 aIies.
We concIude lhal lhe records are rolecled by Ixemlion 6.
Archivisls and Iibrarians have Iong refrained from discIosing
informalion aboul vho requesls maleriaIs from lheir coIIeclions and
vhal maleriaIs lhey are seeking, vilhoul lhe requesling arly's
consenl. These requesls of lhe former Iresidenl and Vice-Iresidenl
al issue here, made for uroses of lheir rivale research, erhas
for rearalion of memoirs, reveaI lheir reIiminary lhinking and
ersonaI mallers. The discIosure of lhis informalion vouId indeed
"conslilule a cIearIy unvarranled invasion of ersonaI rivacy."
AccordingIy, ve affirm.
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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)"*+,%-./(
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In assing lhe IresidenliaI Records Acl of 1978 (lhe "IRA"),
Congress made residenliaI and vice-residenliaI records lhe
roerly of lhe Uniled Slales, ending lhe hisloric raclice of
residenls laking ovnershi of records crealed during lheir
adminislralions. 44 U.S.C. 2202, 766 !5E"< +# F<5/6: G/./67, 978 I.2d
1269, 1277 n.19, 1284 (D.C. Cir. 1992). Under lhe IRA, "IresidenliaI
records" incIude:
documenlary maleriaIs, or any reasonabIy
segregabIe orlion lhereof, crealed or received by
lhe Iresidenl, his immediale slaff, or a unil or
individuaI of lhe Ixeculive Office of lhe Iresidenl
vhose funclion is lo advise and assisl lhe
Iresidenl, in lhe course of conducling aclivilies
vhich reIale lo or have an effecl uon lhe
carrying oul of lhe conslilulionaI, slalulory, or
olher officiaI or ceremoniaI dulies of lhe
Iresidenl.
44 U.S.C. 2201(2). The IRA enlrusls lhese residenliaI records lo
NARA. H:# 2203(f). Vice-residenliaI records are lrealed simiIarIy.
H:# 2207.
Iormer Iresidenl ush's records are housed al lhe NARA-
conlroIIed George W. ush IresidenliaI Library in DaIIas, Texas, and
former Vice-Iresidenl Cheney's al NARA's Washinglon, D.C.
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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archives. Like lhe olher hisloricaI records il mainlains, NARA
makes lhese records avaiIabIe lo lhe ubIic for research.
H:# 2203(f)(1), 36 C.I.R. 1254.1(b).
There are Iimils on access. IresidenliaI and vice-residenliaI
records are nol ubIicIy avaiIabIe during a eriod of u lo five years
vhiIe NARA rocesses and organizes records il receives. 44 U.S.C.
2204(b)(2)(A)-(). efore Ieaving office, a residenl or vice-
residenl may aIso designale a eriod of u lo lveIve years during
vhich cerlain records viII be unavaiIabIe lo lhe ubIic. H:# 2204(a).
During eriods vhen lhe records are nol yel avaiIabIe lo lhe
ubIic, former residenls and vice-residenls, or lheir designaled
reresenlalives, may access lhe archived records of lheir reseclive
adminislralions by submilling seciaI access requesls. H:# 2205(3).
The incumbenl residenl, lhe |udiciary, and Congress may aIso
requesl archived records of rior adminislralions, bul onIy in
conneclion vilh lheir officiaI dulies. H:# 2205(2). Al lhe ush
Library, once seciaI access requesls are received -- oflen by emaiI
and somelimes oraIIy -- a aer foIder is crealed refIecling lhe
requesl. The requesls "are Iogged by dale of receil, and reveaI lhe
idenlily of lhe secific requeslor (an aulhorized reresenlalive of
former Iresidenl George W. ush) and lhe secific ilem or
informalion soughl." }.A. al 113-14 16.
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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NARA mainlains lhal il lreals lhe seciaI access requesls
received from former officiaIs or lheir reresenlalives "in a manner
vhoIIy consislenl vilh hov |ilj handIe|sj lyicaI researcher requesls
in lerms of lhe rivacy and confidenliaIily afforded lo any
requeslors." H:# al 115 21. As sel forlh in ils slaff manuaI, NARA's
generaI oIicy on lhe discIosure of researcher requesls is as foIIovs:
"UnIess required by Iav, slaff members viII nol reveaI lhe sub|ecl of
a researcher's ro|ecl or lhe secific ilems rovided lo a researcher
vilhoul lhe exress consenl of lhe researcher." H:# al 116 21.
$$0 *99?12 #-$" %7@A726 35= /"%"12 %72B9527
y Ieller daled Oclober 21, 2010, Cook submilled a IOIA
requesl lo NARA seeking: (1) "coies of aII requesls for access lo
records received by lhe |ush Libraryj since Iebruary 1, 2009", (2)
"coies of aII requesls for access lo lhe records of former
Vice-Iresidenl Dick Cheney received by NARA slaff since Iebruary
1, 2009", and (3) "any subsequenl corresondence regarding lhose
requesls, vilh lhe excIusion of coies of records governed by lhe
|IRAj." H:# al 19. Cook did nol seek lhe ush/Cheney records
lhemseIves, he onIy soughl NARA's documenlalion of lhe requesls
for lhe records. His slaled urose for seeking lhese records vas "lo
gain insighl inlo lhe vay in vhich lhe former Iresidenl and Vice
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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Iresidenl have chosen lo shae lhe ubIic's ercelion of lheir lime
in office." }.A. al 8 5.
NARA resonded by Ieller daled December 1, 2010. The
agency exIained lhal requesls for access lo lhe ush/Cheney
records came in lhe form of eilher (a) seciaI access requesls
submilled by currenl and former officiaIs or (b) ubIic IOIA
requesls. Iirsl, vilh resecl lo lhe seciaI access requesls, lhe
agency slaled: "|NARAj lreals lhese requesls as researcher reference
requesls. . . . These records incIude bul are nol Iimiled lo lhe
foIIoving calegories: corresondence belveen NARA slaff and
researchers conlaining informalion aboul lhe research loic(s),
fieId(s) of inleresl, idenlificalion of requesled records, and olher
informalion furnished by lhe researcher." }.A. al 22. The agency
furlher informed Cook lhal, because il rolecls lhe rivacy of
researchers, il vouId vilhhoId lhe records of lhe seciaI access
requesls under IOIA's Ixemlion 6.
Second, vilh resecl lo Cook's IOIA demand for ubIic IOIA
requesls, NARA indicaled lhal "IOIA requeslers are nol sub|ecl lo
lhe same righl lo rivacy as . . . researchers." H:# al 23. Thus, lhe
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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agency made avaiIabIe lo Cook redacled coies of aII such IOIA
requesls, as veII as ils resonses lo lhose requesls.
2

Cook fiIed an adminislralive aeaI by Ieller daled }anuary
3, 2011, rolesling NARA's decision lo vilhhoId lhe records of lhe
seciaI access requesls. In resonse, NARA amended ils iniliaI
decision by Ieller daled }une 3, 2011. The agency dislinguished
seciaI access requesls submilled by lhe former officiaIs (former
Iresidenl ush, former Vice-Iresidenl Cheney, and lheir designaled
reresenlalives) from seciaI access requesls submilled by currenl
officiaIs (lhe incumbenl Iresidenl, Congress, and lhe |udiciary).
NARA deemed lhe former officiaIs' seciaI access requesls lo be
"researcher reference requesls lhal have been made |by orj on behaIf
of rivale cilizens" and lhus roerIy vilhheId under Ixemlion 6.
H:# al 32. In conlrasl, NARA deemed lhe currenl officiaIs' seciaI
access requesls lo be in furlherance of "officiaI business" and lhus
nol enlilIed lo roleclion as rivale researcher reference requesls.

2
Cook's IOIA requesl aIso soughl "|ajny agreemenls or memoranda of
underslanding belveen lhe |ush Libraryj and any researchers, schoIars, former
governmenl officiaIs, or any olher enlilies governing currenl or fulure access lo
records mainlained by lhe Library." }.A. al 19. The agency, hovever, found no
resonsive records.
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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H:# AccordingIy, Cook vas ermilled access lo lhe currenl officiaIs'
requesls, bul nol lhe former officiaIs' requesls.
Cook fiIed suil in lhe dislricl courl lo chaIIenge NARA's
faiIure lo roduce lhe records he requesled. The onIy issue on
aeaI is NARA's decision vilh resecl lo lhe seciaI access requesls
of lhe former officiaIs.
$$$0 ;<9877=45C2 )7:9<7 6D7 (426<486 *9A<6
In lhe dislricl courl, lhe arlies agreed lo narrov Cook's IOIA
requesl lo (a) records of lhe seciaI access requesls submilled by
former Iresidenl ush, former Vice-Iresidenl Cheney, or lheir
designaled reresenlalives, (b) NARA's vrillen resonses lo lhe
requesls, and (c) inlernaI NARA documenls memoriaIizing requesls
lhal vere nol in vriling. NARA idenlified 907 such records from
lhe ush records and 61 from lhe Cheney records.
NARA mainlained lhal lhe narroved records Cook soughl
vere exeml from discIosure under Ixemlion 6, vhiIe relaining
lhe righl lo asserl lhal olher IOIA exemlions aIy lo cerlain
conlenl vilhin lhe records. The arlies lhereafler sliuIaled lhal
"NARA firsl viII fiIe a molion for summary |udgmenl asserling
vhalever exemlions NARA conlends may roerIy be asserled on
a calegoricaI basis, meaning IegaI reasons lhal NARA asserls aIy
equaIIy lo aII documenls al issue in lhis aclion, and lo lhe enlirely of
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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each such documenl." H:# al 51. They furlher agreed lhal if lhe
molion did nol resoIve lhe suil in ils enlirely, NARA vouId lhen "be
enlilIed lo asserl vhalever exemlions il conlends aIy on a non-
calegoricaI basis in a second, subsequenl molion." H:#
NARA moved for summary |udgmenl asserling Ixemlion 6
calegoricaIIy. The dislricl courl delermined lhal lhe records Cook
seeks are "simiIar fiIes" for uroses of Ixemlion 6 because lhey
reveaI delaiIed informalion aboul lhe former officiaIs -- lhe idenlily
of lhe officiaI vho soughl informalion from NARA and vhal
informalion vas soughl. ,""- +# !./01 23*45+67 8 96*"3:7 2:;5<#, 921
I. Su. 2d 148, 155-56 (S.D.N.Y. 2013). The dislricl courl lhen
concIuded lhal, given lhe former officiaIs' rivacy inleresl in lheir
research inquiries and lhe minimaI ubIic inleresl invoIved,
discIosure vouId amounl lo an unvarranled invasion of ersonaI
rivacy. H:# al 156-57. ConsequenlIy, lhe dislricl courl granled
summary |udgmenl lo NARA. H:# al 157-58.
This aeaI foIIoved.
($E*.EE$-/
We reviev :6 <"+" a dislricl courl's summary |udgmenl
decision in a IOIA case. I"": +# J#K#H#, 432 I.3d 78, 82 (2d Cir. 2005).
Congress enacled IOIA "lo ierce lhe veiI of adminislralive
secrecy and lo oen agency aclion lo lhe Iighl of ubIic scruliny."
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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F#G# @6?0/ "> G/./6 +# 9.L, 502 U.S. 164, 173 (1991) (quoling @6?0/ ">
253 J"3*6 +# 9"76, 425 U.S. 352, 361 (1976)). Thus, IOIA mandales lhe
ubIic discIosure of records of federaI agencies uon requesl, unIess
one of nine slalulory exemlions aIies. 5 U.S.C. 552(a), (b)(1)-
(9), I"":, 432 I.3d al 82-83. ecause IOIA manifesls a "slrong
resumlion in favor of discIosure," 9.L, 502 U.S. al 173, ve
conslrue IOIA exemlions narrovIy, resoIving doubls in favor of
discIosure and imosing on lhe governmenl lhe burden of shoving
lhal an asserled exemlion indeed aIies. I"":, 432 I.3d al 83,
=631;.< +# F#G# @6?0/ "> AB7/5*6, 312 I.3d 100, 105 (2d Cir. 2002),
+.*./6:, 541 U.S. 970 (2004), 36.>>53;6:, 380 I.3d 110 (2d Cir. 2004).
On aeaI, Cook argues lhal NARA's asserlion of Ixemlion
6 is nol veII-founded and, aIlernaliveIy, lhal NARA shouId be
comeIIed lo segregale any orlions of lhe records lhal may faII
under Ixemlion 6. We address lhe aIicabiIily of Ixemlion 6
and lhe segregabiIily of lhe records in lurn.
$0 'F7GB6495 H
IOIA's Ixemlion 6 ermils lhe vilhhoIding of "ersonneI
and medicaI fiIes and simiIar fiIes lhe discIosure of vhich vouId
conslilule a cIearIy unvarranled invasion of ersonaI rivacy."
5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6). We emIoy a lvo-rong inquiry in deciding
vhelher lhe governmenl has correclIy vilhheId records under
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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Ixemlion 6. Iirsl, ve delermine vhelher lhe records in queslion
are "ersonneI," "medicaI," or "simiIar" fiIes. 277"*5./6: =3677 +# F#G#
@6?0/ "> @6>#, 554 I.3d 274, 291 (2d Cir. 2009), I"":, 432 I.3d al 86.
Second, if so, ve lhen "baIance lhe ubIic need for lhe informalion
againsl lhe individuaI's rivacy inleresl in order lo assess vhelher
discIosure vouId conslilule a cIearIy unvarranled invasion of
ersonaI rivacy." 277"*5./6: =3677, 554 I.3d al 291.
"0 I;7<29557> 35= &7=483> #4>72 35= E4G4>3< #4>72I
NARA mainlains lhal lhe records of lhe former officiaIs'
requesls for archived maleriaIs are "simiIar fiIes." We agree.
The hrase "simiIar fiIes" svees broadIy and has been
inlerreled by lhe Sureme Courl lo mean "delaiIed Governmenl
records on an individuaI vhich can be idenlified as aIying lo lhal
individuaI." F#G# @6?0/ "> G/./6 +# I.745<C/"< ="7/ ,"#, 456 U.S. 595,
602 (1982) (inlernaI quolalion marks omilled)M 766 .17" 9.L, 502 U.S.
al 173, 277"*5./6: =3677, 554 I.3d al 291, =631;.<, 312 I.3d al 106. The
Sureme Courl noled lhal il vouId be anomaIous for informalion
aboul a erson lo be rolecled by Ixemlion 6 because il vas found
in a "medicaI" or "ersonneI" fiIe, bul Iose roleclion if il haened
lo be found in anolher fiIe. G66 I.745<C/"< ="7/, 456 U.S. al 601
("|Tjhe roleclion of an individuaI's righl of rivacy|,j vhich
Congress soughl lo achieve by revenling lhe discIosure of
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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|informalionj vhich mighl harm lhe individuaI, sureIy vas nol
inlended lo lurn uon lhe IabeI of lhe fiIe vhich conlains lhe
damaging informalion." (inlernaI quolalion marks and cilalion
omilled) (firsl and lhird aIleralions in originaI)).
The Courl in I.745<C/"< ="7/ aIso secificaIIy re|ecled lhe
nolion lhal onIy fiIes conlaining "inlimale delaiIs" and "highIy
ersonaI" informalion couId quaIify as "simiIar fiIes." H:# al 600. As
lhe Courl oinled oul, "'ersonneI and medicaI fiIes,' lhe lvo
benchmarks for measuring lhe lerm 'simiIar fiIes,' are IikeIy lo
conlain much informalion aboul a arlicuIar individuaI lhal is nol
inlimale," such as Iace and dale of birlh, dale of marriage, and
emIoymenl slalus. H:#
The case Iav aIso makes cIear lhal lo quaIify as a "simiIar fiIe"
under Ixemlion 6, a record need nol be Iike a ersonneI fiIe in lhe
sense lhal il is emIoymenl-reIaled or a medicaI fiIe in lhe sense lhal
il conlains a record of a erson's medicaI hislory or medicaI
lrealmenl and care. Indeed, lhe record need nol even be a "fiIe."
Hence, lhe foIIoving lyes of records have been deemed lo be
"simiIar fiIes" for uroses of Ixemlion 6: Iassorl Office records
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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reveaIing cilizenshi slalus,
3
an invesligalion reorl reveaIing
aIIeged misconducl,
4
Iellers lo Guanlanamo ay delainees reveaIing
lhe names and addresses of famiIy members,
5
and records of
inlervievs of deorled aIiens reveaIing lheir idenlilies.
6

AccordingIy, a record is a "simiIar fiIe" if il conlains ersonaI
informalion idenlifiabIe lo a arlicuIar erson. I.745<C/"< ="7/, 456
U.S. al 599-602, 277"*5./6: =3677, 554 I.3d al 291.
7
As lhe Courl noled
in I.745<C/"< ="7/, "Congress' rimary urose in enacling
Ixemlion 6 vas lo rolecl individuaIs from lhe in|ury and
embarrassmenl lhal can resuIl from lhe unnecessary discIosure of
ersonaI informalion." H:# al 599.
We concIude lhal lhe records Cook seeks are "simiIar fiIes," as
lhey conlain delaiIed records conlaining ersonaI informalion
idenlifiabIe lo lhe former officiaIs and lheir reresenlalives. Cook

3
I.745<C/"< ="7/, 456 U.S. al 602.
4
=631;.<, 312 I.3d al 106.
5
277"*5./6: =3677, 554 I.3d al 291.
6
9.LN 502 U.S. al 173.
7
To be sure, lhis inlerrelalion of "simiIar fiIes" does nol mean lhal lhe hrase
has no Iimils, as "|ijnformalion unreIaled lo any arlicuIar erson resumabIy
vouId nol salisfy lhe lhreshoId |simiIar fiIesj lesl." I.745<C/"< ="7/, 456 U.S. al
602 n.4.
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
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seeks records lhal shov vhal secific archived maleriaIs vere
soughl by former Iresidenl ush and former Vice-Iresidenl Cheney
and lheir reresenlalives. The aroximaleIy one lhousand records
idenlified by NARA "reveaI lhe idenlily of lhe secific requeslor,"
}.A. al 113 16, and incIude "corresondence belveen NARA slaff
and researchers conlaining informalion aboul lhe research loic(s),
fieId(s) of inleresl, idenlificalion of requesled records, and olher
informalion furnished by lhe researcher," 5:# al 22. ecause lhey
reveaI vhal archived maleriaIs vere soughl from NARA, vho
soughl lhose maleriaIs, and lhe generaI research loics and fieIds of
inleresl of arlicuIar requeslors, lhe records Cook seeks conlain
informalion aboul secific ersons lhal can be idenlified as aIying
lo lhose ersons and are lherefore "simiIar fiIes."
Cook insisls lhal, by laking advanlage of lhe IRA's granl of
earIy access lo ubIicIy unavaiIabIe records, lhe former officiaIs have
"voIunlariIy engage|dj vilh lhe governmenl lo receive some benefil
or riviIege" and are lhus Iess enlilIed lo lhe roleclion of
Ixemlion 6. AeIIanl's r. al 17. Ior lhis roosilion, Cook ciles
!6O7'=3677 +# F#G# @6?0/ "> P";61.<: G6*#, 489 I.3d 1173 (11lh Cir.
2007), and Q16*# J3"</563 J"B<:# +# R>>5*6 @53# "> !./01 H</6115C6<*6, 639
I.3d 876 (9lh Cir. 2010). To lhe exlenl lhal lhe former officiaIs and
lheir reresenlalives may have voIunlariIy engaged vilh lhe
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
-16-
governmenl lo receive benefils or riviIeges, lhal facl onIy enlers
inlo lhe Ixemlion 6 caIcuIus vhen deciding hov lo baIance lheir
rivacy inleresl againsl lhe ubIic inleresl in discIosure, il is nol
reIevanl lo lhe lhreshoId queslion of vhelher lhe records are
"simiIar fiIes." G66 !6O7'=3677, 489 I.3d al 1202, Q16*# J3"</563, 639
I.3d al 886-87.
)0 I*>73<>J .5K3<<3567= $5L32495 9: ;<4L38JI
We nov consider vhelher discIosure of lhe records vouId
amounl lo an unvarranled invasion of rivacy, lhe "crux" of lhe
Ixemlion 6 inquiry. !6O7'=3677, 489 I.3d al 1197. In doing so, ve
veigh lhe rivacy inleresls of lhe former officiaIs in lhe records
againsl lhe ubIic inleresl in "oening agency aclion lo lhe Iighl of
ubIic scruliny." 277"*5./6: =3677, 554 I.3d al 291.
M0 ;<4L38J $567<726
"'The baIancing anaIysis for IOIA Ixemlion 6 requires lhal
ve firsl delermine vhelher discIosure of lhe fiIes vouId
comromise a subslanliaI, as oosed lo :6 ;5<5;57, rivacy inleresl,
because if no significanl rivacy inleresl is imIicaled IOIA
demands discIosure.'" S"<C +# R>>5*6 "> =637# TC;/#, 692 I.3d 185, 191
(2d Cir. 2012) (quoling TB1/5 2C T6:5. SS, +# @6?0/ "> 2C35*#, 515 I.3d
1224, 1229 (D.C. Cir. 2008)), .**"3: 277"*5./6: =3677, 554 I.3d al 286,
J6:# S.D"3 961./5"<7 2B/4# +# F#G# @6?0/ "> U6/63.<7 2>>.537, 958 I.2d
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
-17-
503, 510 (2d Cir. 1992). Iurlhermore, lhe Sureme Courl leaches lhal
"bolh lhe common Iav and lhe IileraI underslandings of rivacy
encomass lhe individuaI's conlroI of informalion concerning his or
her erson." F#G# @6?0/ "> AB7/5*6 +# 96?"3/637 ,";;# J"3 J366:"; "> /46
=3677, 489 U.S. 749, 763 (1989), 766 .17" 5:# al 765 (recognizing rivacy
inleresl in II "ra sheel").
8
Thus, "regardIess of lhe nalure of lhe
informalion conlained in lhem, discIosure of records conlaining
ersonaI delaiIs aboul rivale cilizens can infringe significanl
rivacy inleresls." U6/63.<7 2>>.537, 958 I.2d al 510 (inlernaI
quolalion marks omilled).
We are ersuaded lhal lhe former officiaIs have more lhan a
:6 ;5<5;57 rivacy inleresl in lhe nondiscIosure of lheir requesls for
archived maleriaIs. Informalion aboul vhal archived maleriaIs lhe
former officiaIs requesled from NARA vouId reveaI ersonaI delaiIs
-- vhal lhey vere lhinking, considering, and Ianning as lhey

8
96?"3/637 ,";;5//66 inlerreled Ixemlion 7, vhich ermils lhe vilhhoIding of
records galhered for Iav enforcemenl uroses vhere discIosure "couId
reasonabIy be execled lo conslilule an unvarranled invasion of ersonaI
rivacy." 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(7). AIlhough Ixemlion 7 affords a grealer degree of
rivacy roleclion lhan Ixemlion 6,"lhe sorl of rivacy inleresl lhal musl firsl
be shovn before roleclion is afforded" is lhe same for bolh exemlions. J6:#
S.D"3 961./5"<7 2B/4# +# F#G# @6?0/ "> U6/63.<7 2>>.537, 958 I.2d 503, 509 (2d Cir.
1992). 96?"3/637 ,";;5//66's discussion of rivacy lherefore informs lhe anaIysis
under Ixemlion 6 as veII. G66 5:# al 510.
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
-18-
lransilioned back lo rivale Iife afler lheir years of service lo lhe
counlry. The imIicaled rivacy inleresls are comeIIing. The
former officiaIs have a significanl inleresl in deveIoing lheir ideas
rivaleIy, free from unvanled ubIic scruliny. There are comeIIing
reasons lo incIude vilhin lhe rivacy roleclion eslabIished by
Ixemlion 6 lhe sub|ecls of a erson's research and inleIIecluaI
inquiry, Iesl such aclivily be chiIIed. G66 F<5/6: G/./67 +# 9B;61L, 345
U.S. 41, 57 (1953) ("When lhe Iighl of ubIicily may reach any
sludenl, any leacher, inquiry viII be discouraged.") (DougIas, A#,
concurring).
In addilion, lhe confidenliaI nalure of research requesls is
veII-recognized. AII fifly slales and lhe Dislricl of CoIumbia rolecl
lhe confidenliaIily of lhe records of a erson's use of ubIic Iibrary
maleriaIs.
9
SimiIarIy, lhe "Code of Ilhics for Archivisls" aroved
by lhe Sociely of American Archivisls commands archivisls lo
"resecl aII users' righls lo rivacy by mainlaining lhe
confidenliaIily of lheir research and rolecling any ersonaI

9
G66N 6#C#, CaI. Gov'l Code 6267 (Wesl 2008 & Su. 2013) (CaIifornia), Conn.
Gen. Slal. 11-25 (2001) (Conneclicul), D.C. Code 39-108 (2002) (Dislricl of
CoIumbia), IIa. Slal. 257.261 (2002) (IIorida), N.H. Rev. Slal. Ann. 91-A:5
(2002) (Nev Hamshire), N.}. Slal. Ann. 18A:73-43.2 (Wesl 2002) (Nev }ersey),
N.Y. C.I.L.R. 4509 (McKinney 2002) (Nev York), 24 Ia. Cons. Slal. 9375
(2002) (IennsyIvania), Vl. Slal. Ann. lil. 1, 317(c)(19) (2001) (Vermonl).
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
-19-
informalion coIIecled aboul lhe users."
10
Likevise, lhe "Code of
Ilhics" of lhe American Library Associalion recognizes "each Iibrary
user's righl lo rivacy and confidenliaIily vilh resecl lo
informalion soughl or received and resources consuIled, borroved,
acquired or lransmilled."
11

Cook argues lhal lhe rivacy inleresls of lhe former officiaIs
are enlilIed lo onIy diminished roleclion because lhey are "quasi-
governmenlaI aclors" vho conlinue lo receive governmenlaI saIaries
and secrel service roleclion and are granled seciaI access lo lhe
records before lhey become ubIicIy avaiIabIe. We are nol
ersuaded. An individuaI does nol Iose her righl lo rivacy mereIy
because she once served lhe governmenl in an officiaI caacily or
because she receives benefils from lhe governmenl, such as secrel
service roleclion (in recognilion of lhe conlinued danger lo her
ersonaI safely incurred as a resuIl of her former governmenl
service). Moreover, lhe baIance slruck by lhe IRA and ils inlerIay
vilh IOIA vouId be undermined if ve vere lo hoId lhal lhe former
officiaIs vere nol enlilIed lo lhe fuII roleclion of Ixemlion 6 on

10
hll://vvv2.archivisls.org/slalemenls/saa-core-vaIues-slalemenl-and-code-of-
elhics-code_of_elhics, (Iasl visiled }uIy 1, 2014).
11
hll://vvv.aIa.org/advocacy/roelhics/codeofelhics/codeelhics, (Iasl visiled
}uIy 1, 2014).
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
-20-
lhe lheory lhal lhey en|oyed onIy a "diminished" rivacy inleresl.
We musl kee lhe hisloricaI conlexl in mind: before lhe assage of
lhe IRA, lhe Iresidenl's aers vere his roerly afler he Iefl office,
and he vas free lo consuIl his aers al viII, comIeleIy rivaleIy.
The IRA gives no indicalion lhal Congress inlended lo aIler lhe
Iresidenl's hisloricaIIy unfellered access lo his aers by, for
examIe, making his requesls lo access lhem sub|ecl lo ubIic
discIosure. Indeed, lhe Iresidenl and his designaled reresenlalives
are lhe onIy ersons afforded unreslricled access lo lhese records
under lhe IRA. G66 44 U.S.C. 2205(3).
N0 ;AO>48 $567<726
The ubIic does have an inleresl, of course, in accessing
governmenl documenls "lo ierce lhe veiI of adminislralive secrecy"
and lo oen agency aclion lo "ubIic scruliny." 9"76, 425 U.S. al 361.
Hence, ve musl consider "lhe exlenl lo vhich discIosure vouId
serve lhe 'core urose of lhe IOIA,' vhich is 'conlribul|ingj
significanlIy lo ubIic underslanding "> /46 "?63./5"<7 "3 .*/5+5/567 ">
/46 C"+63<;6</." F#G# @6?0/ "> @6># +# J6:# S.D"3 961./5"<7 2B/4#, 510
U.S. 487, 495 (1994) (emhasis and aIleralion in originaI) (quoling
96?"3/637 ,";;5//66, 489 U.S. al 775). Indeed, "|gjoaIs olher lhan
oening agency aclion lo ubIic scruliny are deemed unfil lo be
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
-21-
accommodaled under IOIA vhen lhey cIash vilh rivacy righls."
U6/63.<7 2>>.537, 958 I.2d al 510-11.
The ubIic inleresls asserled by Cook do nol |uslify lhe
subslanliaI inlrusion inlo lhe former officiaIs' rivacy. Iirsl, Cook
insisls lhal
|djiscIosure of lhe seciaI access requesls --
incIuding lhe idenlilies of lhe requeslers and lhe
descrilion of lhe records soughl -- vouId enabIe
lhe ubIic lo assess lhe reIalionshi belveen
overfuI, quasi-governmenlaI Iormer OfficiaIs
and an indeendenl agency lhal may nol have
aIigning inleresls. In lhis vay, seeing hov NARA
resonds lo seciaI access requesls rovides lhe
ubIic vilh insighl inlo "vhal lheir governmenl
is u lo."
AeIIanl's r. al 37 (quoling 96?"3/637 ,";;5//66, 489 U.S. al 773).
We are unersuaded. WhiIe informalion as lo hov NARA resonds
lo seciaI access requesls submilled by lhe former officiaIs may shed
some Iighl on lhe inlernaI funclioning of lhe agency, knovIedge of
vhal 7?6*5>5* informalion vas soughl and by vhom sheds IillIe Iighl
on hov NARA is carrying oul ils obIigalions.
Second, Cook argues lhal "discIosure viII shov lhe exlenl lo
vhich lhe seciaI access given lo former officiaIs . . . is acluaIIy being
used lo faciIilale lhe rearalion of memoirs as Congress inlended,
or for olher uroses (e.g., lhe conlinued vaging of oIilicaI
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
-22-
ballIes)." AeIIanl's ReIy r. al 14. AIlhough lhe IRA's IegisIalive
hislory does indeed suggesl lhal earIy access vas granled lo former
officiaIs lo faciIilale lhe vriling of memoirs, Cook ciles nolhing in
lhe slalule Iimiling hov lhe former officiaIs may use lhe records
lhey receive from NARA. Indeed, lhe slalule exressIy gives lhe
former officiaIs unreslrained access lo lheir residenliaI and vice-
residenliaI records. 44 U.S.C. 2205(3) ("|Tjhe IresidenliaI records
of a former Iresidenl shaII be avaiIabIe lo such former Iresidenl or
his designaled reresenlalive."). Il is lherefore nol NARA's duly lo
oIice hov lhe former officiaIs use lhe residenliaI records lhey
receive. In Iighl of lhis, discIosure of lhe former officiaIs' requesls
for records vouId do IillIe lo advance lhe ubIic underslanding of
hov NARA is carrying oul 5/7 dulies.
In sum, ve concIude lhal lhe former officiaIs' comeIIing
rivacy inleresls oulveigh any ubIic inleresl in discIosure.
$$0 E7C<7C3O4>46J 9: 6D7 %789<=2
We aIso re|ecl Cook's aIlernalive argumenl lhal NARA shouId
be comeIIed lo redacl lhe secific orlions of lhe records lhal faII
under Ixemlion 6.
In Iighl of lhe sliuIalions enlered inlo by NARA and Cook,
and Cook's faiIure in oosing summary |udgmenl lo argue
segregabiIily, lhal issue is nol roerIy before us. The arlies agreed
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
-23-
lo Iiligale onIy exemlions lhal aIy on a calegoricaI basis lo "aII
documenls al issue in lhis aclion, and lo lhe enlirely of each such
documenl." }.A. al 51 1. Thus, lhe onIy issue before lhe dislricl
courl vas vhelher Ixemlion 6 aIied lo .11 lhe records Cook
soughl. NARA exressIy reserved lhe righl lo Iiligale exemlions
lhal aIy lo some of lhe records on a non-calegoricaI basis, if ils
molion did nol "resuIl in a finaI |udgmenl for NARA dismissing lhe
comIainl in ils enlirely." H:# al 51 2. NARA's molion did resuIl in
lhe dismissaI of lhe enlire comIainl, hovever, and lhe dislricl courl
did nol address lhe issue of segregabiIily as Cook did nol raise lhe
issue. In Iighl of lhese circumslances, lhere is no reason for us lo
reach lhe queslion nov.
In any evenl, segregalion vouId roduce IillIe of vaIue here.
IOIA exressIy aulhorizes lhe redaclion of records lo revenl an
invasion of rivacy, given lhal "lhe oIicy of informing lhe ubIic
aboul lhe oeralion of ils Governmenl can be adequaleIy served in
some cases vilhoul unnecessariIy comromising individuaI
inleresls in rivacy." 9.L, 502 U.S. al 174. "|Aj courl may |hoveverj
decIine lo order an agency lo commil significanl lime and resources
lo lhe searalion of dis|oinled vords, hrases, or even senlences
vhich laken searaleIy or logelher have minimaI or no informalion
COOK V. NAT'L ARCHIVIS & RICORDS ADMIN.
-24-
conlenl." T6.: @./. ,6</#N H<*# +# F#G# @6?0/ "> 253 J"3*6, 566 I.2d 242,
261 n.55 (D.C. Cir. 1977).
If ve vere lo order NARA lo redacl lhe offending informalion
-- descrilions of vhich officiaIs (or lheir reresenlalives) soughl
records, vhal records lhey soughl, and any NARA resonse lhal
mighl reveaI such informalion -- very IillIe vouId be Iefl of lhe
records of lhe seciaI access requesls. ComeIIing NARA lo
underlake lhe reviev and redaclion of aImosl one lhousand records
lo roduce IillIe of vaIue vouId be a vasle of lime and resources.
We decIine lo comeI NARA lo engage in lhis exercise.
*-/*P.E$-/
The |udgmenl of lhe dislricl courl is "##$%&'(.