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Voluntary tools for environmental

Voluntary tools for environmental


management
management
University of Padova University of Padova
A.A. 2013 A.A. 2013- -2014 2014
Second Cycle Degree Programme (MSc Level) in Environmental Engin Second Cycle Degree Programme (MSc Level) in Environmental Engineering eering
Ing. Alessandro Manzardo
Ing. Alessandro Manzardo
Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment
The market is demanding for green
production and products
Over 100 billion euros will be invested in Italy to the
latest requirement of the 2020 European Policy (IEFE-
Bocconi 2009)
To restart economic growth towards low-carbon ecnomy
investements for low carbon technologies and markets will
be the 4% of the world GDP within 18 months (Leeds
University 2009)
The world has its best chance in decades to make serious
progress on both the climate and economic fronts (Ban
Ki-moon-United nations 2009)
The main bank gorpu in the owrld are working togheter to set
specific investments fund for those companies that are
working for cleaner production and consumption
(CDP,2009)
The Green Consumer profile
Despite of ecnomic crisis, the green products
market share is growing fast to 62%. Conusmers
seems to pay even more attention when looking at
social responsibility. Carbon Trust 2009
78
80
84
52
84
61
85
0 20 40 60 80 100
USA
Canada
UK
Giappone
Germania
Francia
Italia
Pagherebbero il
10% in pi per un
prodotto fatto
rispettando la
societ e
l'ambiente
Fonte:Camera di Commercio di Milano - 2005
Risks related to resource availability
Physical Risks: access to water resources and water related services.
Compliance Risks: regulation and administrative procedures
Market Risks: Corporate Responsability and reputation
Financial Risks: water and energy costs rising, fall in sells and profits as a
consequence of above mentioned risks
COMPANIES NEED TOOLS TO ASSESS AND MANAGE ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACTS RELATED TO WATER
WATER ENERGY
CESQA 5
ISO standards
An International Standard consists in a set of requirements used to
accomplish a task in a consistent manner recognized at international level
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest
developer and publisher of International Standards
Main characteristics:
Result from a transparent and consesus-based process
Based on principles of transparency, openess,
impartiality and voluntariety
Voluntary Application
TERMINOLOGY
ISO 14050
PROCESS ORIENTED PRODUCT ORIENTED
Water footprint
ISO/DIS 14046!
EMS
ISO 14001 - ISO 14004;
ISO 14005; ISO 14006
"#$it
ISO 19011, ISO 14015
EPE
ISO 14031; ISO/TS 14033
ISO/NP 14034
Co%%#ni&ation
ISO 14063
Green 'o#(e Ga(
ISO 14064 part 1,2,3; ISO 14065;
ISO 14066; ISO/TR 14069
Materia) f)o* &o(t a&&o#ntin+
ISO 14051
Life C,&)e "((e((%ent
ISO 14040-44; ISO/TR 14047
ISO/TS 14048
ISO/TR 14049
ISO/DTS 140-1
E&o)a.e))in+
ISO 14020, ISO 14021
ISO 14024, ISO 14025
ISO NWIP 14026
Pro$#&t en/iron%enta) a(pe&t(
ISO/TR 14062, ISO Gui! 64, ISO
14045
Or+ani0ationa) LC"
ISO/DTS 140-!
Pro$#&t &ar.on
ISO/TS 1406-
S#pp), &1ain G'G
ISO/TR 14062
Voluntary tools for environmental management
HDPE Botttle HDPE Botttle HDPE Botttle HDPE Botttle
Stock of HDPE
grains in Silos
and Quality
Control
Plastic
Extrusion
Trimming and
sterilization
(H2O)
Filling and
capping
Secondary
packaging
Final Product
Stock
Bottle Blowing
What the Company should be aware of
(environmental impact perspective)?
Beverage Carton Beverage Carton Beverage Carton Beverage Carton
Stock of rolls
Beverage carton
Material
Filling and
capping
Secondary
packaging
Final Product
Stock
What the Company should be aware of
(environmental impact perspective)?
What process would you go for?
Beverage Carton production Beverage Carton production Beverage Carton production Beverage Carton production
PET
grains
Extrusion
Lamination
Final Product
Stock
Aluminu
m Foil
Paper
..What if the company have to produce the
beverage cartons by itself?
Having a limited view can result in environmental
burden shift!!!
CESQA 12
Life Cycle Approach
Look at products, processes and services with a cradle to gate approach
in order not to shift impacts from one stage of the life cycle to another!
FROM CRADLE FROM CRADLE
TO GRAVE TO GRAVE
The very firts analysis are from the 1969 when
Coca Cola wanted to understand which was
the best packaging for its drink
Glass? Plastic? or Alluminium can?
which of this material is the best for reuse at the
end of life?
Which is the best management strategy at the
end of life of the product?
Reuse? Disposal?
HISTORY OF PRODUCT BASED LCA
First studies (early 70)
Energy Efficiency
Raw material conusmption
Waste management
Development (80, 90)
Corporate responsibility
Boom (1992)
UN Earth Summit
Europe(2005)
Key role in the Europena Policy on Envrionment
Petrol crisis
LCA is among the most promising new tools for a wide
range of environmental management tasks
Ecolabel, EPD, transports, recycling, plastic material..
Resouces analysis, focus on
specific issues
HISTORY OF PRODUCT BASED LCA
Impacts
Climate change
Energy
use
Solid
waste
Acidification
Eutrophication
Human
Toxicity
Others.
Carbon Footprint
Water Footprint
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
TetraRex PET TetraRex PET TetraRex PET TetraRex PET TetraRex PET
Produzione Confezionamento Distribuzione Finevita Totale
Eco-profile
THE EVOLUTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE APPROACH
Environmental
Management
Life cycle approach: potential applications
Focus on environmental issues form the
very beginning of the design processes
leads to lower environmental impacts and
costs
2.
2.
Design
Design
:
:
3.
3.
Marketing
Marketing
Management:
Management:
< environmental Impacts
> Material and energy efficiency
< input
< waste
< costs < costs
CESQA
17
LCA ed ecodesign
En. Impact
Product cost
Life cycle cost paid
by stakeholders
Cost definition
,
Environmental
Impacts
x
Concept
x
Pilot
x
Market Design Production Product market life End of life
Il ciclo di vita del prodotto/servizio
LCA tool according to ISO 14040-44
Lets go back to Awesome Beverage Case
study..
Goal and scope definition
Objective of the study
Determine which packaging system is better to contain the innovative free
range milk with the lowest potential environmental impacts.
The results will be used by the management to take decision on how to
equip the new production site.
The results are not intended to be disclosed to the public
Function and functional unit (.the reporting unit)
Contain one litre of milk
Product Systems
All the processes involved in the production, distribution and disposal of HDPE
bottle and Beverage Cartons in Italy
emissions
BOTTLE
steam water
water electric power
electric power methane
methane other fuels PACKAGED
other fuels steam PRODUCT
emissions
HDPE waste
air emissions
caps, labels, seals
HDPE waste
emissions
HDPE waste matters
* outside the system boundaries
emissions emissions emissions
RAW MATERIALS EXTRACTION
AND MANUFACTURING:
BOTTLE
PRODUCTION BOTTLE FILLING
AND
PACKAGING
TRANSPORT
Virgin HDPE
Titanium dioxide
Black carbon
*TRANSPORT TO LARGE RETAIL
CENTERS
AUXILIARY MATERIALS
EXTRACTION AND
MANUFACTURING:
*LARGE RETAIL CENTERS AND
TRANSPORT TO RETAILERS
TRASPORT
Bottle top
Labels
Seals
*RETAILERS AND TRANSPORT TO
CONSUMERS
garbage
dump
disposal
52%
TRANSPORT *USE
WASTE MATTERS
TREATMENT
*TRANSPORT
material
recovery
24%
heat
treatment
24%
END OF LIFE
heat treatment 100%
Goal and scope definition
emissions
emissions emissions emissions
emissions
hydrogen peroxide
electric power
compressed air
steam
cooling water
strip emissions
electric power lubricating oil
emissions methane PACKAGED
gas oil FOIL-LINED PACKAGE PRODUCT
refrigerants
emissions
Waste: aluminium, paper, polyethylene
Refuse: cleaning clothes with ink
part of machineries, ferrous and
non-ferrous wreckages
* outside the system boundaries
material
recovery
37,6%
heat
treatment
12,7%
garbage
dump
disposal
49,7%
*TRANSPORT
WASTE MATTERS TREATMENT
Photopolymer
TRANSPORT *USE
FILLING PACKAGING
emissions
TRANSPORT
Cardboard
Pallet
*RETAILERS AND TRANSPORT TO
CONSUMERS
Shrink film
waste (aluminium, paper,
polyethylene)
*TRANSPORT TO LARGE RETAIL
CENTERS
AUXILIARY
MATERIALS
EXTRACTION AND
MANUFACTURING :
*LARGE RETAIL CENTERS AND
TRANSPORT TO RETAILERS
TRANSPORT
paper: recycle
aluminium + polyethylene:
energy recovery
END OF LIFE
Cardboard cores
RAW MATERIALS
EXTRACTION AND
MANUFACTURING:
PRODUCTION
Paper
Aluminium foil
Polyethylene
Ink
TRANSPORT
Goal and scope definition
Potential approaches:
-Gate to gate Only production processes are considered
-Cradle to gate from raw materials to the output of a specific
stage of the life cycle such as production
- Cradle to grave encompasses all the life cycle of the products
Inventory analysis consists of the gatahering of all relevant da Inventory analysis consists of the gatahering of all relevant data ta
(material and energy flows ) of the products systems Input (material and energy flows ) of the products systems Input- -output output
approach). approach).
Referred to
the product system
Input-output includes:
Use of resources
Release to air, soil, warter
These data are collected in reference withe the objective of the study
(e.g. focusing on climate change we would collect data on GHG
emissions).
Impact assessment are based on these data.
PRIMARY DATA: directly measured and collected on the field
SECONDARI DATA: from data base!
TERTIARY DATA: from estimation
Life Cycle Inventory Analysis
IMPACT CATEGORIES ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
Renewable sources deplation Use of resources
Non Renewable sources deplation Use of resources
Climate Change (Crbon Footprint) Emissions to air
Ozone layer deplation Emissions to air
Human Toxicity Emissions to air, water, soil
Eco Toxicity Emissions to wateer and soils
Photochemical effect Emissions to air
Acidification Emissions to air
Eutrophication Emissions to air, water, soil
Noise Noise production
Life Cycle Impact Assessment
Global warming Potential
Eco profile of the product life cycle
Optional steps
Normalization: determine the gravity of the impact to a reference value
Aggregation
Weighting
Quality data Analysis (uncertainty and sensitivity)
Optional steps
Normalization: determine the gravity of the impact to a reference value
Aggregation
Weighting
Quality data Analysis (uncertainty and sensitivity)
Mandatory steps
1. Selection of impact categories, indicators and quantification models
1. Selection of impact categories, indicators and quantification models
2. Classification: of inventory data within impact categories
2. Classification: of inventory data within impact categories
3. Carachterization: quantification of impact categories
3. Carachterization: quantification of impact categories
Impact assessment steps
TERMINOLOGY
ISO 14050
PROCESS ORIENTED PRODUCT ORIENTED
Water footprint
ISO/DIS 14046!
EMS
ISO 14001 - ISO 14004;
ISO 14005; ISO 14006
"#$it
ISO 19011, ISO 14015
EPE
ISO 14031; ISO/TS 14033
ISO/NP 14034
Co%%#ni&ation
ISO 14063
Green 'o#(e Ga(
ISO 14064 part 1,2,3; ISO 14065;
ISO 14066; ISO/TR 14069
Materia) f)o* &o(t a&&o#ntin+
ISO 14051
Life C,&)e "((e((%ent
ISO 14040-44; ISO/TR 14047
ISO/TS 14048
ISO/TR 14049
ISO/DTS 140-1
E&o)a.e))in+
ISO 14020, ISO 14021
ISO 14024, ISO 14025
ISO NWIP 14026
Pro$#&t en/iron%enta) a(pe&t(
ISO/TR 14062, ISO Gui! 64, ISO
14045
Or+ani0ationa) LC"
ISO/DTS 140-!
Pro$#&t &ar.on
ISO/TS 1406-
S#pp), &1ain G'G
ISO/TR 14062
Voluntary tools for environmental management
Product Carbon Footprint ISO/TS 14067
Carbon footprint: a measure expressed in CO2
equivalent to represent the impacts of a product,
a process on climate change
1)It is not a comprehensive assessment but focused
only on climate change
2)Results of an LCA related to climate change
category and of a Carbon Footprint are the same but
are reported differently
Carbon Footprint of HDPE Bottle
Carbon Footprint of Beverage Carton
Comparative Carbon Footprint?
Eco-profile (Eco-indicator 99)
What is a Water Footprint?
integrated by Hoekstra in 2002
Comprehensive indicator of freshwater resources appropriation. Products, Nation,
Population
(Hoekstra et al., 2011)
Evolved with the support of the Life Cycle Assessment
community.
Metric(s) that quantify(ies) the potential environmental impacts related to water (ISO
14046/DIS2). Products, Processes, Organization.
The concept of Virtual Water was firstly introduced by
Allan in the 90s
Water needed for the production of a productglobal trade of
embedded water into products.
CESQA 34
WF = WF
BLUE
+ WF
GREY
+ WF
GREEN
Hoekstra
The Water Footprint Network model
The ISO 14046 model
WATER FOOTPRINT
INVENTORY
WATER FOOTPRINT
midpoint/endpoint level
Water Availability Footprint
When the only relevant impact is Scarcity
Water Footprint Profile
Comprehensive impacts:
scarcity, eutrophication
The ISO 14046 model
Endpoint damage categories
WF WF WF WF WF WF
Water Footprint Profile
Resources Human Health
Ecosystems
Within LCA
Other
impacts
Other
impacts
Other
impacts
Resources
Human Health Ecosystems
WF WF WF WF
WF WF
The ISO 14046 model
Goal of the study
GOAL OF THE STUDY. GOAL OF THE STUDY.
Compare Water Accounting Water Accounting for organic and non-organic
cultivation in a specific location; (WFN)
Quantification of the Water Footprint for a jar of 330 grams of
Organic strawberry Jam (LCA Approach_WSI)
Manzardo A.
*
, Mazzi A., Niero M., Toniolo S., Scipioni A. : Water footprint accounting of organic and non-organic
strawberries including ancillary materials: a case study. Proceeding LCA FOOD 2012.
1) Boundaries of analysis
WATER ACCOUNTING (organic and non WATER ACCOUNTING (organic and non- -organic) organic)
Blue, green and grey water of processes
are assessed (Hoekstra et al., 2011)
CROPWAT model is employed
(http://www.fao.org/nr/water/infores_datab
ases_cropwat.html) to determine Blue and
Green Water.
The results are expressed as l/kg of
strawberries
Water Accounting
1) Water Inventory
Organic Organic Non Organic Non Organic
Yield of cultivation [20 t/ha]
Natural fertilizers used and leaching
rate
Data refer to a 15 months period between 2009 and 2010
Yield of cultivation [26 t/ha]
Chemical fertilizers used and leaching
rate
The two fields are located in the same location and data
collected using the same tools
Climate data (climate station located in the field)
Primary data of irrigation water volume
Micro-irrigation is used on both cases
1) Water Accounting
The organic farming method in this case study resulted to be more
water intensive than the non-organic one. This result strongly depends on
the yield of the two farming methods in the specific production site.
NON ORGANIC NON ORGANIC
FARMING FARMING
ORGANIC ORGANIC
FARMING FARMING
Green Water [l/kg] 90.7 117.9
Blue Water [l/kg] 98.1 127.5
Grey Water [l/kg] 40.0 2.5
Total [l/kg] 228.8 247.9
These are site-specific data!! The results can vary
signicantly in other location and using other
cultivation methods. Uncertainty need to be
addressed!
2) Boundaries of the analysis
PRODUCT WATER FOOTPRINT PRODUCT WATER FOOTPRINT
(organic) (organic)
A life cycle approach is adopted
Water Stress Index (WSI) is
employed (Pfister et al., 2009)
Functional Unit: 330g of organic
strawberry jam sold in Italy
The results are expressed as
l/Functional Unit (FU)
SYSTEM
BOUNDARIES
2) Water Inventory
Yield of cultivation [20 t/ha]
Natural fertilizers used
Transport of material (from suppliers and from Site 1 to Site 2)
Ancillary materials involved in the process
Water Stress
Index (WSI)
Data refer to a 15 months period between 2009 and 2010
Impacts related to water limited to
stress
Metodo: Pfister et al, 2009
2) Inventory assesment
The farming processes resulted to be responsible for
the majority of the product water footprint. Other processes
account for over the 10% of the product overall water footprint
Accounting: 237,7 l/FU Footprinting: 88,4 l/FU
Metodo: Pfister et al, 2009
Identification of
hot-spot
2) Impact Assessment: water footprint progile
Example of a product water footprint
Contribution analysis, identification of hotspot related to
consumptive and degradative water use
Water
availability
Conclusions
I. In the specific case study the Organic strawberry farming resulted in higher
water use than non-organic strawberry farming per kg of strawberry. The
main reason is the different yields of the two farming methods.
I. The Product Water Footprint of the 330g organic strawberry jam is 88.4 l.
II. Overheads water footprint contribution resulted to be over 10%.
III. Ancillary materials and processes should be considered when looking at
strategies to reduce a product water footprint.
IV. Other studies in other location will be performed to test the validity of the
results;
V. Assessemnet methodology need to be improved to be comprehensive
Water Accounting
Product Water Footprint
Future challanges
Organization
Facility 2 Facility 1
Other
activities
Other
activities
Perspective EMS for a facility
Perspective WF/CF (and LCA) for an organization
Perspective EMS for an organization
Perspective LCA and WF/CF for a product
LCA of Organization ISO 14072
POLICY POLICY
CONTINUOUS CONTINUOUS
IMPROVEMENT IMPROVEMENT
PLANNING PLANNING
CHECK CHECK
ACT ACT
INITIAL REVIEW INITIAL REVIEW
DO DO
ISO 14001 revision: Value chain control
ISO 14001 revision: Value chain control
Applies to processes related to:
Significant environmental aspects
Risks and opportunities
Life cycle products/services including outsourced
processes
Define type / degree of control vs influence
Specify environmental requirements for procured
goods/services
Communicate to suppliers
Consider during design/development & product
modification
Consider communicating information on environmental
impacts during delivery, use and end-of-life treatment

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