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Sound ressure Waves

"#$%& '()* !"#$"% as are vlbrauons

Lravellng Lhrough Lhe alr and perLaln
Lo recelve by Lhe ear." When an ob[ecL ls
sLruck, plucked, blown, lL compresses and
expands Lhe alr around lL, produclng Lhe sound.

lL has some characLerlsucs called +,*-$*%./,
012345$&* and 645.7.
+,*-$*%./ - expressed ln &'( ls Lhe number
of cycles LhaL a vlbrauon compleLes ln
one second.

012345$&*- expressed ln !*, refers Lo a
loudness and soness of a sound.

645.7- refers Lo Lhe hlghness or lowness of a
Sound Pressure Waves
Waveform Characteristics
8eecuon of Sound
ulracuon of Sound
Loudness Levels: 1he d8
Sound ressure Level
lL also have 2 Lypes called 8#%945$&4%(3
and :,(%;)*,;* waves. 1hey have Lhe
reglons known as +,-./"%%0,$% and
12/"3245,$%. 1he compresslons are
reglons of hlgh alr pressure whlle
Lhe rarefacuons are reglons of low
alr pressure.

<*=*.>#% #? "#$%&

Sound reecLs o a surface aL an angle
equal Lo lLs lnlual angle of lncldence

1hls baslc properLy ls Lhe cornersLone of
Lhe complex sLudy of acousucs.
@*7()4#$, #? ;#$%& '()*;
A4B,(.>#% #? "#$%&

Sound has Lhe ablllLy Lo bend
around an ob[ecL ln a manner LhaL
r e c ons L r uc L s L he or l g l na l
waveform ln boLh frequency and
(rel auve Lo Lhe obsLrucung
lrequency and lLch

Lvery vlbrauon has a frequency, and
generally humans wlLh golden ears can hear

lrequencles below Lhe low end are called
4%?,(;#%4. and aL Lhe hlgh end are $35,(;#%4..
1hey are felL or sensed more Lhan heard.

645.7 refers Lo Lhe relauve Lonal lowness or
hlghness of sound.

1he more umes per second a sound source
vlbraLes, Lhe hlgher Lhe plLch.

An ocLave ls Lhe lnLerval beLween any
Lwo frequencles LhaL have a rauo of 2:1.

CcLaves are grouped l nLo bass,
mldrange and Lreble.

SLarung 20Pz, Lhe rsL ocLave ls 20Pz Lo
40Pz, second ls 40 Pz Lo 80Pz, Lhlrd ls
160Pz, and so on.

1he acLual dlsLance ln Lhe alr beLween
Lhe beglnnlng and Lhe end of a cycle.
8#' @(;; rsL and second ocLaves (20 Pz- 80Pz)
- ower, 8oom and lullness.

I22*, @(;; Lhlrd and fourLh ocLaves (80Pz-320Pz)

J4&,(%9* 3
, 6
, and 7
ocLaves (320Pz-2,360Pz)
- Clves sound lnLenslLy

I22*, J4&,(%9* 8
ocLave (2,360Pz-3,120Pz)
- Cur ears are mosL sensluve.

:,*K3* 9
and 10
ocLaves (3,120Pz- 20,000Pz)
- Clves sound quallLy of brllllance and sparkle.
Low 8ass
upper 8ass Mldrange
up Mld
1 Cycle
Loudness Level

1he sysLem used Lo measure sound
pressure level (SL) ls &*.4K*3 (d8).
Sound ressure Level

- ls Lhe pressure of sound vlbrauon
measured aL a polnL.
- usually measured wlLh a sound
pressure meLer.
1he ueclbel (d8)

1he declbel (&@) ls used Lo measure
sound level, buL lL ls also wldely used
l n e l e c L r o n l c s , s l g n a l s a n d
!"# %&' &() !"#
*+,-".&-./+0-+ .1 2./()
1he Lar
1he CuLer Lar

- Alds locallzauon especlally aL hlgher

%&' 4&(&5
- noL sLralghL, cross secuon ls oval
1he Mlddle Lar

- Mechanlcal Ampller beLween Alr and lnner alr uld.

%&' 6'/7 (1ympanlc Membrane)
- Covered by Mucus Membrane and Lhe rsL locauon for
Lransducuon of sound.

8++3-5#+ (Mlddle Lar 8ones)
- 3 smallesL bones
- Pammer
- Anvll
- Surrup
-1hey serve Lo LransmlL sounds from Lhe alr Lo Lhe uld-
lled labyrlnLh (cochlea). 1he absence of Lhe audlLory
ossl cl es woul d consuLuLe a moderaLe-Lo-severe
hearlng loss. 1he Lerm "osslcle" llLerally means "uny bone.

%/+9&-"3&( !/:#
- ln adulL humans Lhe LusLachlan Lube ls approxlmaLely
33 mm (1.4 ln) long. lL ls named aer Lhe slxLeenLh-cenLury
anaLomlsL 8arLolomeo LusLachl.
- ; ls a Lube LhaL llnks Lhe nasopharynx
1he lnner Lar

- ls malnly responslble for sound
deLecuon and balance.

<#+0:/5&' +,+9#7
- 8alance and monlLors all 3

- dedlcaLed Lo hearlng, converung
sound pressure pauerns from
Lhe ouLer ear lnLo
elecLrochemlcal lmpulses whlch
are passed on Lo Lhe braln vla
Lhe audlLory nerve.
-cone shaped splral
1he Cochlea

-Lhe cochlea ls besL undersLood when unraveled"
-looLplaLe of Lhe surrup auaches Lo Lhe wlndow
-round wlndow acLs as a ressure 8ellef Mechanlsm
Wave Mouon ln Lhe Cochlea

- Analogous Lo ocean waves approachlng a beach
- Low frequency waves cresL close Lo Lhe shore" (apex)
- Plgh frequency cresL far from shore"(near base)
AudlLory nerve

- a collecuon of 23,000 bers from each halr cell Lo
braln sLem
- CerLaln bers carry cerLaln plLch lnfo
- lL ls less Lhan Lhe dlameLer of a spaghem noodle
ercelved Sound vs Measured Sound

=7>539/)# and l./)(#++ are relaLed ln one maln way.
AmpllLude ls Lhe magnlcauon of vlbrauons LhaL cause sound. 1he greaLer
Lhe magnlcauon of vlbrauon LhaL caughL Lhe sound, Lhe hlgher Lhe
volume and loudness.
WhaL ls a 8ad Sound???

-?.3+# ls any /(@&(9#) +./()
-very sub[ecuve
-WhaL ls Lhe preferred sound of a:
- uoor Closure?
- LlecLrlc CulLar?
- lano/ keyboard
Pearlng Loss

-ls a parual or LoLal lnablllLy
Lo hear.
- lL ls caused by many facLors, lncludlng: geneucs,
aglng, exposure Lo nolse, lllness, chemlcals and
physlcal Lrauma.
-Cur ears are Lhe mosL expenslve (prlceless) plece of
sound analysls equlpmenL.


-ls Lhe sclence of sound and facLors aecung
our hearlng. 1hls eld ls dlvlded lnLo varlous
- hyslcal -8loacousucs
- ArchlLecLure
- Muslcal
- sychologlcal
- hyslologlcal
hyslcal Acousucs

-sLudles alrborne, audlble sound,
lnfrasound (below audlble frequencles),
and ulLrasound (above audlble freq.). lL
examlnes propagauon and absorpuon of
all sound frequencles ln alr, and oLher
gases, llqulds , semlsollds, and sollds.
Muslcal Acousucs

- Conslders Lhe worklngs of physlcal and
elecLronlc muslcal lnsLrumenLs. 8elauve
Lo Lhelr consLrucuon, maLerlals and
shape such as:
- vlollns
- CulLars
- lanos
- 1rumpeLs
- urums
- LLc.
sychologlcal Acousucs

- SLudles Lhe braln's slgnal processlng
funcuon. Whlch ls necessary for sound Lo be
Peard or lnLerpreLed.
hyslologlcal Acousucs

- Lar sLudy ln an lmporLanL deLecLor and
modler of audlble sounds and lLs

- SLudles all aspecLs of acousuc behavlor ln anlmals.
ArchlLecLural Acousucs

- Alms Lo maxlmlze Lhe clarlLy of muslc or
lnLelllglblllLy of speech
ln enclosed spaces, llke ln concerL or
lecLure halls.
- lL deals wlLh Lhe sLrucLures of Lhe room
boundarles, ln Lerms of
sound lsolauon, sound absorpuon,
reecuons and dluslon.
Wallace ClemenL Sablne

An Amerlcan physlclsL who founded Lhe eld
of archlLecLural acousucs.
8everberauon 1lme (8160)

ls generally dened as Lhe ume requlred for Lhe
sound pressure level ln an enclosed space Lo
decreased 60-d8.
W. C. Sablne's 81 Lquauon

8160 =0.049 v/Sa
v=volume of room ln 3
S=surface of Lhe area ln 2
a=average absorpuon coemclenL
!"#$%&'( v=443300 cu.. (30' x 90' x 163')
S=43000sq.. a= 0.33

81 = 0.049 x 443300 =1.39sec.
43000 x 0.33
A sound wave can be conLrolled ln
one of Lhree dlerenL ways
1he ConLrol 8oom
Some common mlsconcepuons
abouL acousuc maLerlals

- 1haL Lhe properues of acousuc maLerlals are Lhe same
excepL for Lhelr appearance.

- 1haL acousuc maLerlals [usL absorb sound.
- 1haL by uslng absopuve acousuc maLerlal as a wall wlll
prevenL sound Lo pass Lhru.
8aslc roperues of acousuc maLerlals

-some maLerlals absorb soundwaves whlle oLher maLerlals reecL soundwaves.

-noL all absorpuve maLerlal absorb all sound frequencles equally.

-noL all reecuve maLerlals reecL all sound frequencles equally.
Sound Absorpuon CoemclenL

-dened as Lhe percenLage of absorpuon of sound energy )$%)*+)*+
(Lo colllde or sLrlke ) upon a measured area of a maLerlal.

-W.C. Sablne dened a one square fooL of an open wlndow as havlng
an absorpuon coemclenL of 1.

-usually sLaLed for slx sLandard sound frequencles of 123Pz, 230Pz,
300Pz, 1kPz, 2kPz and 4kPz.
Sound 1ransmlsslon Class

-ls Lhe slmplled raung of a barrler maLerlal of lLs capaclLy Lo
prevenL nolse from peneLraung Lo Lhe oLher slde of Lhe maLerlal.
Sound 1ransmlsslon Loss

-Lhe baslc acousucal properLy of a sound-lsolaung wall or oor /
celllng sysLem.

-lL ls Lhe ablllLy of Lhe wall or oor/ celllng sysLem Lo reslsL belng
seL lnLo vlbrauon by Lhe lmplnglng sound waves.
1he ueclbel (d8)
1he declbel (-.) ls used Lo measure sound level, buL lL ls also wldely used ln elecLronlcs,
slgnals and communlcauon. ueclbel ls a logarlLhmlc rauo of Lwo quanuues.

1he equauons for declbels are:

- lor volLage, currenL, SL, ulsLance: lor ower:
/0 &1+ ( 1 / 2 ) /0 &1+ ( x1 / x2 )

Audlo lrequency

1he Audlo lrequency SpecLrum ls
Lhe 8andwldLh of Lhe audlble sound
frequencles sLarung from Lhe
lowesL frequency of 20Pz Lo Lhe
hlghesL audlble sound frequency of

Among muslcal lnsLrumenLs, Lhe
organ can produce Lhe wldesL range
from 20Pz Lo abouL 10kPz.
Audlo lrequency SpecLrum
Ampller: Pow does lL work?

-Lhe ouLpuL ls a repllca of Lhe lnpuL waveform or sample slgnal.

-Lhe slgnal does noL Lravel from Lhe lnpuL Lo Lhe ouLpuL.

-lL ls recreaLed from Lhe power supply.

Loudspeaker , ln shorL, converLs
elecLrlcal slgnals lnLo audlble slgnals. 1he
s el ec uon and l ns L al l auon of a
loudspeaker, and lLs deslgn, should be
gulded by Lhe need of coupllng an
elecLrlcal slgnal source Lo an acousuc
Pow a loudspeaker works?

-slgnal currenL ows Lhrough volce coll, seLs up
magneuc eld around Lhe coll.

-Lhe ,(-.'/0 1#2 of Lhe magneL assembly
lnLeracLs wlLh Lhe magneuc ux of Lhe
volce coll wlLh force causes Lhe coll Lo move
ln response Lo Lhe slgnal currenL.

,(-.'/0 1#23 ls a measure of Lhe amounL of magneuc eld passlng Lhrough
a glven surface (such as a conducung coll).
Loudspeaker enclosures

We need Lo enclose Lhe loudspeakers
Lo prevenL Lhe rear wave from cancelllng
Lhe fronL wave parucularly and Lhe
Low frequency reglon.
1he Porn

conslsLs of a compresslon drlver whlch
produces sound waves wlLh a small meLal
dlaphragm vlbraLed by an elecLromagneL,
auached Lo a horn, a arlng ducL Lo
conducL Lhe sound waves Lo Lhe open alr.
Pow a horn loudspeaker works.
!"#compresslon drlver !$# horn
usefulness of Porns

-More emclenL Lhan dlrecL radlaLors.

-8euer conLrol of dlrecuonal pauern
of Lhe ouLpuL sound, parucularly ln
Lhe mlds and hlghs.
3 arLs

1weeLer - hlgh frequency

Squaker - mlddle frequency

Woofer - low frequency
Loudspeaker ulsLoruons

-4(*,".50 $5%6"*/".% due Lo muluple resonance of
cones, and enclosures.

3when Lhe low frequency dlsLorL ln any manner,
lL dlsLorLs Lhe hlgh frequency by auerlng o Lhe peaks.
Cverdrlvlng and lnLer- modulauons

-overdrlvlng Lhe volce coll can cause lL Lo leave Lhe magneuc gap.

-lnLer-modulauon appears as fullness of Lhe hlgher frequencles
and causes llsLener faugue.
1he Mlcrophone

- A Lransducer LhaL Lransforms
acousucal energy lnLo
elecLrlcal energy.

- "Lner gy" L haL l s bel ng
converLed by Lhe mlcrophone
ls Lhe sound pressure level
(SL), whlch ls recelved by a
dlaphragm of Lhe mlc and ls
L he n L r a ns f or me d l nL o
cor r es pondl ng s mal l AC
Shure 33sh
MosL common Lypes of mlcrophones
- lL has a magneL LhaL whlch can move
wlLhln Lhe coll of wlre.
- uses elecLromagneuc lnducuon.
- does noL need )*$#+,% ),-./.
- When sound hlLs Lhe mlcrophone
capsule, lL causes magneL Lo move
wlLhln Lhe coll and lnduces an elecLrlc
currenL and ows along Lhe audlo
cables Lo a mlxer or ampller.

-can handle hlgh 012.
!"#$%&' 3&'/,)*,#.
4&55,# 3&'/,)*,#.

- a unlque Lype of dynamlc
mlcrophone LhaL ls based
around a Lhln, corrugaLed
sLrlp of meLal (oen
alumlnum) or lm
suspended beLween Lwo
magneuc poles.

- Lhls level ls very low
compared Lo Lyplcal
dynamlc mlcs, and a sLep-
up Lransformer boosLs
boLh Lhe ouLpuL volLage
and lmpedance.
- 8lbbon mlcs are very
sensluve, buL Lhey are
oen qulLe fraglle.
6$/5,# 3&'/,)*,#.

- lL conslsLs of Lwo meLal plaLes
separaLed by granules of carbon.
6,#7.#8./ 3&'/,)*,#.

-requlre power from a bauery or
exLernal source.

-1he resulung audlo slgnal ls sLronger
slgnal Lhan
LhaL from a dynamlc.

-Condensers also Lend Lo be more
sensluve and
responslve Lhan dynamlcs.

-1hey are noL ldeal for hlgh-volume
as Lhelr sensluvlLy makes Lhem prone
Lo dlsLorL.
6,#7.#8./ 3&'/,)*,#.
hanLom ower (48+)

ls a meLhod for Lransmlmng uC elecLrlc ower Lhrough
Mlcrophone cablesLo operaLe mlcrophones LhaL conLaln
LlecLrlc clrculLry.
Mlcrophone plckup pauerns
Mlcrophone plckup pauerns
Mlc osluonlng for vocals
urum mlcs osluonlng
Mlc posluonlng for Acousuc CulLar
Mlc osluonlng lor lano
Mlc osluonlng for news Anchorlng
CLher Mlc osluonlng
vlolln 1rombone
Saxophone lluLe
Mlc osluonlng for CrchesLra
SLereo Mlc osluonlng
SLereo mlklng ls Lhe preferred
way Lo record classlcal-muslc ensembles
and sololsLs, such as a symphony
performed ln a concerL hall or a sLrlng
quarLeL plece played ln a reclLal hall.
SLereo mlc Lechnlques capLure Lhe sound
of a muslcal group as a whole, uslng only
Lwo or Lhree mlcrophones.
SLereo Mlc osluonlng
Lnd Cf ulscusslon
!"# %&'() *(+(,- .),/)0#
WhaL ls an Audlo Mlxer?

-A reslsuve neLwork deslgned Lo provlde a means of comblnlng several separaLe
audlo slgnal sources lnLo one composlLe slgnal.

-Lhe neLwork ls deslgned so LhaL changlng Lhe level of any one of Lhe lndlvldual slgnal
sources has no eecL on Lhe level or frequency characLerlsucs of Lhe oLher slgnal
sources ln Lhe neLwork.
8aslc luncuons

- Ampllfy Slgnals from Mlcrophones,
lnsLrumenLs and program sources of
level requlred Lo drlve power ampllers
Lo full power ouLpuL.
- Comblne dlerenL slgnal sources.
- Ad[usL each lnpuL (Caln, Level,
Lquallzauon ).
- 8ouLe each lnpuL Lo one or more
deslgnaLed ouLpuLs.
MlC / LlnL
MlC / LlnL
Aux Cu1 1
Aux Cu1 2
MAln Cu1 LLl1
MAln Cu1 8lCP1
Aux 8L
Aux 8L
Aux 8L
Aux 8L
Mlxer Slgnal llow
Audlo cable / Snake cable
8CA and L !ack Cable
Speclal Cables
unbalanced vs 8alanced
-lower nolse due Lo common
mode re[ecuon" (unwanLed

-hlgher lmmunlLy Lo LMl

-longer cable lengLh

-Lwlsung of conducLor causes
elecLromagneuc eld Lo be
conunually reversed wlLh each
full LwlsL, prevenLs crossLalk
wlLh oLher cables.
-llmlLed Lo a maxlmum of
approxlmaLely 3-6 meLers
cable lengLh.

-no cancellauon of elecLro-
magneuc lnLerference.

-relles only on Lhe shleld
sLrengLh Lo reduce nolse.

-crossLalk beLween Lwo
ad[acenL llnes.

-used ln recordlng sLudlos, broadcasL sLudlos,
and llve sound relnforcemenL Lo correcL Lhe
r e s p o n s e o f
m l c r o p h o n e s , l n s L r u m e n L p l c k -
ups, loudspeakers, and hall acousucs.

-1he mosL common equallzers ln muslc
producuon are parameLrlc, seml-parameLrlc,
Sound rocessors

-!"##$%& (&%$)&# alLer sound dlrecLly.
1hese are Lhe form of: bass Lraps,
dlusers, large halls, eLc.

*+),%& (&%$)&# alLer sound elecLronlcally.
1hey may be elecLroacousuc devlces llke
Compressors and dlglLal delays elLher
analog or dlglLal.
Why do we need?

-Lo remove Lhe rlng" or feedback of
sound sysLems, cleanup Lhe muddy mlx,
compress slgnals, reproduce sound
accuraLely, eLc.
-Lo enhance or hlghllghL a muslcal parL.
- 1o make a sound ouLpuL more brllllanL.

audlo lLer ls deslgned Lo ampllfy, pass
or auenuaLe (negauve ampllcauon)
some frequency ranges.

LlecLronlc 8everb or uelay uevlces

refers Lo Lhe way sound waves reecL o varlous
surfaces before reachlng Lhe llsLener's ear. lrom Lhe
rsL reecuon Lo subsequenL dense reverberauons ln
any glven volumeLrlc parameLer".
racucal Appllcauons of 8everb uevlces

-used as an eecL Lo add LexLure Lo a dry slgnal .

-used as an eecL Lo deLermlne Lhe orlgln of Lhe sound.

-used as vlsuallzauon or arusuc expresslon of a cerLaln sound.
and LlmlLers

1hese are volLage galn
ampllers LhaL decrease
slgnal upon a glven level.
1hey are besL used as ln
-llne devlces Lo reduce
Lhe dynamlc range of a
8aslc ConLrols

-./&#.01(. When Lhls level ls
exceeded, Lhe processor sLarLs
compresslng (l.e., auenuaung,
reduclng volume).

2",0 * deLermlnes how much
Lhe slgnal ls squezed" once Lhe
Lhreshold ls reached.

a rauo of 4:1 means LhaL lf lnpuL
level ls 4 d8 over Lhe Lhreshold,
Lhe ouLpuL slgnal level wlll be
1 d8 over Lhe Lhreshold.

8aslc ConLrols

+3")4- conLrols how fasL Lhe
compressor reacLs Lo Lhe slgnal.

2&1&"#&* how qulckly lL reLurns Lhe
slgnal Lo normal.

5"$6* Lhls conLrol ls oen referred Lo
as "makeup galn", as lL makes up for
L he c ompr es s l on - l nduc ed