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INTRODUCTION

In marginalized areas of Pakistan lives of females are not due to male dominancy and gender
decision making. Even females are deprived of their basic rights of life .Due to lack of religious
knowledge females have to face many religious misinterpretation barriers in marriage decision
making.
As Pakistani society is patriarchal evenly and without condition, and women are
considered the property of men, where the girls are not allowed to grow as individuals with a
definite sense of self. Instead, they are encouraged and directed to form a sense of identity in
relation to those men to whom they belong. That is why their primary roles are regarded as those
of daughters, wives and mothers. Their guards (men) take all decisions about their lives A typical
Pakistani woman raised in a relatively protected environment. "Other" make most of the
decisions that affect their lives. These "others" are, of course, men fathers, brothers and
husbands. With little education, marry more often against their will, have to bear about seven
children, and enjoying a life expectancy lower than that of men. His situation is much worse in
rural areas. In Pakistani society, females are considered as the possessions of men and they are
not allowed to grow as an individual with a sense of identity (Taj et al., 2004).
Women play a vital role in the economic well-being of the family as they perform
different tasks in accordance with their socio-economic competencies. Depending upon the
number of people in the family and the nature of professions, the decisions made in home
management varies in importance. Level of knowledge has an influence on the decision making
process. Generally, females possess low power of decision making and follow the decision taken
by males of the family (Jan and Akhtar, 2008).
It contributes toward better decision making which is critical for human and economic
development. Many decisions made at the household levels influence the welfare of the
individual in household living and in the communities. Decision like where to live, how to
generate income, how much invest and consume greatly determine the future course of family
welfare. The outcomes of such decisions are seldom linked to economic performance at the
household and at the aggregate level as well (Chanda et al., 2012).

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Marriage is an organized way of gender integration and harmony which particularly
influence peace in family and generally in the whole society. Usually, gender imbalances in areas
of low social capital possession create severe societal conflict. Women are usually victims of this
cruel gender conflict and are not allowed to have a say in the life lasting decisions. When women
are forcefully engaged in an undesirable long term relationship, they are unable to develop a
strong bond of intimation. As a result of their weaker relationship ties usually families suffer and
that expectedly quoted affect the overall societal progress. In this regard the universe of the
present study offer better prospects to explore the issue as the D. G. Khan is comparatively less
developed with lower level of overall education and less linked with the mainstream global
community. The following are the objectives of the study.

The family is an important unit of society. In a family, the husband and wife are two
wheels of the same cart. Coordination and decisions play an important role in the fate of the
family. In this way, the equal participation of women and men in the decision-making of
households is essential for society. The woman prominently in it, thus, it is essential for us to
know how that woman saying in household decisions (Kaur, 2012).

Even in everyday life, women face serious inequalities in the distribution of work that put
women in a position of weakness in the economic outlook with the result that women also have a
weak position in control, access and influence the process of decision making. This paper
addresses the inequalities of women in decision making at the family and the village level. We
tried to involve women in collective action in the pursuit of more inclusive decision-making
(Siagian, 2005).

Women play an important role in over all development and progress of the nation. But
their participation in various fields, either directly or indirectly are still behind in many aspects.
In most cases, women are considered inferior to men, and their lifespan is limited to the four
walls of the house. To make a decision, the less power is given to women, as they have the right
to take decisions on various items such as men's. Thus, in order to make women are aware of
their impact on society. (Jan,s and Akhtar 2008).

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There are many important variables in women's decisions to enter the labor market that
are omitted from the standard neoclassical models. We particularly focus on the possibility that a
woman's decision to be in the workforce may be affected by the decisions of other women so not
captured by standard models. The decisions of other women can influence the decision of a
particular woman in many ways. For example, the decisions of other women will have an impact
on the'' quality'' to stay in the labor market if there are positive externalities in women who stay
at home. Perhaps even more important (although this remains an open question), to the extent
where people care about their relative income position, the decision to use a particular woman
can be influenced by the decisions of employment of other women (Neumark and Postlewaiteb
1998).

In Pakistan women population is more than fifty percent and female suppression is
caused due to the patriarchal system of family with husband or father as the head of the family.
In male dominated society, majority women of Pakistan have no right to make decisions and
choices even regarding their marriages. In Pakistan cultural barrier in women empowerment,
many factors such as family environment back ground, cultural norms and attitude. The women
are deprived their basic rights of education, employment, health, and decision making authorities
as have many (Ali et al., 2010).

The decision-making power of women is related to their mobility. Women have the power
to make decisions about going out alone or go for household purchases are responsible for
decision-making. But it is a common scenario today that the women's movement was locked in
this patriarchal society because of having the low level of education. Traditionally women in
decision-making level in Bangladesh have very little role in all spheres of household. But to
maintain stability in society, both male and female must have equal share in deciding anything.
In Bangladesh, the trend of female inferiority creates very few roles in all areas. Women cannot
determine their age at marriage and it depends on the parents or other members of elderberries.
They cannot play an active role in the workplace and therefore their contribution to household
income is lower. Household income depends mainly on their husbands to make the decision in
all sectors. But the trends of patriarchal decision evolving day by day due to the influence of
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education among women. 21st century in Bangladesh, the revolution of women's education is
observed due to increasing facilities to go to school for them. Therefore, this study tries to find
out whether education of women can actually play role to make decision making at marriages
(Chanda et al., 2012).

Rural women are trapped in a situation of economic dependence and subordination due to
their low social status, economic and society. Economic dependence is the extent to which a
person relies on others to fulfill his needs. Pakistan is a developing country and almost seventy
percent of the population lives in rural areas. The economic dependence of women is higher in
rural areas than urban areas. The percentage of women working in the fields is relatively higher
than men. But they are economically dependent on males because of the patriarchal society. The
effects of economic dependence on their life and decision making power. The majority of
women suffer from poverty and the majority of women are not involved in family decision
making. Compared to men, women face unequal opportunities for health, education and other
social services because of patriarchal control over the company. These effects of unequal
opportunities decision-making power of women (Bhutta and Haider 2013).

Differentiation based on sex is obvious, almost in every human society. Most people are
socialized to have very different expectations for women and men. The man has been assigned as
the providers of the family, while women must assume almost total responsibility for the
activities of child care and household. In addition, a view of culture, many forms of work as
"women's work" or "working men" using as the basis of gender stereotypes. A person's sex
becomes a way of categorizing people and is given a distinct social significance. Women and
men have particularly affected the social role in every culture (Jalal-ud-Din and Khan. 2008).


Objectives
1. Women participation in decision making about choice of partner.
2. Women participation in decision making about marriage ceremony.
3. Women participation in decision making about dowry items.

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Sociological Significance
Marriage is an organized way of gender integration and harmony which particularly influence
peace in family and generally in the whole society. Usually, gender imbalances in areas of low
social capital possession create severe societal conflict. Women are usually victims of this cruel
gender conflict and are not allowed to have a say in the life lasting decisions. When women are
forcefully engaged in an undesirable long term relationship, they are unable to develop a strong
bond of intimation. As a result of their weaker relationship ties usually families suffer and that
expectedly quoted affect the overall societal progress. In this regard the universe of the present
study offer better prospects to explore the issue as the D. G. Khan is comparatively less
developed with lower level of overall education and less linked with the mainstream global
community. Much work has been done on the women empowerment in different areas but a little
information is available about womens autonomy in decision making regarding their marriages
in rural areas of Pakistan, particularly in tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan. Womens autonomy in decision
making regarding their own marriages is relationing with their spouses which surely effect on
whole family. So the present study is designed to assess the decision making autonomy regarding
marriages of women in rural areas of Tehsile Dera Ghazi Khan.













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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Sathar and Kazi (2000) concluded that the economy has little influence and ambivalent about the
empowerment of women in rural Punjab. Class influence both education and employment of
women, they are routes to empowerment in rural areas. While most women in rural areas
contribute to the economy, the majority working in the farm household or economic unit
households. These women do not derive additional autonomy as a result of this contribution.
Paid, but offset by other restrictions on poor women employment, offer a greater potential for the
autonomy of women. Education, on the other hand, has less influence on women's empowerment
in the context of rural Punjab. study regarding factors affecting womens autonomy in rural
settings of Pakistan. Imprortant aspect was to study the relative influence of community on
womens empowerment. They investigate the autonomy of females in mobility, decision making
and in economic matters . Women in rural setting performed different agricultural activities but
were given no reward in return. It was found that most of the females in southern Punjab were
uneducated. Women of rural areas had less mobility and no participation in decision making.
They had less participation in financial decision making as compare to domestic decision
making. They were not given any importance in their own matters of life i.e. schooling, marriage
and shopping.
Musokotwana and Siwata (2001) who argued that women's empowerment can be achieved,
better known women about their rights. More awareness can be helpful in controlling the
environment. Thus, women's knowledge of their rights is an important predictor of women's
empowerment. On the other hand, women in Islam has the right to a share in the property of his
father, but cultural practices revealed in this study showed that only 6.21 percent of women
received their parents' property and only 17.6 percent of respondents intend to share their
property from his father.
Kabeer (2001) studded these choices can be achieved by resource agency, awareness and social
inclusion. In other words, empowerment is the ability as well as a capacity building process that
helps individuals and groups to make their choice. Empowerment by considering the different
dimensions of empowerment, however, the participation of women in decision making at the
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household level, their control over economic resources and mobility were frequently used
research measure various dimensions of women's empowerment . There are many number of
socio-cultural factors that have their direct or indirect influence on empowerment at the
household women, these factors are the type of family matriarch, women's education, age ,
marital age, household status, facilities at the local level, participation in paid work, religious
tendency, watching sailing, dowry and property received by women of their parents, the media
exposure, awareness of rights, political participation, cooperation of the husband and the
willingness to change.
According to Skalli (2001) majority of societies more value to males as compare females in
solving domestic problems. It was found that 74 % male were having dominant status. Women
are away from their basic rights like health and education services and also they have no right to
take any type of decision for their present as well as for their future. The young girls are bounded
to do home tasks like cleaning, washing and cooking of meals, and are not allow to ask any
question regarding their rights.
Roth (2001) in his study found that wives tend to under-report their household decision-making
power. In couples with both partners educated and in couples in which women work for pay,
both partners were significantly more likely to report that both of them participate in the final
decisions than was the case in couples without education or in which the wife did not work for
pay. Decision-making power of women as measured in this study was significantly related to the
household having a plan for what to do in case of a maternal emergency, but was not associated
with place of childbirth or with having a postpartum checkup.
Lait and Rehmat (2001) in their study examined whether mens and womens retirementhave a
differential impact on several aspects of marital life, i.e. power relations (as reflected in decision-
making), spousal resources, division of household tasks, and quality of marriage. There was
evidence of change in decision- making patterns about spending time and carrying out feminine
and general tasks. It was also found that mens retirement has a different impact than womens
retirement on decisions about household affairs and performance of feminine tasks.
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Marieke (2001) argued in his study that perception of social support were based in part in the
structural conditions of individual marital arrangements, specifically household decision of
labour and decision making The study suggested the structural arrangements within marriages
likely impact individuals perceptions of social support and that the closer couples come to equal
labour and decision making in the household, the more supported each partner is likely to feel.
Hafeez and Ahmad (2002) conducted study in District Mandi Bahandin to assess the effect of
wife and husband education on female labor force participation. They found that education level
of women is so important and plays a very important role in increasing monthly household
income and economic prosperity of the home. High education of husband and wife contributes to
financial assets of family. Education helps in women empowerment, so they can participate in
every aspect of life.
Shahnaz and Kizilbash (2002) concluded that it is also useful to determine the sociological
contours of the house of the respondent to establish the environment in which it does or does not
make decisions about their own jobs. These were divided into household characteristics and the
characteristics of the household head. Household characteristics such as income per capita, it's a
mixed family or if it is in an urban environment play an important role in the lives of women
who live there. It is expected that the head of family also influence all matters of the family and
should have an important effect in determining the freedom available to the women of the house
in the decision. To determine his / her influence we consider the age of the household head, his /
her literacy and if the leader is a woman herself.
Gondal (2003) found that married women in Sindh and Punjab are more likely to engage in their
counterparts in Baluchistan and NWFP economic activities. Age, family size and the husbands of
women working in agriculture have a significant positive effect on the participation of rural
women in economic activities.
Murshid and Yasmeen (2004) who found that women's participation in the formulation of
decisions was limited to small purchases, the purchase of food, household consumer products,
health care and schooling for children. Respondents also participated in decisions about major
purchases (eg furniture and roofing household) own prenatal and postnatal care and celebrating
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or attending social events to varying degrees. Participation in decisions regarding the purchase of
agricultural inputs, agricultural production, and reproductive choices and exercise voting any
adult deductible was remarkably low. More specifically, the power differential between
husbands and wives in control of their reproductive decision could lead to a deterioration of
women's health (eg, maternal morbidity and mortality, transmission HIVs).
Zaafar et al. (2005) concluded that women have a special place in all societies and no society can
progress without women. In Pakistan, women have an important role in decision making. The
participation of women in all spheres of life is very important. But Pakistani society is
conservative to some extent. Like many other Third World countries, Pakistan also has a male-
dominated and women's participation in decision-making.
It is obvious that changes are occurring in womens economic status and these changes are
affecting their decision-making power in the household. Men are still the heads of households
and considered the major decision-makers. Women who are more involved in income earning
process participate more in decision-making within the household than those who are involved
only in household expenditure activities. It is revealed that economic strength of women is linked
with her decision making power. Sikodo (2007) pointed that by given good economic status to
the women, male dominancy over women can be minimized to some extent.
Rahman et al. (2007) concluded that the decision-making is a way of measuring women's
empowerment, although mere participation in any matter not fully supports the empowerment of
women. However, participation in decision-making on household considers a woman is
recognized in the family. A large proportion of adolescents in the study did not participate in any
decision-making in their domestic affairs. Only about a third (31.1 percent) adolescents attended
a family affair, but the acceptance of their opinions was minimal. The study concluded that the
lucrative youth and education of women economic activities are key elements of the participation
of girls in different areas of households.
Parveen (2007) studied the rural womens position in the household as well as in the society. Position
of women means that their social and economic standing compared with men and status is the social
value close to ones position in the class ladder. Females position and their status are created around
a sequence of cultural and economic factors, such as resource access and use, ownership, control,
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official and ideological structures, and educational rank. Income, physical beauty, social status of
natal family, payment of dowry and ability to give birth to a son, are the factors that contribute
positivity towards decision making of females.
Bhasin (2007) show that the tribal women have great importance in tribal communities. Even the
tribal communities of Rajasthan do not look at the birth of a little girl as a curse. dowry system is
not there. The girl has the right to choose her husband. Divorce is easy and very secure. Women
play a vital role in economic activities. They take joint decision with male counterparts.
Jan and Akhtar (2008) concluded that there is non-significant association between participation
of women in decision making and their marital status. About 90 percent of married women have
low level of participation in familial decision making whereas only 2 percent married women
hold a high level in familial decision making. Only 4 percent unmarried women possess middle
level of participation in decision making.
Maan and Khan (2008) found that education plays a vital role in empowering women. Therefore,
it is necessary to make radical changes in the existing education system that promote awareness
of gender. Adult education should be launched to educate married couple. The lack of ownership
is another cause of the powerlessness of women. Therefore, it is necessary that the law should be
favorable to women in the acquisition and maintenance of the property. As the results of the
study showed that only 8.2 percent of respondents involved in paid employment therefore, it is
necessary to increase the participation of women in the labor market. Some incentives should be
given to women by the government to strengthen their participation in employment. Most
women reported that their husbands do not allow them to pay because of lack of job security for
women. Therefore, it is necessary to create an enabling environment for women and efforts
should be made to design such jobs or businesses that can be started indoors at home, it takes
motivation and animators mobilization and delivery of these services to women. To strengthen
political participation, awareness of rights, the media must play an active role in particular
television. To expand political participation in their social network can be implemented by the
organization of their groups. NGOs and local authorities can play a crucial role in this regard.
Nosheen et al. (2009) reported that Pakistan is a society dominated by men and all questions
about the exterior of the house are usually treated by male members. Women are busy with
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housework and other chores. However, women in rural areas perform a number of household
duties such as participation in agricultural operations, including farming, taking care of farm
animals and collect firewood for domestic use and fetching water from a distance. But the
participation of women in the popular socio-economic activities does not seem to be
encouraging. The results showed that the majority (approximately 71 percent) of women (wives)
in a rural area of Punjab and especially in the rain-fed area consulted their husbands to a greater
extent with regard to family issues, while d Secondly, their husbands either do not seek to
consult very small extent (about 8 percent) in the family business. Women were more involved
in the process to decide on family issues, followed by farm, social and economic issues. Women
interviewed said that their husbands were the main decision makers (about 90 percent) into the
family. However, the general situation, the women interviewed said that the highest participation
of their husbands in decision-making was in the family business, the education of children and
their marriages.
Faridi (2009) concluded that all levels of education, except the level of basic education to middle
level has a positive and significant impact on the participation of the female labor force. Women
are more likely to participate in economic and commercial activities such as educational
attainment increases. It is suggested that more educational institutions must be provided to
Pakistan in general and particularly in the study area. Especially technical education, vocational
and employment oriented should be provided for females. The impact of father and mother are
educated on the participation of the female labor force is positive and significant. This means
that when children grow up, they are independent in decision making. The evidence indicates
that education empowers women. However, an important conclusion from this study is that the
educated spouses (husbands) have a positive and significant effect on employment wives. It is
therefore suggested that the growth objectives can be achieved through education of males and
females.
Khan and Khan (2009) highlight the factors that influence the decision of married women (in the
age group of 16-60 years) to participate in the labor force. Using the probit model on 3911
observations, we find that the age of women, women as heads of households, women's
education, household poverty, family size, the number of girls (5-15 years) The number of girls
over 15 years, husband unemployment and low income, and rural community have a significant
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positive effect on participation in the labor market for married women. On the other hand,
ownership of goods by households, household income per capita, a nuclear family, number of
children, the number of son more than 15 years, and the education of husband showed an effect
negative. Poverty from a global perspective is to be the main determinant of participation in the
labor market for married women.
Michelle (2009) concluded that the women reported a lack of quality time spent with their
husbands, as well as a lack of attention they received from their husbands. The women also
discussed an inability to solve conflict within their marriage. The women reported developing
relationships, outside of their marriage, either with ex-flames, old friends, or new friends, all of
whom became their affair partner. The women reported the support of family and/or friends for
the extramarital relationship, along with receiving positive attention from their affair partner. The
women discussed the moral values as being a deterrent to marital infidelity, but did not perceive
enough barriers or protective factors as preventing them from moving forward with the affair.
Finally, the women described ways in which they were able to limit cognitive dissonance as a
means of giving themselves permission to move forward with the affair.
Muhammad et al. (2010) stated that women were enfranchised for the most qualified who played
an important role in their empowerment. They shared in the financing of their family budget,
they also discussed the affairs of the family, they better manage household chores, they consulted
their male leaders in the successful model of life through the development of a rational approach
on all important issues, they shared in the decision-making inside and outside activities, and
opportunities months of better education, entertainment and health for their children. Their
children are behaving gently to the elderly and posed confidence in their personalities. The study
also found that women did not exercise self sexism in children. In a word, emancipated women
were satisfied with their emancipation as their socio-economic status up and jumped their
emancipation act does not affect the existing social structure. The study recommends that the
rural community should be facilitated in the field of education regardless of gender
discrimination, so that both men and women can improve their standard of living. It will allow
the community to maintain a lenient approach towards important issues, and so false impressions
developed culturally or gender stereotypes will diminish.
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Alexadar and Garda found that over 90% of the marriages continue to be arranged and though
the young people, more men than women, are being involved in marriage related decision
making, marriages take place soon after it is fixed, with hardly any interaction between the
spouses prior to marriage. Hence marriage continues to take place between two almost strangers
despite approval of their partner by the concerned groom and the bride. But a trend of involving
girls, in their marital decision-making is emerging, especially among the educated and
economically independent girls, though it could just be a reiteration of trust in their parents
choice and decisions.
Warner (2007) studied that men may rule the world but women rule the roost, according a new
study that shows women wield considerably more decision-making power than men within
marriages. Researchers found that wives, on average, displayed more power than their husbands
during problem-solving discussions, regardless of who brought up the topic of discussion. The
study involved 72 married couples from Iowa who were observed and evaluated while they
discussed problems in their relationship of their own choosing. The average age of the
participants was about 33 and average length of marriage was seven years. The results showed
that women appeared to have more power during the discussions in the form of domineering and
dominant behaviors than their husbands, regardless of who brought up the topic.
Hamid et al. (2011) concluded the importance of an individual's agency for improved
reproductive health among young married women in Pakistan. If young women are brought up in
their parental home with more involvement in decision making and are trained to speak up for
themselves, they are more likely to be involved in decision making once married. Promoting an
environment in the parental home where young women are encouraged to participate in decision
making about their marriage has positive future implications on their reproductive life. Having a
say in the selection of a spouse was significantly associated with agreement with spouse over
number of children to have, intention to use contraceptives, and the time between marriage and
first contraceptive use. These relationships existed after controlling for education, socioeconomic
status, mobility outside of house, and decision making in the home.
Ragoobur et al. (2011) found that marital status has a very negative effect on the decision of
women to enter the labor market. It can be argued that Mauritian woman values their work over
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marriage. The woman pulls more useful to marry and spend time with his children. However, in
Mauritius there is also a lack of resources in terms of day care centers for children. In fact, many
women at marriage and having children should take care of their children and are not able to
work. Although, over the years, there has been a significant increase in the number of day care
centers by individuals and private institutions, which was geared more towards women's
involvement in economic development, poor quality service was a real failure. Mothers do not
have confidence in the services provided by the centers and day care is less likely to allow their
children to work. Another possible reason for the negative association.
Nosheen et al. (2011) concluded that womens responses were much stronger than men for their
household administration. The womens order of main concern for household activities was
hygiene followed by child care, safety, family health care, general household tasks and
handicrafts making. Education and socialization of children, community development and social
matters at community level were areas of womens interest. At household level socialization,
education of children, social conflicts and domestic problem solution are most important matters
of the rural male concerned.
Acharya et al. (2010) conducted a research aimed to study the relation between socio-economic
backgrounds with womens autonomy in decision making. Norms and values of community
affect behaviour of individual. Males often control the household cash which create difficulty for
women to pay independently on their own health care facilities, which ultimately limits womens
autonomy in decision making. Rural women are less likely to take part in decision making as
compare to the women in urban communities. Women increased education, wealth and social
back ground is positively associated with autonomy in own health care decision making.
According to Khaliq (2010) males of rural areas considered their females as their private
property, symbol of family honor and dignity. Due to prevalent extremism and feudalism against
women, males think that to allow female for education and mobility society will be vulgar. Even
due to feudalism females are being sacrificed to save property, the cruel people of Sindh made
the customs as to marriage their girl with Quran. Child marriages forced marriages and exchange
marriages customs have made to resolve family disputes. Socialism is needed to provide females
of rural areas with equal rights and liberty of life.
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Rashid and Islam (2011) said that women play an important role in the education of children.
Education is necessary for the mother of a family, because she is involved in different social and
economic activities. Nearly half of the women had medium participation in household decision
making. Out of ten selected characteristics of rural women, the factors like education,
agricultural knowledge and seemed to have significant relationship with decision making
role. It is obvious that the women education play an important role in household decision-
making. So the education program should be enhanced to ensure women empowerment.
Shoaib et al. (2012) stated that education is important for everyone, but is especially important
for girls and women. This is true not only because education is a gateway to other opportunities
developed, but also because the educational attainment of women may have a ripple effect within
the family and between generations. Education awareness about the law and the freedom of
women in Pakistani politics, national social, economic society, employment and religious either.
Women empowerment to participate in decision different issues in their daily lives decision. The
women's movement and a wide distribution network of non-governmental organizations should
be strong local presence and deep insight into the concerns of women who have contributed to
inspiring initiatives for the empowerment of women. It is the need of the day to the promotion,
development and empowerment of women and to create an environment through positive
economic and social policies for full development of women to enable them to realize their full
potential. There should be equal access to education for women and girls will be provided.
Special measures will be taken to eliminate discrimination, universalize education, eradicate
illiteracy, increase enrollment and retention rates of girls and improve the quality of education to
facilitate learning life and the development of the profession / vocation / technical skills by
women. Reducing the gender gap in secondary and higher education would be an area of focus.
Kiania (2012) suggested that women do not play a key role in making important decisions in the
family. Their power to make decisions is limited to trivial matters, including the selection of
home decor, the color of the car and the type of cooking. In this case study, based on the theories
of Watt, women's participation is instrumental and symbolic. Today however, the structure of the
"family" has changed dramatically. Men are not the only breadwinners and most women share
the acquisition of livelihood. This means that they are actively pursuing education after lead to
better career prospects.
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Tarar (2012) led to the discovery mother-daughter in a Pakistani Muslim culture. While on the
whole, being the mother of a son has a strong base of self-esteem for Pakistani women, this
analysis reveals that the relationship of a mother and her daughter is much more close and
intimate with her daughter. The study notes that while the birth of a girl cannot be denied
categorically in educated and affluent society, however, the discourse that run in girls segment
descriptions are often compensatory, girls are generally described in other words focused
identities and evaluative talk is morally more for girls than for boys. There is also a strong
economic discourse around a girl because of his buildings as a possession to be given to others.
The study highlights how within these family discriminating set ups, mothers and daughters
share a deep bond of common interests, identities and social action.
Duflo (2012) stated that economic development and empowerment of women are closely related.
While the development itself will empower women, empowering women make a difference in
decision making, which will have a direct impact on development. Contrary to what is claimed
by some of the most optimistic policy makers, it is, however, not clear that timely boost women's
rights will create a virtuous circle, with the empowerment of women and development are
mutually reinforcing each other women and eventually be equal partners in affluent societies.
Naz et al. (2012) argued that women in Pashtun society does not reflect in all spheres of life,
especially in politics, there is no place in politics or decision. They are kept out of political
participation and empowerment. Women should be provided protection against harassment. In
our society, women do not feel safe when they are away from home. They can not work as freely
as men in a different place. Recent legislation on women harassment of women in the National
Assembly of Pakistan has encouraged women in the workplace, there is the need for such
legislation more. When a woman decides to take part in general elections for provincial or
national assembly, it should be provided by security agencies. It will not only ensure the safety
for women in particular contesting the election, but it will also strengthen the courage of other
women to go out and play their role in politics as other areas where they excel men.
Islam et al. (2012) indicate that rural women feel empowered when they are engaged in a very
simple activity that generates some income. Since the scope of our study was limited to an
important sub-district in rural Bangladesh, the results of our study can be generalized only to
17

women in rural Bangladesh. However, we believe that the concept of empowerment through
self-employment would apply to women in countries around the world. It is possible that the
exact determinants of empowerment may vary by industry and across different cultures.
Therefore, future research should include other home industries such as sericulture, to examine
whether the determinants of accountability are the same. Future research may include both rural
and urban women to see if there is a difference in variables that enable women living in urban
areas. Researchers can also extend our study to other developing countries in Southeast Asia is to
determine whether women in these countries may also benefit from simple home industries. This
study was limited to the empowerment of rural women in Bangladesh through Homestead
poultry rearing practices. However, the empowerment of rural women may be linked to other
socio-economic factors such as social status, education, maturity and intellectual capacity. Future
researchers can study the impact of these variables on the empowerment of women.
Arooj et al. (2013) studied the socioeconomic & socio demographic factors affect womens
autonomy in decision making. In the developing countries, particularly in Pakistan, although
women are making significant financial contributions but they are still under collective decisions
of husband and other family members while sometimes they are blindly relying on husbands
decision. Their results showed that age, residence, education, professional differences, job
nature, monthly income of married women are positively associated with autonomy in decision
making. 59% women of above 30 years age exercise independence in birth control
decisions. Urban women (96%) are more likely to be autonomous in birth control decision than
women from rural areas . Educational attainment effects women autonomy as professionally
qualified women (87.2%) are more independent in birth control decisions, independent in
spending income (86.5%),having freedom of expression (55.4%). Furthermore women living in
nuclear families exercise more independence in birth control decisions (77.2), income spending
decisions (76) and enjoy more freedom of expression (56.2). Women working in government
sector have independence in birth control (71), financial decisions (70.4), and freedom of
expression (52.4%) with p value 0.00. Women earning salary of above 20,000 enjoy autonomy in
birth control decisions (87.5%), financial decisions (87.2%), freedom of expression
(57.4) with p value 0.00.

18

































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