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CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
The Load Conscious Pressure Reducing Valve (LCRV) also known as the load
sensing proportioning valve (LSPV) is installed on systems with front disc and rear
drum braking systems. It is installed in the hydraulic line leading to the rear drum
brakes and helps prevent rear wheel lock up. Most proportioning valves are mounted
directly in the master cylinder outlet to the rear brakes. They provide balanced
braking during panic braking situations or when the wheel is loaded by restricting
fluid pressure to the rear brakes. This helps prevent rear wheel lock up as the
vehicles weight is shifted towards the front wheels.
The typical inline LCRV remains open till a panic braking situation occurs. When
sudden pressure from the master cylinder moves the large piston it closes the valve
restricting fluid pressure.
The LCRV is usually found on trucks and is located between the vehicles chassis
and the rear axle. When a driver brakes hard, the rear end tends to lift up and
forward. This lightens the load on the rear tires increasing the chance of lock up.
This valve incorporates a lever attached to a spring that moves the valve to restrict
fluid pressure as the vehicles chassis rises away from the axle.
1.1 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The aim of this project is to study the construction and working principles of a Load
Conscious Pressure Reducing Valve system, perform suitable calculations for inlet
and outlet pressures that will approximate the behaviour of the system, and exposit
on a modification proposed to the system that will accommodate manual changes in
vehicle ride height.
1.2 METHODOLOGY
A case study approach to the project was adopted, which encompassed a two-day
visit to TAFE ACCESS LIMITED, TRICHY ROAD, COIMBATORE, to study the
mounting methods, materials and working of LCRV systems in TATA vehicles (the
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SUMO VICTA, SAFARI DICOR 3.0 and XENON particularly). A comprehensive
survey of literature available in the public domain was done and appropriate
conclusions were arrived at.
1.3 MOTIVATION
When a vehicle is braked at high speeds, weight transfer happens. The vehicle
weight shifts to the front axle. There will be relatively very less weight in the rear
axles. If the brake fluid pressure is same for both front and rear axles, it will lead to
Rear Wheel Lock condition. A locked rear wheel will lead to vehicle instability and
skidding/Tail swing. This makes it imperative that a pressure control system be
installed on the rear brake lines so that when weight on the rear wheels becomes
lesser, application of high pressure to the rear brake drum is prevented, thereby
preventing wheel lock-up. The main advantages of an LCRV system are
Suitable for X and V split systems
Dynamic sensing of load variation
Simple hydraulic installation
Optimum laden / un-laden cut-in pressure
Can cope with wide variation in ride height
ABS compatible
An advantage of the reducing valve is that if the position sensing springs fails, the
bias spring moves the piston to maintain it in a position in which communication
between the inlet and the outlet is interrupted until applied inlet pressure rises to a
predetermined value, and is operative, when the inlet pressure is higher than the
predetermined value to provide a pressure at the outlet which is smaller than the
pressure at the inlet.
This mini project aims at studying the operational principles of an LCRV braking
system and proposing a modification in the system so that changes in ride height
can be accommodated.

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1.4 DIFFICULTIES FACED
Current LCRV braking systems have a cumbersome provision for accommodating
changes in the ride height of the vehicle. If any alteration is done in the Rear
suspension the performance of this valve will be impaired. The valve stem gap
should be adjusted whenever rear spring is changed.






1.1 LCRV adjustment screw
The changes in ride height complicate the LCRV assembly, and to adjust for them,
the bellcrank is mounted higher up by installing a new plate.









4

CHAPTER 2 CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING
2.1 CONSTRUCTION








2.1 An LCRV assembly CAD model
An LCRV system has been designed for varying the amount of brake fluid pressure
and thus the braking torque at the rear brakes of a passenger car. The system
includes a load sensor oriented between a suspension component, such as a
supporting spring. The vehicle frame or body and includes a cavity for
incompressible fluid in which variation in load will vary the volume of the cavity for
providing increased pressure and volumeric flow of an incompressible fluid from the
cavity to a valve. The valve is incorporated into the hydraulic brake lines extending
from the master cylinder to the rear brakes of a passenger car for regulating the
braking pressure and thus braking torque to the rear wheels. This is to reduce or
eliminate premature rear wheel locking when applying brakes of a lightly loaded
vehicle and to maintain adequate braking force for the same vehicle when heavily
loaded. A flexible line interconnects the load sensor and the valve to compensate for
relative movement between the vehicle frame and suspension system. The valve
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includes an actuator in the form of a control piston engageable with the proportioning
piston in the proportioning valve to regulate the movement of the proportioning piston
and thus regulate the proportioning valve in response to variations in load applied to
the rear suspension components of the vehicle. Thus relative changes in ride height
are gradually transmitted to the control piston, which can then reposition itself so that
the proportion of line pressure received by the rear brakes will be either increased or
decreased to reflect loading conditions on the rear axle. The valve is connected to
the vehicle's rear axle by pivotally connected linkages, a bell crank, a position
sensing spring, and a piston actuating lever. The system comprises of a link
connecting the rear axle housing to another connecting link, which is connected
pivotally to the first connecting link. The second connecting link is connected to a bell
crank, which is pivotally connected to the valve. A lever is pivotally attached to the
valve to control its operation through a position sensing spring. The movement of the
lever is controlled in response to the movement of the connecting links and the bell
crank.




2.2 Construction
LCRV unit
Load
sensing
spring
First
connecting
link
Second
connecting
link
Bell crank
Rear axle
housing
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2.3 LCRV drawing and CAD model

P1 Inlet Pressure from master cylinder
P2 Outlet Pressure to brake cylinder
A1 Fluid flow area
A2 Area of piston
A3 Area of piston rod
The valve 10 comprises a body 11 which is fixed to the sprung part 19 of a vehicle
and which houses a control piston 12 carried by a piston rod 13. The piston rod 13 is
acted upon by a position sensing spring 20 which reacts against a sprung part 21 of
the vehicle. The piston 12 houses a valve 14 which is normally held open by a pin 15
secured to the valve body 11 to provide communication between a master cylinder
26 connected to inlet 16 and a brake cylinder 27 connected to outlet 17. The valve
14 closes as the piston 12 moves to the right, and thereby interrupts communication
between the inlet 16 and outlet 17. An internal bias spring 18 applies a constant
force K to the piston tending to close the valve 14. The bias spring 18 acts in
opposition to the position sensing spring, but the position sensing spring is designed
and set so that it always applies to the control piston a foroe S which is greater than
the constant force K of the bias spring 18.


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2.2 WORKING
The position sensing spring applies to the control piston a force (F) determined by
the relative position of the sprung and the unsprung parts. The sensing spring force
(F) tends to move the control piston in the direction to open the valve, and is
opposed by an internal bias spring which tends to close the valve. By suitable choice
of piston areas A1 and A2 and spring forces increase (above cut-in pressure) in input
pressure (P1) will always produce an increase in output pressure (P2) despite the
reduction in sensing spring force (F) which will occur due to weight transfer.
The bias spring applies to the control piston an approximately constant force which
tends to move the control piston in the backward direction as it opposes the force
applied to the control piston by the position sensing spring. The bias spring becomes
operational when the external spring fails to maintain the control piston in a position
in which communication between the inlet and the outlet is interrupted until the inlet
pressure rises to a predetermined value. It also becomes operational when the inlet
pressure is higher than the predetermined value to provide a pressure at the outlet
which is smaller than the pressure at the inlet.
2.3 INLET AND OUTLET PRESSURE VARIATIONS
The cut-in pressure of the brake pressure reducing valve is given by the formula,
P
c
A
3
= S - K
Where
P
c
cut-in pressure
A
3
area of the piston rod of the control piston
K force applied to the control piston by the bias spring
S force applied to the control piston by the position sensing spring
At pressures above cut-in, the outlet pressure is given by the formula,
P
2
A
2
= P
1
A
1
+ S - K

where
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P
1
Inlet pressure
P
2
Outlet pressure
A
1
area of the control piston exposed to inlet pressure
A
2
area of the control piston exposed to outlet pressure

2.4 The driver only characteristics OA'B' and fully laden characteristics OC'D' of the
valve.









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CHAPTER 3 SERVICING
3.1 Setting Method:






3.1 Setting Method
1. Install the connecting rod (a) to the No. 1 hole.
2. Adjust the clearance X to be 0 mm and tighten the bolt (c) using the lock nut
(b) (Tightening Torque = 14 to 18 Nm).
3. Remove the connecting rod (a) from the No. 1 hole and reinstall it to the No. 2
hole (Tightening Torque = 14 to 18 Nm).
4. Place alignment marks between lock nut (b) and adjusting screw (c) after the
valve setting.
5. LCRV setting should be performed with unloaded vehicle condition.

3.2 Inspection:
When a malfunction occurs in the LCRV, the sensor spring, valve body assembly,
rear axle or rear spring may be replaced. For the replacement, the following
inspection should be performed:

Symptom Possible Cause Action
Poor braking performance Air in brake system Bleeding
Poor adjustment of sensor spring Adjust
Damaged sensor spring Replace
Fluid leaking from LCRV Replace
Rear wheels lock early Poor adjustment of sensor spring Adjust
Internal fluid leaking of LCRV Replace

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Notice:
Fluid leaking from LCRV results from poor valve open/close or sealing wear
caused by foreign materials in LCRV.
When the LCRV is changed or repaired, it may affect braking performance.
Thus it must be ensured that only the appropriate part is used.
3.3 Removal and Installation:
1. Remove the nut mounting the stud from the LCRV connecting rod.
2. Remove the brake pipe retaining the LCRV.
3. Remove the LCRV mounting bolt from the LCRV bracket and remove the
LCRV.
4. Installation should follow the removal procedure in reverse order.
Tightening Torque values:
Valve body mounting nut = 14 to 18 Nm
Bracket mounting bolt = 10 to 13 Nm
Stud mounting nut = 14 to 18 Nm
Note: Bleed the brake system.








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CHAPTER 4 - CALCULATIONS
Data Needed:

Assuming a typical vehicle weighing 2500 kg and taking approximate values for
diameters of springs and piston of an LCRV setup based on the values seen on the
vehicles at TAFE ACCESS LIMITED,

Total weight = 2500 kg = 24525 N
Weight Distribution (static-40%front, 60%rear)
Static weight on Front =1000 kg = 9810 N
Static weight on rear =1500 kg = 14715 N
Speed of the vehicle = 180 km/hr = 50 m/s
Height of CG = 290 mm & Wheelbase = 1700 mm
Disc diameter front and rear = 215 mm
Wheel cylinder size = 1963.5 mm
2
(d=50mm)
Leverage ratio = 5

Static Axle Load Distribution:


Where
M
r
static rear axle load (kg)
M Total vehicle mass (kg)
Static Axle load distribution
=

= 0.5869
Relative Centre of Gravity Height:


Where
h vertical distance from C of G to ground on level (mm)
w
b
wheelbase (mm)
X relative centre of gravity height
X =



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Dynamic Axle Loads:



M
fdyn
0.5869)+(0.1588*0.82))*2500 = 1358.315 kg
Braking Force:



B
F
1358.351*0.82*9.81 = 10926.56 N
F
A
= 1358.315*9.81*0.4 = 5330.00844 N
Dynamic Axle Load:
Weight Transfer during braking =


Where
mf inertial force of the vehicle
h height of CG
L wheelbase

Weight Transfer during braking =

= 3194.021 N
Dynamic front axle load (W
1
) = 9810 + 3194.021 = 13004.02174 N
(Contributes 53.02% of the total weight)
Dynamic front axle load per wheel = 6502.011 N
Dynamic rear axle load (W
2
) = 14715 - 3194.021 = 11520.979 N
(Contributes 46.98% of the total weight)
Dynamic front axle load per wheel = 5760.4895 N

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Brake Torque:
T = *F
al
*R
Where
- Coefficient of friction between friction pad and lining
F
al
Dynamic axle load (N)
R static laden radius of the tyre (m)
T
front
= 0.6*6502.011*0.270 = 1053.325 Nm
T
rear
= 0.6*5760.4895*0.250 = 864.0734 Nm
Stopping Distance:
Deceleration a = 0.82g
V=u+at (u=0) and s=ut+


At 180 km/hr, Stopping time t = u/a= 6.21 sec
Stopping distance s = u
2
/2a = 155.391 m
Brake Force:
Kinetic Energy = 0.5mv
2
= Fs = 0.5*2500*50
2
= F*155.391
F = 20110.559 N
Braking force required on front axle = 10662.618 N (53.02% of total braking force)
Braking force required on rear axle = 9447.94 N (46.98% of total braking force)
Braking forces required on each of the front and rear wheels are 5331.309 N and
4723.97 N respectively.
Clamp Load:
C =


Where
F
b
Braking Force
- Coefficient of Friction between pad and drum / disc
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C
front
=

= 4442.7575 N
C
rear
=

= 3936.6417 N
Line Pressure:
Line Pressure created from master cylinder =

= 4.2676 MPa =
618.96 psi
where
Leverage ratio of brake pedal lp = 5
Pedal lever efficiency p = 0.85
Pedal force Fp = 2000 N
Line Pressure required required for front braking =

= 328.07 psi
Line Pressure required required for rear braking =

= 290.78 psi
During heavy braking:
Deceleration = 2.5g
The axial load is 9737.87 N
Dynamic front axle load W
1
= 19547.87 N (81.01%)
Dynamic rear axle load W
2
= 4582.32 N (18.99%)
T
front
= 0.6*9773.935*0.270 = 1583.377 Nm
T
rear
= 0.6*2291.16*0.250 = 343.674 Nm
Stopping distance s = 50.968 m
Braking forces required on front and rear axles are 16291.56 N and 3818.99 N.
C
front
=

= 13576.3 N
C
rear
=

= 3182.2959 N
Pressure from master cylinder = 8.534 MPa = 1237.75 psi
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Line pressure required for front braking = 6.914 MPa = 1002.84 psi
Line pressure required for rear braking = 1.62 MPa = 235.0655 psi
Cut-in pressure:
The cut-in pressure (P
c
) under fully-laden conditions:
P
c
A
3
= S - K
A
3
= 314.16 mm
2
For the bias spring,
The coil diameter is 30 mm and the wire diameter is 5 mm.
Assuming modulus of rigidity to be 75 GPa,
Spring stiffness =

= 43.402 N/mm
The axial load is 50 N under 2.5g braking.
Displacement =

6.912 mm
Force applied to the control piston by the bias spring K = Spring stiffness x
displacement = 150 N
For the position sensing spring,
The coil diameter is 20 mm and the wire diameter is 4 mm.
Assuming modulus of rigidity to be 75 GPa,
Spring stiffness =

= 30 N/mm
The axial load to the sensing spring is

N under 2.5g braking.


Displacement =

12.9838 mm
Force applied to the control piston by the load sensing spring S = 389.5148 N
Cut-in pressure P
c
=

= 0.76239 MPa = 110.5 psi


Outlet pressure:
The general equilibrium equation of the valve lat pressure above cut-in is:
P
1
A
1
+ S - K = P
2
A
2
where
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P
1
Inlet pressure
P
2
Outlet pressure
A
1
= 700 314.16 = 385.84 mm
2

A
2
= 700 mm
2

P
2
=
)

= 5.046 MPa = 731.860 psi


Thus here the decompression ratio is P
1
:P
2
= 1.691:1

Variation of Output pressure with input pressure before and after cut-in:
P1 P2 P1 P2
0 0.550735 4.25 2.67905
0.25 0.688535 4.5 2.81685
0.5 0.826335 4.75 2.95465
0.75 0.964135 5 3.09245
0.76239 0.756679 5.25 3.23025
1 0.88765 5.5 3.36805
1.25 1.02545 5.75 3.50585
1.5 1.16325 6 3.64365
1.75 1.30105 6.25 3.78145
2 1.43885 6.5 3.91925
2.25 1.57665 6.75 4.05705
2.5 1.71445 7 4.19485
2.75 1.85225 7.25 4.33265
3 1.99005 7.5 4.47045
3.25 2.12785 7.75 4.60825
3.5 2.26565 8 4.74605
3.75 2.40345 8.25 4.88385
4 2.54125 8.5 5.02165

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4.1 Calculated fully laden characteristics of the valve


















0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
0
.
7
5
1
.
2
52
2
.
7
5
3
.
5
4
.
2
55
5
.
7
5
6
.
5
7
.
2
58
8
.
7
5
I
n
l
e
t

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

P
1

(
M
P
a
)

Outlet Pressure P2 (MPa)
Inlet Pressure (P1) Vs
Outlet Pressure (P2)
Cut-in
pressure
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CHAPTER 5 DESIGN OF ROTARY SLOT FOR
ADJUSTMENT ACCORDING TO RIDE HEIGHT

5.1 Description

The second connecting link, which is connected to the bell crank, is to be connected
to a rotary slot. The cap of the rotary slot is designed such that the second
connecting rod pivots about the top mount, thus enabling the rotary slot to perform
the operation of the bell crank, effectively replacing it. The rotary slot consists of two
concentric cylinders, mated by threads on their inner and outer circumferences. A
cap mounted to the inner cylinder is free to rotate inside it through a disc-like
protrusion. This cap is connected to the inner cylinder by means of two bolts. It is to
the top of this cap that the second connecting rod is bolted.
5.2 Function
When ride height is adjusted at the shock absorbers by any means (shims, etc.), the
LCRV is usually adjusted by removing the bell crank, and mounting it higher up by
installing a new plate. In this assembly, the adjustment is made by screwing the
inner cylinder into the outer one. The procedure is to remove the two bolts
connecting the cap to the inner cylinder, and the bolt that fixes the inner cylinder to
the outer one. Consequently the inner cylinder becomes free to screw inside the
outer one, and thus the adjustment is made. The pitch of the threads has been
designed to be 1 mm, so that adjustments of accuracy 1 mm can be made. Thus the
leverage is altered.



F




5.1 The assembly with the rotary slot
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5.2 Sectional view of the rotary slot















5.3 Cylinder Top Drawing

20






















5.4 Inner Cylinder Drawing






21

























5.5 Outer Cylinder Drawing



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5.1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
On cylinder top,
Stiffness of bias spring = 43.402 N/mm
Stiffness of sensing spring = 30 N/mm
Stiffness of spring controlling ball valve = =

= 37.5 N/mm
Force acting on the top of the cylinder cap is calculated to be 1032 N at the two
bolts.








5.6 Static nodal stress cylinder top cap








5.7 Static displacement analysis cylinder top cap
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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION
Thus the construction and working principles of a Load Conscious Pressure
Reducing Valve system have been studied, suitable calculations for inlet and outlet
pressures that will approximate the behaviour of the system have been performed,
and the modification proposed to the system that will accommodate manual changes
in vehicle ride height has been exposited upon, based on the knowledge gained of
the concerned component through the visit to TAFE ACCESS LIMITED, TRICHY
ROAD, COIMBATORE. A comprehensive survey of literature available in the public
domain was done and the advantages of a newly designed modification to adjust for
variations in ride height have been expounded.
6.1 REFERENCES:
1. Ssangyong Rexton service manual
2. United States Patent Vehicle with load conscious brake pressure reducing
valve by Glyn. P. Farr, patent number 4,669,788.
3. United States Patent Load sensing proportioning valve for brake system by
Cole et al., patent number 4,986,609
4. Brake line pressure calculations BAJA BHAIS and PEGASUS RACING.
5. Design of Machine Elements by V. B. Bhandari