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The Institute of Foreign Policy Studies (IFPS) at the University of Calcutta is an

autonomous centre devised for the study of international relations, with particular
emphasis on foreign policy. Funded by the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA),
Government of India, the institute purports to create a pool of foreign policy specialists
capable of offering advice on matters pertaining to Indias international relations. The
Institute has already been earmarked for developing regional expertise with reference
to the Government of Indias Look East Policy, and that towards West Asia. The IFPS
has also been chosen as one of the ten centres for United Nations Academic Initiative,
functioning as the hub for studies on peace and confict resolution.
The Centre for Pakistan and West Asian Studies, Calcutta University, was set up in
2005 under the UGC Area Studies Programme. It is the only research outft associated
with a University in eastern India with an exclusive focus on Pakistan and West Asian
countries, Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq in particular, which together constitute a part of
Indias extended neighbourhood in the West. The Centre, since its establishment in
2005, has tried to develop a greater understanding of this extended neighbourhood by
looking at the internal dynamics of the region with far greater detail than is generally
accorded by other area studies outfts in the country.
IFPS / CPWAS OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES
NO.
SWASTI VARDHAN MISHRA
6
` 000.00
w w w . k w p u b . c o m
I S B N 9 7 8 - 9 3 - 8 1 9 0 4 - 3 4 - 3
KNOWLEDGE WORLD
KW PUBLISHERS PVT LTD
CARTOGRAPHI C
CONTESTATI ON
BETWEEN I NDI A
AND PAKI STAN
WI TH REGARD TO
PAKI STAN OCCUPI ED
KASHMI R
OCP 6 cover Asian Values-30.04.2014.indd 1 5/1/2014 9:56:02 AM
It is argued that maps have strong subjective connotation and are made
with a purpose to serve, wherein negating cartography as a positivist
and objective science. Situating the thought in the ambit of Critical
Cartography, the way maps, from various sources, alter and challenge
the geopolitical situation of India in favour of Pakistan is shown. Since,
the cartographic encroachment is immense and has multiple spatial
refections, Pakistan Occupied Kashmir has been considered as the
area of interest.
Swasti Vardhan Mishra has been a Visiting Fellow at the Institute of
Foreign Policy Studies. His interests are critical studies in Geography
and Urban Sociology. His papers Kolkatas spaces of prostitution as
subaltern urbanism, Confating Gray space and Crypto Urbanism and
Understanding needs and Ascribed Quality of Life- through Maternal
factors-Infant mortality dialectic are in press, to be published in the
reputed journals in the feld.
OCP 6 cover Asian Values-30.04.2014.indd 2 5/1/2014 9:56:03 AM
CARTOGRAP HI C
CONTE S TATI ON B E TWE E N
I NDI A AND PAK I S TAN
WI TH RE GARD TO PAK I S TAN
OCCUP I E D KAS HMI R
Calcutta University
Kolkata
in association with
KNOWLEDGE WORLD
KW Publishers Pvt Ltd
New Delhi
2011 BEST PUBLISHERS AWARD (ENGLISH)
SWASTI VARDHAN MISHRA
OCP 6 Cartographic Contestation between India and Pakistan 30.4.2014.indd 1 5/1/2014 9:56:49 AM
Copyright 2014
University of Calcutta
The Court of Directors of the East India Company sent a despatch in July, 1854 to the
Governor-General of India in Council, suggesting the establishment of the Universities of
Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
In pursuance of that despatch, the University of Calcutta was founded on January 24, 1857.
The University adopted in the frst instance, the pattern of the University of London and
gradually introduced modifcations in its constitution.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording
or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.
The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not represent the views of the
University of Calcutta.
ISBN 978-93-83649-16-7
Published in India by Kalpana Shukla
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Phone: +91.11.23263498/43528107
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Printed and Bound in India
2011 BEST PUBLISHERS AWARD (ENGLISH)
OCP 6 Cartographic Contestation between India and Pakistan 30.4.2014.indd 2 5/1/2014 9:56:49 AM
Contents
1. Conceptualising Maps 1
1.1. Unmasking the Map 3
1.2. State vs. Popular Maps 7
2. World Cartography Today 8
3. Cartography in India 10
4. Cartographic Contestation 12
4.1. State 13
4.2. State Cartographic Agencies 14
4.3. Non-state Actors 15
4.3.1. Inside 15
4.3.2. Outside 16
5. Reinforcing Indias Cartographic Stance 18
Notes 20
References 22
Figures 24
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CARTOGRAP HI C CONTE S TATI ON B E TWE E N I NDI A
AND PAKI S TANWI TH RE GARD TO PAKI S TAN
OCCUP I E D KAS HMI R
1. Conceptualising Maps
... map possessed an all but unique power to give the elusive idea of the state
concrete form, to those outside looking in, certainly, but also to those living within.
(Wood, 2010, p. 31)
Maps are true images of a states beingcircumscribing a defnite space
through territorialisation. How are these italicised words linked to embody
the paramount force of political geography with its enormous bearing on
international relations? (Starr, 2005)the motif in which these concepts
entwine, though simple and elementary, is pivotal. Space is a fundamental
element of human intelligence (Goodchild and Janelle, 2010, p. 3) and
matters greatly (Kaplan, 2012, p. 49) in the study of international relations
for it is fundamental in any exercise of power (Foucault, 2000 in Shah,
2012, p. 60) and is also one of the two primary ways (the other being time)
in which social behaviour and interaction are contextualised (Starr, 2005,
p. 393). It is not only the physical space (absolute space) that affects the play
in international relations but also the abstract space (Lefebvre, 1991) which
gains the leverage politically to infuence international relations. Abstract
space endeavours towards achieving homogenisation of space; map is
one of the abstract spaces which tends to homogenise what is inside the
territory and stand in contrast to that is outside. And, the science which
makes the map is Cartographyetymologically derived in the year 1839
as a Portuguese neologism (Wood, 2003, p. 4) and since then inducted
into meaning as a science of map-making. Cartography makes map through
intellectualisation of space (Klinghoffer, 2006, p. 13) and in that process
embody space (Wood, 2010, p. 94)where a defnite three-dimensional
physical space is sloughed off by one dimension to produce it. Also, a states
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identity is secured at the frst instance through its map, which otherwise
remains to be elusivefor instance, we know what India is but we are
able to comprehend her existence only through looking at her image
the map. Moreover, a states position on the map is the frst thing that
defnes it, more than its governing philosophy even (Kaplan, 2012, p. 28).
But how a state, which is a space, mapped? How map-makers bind a space
as a state?They do so through territorialisation of space. Thus the map is a
producer of a politically controlled space called territory. And the dialectic
between state and territory is so intense as to make Poggi (Shah, 2012, p.
65) enunciate that state is a territory. Besides, there is no scepticism in
accepting territory as modern states distinctive feature (Shah, 2012, p.
60) and over which state has exclusive jurisdiction (Shah, 2012, p. 59).
However it is not space rather a map which controls the organismic image
of a state; as eloquent in what Corner means:
... territory does not precede a map, but that space becomes territory
through bounding practices that include mapping. Moreover, given that
places are planned and built on the basis of maps, so that space is itself a
representation of the map, the differentiation between the real and the
representation is no longer meaningful. (Kitchin, Perkins and Dodge,
2009, pp. 18-19).
Furthermore, cartographical hermeneutics does not suffce itself only
with the portrayal of states existence but also engages with contestation
on two frontsfrstly, maps deliberately efface the distinction between de
jure (legally recognised) and de facto (borders in practice only) boundaries
between states (Petchenik, 1977 in Klinghoffer, 2006, p. 43). Secondly,
there have been graphic gerrymandering either to support historical
claims to territory or produce it as an alibi to legitimise future territorial
ambitions (Harley, 1988, p. 289). But the territorial claims through maps are
accompanied by narrativesa rhetoricbased on what Prospect theory
calls the Endowment effects (Starr, 2005, p. 399)Where both the states,
having territorial claims, see the untrue maps a their loss. A State which
has actually parted with her territory legitimises the loss viewing everything
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retrospectively, whereas the territorial claims the other state frames cites
the loss prospectively. In the whole process of territorial claims maps play
an overarching rolewhich enables easy manoeuvring, inter alia, through
border manufacturing and producing reality.
But as a caveatmap is not objective, it is neither innocent nor optimal.
Maps are not only representations of reality but also representations of
power (Harley, 1989, p. 1) and they are the conduit through which the
ideological content ... passes undistorted (Wood and Fels, 2008, p. 190). Maps
do not create territory but act as a vehicle for the creation and conveying
of authority about and ultimately over, territory (Wood and Fels, 2008, p.
190). These critical thoughts accrue from the ideas of Critical Cartography,
which is a progeny of a reaction to the hegemonic tradition of map-making
as a progressive and value free transcription of the environment (Wood
and Krygier, 2009, p. 340). This thought process is post-modern in enterprise
and has been exemplifed by the works of (John) Brian Harley, Denis Wood,
Denis Cosgrove, John Fels, John Pickles, Jeremy Crampton, John Krygier,
and Chris Perkins. Critical cartography is a one-two punchinvolving
imaginative mapping practices and political underpinnings of maps and
mapping processes (Crampton and Krygier, 2006, pp. 11-12). Here I would
engage myself with the critical thoughts of Harley, which in fact writ large in
the feld, and also since I am delving into the epistemology of maps, keeping
its ontology intact. The paper, while unfurling the epistemology of maps
rooted in social theories rather in scientifc positivism (Harley, 1989, p.
2), will justify the imperatives of a state (here, India) to concentrate on her
imagerial representation and how and why it should rethink and reinforce
her cartographic image. The voice of critical cartography can be honestly
employed by India to renegotiate her territorial claims and her external
sovereignty. In the following paragraphs the ideas, that are paraphrased,
would provide the theoretical and philosophical base to legitimise Indias
move to secure what is, axiomatically, her.
1.1. Unmasking the Map
Whether a map is produced under the banner of cartographic science
as most offcial maps have beenor whether it is an overt propaganda
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exercise, it cannot escape involvement in the processes by which power is
deployed ... political power is most effectively reproduced, communicated,
and experienced through maps. (Harley, 1988, p. 279)
Harley avers maps as socially constructed ... [and] manipulated form
of knowledge, and as value laden images. He invokes works of Michel
Foucault and Derrida to construe the power syndrome of maps and
deconstruct it to read between the lines ... in the margins of the text
(Harley, 1989, p. 3). For him maps are produced by power to produce
power (Kitchin, Perkins and Dodge, 2009)they are not neutral scientifc
documents (Crampton and Krygier, 2006, p. 12), rather highly biased and
manipulated form of communication. Maps do not refect reality, they make
itthat is, they manufacture boundaries of the state; they distort the size,
shape and content inside and outside the territory.
Maps are knowledge, and any form of knowledge tries to induce power
on the subject it deems ft for it to be inducedthere is omnipresence of
power in all knowledge (Foucault, 1978 in Harley, 1989, p. 13). Maps are
rhetoric, they argue for their legitimacy and in the way legitimacy of the
absolute space they territorialise. Also they must be viewed contextually and
not per sefor they are historically and socially contextualised products
and thence, manipulated and manufactured by the very disposition of a
cartographer. Harley distinguishes between the two powers of a map
internal power and external power. Internal power is what a cartographer,
deliberately or unintentionally, manufactures through his creation and
the consequent political effects that his creation entails, for example the
maps made by Mercator and Peter. Both are rectangular maps, but one
has intentionally affected the political discourse (Peters projection
1
) and
the other did it unknowingly (Mercators projection
2
). However every map
has a patron behind it, the biggest among them is the state (Harley, 1988).
This patron surfaces the external power of maps through patronising the
cartography and the cartographer. Power is exerted on cartography ...
[and] with cartography (Harley, 1989, p. 12) in the scenario of external
power, which in fact is the most popular and familiar sense of power in
cartography (Harley, 1989, p. 12). The power external to cartography is
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exercised by the patrons who infuence the map-maker to produce the map
they need to attain defnite ends.
Wood, like Harley, talks of map as a power/knowledge dialectic and
insists on the reality making zeal of maps. For Wood and Fels the authority
is conveyed through a Paramapconfation of Perimap and Epimap (2008, p.
192). Their idea is analogical to the Gerard Genettes idea of Paratext
Peritext+Epitext. To be precise, perimap is the whole set of characteristics
which are intrinsic to mapsranging from the projection used for drawing
maps to the quality of the paper used. Whereas, the epimap is everything
being done or used for publicising the mapbe it letter to the editor,
accompanying article or the marketing copy. Thus the only map that
commands authority is a paramapperimap+epimap.
That maps are regnant is known but what this power is and how it
is conveyed remains a big question to be answered. Power is nothing but
the interests [map] represented (Wood, 1992 in Kitchin, Perkins, and
Dodge, 2009, p. 9)the interest to exploit the natural resources, to locate
at strategic locations, to make legitimate and illegitimate territorial claims,
to discipline, to hide, and to show. Power is ubiquitous not because it
embraces everything, but because it comes from everywhere (Foucault,
1978 in Harley, 1989, p. 13). These powers are exercised through tools
which are rooted in the scientifcally oriented practice of cartography.
The paramount tool to exert power through maps is exogenous
to mapit relates to the projection employed to project the mapped
area from the Generating globe.
3
Here it is essential to refect on the
two processes of projecting from the generating globethrough direct
projecting using the wired or glass generating globe with the help of a
light source placed at appropriate position (giving way to what is called
a Perspective projection). And the Non-Perspective projection is attained
through the use of mathematical principles to satisfy certain objectives.
Thence, the use of mathematics to produce a projection is fully liable to
be used at the whims of the cartographer or the patron, whether, it is
to infate the size of Europe or warn the existence of communist USSR
through Mercators Projection or doing the same for the third world
through Peters projection. Similarly, propagandists who wish for an alliance
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between the USA and Western Europe employ Polar projections to show
their proximity and those opposed to any such move tend to use a map
with the equator as an east-west axis and locate the centre longitudinally in
the Pacifc (Klinghoffer, 2006, p. 41).
The power is also exerted, through the orientation of maps. The earth
is spherical, so there is no question of north being at the top and south
being at the bottombut north being a land hemisphere, and that too of
world powers, entails its orientation at the top (Short, 2003 in Fotiadis,
2008/2009, p. 7; Klinghoffer, 2006, p. 21).
Rule of ethnocentricity (Harley, 1989, p. 6) or Omphalos syndrome
(Harley, 1988, p. 290) is another tool through which maps are regnant.
It means the positioning of a state on the map, with prominence being
attached to those states that show up at the middleright at the centre.
Ethnocentricity is user-oriented, for it knows that the frst location a user
fxes his gaze at is the centre of a map. Besides, being at the centre also
makes an important infuence, as the states are fanked on both sides of the
central state, giving it a topological centrality.
The most pervasively distorted element of a map is its content. Use of
radiant and bedazzling colours, hiding the contents, termed as silences
by Harley (1988, p. 290), bordering the territorial claims as own, using
toponyms (manipulating with the colour, font, language and, its positioning)
are, inter alia, the tools to convey power. With the burgeoning of
computer technology, use of fash technique is also being employed to
highlight those areas of a map which a state want others to look at and thus
attach legitimacy to. In fact, cataloguing the content of a state through the
production of physical maps, resource maps and various thematic maps is
a much nuanced form of exerting the power of maps through naturalising
the territorial claims (Shah, 2012).
Thus, accuracy and austerity of design (Harley, 1989, p. 10), as
a consequence of scientisation of map-making, work to deploy power
through maps. But, maps are never error free. Maps are projected onto
the projecting plane
4
from the generating globe, which on the other hand
is a microcosm of the earth. To be true, generating globes are unable
to characterise the equatorial bulge of the earth, neither have they
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accounted for the tapering at the poles.
5
In regard to this, Klinghoffer
calls maps as tertiary portrayal of reality (2006, p. 9). Apart from that,
projecting plane also distorts the secondary portrayal of reality for it is
two-dimensional, made from a three-dimensional objectas a result
secures only one of the properties
6
related to ground reality while
trading off with other properties. But again, scientifcally disciplined
maps are relatively much error free than conjectural maps. And maps
which refect their scientifcally disciplined nature through the use
of grid systems, scale, north line, index, and legends are more readily
accepted and cited both popularly and professionally.
1.2. State vs. Popular Maps
Critical cartography talks of undisciplined cartography, where the map-
making is snatched away from the academics and virtuoso to hand it to
the common public. But, here the question is, if the state is making maps
and on the contrary, commoners are making maps, whose map would
gain prominence? Will it be that of the state or that of a commoner? The
answer is always the state. This idea can be justifed through the work of
Henri Lefebvre (1991) who was a space theorist with a radical leaning.
Though his work exemplifes the political economy of a city, his work can
be applied with the same vigour to the study of state-space. Space (social
space) according to him is produced through entwining of his triad
Spatial practice, Representations of Space, and Representational Space. To
paraphrase, Spatial Practice can be resonated as the physical spacea space
that is deciphered by the society. He calls it the Perceived Spacethe space
as it is perceived by the society. Representations of Space is being referred to
as the Conceived Space. This is the space as conceived and dictated upon by
Urban Planners, Social Engineers, Scientists, Urbanists and in our case the
State. It adorns a hegemonic nature. On the contrary, Representational Space
(Spaces of Representation) is the Lived Spacea space of inhabitants and
users. It adorns a passive character and tends to lose its representation and
identity with them. These three spaces are always contesting, and eventually
the conceived space reigns over the other two:
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Representational space disappears into the representation of spacethe
latter swallows the former; and spatial practice, put into brackets along
with social practice as a whole, endures only as the unthought aspect of
the thought that has now pronounced itself sovereign ruler. (Lefebvre,
1991, p. 398)
State is undoubtedly a social space, which is dimensionalised through
maps. As a corollary, maps represent perceived, conceived, and lived
spacesand as mentioned, conceived space, the space coded by state, is the
space which pulverises the other two spaces. Thus, the map which is being
produced and reproduced by the state comes victorious, having an upper
hand over the perceived and the lived dimensions of space.
The aforementioned ideas are innuendoes in original context rooted in
critical and radical thought. However, they also expand the possibility of a
states honest claims and even legitimise it. But, maps are not an apparatus
to exert power by the states only; rather they also infuence others to
make competing and equally powerful claims (Crampton and Krygier,
2006, p. 12). These contesting claims between State and others are at times
found to be inclining towards what a state claims and deserves, against
claims of others.
2. World Cartography Today
World cartography is moving towards universalising the techniques of map-
making worldwide. In the present times the type of datum and the projection
had been going through round of testing for accuracy and applicability.
Prior to refecting on the ongoing scenario of homogenisation of world
cartography, it is required to understand a few technical issues residing
within the subject.
The earth cannot be completely replicated and objectifed, with regard
to its shapehaving fattened poles and a bulging equator. Then how is it
that we content ourselves and engage in juggernaut technical entanglement
with the projections which we project from the generating globe? To
answer: Cartography is evolving day-to-day with R&D being one of the
cornerstones of its paramountcy in every spherethe level of accuracy
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which the discipline now has is at a higher mark than what it had a few years
back and in the coming years it is prefgured to be at a much higher level
of accuracy. Continuous research has evolved the shape of the referencing
sphere in conformance to the shape of the earth and thus, Ellipsoid has
become (Figure 1) more earth shaped. It continuously produces accuracy
in the whole gamut of spatial identifcation, measurement and intervention,
in which maps are a small part of existence.
Exacting the earth shape is the beginning of the cartographic process,
which is followed by fxing the Datum. Datum, in a novices parlance, is the
reference point from which the location of other points is identifed. It is a
point which helps to originate and orient the latitudes and longitudes and
it is through this point that the position of the geoid is ascertained relative
to the earths centre. There are a number of local datums,
7
for example, for
India it is Everest datum, while for the USA it is Clarke datum, which produce
good representations of the reality of the local area for which the datum has
been established. But with so many datums in question it is assured that the
location of a place A (i.e., latitude and longitude or the coordinate system of
the point) in a map with Everest datum would vary with a map of the same
region with Clarke datum, since both of them are measuring a single point
from different reference points. Therefore, to address the issue of variance
in location and measurements, which bring practical predicaments, it was
decided to adopt a universal reference system called WGS 84 with GRS 80
Ellipsoid and WGS 84 datum in the 1980s. This system was adopted after
the availability of a huge number of data from satellites, and also used for
Global Positioning Systems worldwide.
With the Generating globe approximated, the maps are made by
projecting the generating globe on a projecting plane, with projecting plane
developed into a developable surface.
8
With three shapes (plane, cylinder
and cone) developable surfaces are the medium which are developed for
projecting the desired area on a projection (fgure 2). For instance, if a
cartographer wants to project the polar areas, he will choose plane as the
developable surface, which would touch the globe at the poles. And likewise
if he wants equatorial and tropical areas to be projected he would use a
cylinder as the developable surface and would use a cone for extra-tropical
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areas. Moreover, projections are used keeping in mind the properties of
the ground area to be preserved on the mapwhether to preserve the
area of the projection (equal area projections), to maintain the shape of the
area projected (orthomorphic projections), to preserve the actual distance
between two points (equidistant projections) or to preserve the angular
distance between two points (azimuthal projections). Furthermore, the
point, line or area of contact between the developable surface and the
generating globe preserves the true scale
9
and there is increasing intensity
of distortion as one moves away from the contact, i.e., the properties of the
area beyond that gets unconformable to the generating globe. The Latitude
along which the scale is preserved is known as Standard parallel.
10
Today the world is moving towards universalising a single projection to
meet both the local and global needs. And to cater to this need Universal
Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection has been adopted. Mercator
projection is a non-perspective cylindrical orthomorphic projection, which
has remained in the political mayhem for more than three centuries. But,
UTM, in spite of being a member of the Mercator system, does not entail
any political chaos. The developable surface (cylinder) in case of UTM
touches the generating globe along a longitude instead of a latitude, and
may be referred to as standard meridian
11
(against the standard parallel,
though the jargon has been maintained as central meridian) (fgure 3). The
world is divided into 60 UTM zones (fgure 4) at 6 degrees intervals, thus,
UTM comprises of 60 cylindrical projections. And, in this projection, any
area within 6 degrees of the central meridian is saved from the distortion.
Therefore, any extension can be mapped and synchronised with
other maps made under UTM projection with WGS 84 datum. This
universal projection has been started to be used worldwide for mapping
and navigational purposes. The globalisation of datum and projection has
brought a much needed change in cartography and spatial data maintenance,
use and synchronisation.
3. Cartography in India
Mapping in India is carried out by two agenciesSurvey of India (SOI)
and National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation (NATMO). Both
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of these agencies are under the Department of Science and Technology,
Government of India. But, between the two, SOI is the real gatekeeper
of cartography in India and being the Principal Mapping Agency of the
country, has the only right to engage in settling the issues of International
borders and state boundaries. NATMO, on the other hand, is an agency to
publish various kinds of atlases, both nationally and state-wise.
Survey of India, established in 1767, is the oldest scientifc department of
Govt. of India. SOI engages in various activities, which includes: being adviser
to the Government of India on all survey matters related to Topography,
Geodesy and Photogrammetry and carry out Geodetic, Geophysical and
topographical surveys. They also predict tides at 44 ports and publish Tide
tables and topographical data in digital and analogue form. Furthermore,
SOI is also responsible for maintaining the internal and external sovereignty
of India through determining the spelling of the geographic names in the
country, demarcating the border of the country and their depiction on
maps published in the country and also advise on delineating the boundaries
between states. They also engage in scrutinising and certifying the depiction
of borders and coastlines on maps published by private publishers. Thus,
SOI does not only engage in mapping the political space but also invests in
other activities related to the physical space of the countryits geology,
natural resources, coastal dynamics, topography among others.
NATMO, established as National Atlas Organisation on August 18, 1956,
transformed into a fully fedged agency to prepare atlases and thematic
maps
12
for every part of the Indian territory. It also prepares special
occasion maps and India and adjacent country maps. To be precise, NATMO
is an agency which has no say in any border disputes, and only engages in
cartographic activity devoid of any ground measurement function. It also
engages in regular training of civilians, students and researchers in various
courses on GIS, Remote Sensing, Photogrammetry and Global Positioning
System. It digitises the map of India for various mapping activities using the
Everest datum and Polyconic projection.
With the adoption of the National Map Policy, 2005 (NMP), the use
of WGS 84 datum and UTM projections have been started to be used by
SOI for preparation of Topographical maps.
13
The policy has vested the
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responsibility to produce, store and disseminate the topographical map
database with SOI. Following which, SOI have to create and maintain the
National Topographical Data Base (NTDB) consisting of key spatial data,
which includes, inter alia, the toponyms and administrative boundaries. This
database would function as the foundation of all spatial data in the country.
Apart from that, SOI will have to produce two types of topographical
mapsOpen Series Maps (OSM) and Defence Series Maps (DSM). OSMs
are created based on the WGS 84 datum using UTM projection. These maps
are for the public and for the sake of security civil and military Vulnerable
Areas and Vulnerable Points
14
are not shown. Even grids are absent which
used to be there in the earlier topographical maps before NMP. Besides,
no contours and heights are identifed in restricted areas as instructed by
the Ministry of Defence. Also OSMs larger than 1:1,000,000 will have to be
procured through an agreement between SOI and the agency.
On the contrary, DSMs are made using Lambert Conformal Conic
projection and UTM, referring to datum Everest and WGS 84. These
topographical maps for the country cover all the information as they cater
to national security and defence. The use and dissemination policy of DSMs
has been formulated by the Ministry of Defence. Furthermore, SOI has also
been entrusted to prepare large-scale
15
maps of cities, the content of which
will be fnalised after consultation with the Ministry of Defence.
To conclude, SOI is the real gatekeeper of cartography in India but the
dissemination of political maps is mainly through the outlet of NATMO.
In fact SOI rarely publishes maps of Indian polity and India and adjacent
countries. On the contrary, such maps are made regularly at NATMO, which
also meets easy disposal through sale. SOI is the real preserver of Indias
border, but it is NATMO which disseminates the same through publication
and sale of the atlases and thematic maps.
4. Cartographic Contestation
The clamour related to India-Pakistan feud has become a clich by
penetrating into regular discourse and dialogues. But, this sense of banality
of the issue is a veneer, underlain by huge chunk of contestation on many
fronts. Cartography, among others, has been solidifed as one of such
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fronts where the power and interests of both the countries are contested
and subverted. Mapping that with this forms the major cauldron of the
contestation, ranging from maps portraying POK as part of Pakistan to
maps portraying POK not integral to India. To substantiate, use of hue and
toponyms are made deliberately to create something ostensibly legitimate.
The following paragraphs will focus on these contestations, classifed under
three heads, to refect on the power of maps.
4.1. State
Drawing from Harleys binary, state is a major patron of cartographythe
external force of the science of map-making. And this external force is
the paramount of all forces to exert spatiality through maps. Websites
of both the countries have been observed to fnd the intensity of the
territorial claims being made. From which it has surfaced that Pakistan
is exerting their illegitimate claims more rambunctiously through using a
map (fgure 5), though small, at the upper left hand corner of the offcial
website of Pakistan.
16
Besides, the colour used for portraying Kashmir
excluding the area occupied by China, is coloured dazzlingly red and use
of fash technology made to make that area of the map more legible and
attractive, thus asking the onlooker to legitimise the claims Pakistan have
been making. On the contrary, the offcial website of India
17
has no maps
(fgure 6) to claim what is her, though the website looks more suave and
charming than that of Pakistans but the absence of a map of the republic
misses out her interests in exerting the spatiality. However, a download
menu on the right-hand edge of the website says, download maps of India,
which takes the user to an external website (Survey of India) from where
the maps are downloadable. It is known that the legitimacy of territorial
claim is bestowed with India but that claim is not visible at frst glancea
user entering both the portals would subliminally get infuenced by the
overt visibility of Pakistans map, and in the process will be restrained
from knowing the true picture of Indias existence altogether. The external
force of cartography in India remains bleak when juxtaposed to that of
Pakistan.
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4.2. State Cartographic Agencies
The cartographic agencies of a state come next in the lexicon of bodies
accountable for exerting the spatiality of a state. A similar study has been
made with the agencies in both the countries, and the picture turns out to
be more dismal. Survey of Pakistan portal
18
opens with a huge map (covering
roughly 65% of the page)properly labelled and capable of being called
a true cartographic product (fgure 7). The map refers to the whole of
Jammu and Kashmir, except the Chinese part, as a disputed territory and
in the process it astutely makes the territory its own. For if the area is
disputed there is no point in including it in a countrys map, giving it a colour
which blends easily with the rest of the land. A narrow glance will give
the impression that the state of J&K is a natural part of Pakistan and the
word disputed territory will work as an undercurrent to sympathise with the
claims of Pakistan, thereby ratifying the keenly sought after legitimacy of her
territorial claims. On the other hand, Survey of India
19
has got an illegible
background map of India and a rectangular block showing a satellite image
of the Indian subcontinent (fgure 8); no true cartographic product is visible
on the home page, though a download option takes the user to a web page,
in a similar fashion to that of India portal. The map is a scanned copy of a
paper map (fgure 9) that brings forth an authority, as paper maps remain
dominant over equivalent digital media (Hurst and Clough, 2013, p. 49).
This dominance accrues from the tangibility, popularity and ease of use of
paper maps but more from a belief that in times when producing digital
media is a matter of clicks, a tangible media is comparatively much harder
to produce and reproduce, and even if produced it certainly commands
legitimacy. And also, under the main menu of General Information of the
portal there opens a webpage, where a hyperlink The Offcial Boundary
of India downloads the map (fgure 10). As can be seen the map is close
to a Paramap, talking explicitly of the Indian claimthrough enlisting two
constitutional acts tied to preserving the territory of India and providing the
emails to be contacted in case of an encounter with any dissenting map. But
here again the visibility of the Indian map is not exposed, where the exposed
map of Pakistan expresses her claims in a non-negotiable manner. As stated
the subliminal infuence is more intense with the Pakistani map than that
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of India. NATMO portal
20
is also devoid of any map of Republic of India,
and none of the menu options takes the user to any of the Indian maps. To
conclude, the internal force of Cartography in India is also not at par with its
counterpart in Pakistan.
4.3. Non-state Actors
In International Relations Non-state Actors (NSA) play a huge role in
mobilising and manoeuvring the political circumstances. In this regard, the
following paragraphs would indulge in classifying the NSA into Inside and
Outside of the country.
4.3.1. Inside
To start with, in 2012 it came to light that the map practice exercise book
for schools run by Army Education Welfare Society showed PoK as Azad
Kashmir.
21
Though the publisher was a private player, it was the responsibility
of SOI to check for any error in the map. Besides, the end users of the book
were the students of class III in a school based in Srinagarwhich is the
most vulnerable area to propagandise the wrong map of the country. And,
to work on young and tender minds of the place would be fatal, as they
tend to conceptualise the wrong map and consequently, would sympathise
with the violent forces to destabilise the territorial integrity of the nation.
The aboriginal forces that weaken the Indian claim, come more as an
embarrassment than a challenge to get rid of.
Even the domestic media houses are not aware of the mistakes
they makeone online posted news by India Today group implicitly has
shown
22
Kashmir as a part of Pakistan, paying no attention to the harm
they are construing. In fact the matter of the news does not need any
inclusion of a map (fgure 11), but even if it had been so, only the map of
southern part of Pakistan would have suffced the purpose, as the news
was endemic to Karachi (located at the southern tip of Pakistan). Though
the toponym used for the area was correct (Jammu and Kashmir), but its
presence in news that matter with Pakistan, and also the use of a colour
that merges well with other areas, cannot be accepted in the crudest
of form.
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Callousness in producing a wrong imagerial representation of India
is not restricted to media and publishing houses; it is as much mirrored
in individual presentation by people at the higher tier of administrative
functioning. In one instance, a presenter literally presented a wrong map
of Indiaand he was, paradoxically, the principal secretary, Industries in
Govt. of Gujarat. While convincing the audience of the benefts that can be
capitalised by investing in the state the secretary showed a map portraying
Jammu and Kashmir as part of Pakistan!
23
And, this presentation was
uploaded on the web without the needed rectifcation.
The impetuosity of these errors stems from the absence of a conception
that has not germinated among the common mass of our countrythe
conception which would drive them to think the vivacity of Indias imagerial
representation and in turn to acknowledge how these representations
bestow an identity of their own.
4.3.2. Outside
Bodies and institutions external to a state portray maps that are detrimental
to its claim and their ready acceptance owing to a tag of being an unbiased
object of a neutral body reinforces the unfavourable circumstances. The
aforementioned analysis will be done in the following paragraphs on three
differentiating characteristicsHue, internal content of the map, position of
the toponym and how the map has been worked on to propagate insurgency.
Astute use of colour on maps is made so as to either merge J&K with
Pakistan or to exclude it from Indian territory, and some of the sources
of these maps are of considerable importance. For instance, a map (fgure
12) archived in University of Texas library
24
used colour to portray POK
not integral to India, whereas, a map of Pakistan (fgure 13) from the same
archive
25
shows it to be a part of Pakistan. Though, the border mark in both
the maps portray it to be a disputed territory, but the use of colour overplays
and bulldozes the differentiating mark, even if it may not be intended. To
ones dismay, the beheaded India map is available at more than 100 portals
on the web, at times manipulated to serve a defnite purpose. It mirrors
what Harley has called the silences on a mapuse of differentiating
colour eschewed to accommodate the subjectivity of the cartographer. In
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a similar fashion, maps produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA),
have shown POK as the territory of Pakistan through use of colour in
two maps, that of India
26
(fgure 14) and Pakistan
27
(fgure 15). Error in the
portrayal of legitimate territory also surfaced when the US Department of
State showed a map on its portal where POK was neither shown as a part
of India nor was it shown as a disputed territory.
28
Another map (fgure 16),
of Pakistans administrative divisions, with the same portrayal is available on
more than 40 websites!
Lonely Planet is the worlds largest travel guide publisher, which
publishes 500 titles a year and employs some 360 authors,
29
which is
enough to gauge the dimension of its pervasiveness and acceptance. The
offcial portal
30
of the organisation shows the same discrepancies with
the maps (fgure 17 and 18) of both the countries and in this case the
disputed territory is not even marked through defnite cartographic icons.
With escalating sale of its tourist guides the wrong maps must have had
subliminally infuenced many.
A political map of a state connotes political infuence but a physical map
is certainly considered to be an object which exists per se and produces
what is there on the ground. But, as mentioned in the introductory
paragraphs, these physical and environment maps exert the power
through including within them what they claim to be their to make it seem
natural and legitimate. A physical map of Pakistan (fgure 19) obtained
from Survey of Pakistan portal
31
showing the height above MSL, engulfs
J&K so effciently, so as to naturalise the area as being its primordial part.
Furthermore, the bold headingPAKISTAN PHYSICALinclines a user
to consider the map and the resultant territory as true. Not to conclude,
Pakistans unfettered claims have surfaced in an uglier formthrough
publishing of a map (fgure 20) territorialising Pakistans major ethnic
groups
32
where the states of Punjab and Haryana and the peripheral
areas of Rajasthan and J&K has been territorialised to be under Punjabi
ethnic group. The content is true but the way it has been territorialised
and the use of the titlePAKISTANMAJOR ETHNIC GROUPSis
highly contentious. This map is available on more than 40 portals on the
web!
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The violent NSAs have tried uprooting the territorial integrity of
India explicitly through the fastidious use of the internet. To pick one of
the instances, numerous blogs over the web have stated the presence
of a strategy to initiate the second partition of Indiato create a
Muslim nation of Mughalstan
33
which also portrays a map (fgure 21)
that includes the Gangetic plain of India and Assam, apart from Pakistan
and Bangladesh. This initiative to carve a Muslim nation out of Muslim
dominated areas of India, through merging with Pakistan and Bangladesh,
is said to have been conceived in Mughalstan Research Institute (MRI)
of Jahangir Nagar University (Bangladesh) being supported by Pakistans
Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and Bangladeshs Director General of
Forces Intelligence. The idea of a second partition and also that of
Mughalstan may be hearsay but the exertion of that through use of a
map is something that endeavours to authenticate the attempt. The map
is a true Paramapincluding the epimap and the perimap. The authority
of the map is publicised with district-wise data and other maps, a full
length article and numerous newsfeeds. Though the article is published
to caution India, the use of data and maps are enough to attest the
authority of the map.
The positioning of toponym on maps also convey meanings. And, in one
of the maps (fgure 22) procured from UNMOGIP showing the deployment
of forces in J&K and Pakistan positions the toponym India below the state
of J&Kover the state of Himachal Pradesh.
34
Even though the map neither
portrays J&K as a part of Pakistan, but the position of the toponym makes
it look not as a part of India either.
5. Reinforcing Indias Cartographic Stance
The damage manifested through portraying Indias wrong image can be
managed with retroft-mapping. Mapping practice within the country should
be adapted to the needthe need to restrict the publicising gesture of
Pakistan. A move to publicise our own maps, and through that claiming what
is our own, is exigent in the contemporary situation.
Thence, a few of our moves can publicise and in turn legitimise our
claims through retroft-mapping:
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1. Offcial portals of all the government departments and agencies should
carry a map, which must be downloadable. It must look like a true
cartographic product, so as to command authority from the onlookers.
2. Relating to the Relative thinking theory (Azar, 2007), which talks of
economic decision making, it is argued that relative thinking process
percolates to the overall thought process of an individual. In our case, the
ethnocentricity of India by being at the centre of an Indian Subcontinent
map will be fortifed when the relative differences between the states
turn the conception in Indias favour. By relative differences it is meant
that the size differences between all the states (excluding India and
Pakistan) and Pakistan, and that of all the states and India would refect
Indias dominance, through the topographic size it commands relative
to that of Pakistan. Therefore, an Indian subcontinent map would be
ideal for getting positioned on websites, and also can be used for
propagandising the claims. Figure 23 shows a map, which I consider
should be used for the purpose.
3. India has got a strong ground to popularise its paramap through
publicising maps accompanied with the constitutional acts that secures
Indias territorial integrity. Pakistan, on the contrary, is certain to be
staying afar, as the countrys constitution is silent on Gilgit-Baltistan
area, and its idea of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, as mentioned in article
1, is not fully conducive to her claims either (IDSA, 2011).
35
Two of
Indias Constitutional actsSection 2, Criminal Law Amendment Act,
1961
36
and Section 69A, IT Amendment Act, 2000
37
clearly talk of
her power to secure her territorial integrity. The frst act dissuades
questioning of territorial integrity or frontiers of India in a manner
prejudicial to the safety and security of India. Apart from that anybody
who publishes a map of India, which is not in conformity with the map
of India as published by the Survey of India, shall be punishable with
imprisonment which may be extended to six months, or with fne, or
with both. The act even tells of forfeiting the newspapers and books
containing anything detrimental to Indias sovereignty. Whereas the
second act talks of blocking the websites and any aspect of the internet
domain which is detrimental to Indias security and defence. Taking a
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cue, Indias map must accompany these acts at one of the corners.
4. As a last resort, India must engage in practising the terms of the acts
on the ground. It can be realised through effective monitoring of the
contents of the publications made inside the country and the contents
of the web. In this respect, Survey of India must play an important role
at its disposal.
Notes
1. Peters Projection was devised by Arno Peters in 1980 as a strong and critical
reaction to Mercators Projection, which exaggerated the size of Europe and
other developed northern countries. Peters replaced the size distortion of
Mercators with portraying of accurate area, thus his map gave prominence to the
underdeveloped worddiagonally opposite to what Mercator did (Klinghoffer,
2006: 120-123; Wood, Rethinking the power of maps, 2010: 127-129).
2. Mercators Projection (sixteenth Century) was initially constructed for helping
the navigators, and was later used as a tool for propaganda. The dominance and
supremacy of Europe was refected through the use of this projectionwhere
the size of countries gets exaggerated with the distance from the equator. As it
is an orthomorphic projection, it preserves shape while trading off with the area
(Klinghoffer, 2006: 46; Wood, 2010: 126).
3. It is a wired or glass replica of earth, from which the graticule and the corresponding
area is traced on paper.
4. Projecting plane is a sheet of paper on which the area and grid (graticules) is
projected from the generating globe with the help of a light source.
5. Due to rotation of Earth the equator bulges out and as a result poles get tapered.
6. Properties of a projection are fveEqual-Area: In this projection area of the
projected segment is preserved; Orthomorphic projection: In this projection shape
of the projected segment is preserved: Equidistant Projection: In this projection
distance between two points of the projected segment is preserved; Azimuthal
Projection: In this projection azimuth defning the directions between two points
of the projected segment is preserved and Aphylactic Projection: In this projection
neither of the four properties of the projected segment is preserved.
7. For list of local datums follow NIMA WGS 84 Update Committee, 1997: Appendix
B.1.
8. It is desired that an area is projected as accurately as possible on a projecting plane.
To address this, projecting planes are developed into cones and cylinders, so as to
get as much area wrapped and projected, as required.
9. The measurements of dimension of the point of contact in a projection are same as
that of the generating globe which otherwise gets exaggerated as one moves away
from the contact point.
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10. Parallel is also used for Latitudes.
11. Meridian is also used for Longitudes.
12. Thematic maps portray a particular facet of a natural or a social domain, e.g.,
Population maps, Natural Vegetation maps, and Festival maps.
13. Topographical maps are the base of all other maps. These maps are constructed
at 15 minute intervals (though it is one of the many topographical maps, it is used
pervasively) over the ground and contain all the information pertaining to planning
and personal usee.g., settlements, water tanks, rivers, any man-made features.
14. Vulnerable areas and points on topographical maps are those places and features
whose portrayal on maps would be against the security of the nation. It comprises,
among others, Radar stations, Airports, Dams, factories and also water features in
desert area maps (for example in Rajasthan).
15. Scale of a map is a ratio between the map area and the ground area. For example a
map with a scale 1:100 means that 1 unit on a map represents 100 units on ground.
A map which has a smaller denominator (100 in this case) produces a larger value
than a map with a larger denominator. A large-scale map show things in more detail
than a small-scale map.
16. http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/gop/index.php?q=aHR0cDovLzE5Mi4xNjguNzAuMTM
2L2dvcC8%3D
17. http://india.gov.in/
18. http://www.surveyofpakistan.gov.pk/
19. http://www.surveyofndia.gov.in/
20. http://natmo.gov.in/
21. PTI. (2012, April 22). Pak-occupied Kashmir shown as Azad Kashmir in class three
text book. Retrieved March 16, 2013, from The Times of India: articles.timesofndia.
indiatimes.com/2012-04-22/india/31382284_1_ncert-textbooks-army-school-pok
22. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/blast-rips-through-security-forces-vehicle-in-
pakistan/1/260548.html
23. The Times of India (2013, January 7). Sahus Pak problem, The Times of India,
Ahmedabad, p. 4 (Times city).
24. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/india_pol01.jpg
25. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/pakistan.html/middle_east_and_asia/middle_east_
and_asia/pakistan_rel_1991.pdf?p=print
26. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html
27. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pk.html
28. S. Parashar. (2011, November 21). Map refects diplomatic tilt towards Pakistan.
Retrieved April 4, 2013, from The Times of India.
29. N. Fildes. (2007, October 2). BBC gives Lonely Planet guides a home in frst major
acquisition. Retrieved June 5, 2013, from The Independent: www.independent.
co.uk/news/media/bbc-gives-lonely-planet-guides-a-home-in-first-major-
acquisition-395739.html
30. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/asia/pakistan/ & http://www.lonelyplanet.com/
maps/asia/india/
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31. http://www.surveyofpakistan.gov.pk/downloads/pakphysical.pdf
32. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/images/Pakistan_Ethnic_80.
jpg
33. http://mughalistan.wordpress.com/category/uncategorized/
34. http://www.un.org/depts/Cartographic/map/dpko/unmogip.pdf
35. http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/constitution/
36. http://indiacode.nic.in/fullact1.asp?tfnm=196123
37. http://thedemandingmistress.blogspot.in/2012/09/blocking-of-websites-under-
information.html
References
1. Azar, O. H. 2007. Relative thinking theory. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 36, 1-14.
2. Cederberg, E. n.d.. The cartographic authorship of the state: Developing a theoretical
position regarding states and maps. Retrieved March 24, 2013, from Lund University
Publications:http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=31
58798&fleOId=3166114
3. Crampton, J. W. 2001. Maps as social constructions: power, communication and
visualization. Progress in Human Geography, 25 (2), 23552.
4. Crampton, J. W. and J. Krygier. 2006. An Introduction to Critical Cartography.
ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 4 (1), 11-33.
5. Fotiadis, P. 2008/2009. The Strange Power of Maps: How maps work politically and
infuence our understanding of the world. School of Sociology, Politics, and International
Studies (Working Paper No. 06-09). Bristol: University of Bristol.
6. Goodchild, M. F. and D. G. Janelle. 2010. Toward critical spatial thinking in the social
sciences and humanities. GeoJournal, 75, 3-13.
7. Harley, J. 1989. Deconstructing the Map. Cartographica, 26 (2), 1-20.
8. Harley, J. 1988. Maps, knowledge, and power. In D. Cosgrove and S. Daniels, The
Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past
Environments (pp. 277-312). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
9. Hurst, P. and P. Clough. 2013. Will we be lost without paper maps in the digital
age? Journal of Information Science, 39 (1), 48-60.
10. IDSA. 2011. Pakistan Occupied Kashmir: Changing the Discourse. New Delhi: Institute
for Defence Studies and Analyses.
11. Kaplan, R. D. 2012. The Revenge of Geography. New York: Random House.
12. Kitchin, R., C. Perkins and M. Dodge. 2009. Thinking about maps. In M. Dodge, R.
Kitchin and C. Perkins, Rethinking Maps (pp. 1-25). Oxon: Routledge.
13. Klinghoffer, A. J. 2006. The Power of Projections: How Maps Refect Global Politics and
History. Westport: Praeger.
14. Lefebvre, H. 1991. The Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell.
15. Monmonier, M. 1996. How to Lie with Maps (2nd ed.). Chicago: The University of
Chicago Press.
16. NIMA WGS 84 Update Committee. (1997). Department of Defense World Geodetic
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System 1984, Its Defnition and Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems. Bethesda:
National Imagery and Mapping Agency.
17. Shah, N. 2012. The Territorial Trap of the Territorial Trap: Global Transformation
and the Problem of the States Two Territories. International Political Sociology, 6, 57-
76.
18. Starr, H. 2005. Territory, Proximity, and Spatiality: The Geography of International
Confict. International Studies Review, 7, 387-406.
19. Wood, D. 2003. Cartography is Dead (Thank God!). Cartographic Perspectives, 45,
4-7.
20. Wood, D. 2010. Rethinking the power of maps. New York: The Guilford Press.
21. Wood, D. and J. Fels. 2008. The Natures of Maps: Cartographic Constructions of
the Natural World. Cartographica, 43 (3), 189-202.
22. Wood, D. and J. Krygier. 2009. Critical Cartography. In R. Kitchin and N. Thrift,
International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 340-44.
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Figures
Figure 1. Ellipsoid as distinct from the surface of the Earth.
http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0703/geoid1of3.html
Figure 2. Developable Surfaces.
http://www.microimages.com/documentation/refman/xhtml/ii/c0prjtyp.gif
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Figure 3 (a). Mercator Projection. See how the Cylinder Touches the Latitude.
http://www.nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_projections.html
Figure 3 (b). Universal Transverse Mercator Projection.
See how the Cylinder Touches the Longitude.
htps://www.e-educaton.psu.edu/natureofgeoinfo/c2_p22.html
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Figure 9. India Political Map from Survey of India web site.
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Figure 10. Offcial Boundary Map from Survey of India web site.
Figure 11. Map of Pakistan from the India Today web site.
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Figure 12. Beheaded Map of India from University of Texas Archives.
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Figure 13. Map of Pakistan from University of Texas Archives.
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Figure 14. The Same Beheaded Map of India from CIA Portal.
Figure 15. The Map of Pakistan from CIA Portal.
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Figure 16. Pakistan Administrative Divisions Map.
Figure 17. Beheaded India Map from Lonely Planet web site.
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Figure 18. Map of Pakistan from Lonely Planet web site.
Figure 19. Pakistan Physical Map.
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Figure 20. Pakistan Major Ethnic Groups Map.
Figure 21. Map of Mughalstan.
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Figure 22. UNMOGIP Map.
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Figure 23. An Ideal Map of India.
(IndiaPolitical)
Source: Author
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