Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

a S c i T e c h n o l j o u r n a l Review Article

Archana and Prasad, J Plant Physiol Pathol 2014, 2:1


http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-955X.1000116
Journal of Plant
Physiology & Pathology
All articles published in Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology are the property of SciTechnol, and is protected by copyright
laws. Copyright 2014, SciTechnol, All Rights Reserved. International Publisher of Science,
Technology and Medicine
Management of Plant-parasitic
Nematodes by the Use of
Botanicals
Archana U Singh
1
* and Prasad D
Abstract
Plant-parasitic nematodes are causing great damage to agricultural
and horticultural crops. Hence, biopesticides of botanical origin
have become focus of attention today for facing the nematode
problems in an eco-friendly manner. The use of botanical pesticides
is now emerging as one of the prime means to protect crops. In
India, botanical pesticides are available in many plants for which
deep search and testing is required as many of them are still
unexplored. As they are available in bulk, they are expected to be
cheaper in comparison to synthetic chemicals. Hence, to make their
use more meaningful, economical, feasible and environmentally
safe, research efforts are needed to fnd out the toxic components
present in them and their mode of action.
Keywords
Nematodes; Botanicals; Pesticides; Plants; Biopesticides
Introduction
Plant-parasitic nematodes are worst enemies of mankind and
causing great damage to all agricultural and horticultural crops.
Tey infect plant roots, bulbs, rhizomes, stems, leaves, buds, fowers,
seeds etc. and cause damage to the plants directly or indirectly. Te
estimated annual yield loss in major crops of the world due to plant
parasitic nematodes was 12.3 percent [1]. Nematode management can
be defned as a practice whereby plant parasitic nematodes population
is maintained at levels that do not cause economic losses. Tere are
two broad categories for management practices: Chemical and
Non chemical. Te chemicals used earlier to control plant parasitic
nematodes were usually fumigant and non-fumigant nematicides.
Tese are not only expensive but also cause environmental pollution,
phytotoxicity, contamination of ground water and adversely afect
the land and its biotic environment. Te demerits of hazardous
chemicals have created interest in searching alternate methods for
plant-parasitic nematode management.
Botanical insecticides possess a spectrum of properties including
insecticidal activity, repellence to pests, antifeedancy, insect growth
regulation, toxicity to nematodes, mites, snail and slugs, and other
pests of agricultural importance. Also they possess antifungal,
antiviral, and antibacterial properties against pathogens. Biopesticides
of botanical origin have become the focus of attention today for
*Corresponding author: Archana U Singh, Division of Nematology, LBS
Building, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi -12, India, E-mail:
arch_212@yahoo.com
Received: November 05, 2013 Accepted: January 20, 2014 Published:
January 24, 2014
facing the nematode problems in an eco-friendly manner [2-4]. Te
use of botanical pesticides is now emerging as one of the prime means
to protect crops. When extracted from plants, these chemicals are
referred to collectively as botanicals. Generally, botanicals degrade
more rapidly than most conventional (synthetic) pesticides, and so
are considered relatively environmentally benign and less likely to kill
benefcial insects, mites and nematodes than pesticides with longer
residual activity. Since most of them generally degrade within a few
days, and sometimes within a few hours, these biopesticides are being
frequently used for the management of phytoparasitic nematodes
[5]. In India, botanical pesticides are available in many plants for
which deep search and testing is required as many of them are still
unexplored [6,7]. As they are available in bulk, they are expected to be
cheaper in comparison to synthetic chemicals. Moreover, the farmers
can prepare their crude extracts for their use in feld. Many plants and
plant products when applied in soil are known to cause reduction in
the nematode population below damaging level. In few cases plants
have been found to be actually antagonistic towards nematodes and
some have shown to produce toxic materials inhibitory to nematodes
[7,8].
Botanicals can be used in four diferent ways to reduce
nematode infestation viz.
1 By using the parts of botanicals directly.
2 By using the extracts of parts of botanicals.
3 By using compounds of botanicals possessing nematicides
activities.
4 By using plants as oilseed cakes, mature crop residues and
organic amendments.
Te use of botanical products to manage phytonematodes
population has a number of possible advantages over synthetic
products viz. the botanical pesticides are available in bulk; they
are easy to apply and are expected to be cheaper in comparison to
synthetic chemicals; such compounds also being biodegradable
are unlikely to cause environmental problems than conventional
pesticides; and the farmers can easily prepare crude extracts of
botanicals for their use in feld. Tere is a need to exploit the toxic
components of promising botanicals specially those, which have
shown nematicidal properties viz. Azadirachta indica (Neem),
Pongamia glabra (Karanj), Agrimone mexicana (Bhatkatai), Datura
metel (Dhatura), Eucalyptus globorus (Eucalypus), Phyllanthus
niruri (Jaar Aonla), Madhuca indica (Mahua), Shorea robusta (Sal),
Asparagus sprengeri (Asparagus), Crotolaria juncea (Crotolaria),
Tagetes spp. (Marigold), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Calotropis procera
(Madar), Swertia chiratta (Chiratta), Bauhinia variegata ( Kachnar),
Semecarpus anacardium (Bhilawa), Cannabis sativa (Bhang), Melia
azadirach (Bakain), Embelia ribes (Babadinga), and Psidium guajava
(Guava) (Table 1).
Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a versatile tree of Indian origin,
used for its medicinal and insecticidal properties and as a source of
neem oil, fodder, fbre, fertilizer and timber [9-11]. Neem extract was
most potent in reducing virus infectivity and nematode populations.
Several plants were used as intercrops between the rows of other
Citation: Archana U Singh, Prasad D (2014) Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes by the Use of Botanicals. J Plant Physiol Pathol 2:1.
Page 2 of 10 Volume 2 Issue 1 1000116
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-955X.1000116
Table 1: List of Botanicals effective against plant parasitic nematodes.
Scientifc name Common name Nematode Plant part
Amaranthus sp. Amaranth M. javanica Leaf
Arachis hypogaea Groundnut M. incognita Testa
Argemone mexicana Mexican Prickly M. incognita Leaf, Seed
Asparagus sp. Asparagus Trichodorus christie Root
Azadirachta indica Neem M. incognita Seed, leaf
Bougainvillea spectabilis Bougainvillea Aphelenchoides sp. Leaf
Brassica sp. Mustard M. incognita Seeds
Calendula offcinalis Marigold M. incognita -
Calotropis giganteana Madar M. incognita Leaf
Cannabis sativa Hemp M. incognita Whole plant
Carthamus tinctorius Saffower M. incognita Flower, Root
Chrysanthemum coronarium American chrysanthemum M. incognita Leaf
Citrus aurantium Sour orange Ditylenchus destructor Fruit skin
Coffee sp. Coffee M. exigua Bean cover
Crotolaria sp. Madar M. hapla Leaf
Curcuma domestica Turmeric M. incognita Whole plant
Datura metel Red fescue Pratylenchus penetrans T. brassicae Rhizome
Ficus carica Fig Pratylenchus Shoot
Glycine max Soybean M. exigua Seed
Gossypium sp. Cotton M. incognita Seed
Jasminum arborescence Jasmine M. incognita Leaf
Leucaena leucocephala Subabul Helicotylenchus dihystera Leaf
Mangifera indica Mango M. incognita Leaf
Melia azadirachta Persian lilac M. incognita Leaf
Nicotiana tabaccum Tobacco M. incognita Leaf, Stem
Ocimum sanctum Holy basil M. incognita Leaf
Parthenium hysterophorus Parthenium M. incognita Helicotylenchus dihystera Leaf
Phaesolus lunatus Lima bean M. incognita Leaf
P. vulgaris Kidney bean Pratylenchus Leaf
Raphanus sativus Radish Tylenchorhynchus Stem
Ricinus communis Castor Tylenchorhynchus brassicae Leaf
Sesbania sp. Sesbania M. incognia Root
Tagetes erecta Marigold M. incognita Root
T. patula French marigold M. incognita Root
Zingiber offcinale Ginger M. incognita Rhizome
Cassia fstula Amaltas M. incognita Leaves
Asystacia gangetica - R. reniformis Leaves
Polytrias amaura - R. reniformis Leaves
Gliricidia sepium - R. reniformis Leaves
Eucalyptus globorus Eucalyptus R. reniformis Leaves
Calophyllum inophyllum - M. incognita Oil cakes
Madhuca indica Mahua M. inocognita Oil cakes
Shorea robusta - M. incognita Oil cakes
Cleroendrum incrme - R. reniformis Leaf Powder
Lantana camara - R. reniformis Leaf Powder
Psidium guajava Guava R. reniformis Dried leaves
Calotropis procera Madar M. incognita Latex
Parkia javanica - M. incognita Leaves
Vernonia cinerea Kala jeera M. incognita Seeds
Sesamum orientale Sesame M. incognita Root exudates
Aloe barbadense - M. incognita Root and Shoot extracts
Ammi majus - M. incognita Root and Shoot extracts
peryii - M. incognita Root and shoot extracts
Artemisia annua - M. incognita Root and shoot extracts
pallens - M. incognita Root and shoot extracts
Lactuca sativa - M. incognita Root and shoot extracts
Gloriosa superba - M. incognita Root and shoot extracts
Scillia indica - M. incognita Root and shoot extracts
Citation: Archana U Singh, Prasad D (2014) Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes by the Use of Botanicals. J Plant Physiol Pathol 2:1.
Page 3 of 10 Volume 2 Issue 1 1000116
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-955X.1000116
crops for the control of plant-parasitic nematodes including Tagetes
spp., neem (Azadirachta indica), Brassica spp., Crotolaria spp., and
Asparagus [12]. Tese plants when intermixed with other crops
caused signifcant decline in the soil population of nematodes [11,13].
Diferent Ways of Using Botanicals
By using the parts of botanicals for nematode management
Many botanicals possess nematicidal and nematostatic properties
in their roots shoot, leaves, fowers, seeds etc. and their extracts,
essential oil, oilseed cakes and products have been successfully tested
against variety of phytonematodes [14-16]. As various agricultural
plants possess nematicidal activities in their diferent parts, their
parts as such or afer chopping if incorporated into the soil would
reduce the nematode population and severity of root knot nematode
infection [15,17,18]. Te efective parts of plants which have been
found to possess nematicidal properties are stems, leaves, roots,
fruits, and seeds (Table 2). Application of fresh leaves of Azadirachta
indica, Sesbania aculeate and water hyacinth or water hyacinth
compost @ 60 kgN/ha were found useful for managing the population
of Hirschmanniella oryzae and increasing grain yield of rice [19].
Leaves of Calotropis gigantea increased plant growth parameters and
recorded the lowest galling and soil nematode population, whereas
Erythrina indica - M. incognitaT. mashoodi Leaf extract
Piper betel - R. similis Leaf extract
Cyprus rotundus - R. similis Rhizome extract
A.sativum Garlic M. incognita Bulb extract
Glyricidia machalata - R. similis Leaf extract
Areca catechu - M. incognita Seed extract
Catharanthus roseus M. incognita Roots
Typhonium trilobatum M. incognita Corn powder
Rauwolfa serpentina Sarpgandha M. incognita Roots
Table 2: Different active ingredients isolated from various plants and effective against Plant-parasitic nematodes.
S. No Plant Name Active Ingredients
1. Acacia auriculiformis Acaciaside A and B
2. Allium fstulosumvar. caespitosum Dipropyl thiosulfnate
3. Allium grayi 1-octanol methyl 4-hydroxybbenzoate, methyl 4-hydroxycinnamate, allygrin
4. Allium sativum Allicin Dially disulphide
5. Angellica pubescens Heptadeca-1, a-diene-4, 6-diyne-3, 8-dios
6. Arachis hypogaea Di-n-butyl succinate
7. Artemisia anma Artemisnin, Artemisnic acid, Arteanuin B, Arteether
8. Asparagus offcinalis Asparaganic acid
9. Azadirachta indica Azadirachtin, cuercetin, limonoides, nimbidin, nimbidic acid, thionimone
10. Bocconia cordata Bocconine, Chelerythrine, Sanguinarine
11. Brassica nigra Allyl isothiocyanates
12. Cathamus tinctorius 3-cis, 11-trans-and & 3-trans, 11-trans-trideca, 1,3,11 triens, 5,7,9-triyene
13. Cirsium japonicum Tridec-1-en-3,5,7,9,11-pentayne, 9,10-epoxyheptadec-16-en-4,6 diyn-8-ol
14. Coreopsis lanceolata 1-phenyl hepta-1, 3,5-triyne
2-phenyl-5-(1-propnyl)-thiopene
15. Cymbopogon caesius Linalool
16. Daphne odora Odoracin, Odoratrin
17. Datura stramonium Atropine, Nicotine, Scopolamine
18. Eclipta alba Alpha-tetra thienyl dithiophene
19. Erigeron philadelphicus Methyl 2-trans, 8-cis-deca 2, 8-diene-4,6-diynoate (2 trans, 8-cis-matricaria esters)
20. Gloriosa superba Colchicine
21. Hannoa undulata Quassinoids, Chaparrinone, klarneanone, Glaucarbolone
22. Helenium (hybrid) 1-tridecanene 3,5,7,9,11 pentanym 2-3-dihydro-2 hydroxy-3 methlene-6-methyl benzofuran
23. Inula helenium Alanto lactone
24. Lawsonia inermis Palmitic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid
25. Lycopersicon esculentum A tomatine
26. Ocimum basilicum Linalool, Methyl chavicol
27. Ocimum sanctum Eigenol
28. Piper marginatum Phenyl propanoids, transan ethole, Estragole
29. Solidago canadensis Cis-dehydromatricaria ester
30. Sophora favescens Cystime, (-) N-methyl cystine
31. Tagetes erecta A terthinenyl 5-(3-butene-1-ynyl)-2,2-bithienyl
32. Tagetes minuta (E)-tagetenone, jasmolins I and II, Limonene, Myrcene, beta-caryophyuenc, cinerins I and II
33. Tagetes patula Theophene, a tetrathienyl
34. Tephrosta purpurea Rotenoids, Flavonoids, Chalcones Oleic acid, 3-4-dihydroxy cinnamic acid
Citation: Archana U Singh, Prasad D (2014) Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes by the Use of Botanicals. J Plant Physiol Pathol 2:1.
Page 4 of 10 Volume 2 Issue 1 1000116
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-955X.1000116
the latex of Carica papaya and Calotropis gigantea recorded the
poorest performance [20,21].
Seed soaking with aqueous extracts of neem and karanj seed
kernel at 20% proved to be most efective among various plant
products tested in improving plant growth of cowpea and minimizing
infection of R. reniformis [22]. Te efects of neem cake and
Cymbopogon fexuosus (leaves), Cymbopogon winterianus (leaves),
Spilanthes acmella [Blainvillea acmella] (shoots), and Costus speciosus
(shoots and rhizomes) dried powder on A. majus was studied against
root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) population [23]. All
treatments signifcantly suppressed nematode population and
enhanced plant dry and fresh weight. Cymbopogon fexuosus (leaves),
Cymbopogon winterianus (leaves), Spilanthes acmella (Blainvillea
acmella) (shoots), and Costus speciosus (shoots and rhizomes) dried
powder of A. majus and root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)
population were most efective in the improvement of plant growth
and reduction of nematode population.
A green house study was conducted to manage root-knot
nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in tulsi (Ocimum canum [O.
americanum]). Treatments comprised: green chopped leaves of
neem (Azadirachta indica), datura (Datura stramonium), eucalyptus
(Eucalyptus citriodora), tulsi (Ocimum canum), parthenium
(Parthenium hysterophorus), madar (Calotropis procera), sadabahar
(Ipomoea carnea), subabul (Leucaena leucocephala), mint (Mentha
arvensis) and clerodendrum (Clerodendrum aculeatum). All the
treatments signifcantly reduced the nematode fecundity and
improved plant growth at varying levels. A signifcant reduction in
root-knot galls per root system (72.3%), egg masses per root system
(73.7%) and fnal population (77.0%) was observed when the soil was
amended with neem leaves [24].
Dry and fresh leaves of ten locally available botanicals
(Azadirachta indica, Calotropis procera, Vitex negundo, Prosopis
julifora, Datura stramonium, Crotalaria juncea, Abutilon indicum,
Tridax procumbens, Cassia auriculata and Xanthium indicum [X.
strumarium]) were tested during 1999-2000 against the root-lesion
nematode, Pratylenchus cofeae in banana cultivars Nendran and
Rasthali under feld conditions (Tamil Nadu, India). Among the
diferent botanicals, the application of Azadirachta indica, Calotropis
procera, D. stramonium, Crotalaria juncea and V. negundo was
superior and efective in reducing the nematode population and
increasing the yield signifcantly [16]. Te efects of dry leaf powders
of Vitex trifolia, Phlogacanthus thyrsiforus and Parkia javanica [P.
timoriana] as soil amendment (each at 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg
soil) on the growth and disease parameters of Solanum melongena,
Lycopersicon esculentum and Vicia faba respectively infected with
Meloidogyne incognita were investigated in a pot experiment. Te
study showed that V. trifolia, Phlogacanthus thyrsiforus and Parkia
javanica has potential nematicidal properties [15].
Neem, castor and karanj products (leaf and seed kernel) were
tested as seed dressing (10% w/w) along with soil application (2.5 q/
ha) for the management of Rotylenchulus reniformis infesting cowpea
cv. Pusa Barsati. Te plant products were efective in improving
plant growth and reducing nematode population over the untreated
control [25]. Studies were carried out on treated tomato cv. Roma VF
inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.
lycopersici with neem seed powder at 2 g/kg soil in the screen house
and at 2 Mg ha-1 in the feld (Samaru, Nigeria). Neem seed powder
signifcantly reduced the disease severity of Fusarium and root-knot
in both green house and feld [26].
Application of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica, Sesbania
aculeata, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) or water hyacinth
compost at 60 kg N/ha were useful for managing Hirschmanniella
oryzae and increasing grain yields [19]. However, the leaves of
A. indica or S. aculeata when applied to the soil at 10 kg N/ha in
combination with inorganic fertilizers had no efect on the nematode
population.
Te efect of treatment of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seed with
20% w/w powdered neem (Azadirachta indica) formulations viz.,
seed kernel, seed coat, de-oiled cake and Achook, and 5% v/w liquid
formulations viz., Neemark and Nimbecidine on the nematode
population growth and grain yield in two feld trials in Delhi, India.
Tere was a 55-59% reduction in the total populations of plant
parasitic nematodes in neem seed kernel with an increase of 126-
132% in the grain yield [27]. Similarly, the presence of neem seedlings
inhibited the penetration of second stage nematode juveniles (J2) in
chickpea roots, and restricted root-knot incidence as indicated by the
reduction in J2 numbers and root-knot nematode galls [28].
Studies conducted by growing neem seedlings along with chickpea
(Cicer arietinum) cultivars Pusa 209 and Pusa 267 in 2 x 2 m
2
microplot
(one seedling/plot) and signifcantly reduced the plant parasitic
nematode populations such as Meloidogyne incognita, Rotylenchulus
reniformis, Tylenchorhynchus mashhoodi, Helicotylenchus indicus
and Hoplolaimus indicus [29]. Te nematicidal efcacy of neem
seed, neem seed kernel, neem seed coat, neem seed cake and Achook
(azadirachtin, at 1500 ppm) each at 5, 10 15 or 20% w/w as seed coating
of pigeon pea on the penetration of H. cajani was studied. All the
neem products signifcantly reduced the penetration of second stage
H. cajani juveniles. Maximum penetration reduction of H. cajani was
observed with seed coating of neem seed kernel at 20% w/w in all the
treatments [30-32]. Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf, neem cake and
dazomet treatment of compost beds efectively increased number of
fruiting bodies as well as yield of Agaricus bisporus by reducing the
population of Aphelenchoides composticola [33].
Te aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf, neem
seed kernel, futuka (Melastoma malabathricum) leaf, bihlongoni
(Polygonum hydropiper) leaf, germany bon (Ageratum conyzoides)
leaf, all at 1:2 and 1:5 concentrations, were tested for their toxicity
under laboratory conditions against Meloidogyne graminicola. All the
extracts were toxic to M. graminicola and its efcacy increased with
the increase in the concentration of the extract and time of exposure.
Te highest nematode mortality (46.0-94.0%) was obtained in neem
seed kernel extract at 1:2 concentrations, followed by neem seed
kernel extract at 1:5 concentrations (36.0-82.0%) [34].
Soil was amended with neem crude products (leaves and cake) at
3 gm/100 gm of soil and refned product aza at 50 and 100 mg/100
g of soil. When 5000 free eggs were mixed in the amended soil,
neem crude products signifcantly reduced the hatching compared
with the control. Results showed that the neem refned product aza
signifcantly reduced hatching compared with the control but it
was less efective than the crude products. Aza at low concentration
stimulated hatching [35].
Combined efcacy of Verticillium chlamydosporium and leaf
Citation: Archana U Singh, Prasad D (2014) Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes by the Use of Botanicals. J Plant Physiol Pathol 2:1.
Page 5 of 10 Volume 2 Issue 1 1000116
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-955X.1000116
extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica), AK (Calotropis procera),
dhatura (Datura stramonium), castor (Ricinus communis) and
marigold (Tagetes minuta) in controlling M. javanica was determined.
Leaf extracts of all the fve plants together with V. chlamydosporium
reduced the number of galls and egg masses of M. javanica [36].
Te efcacy of P. lilacinus, mustard oil cake, neem [Azadirachta
indica] dry leaf, and neem cake against T. semipenetrans on C.
jambhiri was evaluated. All treatments except neem dry leaf at 10
g per plant signifcantly improved dry shoot and root weights and
reduced nematode population [37].
Te efects of leaf mulches from Azadirachta indica, Gliricidia
maculata, Acacia mangium, Clerodendron infortunatum
[Clerodendrum infortunatum], Calotropis gigantea, and Chromolaena
odorata on root knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita] and
kacholam (Kaempferia galanga) were studied in Vellayani. Mulches
from A. indica, Chromolaena odorata, and G. maculata reduced
nematode population by more than 60%, but mulches from A. indica
being the most efective. Mulches from A. indica and Chromolaena
odorata resulted in the lowest gall index [38].
All leaf extracts efectively suppressed H. cajani population
and reduced crop damage especially those obtained from Ocimum
sanctum, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus sp., Tagetes sp., Ficus
religiosa, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Azadirachta indica,
Myristica malabarica, Moringa oleifera, Mangifera indica, and Acacia
Arabica [39].
A study was conducted to investigate the efects of seed treatment
with neem products on the H. cajani incidence on cowpea cv. Pusa
Komal. Neem seed kernel-treated plants showed the lowest number
of cysts (10.3) followed by those treated with neem cake (15.3) and
neem seed (17.6). Neem cake, neem seed and neem seed kernel
resulted in more than 75% reduction in J2 penetration and more than
50% reduction in the number of cysts [40].
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an important medicinal
plant and major source of alkaloid and steroidal lactones
(withanolide). Plant growth retardation and gall formation in the root
system indicated the presence of root-knot nematodes, which was
confrmed as Meloidogyne incognita Race-2. Most of the biological
control agents and organic materials alone and in combination were
root-knot nematode suppressive and enhanced the growth and yield
of W. somnifera. Te highest root-knot suppression was noticed in
vermicompost and T. harzianum combination followed by Mentha
distillate and G. aggregatum [41].
Extracts of the parts of botanicals used for nematode
management
Methods for screening of botanicals for their nematicidal activity
have been tried by diferent workers. Tese include preparation of
plant extracts and testing these extracts both in vitro and in vivo
on nematodes [42]. Screening of 50 indigenous plant products for
their nematicidal value was done against second stage juveniles
of M. incognita under laboratory conditions [43]. Datura (Datura
metel) leaves at 10% concentration in 24 hrs. Exposure and at 5%
concentration in 48 hrs. Exposure gave 100 % mortality and appeared
to be most promising of all the materials tested in the experiment. Te
other potential plant products of nematicidal value were babadinga
(Embelia ribes) seeds, bhang (Cannabis sativa) leaves, bhilawa
(Semecarpus anacardium) fruit, ajwain seeds, bhangra (Eclipta alba)
leaves, madar (Calotropis gigentea) fower, pudeena (Mentha piperita)
leaves, kala jeera (Vernonia cinerea) seed, sarpgandha (Rauwolfa
serpentina) roots and tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaves.
Soaking of chickpea seed in the aqueous extracts of leaves of
bhang, bhangra, kateli (Argemone mexicana) and neem reduced the
penetration of M. incognita in chickpea seedlings [44]. Aqueous leaf
extracts of Argemone maxicana, Lantana camara and neem seed
kernel suspension proved to be most efective causing complete
inhibition of egg hatching and larval penetration of Meloidogyne
incognita in banana at 48, 96 and 144 hrs. indicating ovicidal and lack
of penetrability of larvae [45].
Te seed extracts of Areca catechu recorded highest inhibition
of egg hatching at 0.1% conc. Latex of Carica papaya caused 98.22
per cent inhibition of egg hatching at 1.0 and 10.0 conc., respectively.
Latex of Calotropis gigantea caused cent per cent inhibition of egg
hatching at 10.0 concentrations [46]. Leaf extracts of plants namely,
Acalypha indica, Casia fstula and Solanum torvum exhibited highest
degree of nematicidal action against the adults and juveniles of
Pratylenchus cofeae. Te leaf extracts of S. turvum and A. indica
recorded the highest mortality (89.7%) at 100% concentration afer
24 hrs [47].
Egg masses or larvae of Meloidogyne incognita were exposed to
varying concentrations of neem leaf (fresh and dry), Borrelia sp.,
groundnut leaf and garlic bulb. Neem leaf and garlic bulb extracts
inhibited hatching of egg masses and were lethal to larva. Tese
extracts signifcantly reduced root-knot infection on tomato when
compared to the control. However, garlic extract demonstrated
greater potential than neem leaf extract in the control of root-knot
infection of tomato [7]. Seed soaking with aqueous extracts of neem
and karanj seed kernel at 20% proved to be most efective among
various plant products tested in improving plant growth of cowpea
and minimizing infection of R. reniformis [22].
Water extracts of eight plant species namely Solanum surattense,
Tevetia peruviana, Calotropis procera, Tuja sinesis, Parthenium
hysterophorus, Croton sparsiforus, Colocasia antiquorum and Datura
stramonium were evaluated for their nematicidal properties against
the second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita and pre-adults of
Rotylenchulus reniformis in vitro [48].
A. squamosa at 60% concentration signifcantly reduced the
nematode penetration into the roots of both tomato and aubergine
plants followed by T. erecta extract at the same concentration.
Penetration of a large number of juveniles was observed in B.
scandens extract-treated plants. It was observed that the penetration
of M. incognita juveniles was reduced by higher concentration (60%)
of the extracts irrespective of the type of botanicals tested [14].
Leaf extracts of Calotropis gigantea, Tagetes erecta, and Citrullus
lanatus and seed extracts of Areca catechu and Citrullus lanatus
against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita were tested
for their nematicidal value in tomato. Te leaf extract of C. gigantea
signifcantly reduced the nematode population both at 45 days afer
transplanting (87.30%) and at harvest (89.96%) over the control. Te
same treatment also increased fruit yield by 23.91% [23].
Aqueous leaf extracts on the egg hatching and subsequent larval
penetration of Meloidogyne incognita in banana (Musa paradisiaca)
cv. Basrai roots indicated that the aqueous leaf extracts of argemone
(Argemone mexicana), lantana (Lantana camara) and neem
Citation: Archana U Singh, Prasad D (2014) Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes by the Use of Botanicals. J Plant Physiol Pathol 2:1.
Page 6 of 10 Volume 2 Issue 1 1000116
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-955X.1000116
(Azadirachta indica) seed kernel suspension (NSKS) proved to be the
most efective in complete inhibition of nematode egg hatching at 48,
96 and 144 h indicating ovicidal efects [45].
Shoot and root extracts of nine Asteraceae species from Pakistan
(Gaillardia aristata, Cosmos bipinnatus, Helianthus annuus,
Tagetes erecta, T. patula, Chamomilla recutita, Matricaria discoidea
{Chamomilla suaveolens}, Calendula ofcinalis and Zinnia elegans)
were tested for their efects on egg hatching and juvenile mortality
of Meloidogyne javanica in vitro. In general, root extracts were more
efective than the corresponding shoot extracts in terms of nematode
inhibition [2].
A feld experiment was carried out to test the nematode efcacy
of water extracts of some botanicals viz. leaf extracts of Calotropis
gigentia, Tagetes erecta, Azadirachta indica, seed extract of Areac
catechu and Citrullus lanatus. Among these, leaf extract of C. gigentia
signifcantly reduced the nematode population both at 45th day
afer transplanting (87.30%) and at harvest (89.96%) over control.
Te same treatments also increased the fruit yield by 23.91 percent
[46]. Efect of various aqueous leaf extracts on the egg hatching and
subsequent larval penetration of Meloidogyne incognita in banana
(Musa paradisiaca) cv. Basrai roots indicated that the aqueous leaf
extracts of argemone (Argemone maxicana), lantana (Lantana
camera) and neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel suspension
(NSKS) proved to be most efective in inhibiting egg hatching at 48,
96 and 144 h indicating ovicidal efects [45].
Egg masses or larvae of Meloidogyne incognita were exposed to
varying concentrations of neem leaf (fresh and dry), Borrelia sp.,
groundnut leaf and garlic bulb. Neem leaf and garlic bulb extracts
inhibited hatching of egg masses and were lethal to larvae. Garlic
extract demonstrated greater potential than neem leaf extract in the
control of root-knot infection of tomato in vivo [7].
Seven plant products, i.e. leaves of Calotropis gigantea, Tagetes
erecta and Azadirachta indica, seeds of Areca catechu and Citrullus
lanatus, and latex of Calotropis gigantea and Carica papaya in the
glasshouse were tested for their efcacy against M. incognita infesting
tomato. Leaves of Calotropis gigantea increased plant growth
parameters (shoot and root lengths and shoot and root weights) and
recorded the lowest galling and soil nematode population whereas
the latex of Carica papaya and Calotropis gigantea recorded poorest
performance [46].
Water extracts of eight plant species namely Solanum surattense,
Tevetia peruviana, Calotropis procera, Tuja sinesis, Parthenium
hysterophorus, Croton sparsiforus, Colocasia antiquorum and Datura
stramonium were evaluated for their nematicidal properties against
the second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita and pre-adults of
Rotylenchulus reniformis in vitro. Mortality ranged from 50-100% in
M. incognita and 51-86% in R. reniformis with treatment of S/32 to
S/64 dilutions of the plant extracts [49].
Studies on the penetration deterrent ability of botanical extracts
viz., Annona squamosa, Bauhinia scandens and Tagetes erecta at two
diferent concentrations (40 and 60%) against Meloidogyne incognita
juveniles in tomato and aubergine plants under glasshouse conditions.
Te results revealed that A. squamosa at 60% concentration
signifcantly reduced the nematode penetration in the roots of both
tomato and aubergine plants followed by T. erecta extract at the same
concentration [14].
Te seed extract of Arecha catechu recorded the highest
inhibition rate of M. incognita at 0.1% concentration. Te latex of C.
papaya caused 98.22 and 100% hatching inhibition at 1.0 and 10.0%
concentrations, respectively. Te latex of Calotropis gigantea also
caused 100% inhibition at 10.0% concentration [49].
Te aqueous leaf extracts of argemone (Argemone maxicana,
lantana (Lantana camera) and neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel
suspension (NSKS) proved to be the most efective in the complete
inhibition of nematode egg hatching at 48, 96 and 144 h, indicating
ovicidal efects. A signifcantly higher nematode larval penetration
was recorded from egg masses treated with castor bean and I. fstulosa
leaf extracts, indicating their ovistatic efect [45]. Te lowest number
of egg masses of M. graminicola in rice was recorded in neem cake
applied to soil at 5 g/kg soil, root dip+soil drench with 5 and 2.5% of
the seed extract of S. glauca, and soil application of S. glauca cake at
5 g/kg soil [50].
Te leaf extract of Azadirachta indica, neem seed cake extract
and carbofuran applied singly or in combination through bare-root-
dip treatment for 60 or 120 minutes signifcantly reduced root-knot
nematode (M. incognita) penetration into the roots of tomato (cv.
Pusa ruby). Te greatest inhibition of root penetration was obtained
by dipping of roots in neem seed cake extract with carbofuran for
120 minutes [51]. Extracts of Arnica montana, Calendula ofcinalis,
Carica papaya and Azadirachta indica (diluted 30 or 200 times) were
evaluated for their nematicidal efect against M. incognita infesting
tomato cv. PKM 1. Te plant extracts reduced root galls and nematode
population in the soil [52].
Neem treated cowpea seeds, kept in storage for 3 months; all
germinated and had reduced numbers of H. cajani juvenile infestation,
when sown in laboratory trials. Powdered neem seed kernel and
neem cake extracts were most efective followed by neem seed coat
@ 20% w/w of seed [18]. However, three chemicals obtained from
neem, viz. azadirachtin, nimbin and salannin reduced the mobility
of second-stage juveniles of M. incognita and caused 17.5, 16.8 and
18 per cent mortality, respectively afer 48 h. Tey also decreased
penetration in roots of mung bean seedlings to 9, 9.8, and 0.8 per
cent, respectively compared to 22.8 and 22 in untreated and treated
afer 7 days. Salannin at 1000 ppm was the most efective causing 76
and 86 per cent immobility [29].
Compounds of botanicals possessing nematicidal activities
Botanicals are an important source of naturally occurring
pesticides. Many compounds with nematicidal activity have been found
in plants including alkaloids, diterpenes, fatty acids, glucosinolates,
isothiocyanates, phenols, polyacetylenes, sesquiterpenes and thienyls
[53] Marigold (Tagetes spp.) was the frst few plants which has been
examined for reducing nematode population in soil. Te roots of
Tagetes patula and T. erecta contain terthienyl and derivatives of
bithienyl which reduce population of Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus.
Nematicidal activities of steroidal saponins, asparanins I, A and B
isolated from seed and follicle of Asparagus adescendens against M.
incognita have been noticed. Nematicidal properties of medicarpin
and 4-hydroxymedicarpin isolated from Taverniera abyssinica
against C. elegans have also been observed. Nematicidal activities
of colchicines isolated form Gloriosa superba, cyclocurcumin,
curcuminoides, curcumin and bisdemethoxy curcumin from
Curcuma longa, fve diphynylesheptanoide, one new and four known
compounds from Curcuma cosmosa against M. incognita have earlier
Citation: Archana U Singh, Prasad D (2014) Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes by the Use of Botanicals. J Plant Physiol Pathol 2:1.
Page 7 of 10 Volume 2 Issue 1 1000116
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-955X.1000116
been noticed [54-56]. Five neem based formulations: Neem Jeevan,
Neemark, Neem Gold, Achook and Kranti were tested at 1.0, 0.5 and
0.25% concentrations against Meloidogyne incognita in terms of their
efect on egg hatch, juvenile mortality and root gall-index under in
vitro conditions. All the formulations signifcantly reduced the egg
hatch (24-70%) and root gall-index (20-50%) at all the tested levels,
in comparison to control [57].
A pot culture study was conducted to observe the efect of diferent
neem formulations viz., neem seed powder, Field Marshal, Neemgold
and Nimbecidine at two diferent doses i.e. @ 50 and 100 kg/ha as soil
application against H. cajani infecting pigeon pea. Te performance
of neem seed powder at both doses i.e. @ 50 and 100 kg/ha was found
to be most efective in the suppression of nematode population
signifcantly and maximum production of plant growth parameters,
followed by Nimbecidine @ 100 1/ha [13]. Te efects NeemAzal
F-5%, NeemAzal F-1%, Multineem, Econeem, and Neemstar at 4
and 8%, and carbosulfan at 0.05% as the control, on rice cv. Jaya and
M. graminicola were studied. Te neem-based products efectively
reduced gall number, egg mass, and soil nematode population, and
improved plant growth. Seed treatment with 8% Econeem resulted
in the longest shoots and roots, and highest dry shoot and root
weights. All treatments except Neemstar were more efective at higher
concentrations [51].
Te efects of seven neem formulations (azadirachtin (0.15 EC),
Neem Gold, azadirachtin (0.03 EC)/Bioneem, azadirachtin (0.15 EC)/
rakshak, azadirachtin (0.03 EC)/linalool, nimbidine (0.03 EC), and
azadirachtin (0.15 EC)/sukrina at 10 and 20 litres/ha) and triazophos
at 2 litres/ha used as soil drench against Rotylenchulus reniformis
(pre-adults) on soybean was studied. Nematode population (J2) was
lowest in azadirachtin (0.03 EC)/linalool at 20 litres/ha (3.6) followed
by 5.8/100 g of soil in azadirachtin (0.15 EC)/rakshak at 20 litres/
ha. Triazophos-treated plants showed less (6.3) J2 with good plant
growth characters [58].
Botanicals and their oil seed cake as nematicidal products
Te incorporation of plant materials in soil as an organic matter
has been demonstrated as a satisfactory method for the control of
plant parasitic nematodes in large number of agricultural crops. Tis
has the advantage of low cost and easy applicability, improves the
nutrient status of soil and soil structure. In addition to nematicidal
activity on the parts of decomposition products, their addition in
soil stimulates microbial population, bacteria and fungi, elements of
which may play the antagonistic role against nematodes. Generally
amendments of oil seed cakes in soil suppressed the population of
phyto-nematodes through toxic decomposed products like phenolics,
ammonia or increased predacious and parasitic activity of soil biota.
Similarly the use of cotton waste, alfalfa pellet, alfalfa hay, castor
pomace, olive pomace, dried crop residues, corn and soybean meal
have been found efective. Diferent types of oil seed cakes like castor,
mahua, mustard, linseed, peanut etc. not only reduced nematode
infection and galling but also reduced nematode population in roots
and soil and their egg laying capacity. Soil application of leaf and seed
kernel of Castor and Karanj @ 10q/ha was found nematicidal against
Rotylenchulus reniformis and improved plant growth of cowpea [25].
Dry leaf powder of Vitex trifolia, Phlogacanthus thyrsiforus and
Parkia javanica (P. timoriana) used as soil amendment (each at 5,
10, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg soil) on the growth and disease parameters of
Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculentum and Vicia fab [15]. Te
application of oilseed cakes and T. harzianum signifcantly enhanced
menthol mint yield [59]. Oil seed cakes of castor (Ricinum communis),
mustard (Brassica compestris), rocket salad/duan (Eruca sativa)
were found to be highly efective in reducing the multiplication of
nematodes and consequently plant growth and bulk density of woody
stem of pigeonpea increased signifcantly. Te multiplication rate of
nematodes was less in presence of Paecilomyces lilacinus as compared
to the absence of P. lilacinus [60].
Two sugarcane residues (bioearth as compost and flter cake
or mud as non-compost) at 0.1 and 1.0 kg/vine on table grape cv.
Flame Seedless caused considerable reduction in J2 populations of M.
incognita in soil and roots [8]. Te efects of growing C. juncea for 5
months on Meloidogyne javanica and Pratylenchus zeae populations,
and on yield of subsequently planted sugarcane. Crop rotation with
C. juncea increased sugarcane yield, due to the advantages of green
manuring [61]. Te efects of dry aboveground parts of velvetbean
(Mucuna pruriens) or tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mixed into
soil on M. incognita and M. javanica parasitism on tomato was studied
under greenhouse conditions. Soil amendments with velvetbean
reduced the number of galls induced by both nematode species [62].
In a feld experiment at Bundaberg, Queensland, sugarcane trash
was incorporated into soil with, or without, additional nitrogen
supplied as either soybean residue or ammonium nitrate. Populations
of P. zeae and Tylenchorhynchus annulatus in amended soil were
reduced by 85% and 71%, respectively. All amendments increased
readily oxidisable carbon, microbial biomass, microbial activity
and numbers of free-living nematodes, but had no efect on known
predators of nematodes (i.e. dorylaimid and mononchid nematodes
and three naturally occurring species of nematode-trapping fungi,
Arthrobotrys conoides, A. thaumasium and Drechslerella dactyloides)
[3].
Properly fermented leaves of castor oil plant, wheat chaf, leaves
of Chinaberry and peanut cake had control efciency of Meloidogyne
spp. by 70.44, 68.17, 56.09 and 54.92% respectively. In a pot
experiment, the efcacy of wheat chaf, Chinaberry leaves, leaves of
castor oil plant and rapeseed cake mixed with soil at 1% (w/w) was
71.55, 69.99, 63.14, and 62.19% respectively [63]. Intercropping with
Crotalaria juncea increased okra yield by approx. 13% with marked
reduction in the incidence of root galls due to Meloidogyne spp. in the
presence of C. juncea [64].
Te efect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne
incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita
pepo) revealed that amendment suppressed the numbers of M.
incognita population if the inoculum level was low, and when the
soil contained relatively abundant nematode-antagonistic fungi.
Amendment with C. juncea increased the abundance of free-living
nematodes and Harposporium anguillulae, a fungus antagonistic to
them [65] Crotalaria spp. could be used as pre-crop for providing green
manure while at the same time decreasing the level of detrimental
nematodes and increasing the level of benefcial mycorrhizal fungi
[66].
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the efects of
seed cakes of castor (Ricinus communis), neem (Azadirachta indica)
and Simarouba glauca (Quassia simarouba) at 2.5 or 5.0 g/kg soil
as soil treatments and seed extracts of S. glauca at 2.5 or 5% as root
dip or soil drench on the growth of rice and population of root-
knot nematode (M. graminicola). Te lowest number of egg masses
Citation: Archana U Singh, Prasad D (2014) Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes by the Use of Botanicals. J Plant Physiol Pathol 2:1.
Page 8 of 10 Volume 2 Issue 1 1000116
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-955X.1000116
of M. graminicola was recorded for neem cake applied to soil at 5
g/kg soil, root dip+soil drench with 5 and 2.5% of the seed extract
of S. glauca and soil application of S. glauca cake at 5 g/kg soil [50].
Crop guard @ 100 L/ha was best by causing 58.9% reduction of M.
areneria population and 64.5% reduction of R. reniformis population
compared to check. Populations of Meloidogyne, Scutellonema,
Pratylenchus and Paratrichodorus decreased with time in all like neem
leaves and poultry manure amendments and the unamended soil. Te
neem based amendments were the most suppressive, recording zero
nematode numbers at the end of the study [67].
Oil seed cakes of neem/margosa (Azadirachta indica), castor
(Ricinum communis), mustard (Brassica compestris), rocket salad/
duan (Eruca sativa) were found to be highly efective in reducing
the multiplication of nematodes and consequently plant growth and
bulk density of woody stem of pigeon pea increased signifcantly. Te
multiplication rate of nematodes was less in presence of Paecilomyces
lilacinus as compared to the absence of P. lilacinus. Damage caused by
the nematodes was further reduced when P. lilacinus was added along
with oil-cakes. Most efective combination of P. lilacinus was with
neem cake [60]. Oilseed cakes of neem (Azadirachta indica), castor
bean (Ricinus communis), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), linseed
(Linum usitatissimum), sunfower (Helianthus annuus) and soybeans
(Glycine max) were highly efective in reducing the multiplication
of soil nematodes (Hoplolaimus indicus [Basirolaimus indicus],
Helicotylenchus indicus, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Tylenchorhynchus
brassicae, Tylenchus fliformis, Meloidogyne incognita,
Hemicriconemoides mangiferae, Pratylenchus cofeae, Dorylaimus
sp., Longidorus elongatus, Xiphinema basiri and Trichodorus mirzai)
thereby resulting in signifcant increase in plant growth [68].
Seed cakes of castor (Ricinus communis), neem (Azadirachta
indica) and Simarouba glauca [Quassia simarouba] applied at 2.5
or 5.0 g/kg soil as soil treatments, and seed extracts of S. glauca at
2.5 or 5% applied as root dip or soil drench on the growth of rice
and population of root-knot nematode (M. graminicola). Te lowest
number of egg masses of M. graminicola was recorded for neem cake
applied to soil at 5 g/kg soil, root dip+soil drench with 5 and 2.5% of
the seed extract of S. glauca, and soil application of S. glauca cake at
5 g/kg soil [50].
A severe disease-complex infestation of M. incognita in
association with fungus F. solani on aubergines was observed. For
the control of this disease complex, non-edible oil seed cake of undi
(Calophyllum inophyllum) was used. Aubergine plants grew well in
undi-amended soil compared with carbofuran treatment and both
treatments reduced nematode population in soil [69].
Conclusion
Botanicals being the only alternative to chemicals are expected to
fulfll all requirements of the farmers and will also bring sustainability
to agriculture as it involves integration of biological, cultural and
natural inputs for the management of nematodes. To make their use
more meaningful, economical, feasible and environmentally safe,
research eforts are needed to fnd out the toxic components present
in them and their mode of action. For the conservation of biodiversity
aiming to maximize food production and minimizing health hazards,
botanicals may stand as the most promising source of bio-active
products of plant origin.
References
1. Sasser JN, Freckman DW (1987) A world perspective on Nematology: The
role of the society. Vistas on Nematology a commemoration of twenty ffth
anniversary of the society of Nematologists. Society of Nematologists. Inc.
Hyattsville, Maryland, USA.
2. Siddiqui IA, Shaukat SS, Zarina A (2005) Suppression of Meloidogyne
javanica, the root-knot nematode by some asteraceous plants in Pakistan.
International J. Biology and Biotechnology 2: 409-413.
3. Stirling GR, Wilson EJ, Stirling AM, Pankhurst CE, Moody PW, et al. (2005)
Amendments of sugarcane trash induce suppressiveness to plant parasitic
nematodes in a sugarcane soil. Australian Plant Pathology 34: 203-211.
4. Pandey R, Haseeb A (1988) Studies on the toxicity of extracts of certain
medicinal plants to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and
White) Chitwood. Indian J. Plant Pathology 6: 184-186.
5. Nageswari S, Mishra SD (2005) Integrated nematode management schedule
incorporating neem products, VAM and soil solarization against Heterodera
cajani infecting pigeon pea. Indian J Nematol 35: 68-71.
6. Korunic Z (2004) Natural insecticides from plants. Priopcenja-5-Znanstveno-
strucni-skup-iz-DDD-a-s-meunarodnim-sudjelovanjem-Pouzdan-put-do-
zdravlja-zivotinja-ljudi-i-njihova-okolisa, Mali-Losinj, Hrvatska, -5-8-svibnja;
511-514.
7. Agbenin NO, Emechebe AM, Marley PS, Akpa AD (2005) Evaluation of
nematicidal action of some botanicals on Meloidogyne incognita in vivo and
in vitro. Journal of Agriculture and Rural development in the tropics and
Subtropics 106: 29-39.
8. El-Nagdi WMA, Youssef MMA (2004) Control of root-knot nematode
Meloidogyne incognita on table grape by using certain sugarcane residues
in newly reclaimed soil. Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Cairo 29:
703-710.
9. Narwal SS, Tauro P, Bisla SS (2003) Neem in sustainable agriculture. Neem
in sustainable agriculture 266.
10. Dohroo NP, Gupta SK (1995) Neem in plant disease control. Agricultural
Reviews 16: 133-140.
11. Tariq I, Siddiqui MA (2005) Evaluation of nematicidal properties of neem for
the management of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Indian J Nematol 35:
56-58.
12. Wani AH, Alam MM (2000) Nematode control with antagonistic plants.
Current Nematology 11: 45-54.
13. Nageshwari, S, Mishra, SD (2001) Neem formulations as seed treatment
against Heterodera cajani infecting pigeonpea. Ann Pl Protec Sci 13: 515-
516.
14. Cannayane I, Rajendran G (2003) Penetration of Meloidogyne incognita
(race 3) in tomato and brinjal roots treated with botanical extracts. Indian J
Plant Protection 31: 84-86.
15. Mohilal N, Dhanachand C (2003) Management of root knot nematode using
some botanicals as soil amendment. J. Applied Zoological Researches 14:
161-164.
16. Sundararaju P, Padmanaban B, Sathiamoorthy S (2003) Effcacy of certain
botanicals against root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae in banana.
Nematologia Mediterranea 31: 201-205.
17. Mittal A, Goswami BK (2003) Antagonistic botanicals to plant parasitic
nematodes and their use in nematode management.
18. Mojumder V, Mittal A (1999) Effect of storage after seed coating of cowpea
with neem products against Heterodera cajani. Pesticide Research Journal
11: 189-190.
19. Prasad JS, Kumar RM, Rao LVS (2004) Role of manures and fertilizers in the
management of the root nematode (Hirschmanniella oryzae) in rice (Oryza
sativa L). Indian J Nematol 34: 1-4.
20. Saravanapriya B, Sivakumar M (2003) Effect of water extract and dry powder
of botanicals on tomato against Meloidogyne incognita. Current Nematology
14: 85-88.
21. Saravanapriya B, Sivakumar M (2003) Effect of plant extracts on tomato
Citation: Archana U Singh, Prasad D (2014) Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes by the Use of Botanicals. J Plant Physiol Pathol 2:1.
Page 9 of 10 Volume 2 Issue 1 1000116
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-955X.1000116
against Meloidogyne incognita. Proceedings of National Symposium on
Biodiversity and Management of Nematodes in Cropping Systems for
Sustainable Agriculture, Jaipur, India.
22. Ram B, Baheti BL (2003) Management of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus
reniformis on cowpea through seed treatment with botanicals. Current
Nematology 14: 27-30.
23. Pandey R (2002) Application of botanicals for management of root-knot
nematode disease of Ammi majus L. Indian J. Nematol 32: 198-200.
24. Verma AC, Khan MN (2004) Potentiality of botanicals for managing
Meloidogyne incognita in Ocimum canum. Annals of Plant Protection
Sciences 12: 464-465.
25. Ram B, Baheti BL (2004) Management of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus
reniformis on cowpea through seed and soil treatment with plant products.
Indian J Nematol 34: 193-195.
26. Agbenin NO, Emechebe AM, Marley PS (2004) Evaluation of neem seed
powder for Fusarium wilt and Meloidogyne control on tomato. Archives of
Phytopathology and Plant Protection 37: 319-326.
27. Mojumder V (1999) Effect of seed treatment of chickpea with crude neem
products and neem-based pesticides on nematode multiplication in soil and
the grain yield. International J Nematol 9: 76-79.
28. Mojumder V, Mittal A (2000) Effect of neem seedling on infestation of
Meloidogyne incognita in chickpea. Legume Research 23: 195-196.
29. Mojumder V (2002) Effect of neem seedlings on major phytoparasitic
nematodes associated with chickpea on crop yield. Pesticide Research J 14:
150-152.
30. Mojumder V, Mishra SD (2001) Seed coating of pigeonpea with neem
formulations for the management of Heterodera cajani and other
phytoparasitic nematodes. Current Nematology 12: 7-10.
31. Mojumder V, Mishra SD (2001) Effect of neem products as seed coating of
pigeonpea seed on Heterodera cajani. Pesticide Res J 13: 103-105.
32. Mojumder V, Kamra A, Dureja P (2002) Effect of neem extracts on activity and
mortality of second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita. Nematologia
Mediterranea 30: 83-84.
33. Gitanjali, Nandal SN (2001) Effect of neem products and dazomet for the
management of Aphelenchoides composticola on white button mushroom
(Agaricus bisporus) under semi-commercial conditions. Indian J Nematol 31:
52-57.
34. Debanand D, Saikia P, Saikia L (2000) Effect of certain plant extracts on
rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola. Journal of the Agricultural
Science 13: 85-87.
35. Javed N, Khan HU, Khan SH, Zaki M J (2002) Effect of neem products on
hatching of Meloidogyne javanica, when free eggs are mixed in amended
soil. Integrated plant disease management, Proceedings of 3rd National
Conference of Plant Pathology, NARC, Islamabad.
36. Mukhtar T, Ahmad R, Mukhtar, N (2002) Effect of antagonistic plants on the
biological control of Meloidogyne javanica by Verticillium chlamydosporium.
Pakistan J Phytopathology 14: 74-78.
37. Deka R, Sinha AK, Neog PP (2002) Effect of Paecilomyces lilacinus and
botanicals against Tylenchulus semipenetrans on Citurs jambhiri. Indian J
Nematol 32: 230-232.
38. Nisha MS, Sheela MS (2002) Effect of green leaf mulching for the management
of root-knot nematode in kacholam. Indian J Nematol 32: 211-212.
39. Dew SL (2002) Organic amendments for management of Heterodera cajani
in pulses. Indian J Nematol 32: 143-146.
40. Mojumder V, Mittal A (2003) Effect of neem products as seed coating against
Heterodera cajani in cowpea. Legume Research 26: 231-232.
41. Pandey R, Kalra A (2003) Root-knot disease of Ashwagandha Withania
somnifera and its eco-friendly cost effective management. J Mycology and
Plant Pathology 33: 240-245.
42. Sharma N, Trivedi PC (2002) Screening of leaf extracts of some plants for
their nematicidal and fungicidal properties against Meloidogyne incognita and
Fusarium oxysporum. Asian J Exp Sci 16: 21-28.
43. Vijayalakshmi K, Mishra SD, Prasad SK (1979) Nematicidal properties
of some indigenous plant materials against second stage juveniles of
Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Indian J Entomology
41: 326-331.
44. Mojumdar V, Mishra SD (1991) Nematicidal effcacy of some plant products
and management of Meloidogyne incognita in pulse crops by soaking seeds
in their aqueous extracts. Current Nematology 2: 27-32.
45. Patel AD, Patel DJ, Patel N B (2004) Effect of aqueous leaf extracts of
botanicals on egg hatching and larval penetration of Meloidogyne incognita in
banana. Indian J Nematol 34: 37-39.
46. Saravanapriya B, Sivakumar M, Rajendran G, Kuttalam S (2004) Effect of
different plant products on the hatching of Meloidogyne incognita eggs. Indian
J Nematol 34: 40-43.
47. Sundararaju P, Saritha V (2006) Effect of leaf extracts of Acalypha indica,
Cassia fstula and Solanum torvum on Pratylenchus coffeae. Indian J
Nematol. 36: 144-145.
48. Prasad D, Ram D, Imtiyaz A (2002) Management of plant parasitic nematodes
by the use of botanicals. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences 10: 360-364.
49. Saravanapriya B, Sivakumar M (2004) Effect of plant extracts on Meloidogyne
incognita Kofoid and White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 juvenile mortality. Indian J.
Nematol 34: 180-184.
50. Prasad JS, Varaprasad KS, Rao YR, Rao ES, Sankar M (2005) Comparative
effcacy of some oil seed cakes and extracts against root-knot nematode
(Meloidogyne graminicola) infection in rice. Nematologia Mediterranea 33:
191-194.
51. Das P, Deka BC (2002) Effcacy of neem-based pesticides against
Meloidogyne graminicola on rice as seed treatment. Indian J Nematol 32:
204-205.
52. Rajendran G, Saritha V (2005) Effect of plant extracts and their potential
doses against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Indian
J Nematol 35: 28-31.
53. Gommers FJ (1981) Biochemical interaction between nematodes and plants
and their relevance to control. Helminthological Abstract Series B Plant
Nematology 50: 9-24.
54. Kiuchi F, Goto Y, Sugimoto N, Akao N, Kondo K, et al. (1993) Nematocidal
activity of turmeric: synergistic action of curcuminoids. Chem Pharm Bull
(Tokyo) 41: 1640-1643.
55. Nidiry ESJ, Khan RM, Reddy PP (1993) In vitro nematicidal activity of
Gloriosa superba seed extract against Meloidogyne incognita. Nematologia
mediterranea 21: 127-128.
56. Jurgens TM, Frazier EG, Schaeffer JM, Jones TE, Zink DL, et al. (1994)
Novel nematocidal agents from Curcuma comosa. J Nat Prod 57: 230-235.
57. Sharma GC (2000) Effcacy of neem based formulations against the root-knot
nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Pesticide Research Journal 12: 183-187.
58. Prasad D, Mittal A (2004) Effect of Calotropis, oilcakes and phorate on growth
of soybean and Meloidogyne incognita population. Annals of Plant Protection
Sciences 12: 234-235.
59. Pandey R (2005) Field application of bio-organics in the management of
Meloidogyne incognita in Mentha arvensis. Nematologia Mediterranea 33:
51-54.
60. Anver S (2003) Effect of different organic amendments with Paecilomyces
lilacinus for the management of soil nematodes. Archives of Phytopathology
and Plant Protection 36: 103-109.
61. Dinardo Miranda LL, Gill MA (2005) Effect of crop rotation with Crotolaria
juncea on sugarcane yield, treated or not with nematicides at planting.
Nematologia Brasileira 29: 63-66.
62. Lopes EA, Ferraz S, Freitas LG, Ferreira PA, Amora DX (2005) Effect of
incorporation of the dry above-ground parts of velvetbean and tomato to the
soil on Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica. Nematologia Brasileira 29:
101-104.
63. Liu-Huizhi, Li-HongLian, Yuan-Hongxia, Xing-XiaoPing, Wang-ZheYue, et al.
(2004) A preliminary study on control of cucumber root-knot nematode by
organic amendments. Plant Protection 30: 58-60.
Citation: Archana U Singh, Prasad D (2014) Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes by the Use of Botanicals. J Plant Physiol Pathol 2:1.
Page 10 of 10 Volume 2 Issue 1 1000116
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-955X.1000116
64. Ribas RGT, Junqueira RM, Oliveira FL de, Guerra JGM, Almeida DL de, et
al. (2003) Performance of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) intercropped with
Crotolaria juncea under organic management. Agronomia 37: 80-84.
65. Wang KH, McSorley R, Gallaher RN (2004) Effect of Crotalaria juncea
Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita. J Nematol 36:
290-296.
66. Germani G, Plenchette C (2004) Potential of Crotalaria species as green
manure crops for the management of pathogenic nematodes and benefcial
mycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil 266: 333-342.
67. Agyarko K, Asante JS (2005) Nematode dynamics in a soil amended with
neem leaves and poultry manure. Asian J. Plant Sciences 4: 426-428.
68. Tiyagi SA, Ajaz S (2004) Biological control of plant parasitic nematodes
associated with chickpea using oil cakes and Paecilomyces lilacinus. Indian
J. Nematol 34: 44-48.
69. Mittal A, Goswam, BK (2001) Role of undi oil seed cake for the management
of disease complex caused by Fusarium solani and Meloidogyne incognita on
brinjal. Pakistan J. Nematol 19: 87-90.
Submit your next manuscript and get advantages of SciTechnol
submissions
50 Journals
21 Day rapid review process
1000 Editorial team
2 Million readers
More than 5000
Publication immediately after acceptance
Quality and quick editorial, review processing
Submit your next manuscript at www.scitechnol.com/submission
Author Affliations
Top
1
Division of Nematology, LBS Building, Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
New Delhi -12, India

Оценить