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-
-I
I

19

LIQUID
FLOW
IN PIPES

0 V\:V>"tf
(}'> .._;t->1\

f'\

u\ (CAr"-

Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter you should be able to:

explain the conseNation of energy and derive


the Bernoulli's equation;

apply the Bernoulli's equation to solve simple problems;


explain fluid viscosity;
evaluate the Reynolds Number;

distmguish between laminar and turbulent flow:

evaluate the friction losses in pipes;


evaluate the minor losses due to pipe-finings;
sketch thehydraulic gradient and energy gradient lines in pipe flow:

solve pipe flow problems.

19.1
INTRODU
CTION
Fluid flow in circular pipes bas wide engineering applications. In
city water distribution systems and industrial hydraulic systems liquids
are generally transported from one point tO another by forcing them
through pipes or tubes. The aim or this cha pter is to analyse and
estimate the friction and shock losses as liquids flow through pipes and
fittings.
Only steady-flow situations are discussed in this chapter. In a
steady flow, the velocity, pressure, density, etc., of the fluid at any specified
point do not change with time.
The theory of fluid flow rests on three main principles; namely, the
conservation of mass. the conser:ation of energy and the constrvotion of
momentum. In Sections 3.5 and 3.6 conservation of mus and conservation
of energy were discussed in det il. In the case of liquids (incompressible
fluids) the analysis becomes simple as the liquid density is practically
constant. In this chapter we will appl y the conservation of mass and the
conservation of energy to liquid now problems.

19.2 CONTINUITY
EQUATION
The water entering one end of a garden hose is expected to flow out from
the other end. This assumption,deduby our common sense.can be
expressed as a law of conservation.
5
7
3

Chapt<r 19

574

Referring to Figure 19.1, theaboveideamayberestatJ:dasfoUows:Inagivenperiodoftime,


the same mass or fluid Illat enters section I will flow out or section 2.

G)
Crosssedat

C Ill

<D

I P,

' I!
I

8
-

cl

m,
I

dl

CtOHsec:don at

"

Figure 19.1 Continuity of flow

Mass

entering

section

per second,

Mass leaving

section

per =ond,

Under steady

state
or
{19.1)
where

p 1, p 1

s density

of fluid at

sections I and 2. kgtm3


AI' A1 crosssectional aJU at I and
2, m1
C

C1 =1average fluid velocity at I and 2. m/s

ril = mass flow rate of fluid, kgfs


For incompressible fluids (in general gases and vapours arc
compressible; liquids are incompressible) tlle density is
practically constanL Equation 19.1 tllen becomes:
A 1C1
where

V volume

A,.C,V

(for incompressible fluids)

flow rate,ml/s

Both Equations 19.1 and 19.2 are known as the Cominuity Equotions.

(19.2)

..

----

Uquid flow illpipts

575
E
x
a
m
p
l
e
1
9
.
1
Sea water flows through a pipe reducer as
shown in Figure 19.2. 1be
diameters at
sections I and 2 are 50 em and 25 em
respectively.If the average velocity of the fluid at
section I is 0.5 m/s, find its velocity at section 2.

c, -I-

---''----- c,

<?>

<D
Figure 19.2 Liquid flow through a reducer
d Da a;

= 0.5 m:

0.25 m:C 1 = 0.5 m/s

Solution:

A,. =lt

By the equation of continuit y,

lI

Substituting the values,

On simplification,

576

Cloapur /9

Conclusion:
The smaller lhe pipe lhe greater lhe velocity.

19.3 TOTAL READ


Generally, a unit mass (I kg) of moving fluid po ses four forms of energy:
I. Jnurnol energy due to temperature, u.
2. Flow enugy due to fluid pressure, pv.
3. Pountial energy due to its height or elevation = gZ.
2

4. Kinttic enugy due to lhe fluid velocity =.

Note: In most liquid now problems lhe change in the internal energy is negligible and
hence is omiuein lhe analysis.
Thus, tlte total energy possessed by a moving fluid is

c,

Nm

pv + gZ+2
Replacing the specific volume,v, by

kg

fr, the tOL11 energy is


P

+gZ+

c,

Nm

kg

c,

Dividing all the lhree terms by 'g':

Total energy = .!:p + Z + 2g

Nm s
- --s m
kg rn

Alllhe lhree terms now have the dimension of 'm':

*= pressure head
Z =potential head

c,

- = velocity head
2g

m
m

-r-m
s m

In fluid mecha nics the sum of these three terms is known as t he toto/ htad . It
represents !he total energy per unit weight (I N) of the fluid as an equivalent form of
potential energy stored at an imaginary height equal to lhe total head.

Uquid flow in piptt

577

Erampk/9.
2
ln the piping system shown in Figure 19.3 calculate the total head of the oil at point
2, where the absolute pressure and the average velocity of the Ouid are 2 bar and 1.5
m/s respectively.Take the density of oil as 850 kgtml.

7m

,..
\.......,...

<D

Datum

Figure 19.3 Aow through a hydraulic pipe-line


Data: p 2 = 2 bar= 2 x IOl N/m2; C2 = 1..5 m/s; Z,= 7 m; p = 850 kgtm 3
Solution:

Pressu re
head

-a

2x lOs
850x9.81

= 24 m
Potential head,

Velocity head,

Z=7m

=
28

1.52
2x9.81

= 0.1146 m

negligible compared to the pressure head and


potential head.

Tow head at point 2.

Cloaptu/9

\,
24 + 7 + 0.1146 =
31.11m
C
o
l
!
C
l
u
s
i
o
n
:

I
n
t
h
i
s

c
a
s
e
t
h
e
v
e
l
o
c
n
:
y
h
e
a
d
i
s

19
.4
BE
RN
OU
L
U'
S
EQ
UA
TI
O
N
In fluid flow problems the pressure. elevation and

velocity vary from point to point throughout the


fluid path. By mrucing suitable assumptions it is
possible to obtain a simple equation relating the
above variables. In 1738 Daniel BemouUi developed
the following energy balance equation applicable to
fluid flow: 'During
a steady flow of
frictionlessincompressiblefluid, the toealenergy (total lpead) remainsconstant along the Dow path.'This is the
principle of conservation of energy. I.e.

+
Z
+
=
co
n
st
an
t
pg
2
g

where each term represents energy


per unit weight (IN) of the ftuid:

...
pg

=
p
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
h
e
a

= pressure head, m

cl

d,

ed in Figure 19.4 will result in an energy


balanceequation.

=velocity
head,
2g
A
p
p
l
y
i
n
g
t
h
e
a
b
o
v
e
c
o
n
c
e
p
t
t
o
t
h
e
f
l
o
w
s
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
i
l
l
u
s
t
r
a
t

Figu re 19.4
To define the
Bernoulli
Equation

Liquid flow in pipts

519

Tow energy at section 1 =Tow energy aueetion 2


or
Toral bead at section 1 = Tow bead at seclion 2
2

P a C,
P2 C2
-+ -+Z = -+-+Z,
I pg
pg 2g
2g

(19.3)

where p.,p2 =pressure at sections 1 and 2, N/m1


C1, = average fluid velocity all and 2, m/s
Z1, =elevation of P!liniS I and 2, m
Eq uation 19.3 is known

as Btrnoulli'stquotion.

EXLlmp19.3

a chemical industry a U-rube is used as a siphon 10 drain an acid lllnk as shown in


Figure 19.5. If !he diameter of the rube is 10 mm. detesmine !he rate of discharge and
!he lowest pressure in !he rube.The specific gravity of !he acid is 1.05.
ln

t?'
I

O.Sm

1--

AOd
tank

2m

Oatum
3

Figu re 19.5 Aow lhrough a


siphon

z, = 2 m:C1 = 0 m/s
= ? : Z, = 2.5 m:

Data: p1 = p.,.., = 1 bar;


p2

p1= p01..

, a

1 bar. Z, a 0; C3 =?

Solution:
(a) Applying Bernoulli's equation between poiniS I and 3:

Total head at section I=Total head at section 3


p,

c,2

P1

-+ - +Z =
pg

2g

pg

c
+ 3 +Z
2

2g

As p = p3 the pressure head terms on bolh sides of !he equation will be cancelled.
1

,..
Chllpt<r 19

580

Substituting for lhe other


terms,

0+2s

cl
3-

2 x9.81

+0

C3 =6.26m/s

On simplification,
Rate of

V=A1
mil
=-x6.26

discharge,

= 0.492 x 10"3
ml/s
= 0.492 V

s
(b) Applying Bernoulli's equation between points I and 2:

Total head at section I =Total head at section 2

As lhe area of cross-section of lhe tube remains constant.

<; =

6.26 rn/s

Density of the acid, p =Specific gravity x Density of water


= 1.05x 1000

= 1050 kg/m3
Substituting lhe values,

lxiO
1050x9.81

O
.,.. + 2 =

P1
+ 6.26 + 2.5
1050x9.81 2x 9.81

On simplification.
= 0.743 bar absolute
= 0.257 bar vacuum

lffi

-Uquid flow in pi s

581

Conclusion:
At point 2 !he pressure bead is least, but Ibis is compensated for by an increase in
the potential head and velocity head.

E:xampk 19.4
In a village water supply system water is pumped to a storage tank on a small hill
as shown in Figure 19.6. The pressure gauges at points I and 2 read 3.5 bar and
O.S bar respectively. Neglecting all losses, determine lhe discharge lhrough !he pipeline. The diameter of pipe at points I and 2 are IOOmm and 50mm respectively.

Figure 19.6 Water supply system

Data: p1 = 3.5 bar= 3.5 x 10' N/m1;d 1


p1e 0.5 bar= 0.5 x I()> N/m 1;

= 0.1 m

= 0.05 m

Solwion:
Area of now at section I,

Area of now ot section 2,

Applying the equotion of continuity of flow.

CluJpttr /9

581
Substituting !he values,

0.00785 X C1

0.00196 X C2

or

C, =4C1
Applying Bernoulli's equation between pointS I a.nd 2,
Total head at section I =Total head at section 2
2

1
p,
P1 cl
-+ c,
-+z =-+
-+
Zz
pg 2g
I
pg 2g

SubstiiUting !he values,

c..,::c...,_ + O = O.S X 10' + (4C,) + 30


+
1000x9.81 2 x9.81
1000x9.81 2x9.81
2

3.5 x 10'

--=._:__....::,:'-,---

On simplification,
C1 =0.87 m/s

Volume flow rate,

v =A,c,
= 0.00785 x 0.87 m>
= 0.00683 ml/s

2m

Nor: The pump has to produce a large pressure head to pu.sh !he water up through !he pipe
line.
Bernoulli 's equation (19.3) is applicable onl y for an ideal fluid flow situation. It
assumes that !here is no loss or gain of energy as the fluid flows between sections 1
and 2. In !he case of a real fluid there is always some energy loss due to friction as the
fluid flows through pipes and fittings. On the other hand. when a fluid flows through
a pump. energy is added to !he fluid. Similarly. a fluid flowing through a IUrbine gives
away some of itS energy 10 rotate !he machine. All lhese situations may be taken into
account by modifying Bernoulli's equation.

:,

l.fquldflow ipi[MI

583

Genorator

Energy

input

P\Jmp

F1gure 19.7

Tant

An experimental apparatuS

Figure 19.7 shows an experimental apparatuS in a fluid mechanics labonuory. An


energy balance for this resultS in
Totalenergy
Energy
Energy
Energy
Totalenergy
at section I + added - losses - output = at section 2
Pt

Ct

P2

C2

- Th -b = -+-+
- + - + Z + h.
pg 2g
I
'"
L
... pg
2g

l
I

(19.4)

where h., the energy (head) input in m of the liquid column


h.,., = the energy (head) output in m of the liquid
column
ThL = the energy (head) loss between sections I and 2 in m of the liq uid column

Ezampl19.
5
24 littes/min of oil flows through the pipe-line shown in Figure 19.8. The pressure
gauge at point I reads 4 bar. What is the pressure at point 2 ? The specific gravity of
oil is 0.82. The diameters at section I and 2 are 12 mm and 25 mm respectively.
The friction and other losses between pointS I and 2 add up to 2.3m of liquid column.

'

Clwptul9

584

...

30m

-=+====:: .Figu re 19.8

Oetum

Flow through a hydra ulic pipeline

Data: p1 = 4 bar+ P..,. = S x lOS N/ml; d 1 =

0.012m:

p2 = ?:<1, = 0.02Sm:

V = 24 Vmin:s.g = 0.82: l:hL = 2.3 m


Solution:
Volume Oow rate.

=24Vmin
= 100024x 60= 0.0004 ml/s

Density of oil. p = 0.82 x 1000 = 820 kglml


Referring to Figure 19.8.choosing point I as datum. = 0: Z,= 30m:
1
2
A ,- IIXO.OI2l
= 1.131 X 10_. m'
4

c, 5L.,
A1

C 1=

0.0004

., 3537 m/s

(1.131x10_. )

0 0004
5L
= (4.909

A
xl 0_.)
2

0.8149 m/s

Uquid flow in plpu

585

Using the modified BemouUi's equation (19.4):


l

Pt

C1

P2

C:

-+ -+z1 - D;.= - + -+
pg 2g
pg 2g
Substituting the values,
Sx 10

820X9.81

3.

+ 537 + 0 -2.3
2x9.81

P2

+ 0.8149

+ 30

..:..:..e ---,

820x9.81

2x 9.81

62.16 + 0.6376 + 0 -2.3 = 8+ 0.0338 +


30
On simplification.
p1 = 2.450 x lOS N/m2
=2.4SObar
Conclusion:
The friction
downstream.

and

other

losses

reduce

the

pressure

Jcampk 19.6
For a water treatment plant a pump is required to deliver 100m' of water per hottr.The
water pressure at the pump inlet and exit are 0.5 bar and 3.5 bar rupectively.
Neglecting thechanges in velocity and elevation, delermine the input power.

t
2

t
Flaure 19.9

Water flow through a pump

586

Chaptu/9

Data: V = 100 mlJh0.027 8 rrl'/s


2
p 1 = 0.5 x lOS N/m1; p1= 3.5 x !OS N/m
Solution:
By energy balance under steady state:
Total energy

Energy
at section I + added

Total enttgy
at sec.tion 2
!

Pt C1
P1 C,
-+ -+Z
+h .= + +Z,
I
"'
pg 2g
pg 2g
Cancelling the potentia.l and velocity heads on both sides.
+ h

....!.=pg

pg

Substituting lhe values,


5

0.5xi0 +h = 3.5xl0
1000x9.81
"' 1000x9.81

hin = 30.58 m

On simplification,

Le.energy input per unit weight of water = 30.58 m of water column.

Mass flow nne.

.n =pv

= 1000 X 0.0278

= 27.8 kg/s
Weight flow rate of water,

Then energy input per second

= rhg
= 27.8 X
9.81
= 272.5 N/s

-w h,. = 272.5 x
30.se
= 8333 J/s = 8333 W

i.e.

power input = 8.3 kW

kg m

57
-N m
s

Nm

Liquid flow in pip.s

587

Conclusion:
The power input is proportional to the wau.r flow rate and the-pressure difference across
the pump.

19.5 FLUID VISCOSITY


In the case of an ideal fluid there is no intemal friction or resistance when one layer
of fluid flows over another layer. Consequently, when an ideal fluid flows through a
pipe the velocity is uniform over the entire cross-section. That is, the velocity is the same
at all points in that section.This is illustrated in Figure 19.10.

Figure 19.10

Aow of an ideal fluid

In the case of a real fluid there is always some internal friction or resistance to flow.
This inu.mal resistance to flow is due to what is known as viscosiry of the fluid. It is
a very important fluid property in fluid dynamics. In liquids the viscosity is caused
mainly because of the cohesion (anractive fon:oes) between the molecules.
The viscosity or a fluid is a measure of the internal resistance exhibited as one
layer of fluid moves relative to another layer as shown in Figure 19.11. The upper layer
of the fluid needs some fon:oe, F. to overcome the internal resistanCe. The viscosity of
a fluid is defined as the shear stress per unit velocity gradient.

Figure 19.11

_[7

One fluid layer moves relative to another

\.
588

Chapterl9

Let thesliding area of the upper layer be A. Then theshear stressis ..Referring to
Figure

19.11, the velocity gtadient is. As per the definition, the viscosity
is

c r v

-+-=._XA
Y
A
C

Viscosity is denotedby thesymbolll(greek len.er mu).Several other tennssueh ascoq]icitnJ


of viscosiry, dynamic viscosity or absolutt viscosity also refer to the fluid
viscosity. The unit for viscosity is Ns/m 2 Sometimes the uniiS Poist or t:entiPoise are

also used.

I centiPoise= JOlNs/ml

In dealillg with problems in fluid now we shall frequently come across the ratio between
absolute viscosity and density; this ratio is called the kinematic viscosity and is denoted
by the symbol"f (greek letter n u).
Kinematic viscosity,
3

Ns m
m
=r-m kg
s

(19..5)

Thus the unit for kinematic viscosity is m2/s. Sometimes the uniiS Stookr centiStoke
are also used.
I centiStoke= J0-6 m2/s
19.6 REYNOLDS NUMBER
In 1883 Osbourne Reynolds, an English scientist, classified the flow of fluids into two
categories, laminar flow and turbultnt flow, depending upon the characteristics of
the fluid now.
When the velocity in a pipe is small the fluid molecules move in an orderly fashion
as adjacent layers and there is no mixing. In flow through circular pipes the now
pauern constitutes a series of thin shells that are sliding over one another.This condition
is known as laminar flow.This is illustrated in Figure 19.12. At the centre of the pipe
the fluid velocity reaches iiS maximum whilst near the pipe wall the velocity is zero.

Figun 19.12

Laminar now through a circular pipe

Liquid flow lnplpts

589

When the velocity is relatively high, eddies ate fonned and lhe mixing of fluid
particles occurs. This situation is known as turbu/t11t flow. The fluid panicles have a
random motion which is transverse to the main flow direction.. This IUibulence causes
the velocity of lhe fluid panicles to average out across the cross-section of the pipe.
This is illustrated in Figure 19.13.

..
-

,s ssss sssss ssss


sss

ssssssssssssss
sss

Fi.gure 19.13 Turbulent flow through a circulllt pipe


Reynoldsconducted a seriesof experiments with different pipe diameters and a variety
of fluids. He concluded that the type of flow is dependent on:
I. The average velocity of lhe fluid, C.
2. The pipe diameter, d.
3. The viscosity of lhe fluid.
4. The density of lhe fluid, p.
He combined lhese four variables to fonn a dimensionless parameler known as the

Reynolds Numbtr (NR).

(19.6)

We know
y=

then

NR =

Cd

where p c density of the fluid, kg/m 1


C = average velocity of lhe fluid, mjs
d = diameter of the pipe. m
I' = dynamic viscosity of the fluid, Ns/m1
y a lcinematic viscosity of the fluid, m 1/s

(197. )

\
Cllapru19

590

In pipe flow, laminar flow exists when Nil is 2000 or less; turilulent flow exists
if Nil is 3000 or more. If Nil is between 2000 and 3000 the flow type can not be
determined and is called transient flow.In practice, pipe flow is generally turilulenL

Example19.7

In an oil rer111ery diesel oil flows through a 30 em diameter pipe at the rate of
700 ml/h. If the kinematic viscosity of the oil is 2.4 Jo-5 m2/s, determine the nature
of the flow.
Data: d

700
= 0.3 m; V. = 3600
= 0.1944 mlfs: y = 2.4 10"l 2m /s

Solution.:
2

03

= lt X -4
C

= 0.07068 m2
m
-m5 3m-::-y
s

v=
A

= 01944 = 2.751 m/s


0.07068
By Equation 19.7:

!!lms

2.751x0.3

-i

2.4x 10

= 34 385
Conclusion:
Since NR is greater than 3000 the flow is turbulent.

19.7
FRICTION LOSS IN PIPE
FLOW
As we have seen, when a fluid flows through a pipe, the fluid panicles near the pipe wall
have a relatively low velocity and the ones near the cenlte (far from the surface) move
with relatively high velocity. Because of this relative motion and the viscosity of the
fluid, shear stresses are produced. This viscous action causes energy dissipation which
is usually referred to as pipe friction loss.
Based on experimental results, Henry Darcy in 1857 developed the following

Liquid flow in pipts

591

empirical equation to detennine fric.tion losses in pipes. ILaccuracy is sufficient for


most engineering calculations:
2

"r=fL..

(19.8)

d 2g

where h1 = friction loss in m of liquid column


L = length of straight pipe. m
d = pipe diameter, m
C = average velocity of fluid, m/s
f = friction factor
The
value
of
thefrictionfactor,f,dependson
lheReynolds
numberand
relativeroughness of the pipe.(Relative roughness is the ratioof surface imperfection to
the innerdiameter of lhe pipe.) In 1944 L. F. Moody developed a chan relating these
variables (Figure 19.14).

E:rampu 19.8
Water flows in a 30 em diameter cast iron pipe roofeuglahtnievses 0.0008. If the water
flow rate is200litre/S findthe frictionhead loss per lOOm of pipe.Takelhe dynamicviscosity
of water as 1.49 x J0 3 Nslm2
.
200
3
Data: d = 0.3 m; V=200Us=- =0.2m /s;
1000
2
3
L =lOOm; 11 = 1.49 .x 10 Nslm
Solmion:

ltd
A =4
C

0.2

== m/S
-A - =
2.829
0.0707

p = I 000 kglm3

Density of water.

By Equation 19.6:

03
= 1t x -= 0.07CJ7 m'

Cd
NR =p11

IOOOx2.829x0.3

= 569 000 = 5.69 X J(}l

(
Liquid flow in pipes

593

From Moody's chan (Figure 19.14) forNR = 5.69x lOS and relative roughness
ofO.OOO 8, the friction factor f = 0.019.
By Darcy's equation (19.8).

Lc
hr = f-d 2g
2

0.019x l00X2.829
0.3x2x9.81

2.58 m of water column

Note: The smaller the diameter of the pipe the greater the friction loss.

19.8 MINOR LOSSES IN Pll'ES


Apan from the friction losses in pipes there will be losses d ue to fluid flow in various
pipe-finings such as valves, reducers. bends.etc.In long pipes these losses may be small
compared to frictional loss and hence are known as minor losses. They are essentially
due to change in velocity either in direction or magnitude, or both.The sudden changes
in velocity produce eddies (see Figure 19.15) and energy is dissipated. As these effects
are confmed to shon distanceS in the vicinity of the disturbance, these losses are also
referred to >S loco/losses.
Minor losses are in general proportional to the k.inetic energy of the fluid. In
mathematical form,

ho.2gc2 m

c2

h =K
.,
2g

(1 9.9)

where K, the constant of proponionali y, is known as the loss coefliciem and its value
has to be evaluated for each source of loss.

19.8.1 Losses dut tosudden enlargement


When the pipe diameter increases abruptly as shown i n Figure 19.15. the fluid
experiences 'shock '. Th is causes the formation of eddies. and consequently
some energy is lost due to increased local 10rbulence.This head loss can be eval
uated using the continuity.momentum and energy principles.

--

594

Chopteci9..

::JflvEddies

8
Crosssection
of smallor pipo

--------

c, -

c,

p,-;

"1:::::

---

--------

t= "'

r-

-[').-F=
I
<D

Cross-section

of larger pipe

Figu re 19.15 Aow lhrough an abrupt pipe expansion

c:

The head loss is given by

h = Km
2g
1

where !he loss coefficient K = (1- A ) and C1 = velocity in the smaller pipe.

(19.10)

19.8.2 Exitloss
When a pipe discharges into a large reservoir as shown in Figure 19.I 6a, some energy is
dissipated which can be evaluated using Equation 19.10.

C-:
--

--(bl Free e)(i1

Figure 19.16

Pipe discharging into a large reservoir

In this case A >> A


1
1
On substitution,

(i.e.K=l)

(19.11)

Uquid flow i pip<s

595

Thus all the kinetic energy is dissipated by mixing and rurbulence.Even if the discharge is
free as in Figure 19.16b, all the kinetic energy is still losl.
Note:When we say energy is lost. it is not lost in realit)'. It isconverted into thennal

energy causing a small temperarure rise in the fluid in the reservoir.


E:uunpu 19.9

Crude oil flows through a tOO mm diameter pipe at the rate of 40 litrels. lf the pipe
suddenly enlarges to 200 mm estimate the lossof head due to this abrupt change of
section.

c,

--+-_.,_.

., c)

Figure 19.17 An abrupt increilSe in flow cross-section


)
=0.1 m; d, =0.2 .
40
V = -- = 0.04 m /s
Data: d 1
1000
m;
Solwion:

nd2

A,=-=
4

C1

n x0.2

= 3 1 ..1 x 10''m 2

V
O.04
= 5.093 m/s
= A, = (7.854 X 10-l)

By Equation
19.10: Loss
coc:fficient ,
2

= ( - 7.854 X 10-) )
31.4xi O -'

Chilptu19.

596

=0.5625

Then head loss,

c>
h
2g =K L
1

0..562 Sx 5.093
2x9.81

= 0.7436 m of oil column

A,
A,

Nou: The grr.ater the ratio -the greater the loss.


BXDmple 19.10

In an experimentAl apparatus (Figure 19.18) to measure the sboclc losses due to sudden
expansion, the following observations were made:
d1 = 10mm; =20mm

l p

..:.:..;:pg...._ :...:..:. = 20 mm of water column = 0.02m

water flow rate, V = S Vmin


Find the loss coefficient K and compare it with the theoretical value.

Figure 19.18 ExperimentAl apparatustmeasure the head loss due to sudden expansion
1
0 0 12
1td2
Data: A 1 =-

= "x4

d =
A2 = !:2.

00
'

It X

=7.854xl()Sm2
2

z = 31.4 X

1OS m2

5
=8.333 x IO's m/'s
v = 1000x60

597

Uquid flow in pifHS

Solution:

c
,
=
-

A,

8.333
xto"

-$

7.854
xlO

=
1.06
1
m/S

cl = v

At
5

8.333x 10"

;:;
-3

31.4xl
0
=

0.26
53m/
s
Applying Bernoulli's equation
between points I and 2:

c;

c;

P
o
P
t
+
+
Z
h

-+

pg
2g

pg
2g

K
1

R
e
a
r
r
a
n
g
i
n
g
,

(
p

z,-

p
)

(
C
l
C
l
)

I- l
+ Il
+
( 7)

..
pg
2g

=.02 + 1.0617

=
=
0
.
0
3
3
7
Substituting
values.
m
o
f
w
a
l
e
r
c
o
l
u
m
n

,02

..

2g

0.033

,.. ..

...

S98

Ch.Dpur/9

w
h
ic
h
g
i
v

"

K =0.589

'

By Equation 19.10, the theoretical value of K is

"
>
"

'
!

1
_

c
,

7
.

c
,

8
5

<
D

t
o

A
,

3
1
.
4
x
l
o
s

=
0
.
5
6
2
5

<
VA
,

A
,

F
i
g
u
r
e

1
9
.
1
9

Conclusion:
The experimental value is very close to the
theoretical value and the difference could
be due toexperimental errors.

19.8.3 Loss d ue IO sudden contracllon

F
l
o
w

Let usconsider an
abrupt contraction
of a pipe from area
A 1toas shown in
Figure 19.19. The
Dow converges up
to the vena
contracta(sectioo
with the least Dow
area)at x-x and
then
expands to the pipe area-

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

n
a
a
b
r
u
p
t
p
i
p
e
c
o
n
l
!
a
c
t
i
o
n
It is possible to measure A, which can be

expressed as a function of

t
h
e

c
o
e
f
f
i
c

w
h
e
r

i
e
n
t

o
c

,
i
s

c
o
n

k
n
o
w
n

l
n
l
c
t
i

B
or
y

t
h
e

e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
i

c
.
=
c
,
c
,

Uquid flo"' in pi s

599

It is generally assumed that all of the energy loss occurs when the jet expands from
A, to Az By Equation 19.10,the head loss is
h

"'

=(- ),c!
A2

h =
"'
=

2g

(c, -cS
2g

,c,
_1
) 2g

1 -1

( c,

c;

where K =(cl, -I

=K2g

C, =velocity

(19.12)

in the smaller pipe

The value of c,is a function of A 1 and A,- Experimental analysis gives

c, =0.62 + 0.38(::

A,
A,

(19.13)

is between 0.1 and I. When an

The above expression is valid if the ratio -

approximate value issuffic.ient c,may be taken as0.62and then K =0.375.1!


thecontraction is notsudden but isgradual then thevalueofK will besmall and the head
loss will be minimal.
19.8.4
loss

Entrance

A poorly designed inlet to a pipe can cause an appreciable head loss. For various
common inlet conditions the values of K are shown in Figure 19.20. It can be seen that
a slight rounding off will reduce the loss drastically.

----- -L -

-----

-----i

K OB

-L

_Fo
Figure 19.20

Different pipe inlet conditions and values of Joss coefficient.

Chapta19

600

For a sharp entrance, provided the pipe does not prouude into the reservoir.

h.,=0.5

(19.14}

2g

E;uunpld9.II
Lubricating oil flows through a 10 mm diameter rube. If the flow passage suddenly
reduces 10 aS mm diameter.find tlie shock loss.The oil flow rate is 10 litre/min.

c, --t--

--11--4"' C,

a>

<D
Figure 19.21 A reducer
1

5 2
ltd,
0.01
Data: A = = nx- =7.854xl0" m
1

ltd

=- = nx 4

V=
Solution:

0.005
2
- = 1.964x IO"'m
4

10
16.7 x 10"5 m'Js
1000X60

_,

.
C, == 16.7xl0 -l = 8.48
m/s
A2

1.964x 10

By Equation 19.13, the coefficient of contraction.


c< "0.62 + 0.38(::

_,)2

0.62 + 0.38 1.%4 X

IO

7.854 X 10-l
= 0.62 + 0.024

Liquid flow inpipu

601

:0.644
By Equation 19.12, the loss coefficient,

1
( - -1) :0.305
0.644

0.305
2x9.81

Then head loss,

8 48

1.12 m of oil column

Nott: The shock Joss due 10 conraelion is always smallu compared 10 the loss due to
a corresponding enlargemenL
19.8.5 Losses in pipe-fittings
Invariably a pumping sys1em will have connections which change the size and direction
of the pipe. Pipe-fillings such as valves and elbows which constric,t the flow passages
or change the direction of flow cause additional energy losses. It is often convenient
to exptess these losses as equivalent 10 the friction loss in a specific lengili of straight
pipe of the same diameler. TI1e eq uivalent lengths exptessed as a ratio to the pipe
diameler for typical finings are given in Table 19.1.
Table 19.1
Typical equivalent length for some selected
finings
Equivalent length ratio
Finings
Globe valve (fully open)
Gate valve (fully open)

(one-quarteropen)
Check valve (fully open)
Check valve (with strainer)
90 degree standard elbow
90 degree long radius elbow Standard
T (with flow through ru n) Standard T
(wi th flow through branch)

Lid
200
10
1000
ISO
400
30
20

20
60

Chapttr 19

602
EX{lltlple19.12

The di.schargpipe from a untrifugal pump is 35 mm in <tiameter and 20 m long. A

fully open gale valve and a standard 90" elbow are connecas shown in Figure 19.22.
Olivoil of specific gravity 0.92 has to be pumped at the rat of 4 titre/s. Take f
0.032. Find the total losses.

d3Smm
L =20 m

Valve

t
Figure 19.22 Details of the discharge pipe line
Data: d= 0.035m; L= 20m; V = 4 Vs

Solwion:

v = 4Vs

Aowrate,

4
= 1000
- = 0.004 m3/s
Velocity in the delivery pipe,

:...:. .c...,1.. = 4.16 mts


35
= !lX -4
Length of pipe2:0m.

Equivalent length of a straight pipe:

-for a fully open gate valve = I Od = 10 x 0.035 = 0.35m


- for 90"standard elbow= 30d = 30 x 0.035 = 1.05m

Uquid flow in pipts

Total equivalent
length,

603

20 +0.35 + 1.05 = 21.4 m

Friction losses,

f L C =O.Ol2 21.4x 4.16 a 17.25 m


d 2g
0.03Sx2x9.81

Losses due to pipe and fittings = 17.25 m of liquid column.


Loss at pipe exit.

_c_l = 4.16l =0.88m


2g

Tolllllosses on delivery
side,

2x9.81

thl.= 17.25 + 0.88= I8. I 3 m

Note: The pump has to input enough energy (pressure) to overcome this loss in addition

to the venical lif t.

19.9 ENERGY GRADIE,_'T AND HYDRAULIC GRADIENT


LINES
In Section I 9.3 we saw that the total head at any point is given
by
P cl
-+-+ Z
pg 2g
When the valuesof the tollll head at everjpoint are ploned along theOow path, asshown
in Figure 19.23, the resulting graph is called an tnergy gradient lint.It is customary to
use the gauge pressure in the above expression.
lb Loss

It

entrance

c-d loss due to sudden con1raction

lOS$ ll

-,_----

--

o-..t.

t vdraulic oredlonl line

Figure 19.23 Energy a nd hydraulic gradient Jines

Clwpter 19

In the reservoir the fluid velocity is negligible and therefore

(.E...
pg + Z)

is equal to the

elevation of the free surface. Then there is a sudden drop (a -b) which is due to the
entrance loss. As the liquid flows along, the total energy decreases gradually due to
the pipe frictiCin toss.There is a stepped drop (c-d) due to shock at the pipe contraction.
Then there is a gradual drop (with greater slope for smaller pipe diameter) due to
increased pipe friction.Finally there is a sudden drop due to the exit loss (e - f).
Another useful graph is the hydraulic gradient line which is the plot of thesum

(.E... + Z)

pg
along the pipe.This line is therefore paralle-l to the energy gradient line and located below
2

it at a venical distance equal to .._. Also, it is wonhwhile to note that the venical height
2g
of the hydraulic gradient line measured above any point on the centreline of the pipe
indicates the static pressure head

.E....
pg

19.10 PIPES IN SERIES

==
r-:=;:: #r----'- -

1----

ti

1)

c,

L,

c,

1--'-- L,--- --1

Figure 19.24 Two pipes in series


When two or more pipes of different diameters are connected in series, the total head
loss in the pipeline is the sum of the frictional loss in each pipe plus local shock
losses.Insteady flow the discharge through the pipes is the same.For the seriesconnection
shown in Figure 19.24 the total head loss is:
:EhL =

Friction loss
in pipe I

+K-

Friction loss
in pipe 2
2

r,L,c,
r2L2C2
C2
-d12g --+dl2g
2g

where C 1 = - and C, = A1
A2

+ Shock loss
at the contraction

605

Uquid flow In pip<S

E:mmple 19.13
Two reservoirs are connected by a pipe whose total length is 36 m. From the upper
reservoir the pipe is 250 ITUll in diameter for a length of 12 m and the remaining 24 m is
125 mm in diameter. The entrance and exit of the pipe are sharp and the change of
section is sudden. The difference in levels of the water in the two reservoirs is 10 m.
The friction coefficient f is 0.06 for both pipes, and for !he scdden contrllCtion, K= 0.3.
Find !he rate of now.

A$= 1--------------- -------IOm

_l-08
Figure 19.25 Pipes in series connecting two reservoirs
Data: Pipe 1:d 1 = 0.25m; L1 = 12m

Pipe 2: <1, = 0.125m; t, = 24m


Z= 10m; f=0.06; K = 0.3; V =?

Solwion:
By continuity of now,

A 1 C1 = A2 C2
ltd1'

Sim plifying,

xc I

0.252 X C1 = 0.1252 X C2

or

Loss of head at entrance,

c,

c'1

0.5

2g

= 0.25 c,

=0.5

0 :-2_5:-C.2:..)
2x 9.81

.<:.

'

CIIIJptu19

606
Friction loss in the larger pipe,

L
1

C1

f-

=0.06x l2x(0.2SC2)
0.25x2x9.81

dt 2g

Head loss due to sudden contraction,

c2

c;

=0.30x 2g

K--2
2g

Friction loss in the sm:lller pipe,

2A

xc;
ci - =0.06 X 0.125x2x9.8l
f

d2 2g

=0.5872C/
Head loss at exit,

ci =-c
2x9.81
2g
=0.051

Applying Bernoulli's equation between points A a.nd 8,

Considering a datum through the point B.

C2 = 3.88 mls

which gives
Then volume Oow rate,

--nd4c
2

It X

0 125
4

2
X

3.88

Uquidflow in pipes

607

Note; All the potential energy of the water in the first reservoir is lost as it flows

through the pipe-line.

19.11
PARALLEL

PIPES

IN

When two or more pipes are connected as shown in Figure 19.26 such that they
branch out from a single point and after equal or uneq ual lengths join at another
point, then the pipes are said to be in parallel. Tn practice a parallel pipe is added
to an existing pipe to increase the discharge.

g
..

I&

it,

Plpo 1
L,, d,

Figu re 19.26 Pipes in


parallel
Applying the conservation of mass at the junction A,

Appl ying Bernoulli's equation between points A and B (via pipe 1),
PA

Pe

C!

-+ -+Z -h - + -+ Z8
pg
2g
A
(I
J g 2g
ApplyingBemoulli's equation between points A and B (via pipe 2).

c + -+Z

pg

2g

PA

+Z,.

c;

Ps
- hn; -+ -

pg

2g

Compari ng the above t wo eq uations i t is seen that

--

Clwpr<r 19

608

Example 19.14
A 300 mm diameter main is required for a town water supply. As pipes over 250 mm
diameter are not readily available, it was decided lO lay two parallel pipes of the same
diameter instead. Find thesiz.eofthe pipes to provide thesameflowrateand incur the same
head loss as the 300 mm pipe.
d 300nvn

c
(a) A sitlgle 300 mm pipe

..

c,

d,

iJ

c,

v,

d,
tb) Two parallel pipo$ of sttme $1le

Figure 19:27

Replacing a single pipe with two smaller pipes

Solwion:
Let

=
=

V the total volume flow rate


C = velocity in 300 mm diameter pipe
V 1 volume flow rate in ooe of the parallel pipes
C1 = velocity in parallel pipes

By conservation of mass.
2

0.3

ltX - -

or

c s2 xn d2-I
4

s.c

(A)

If a 300 mm diameter pipe were used the head loss would be

n..d --==--fLC
2

h - --

1-

d2g - 0.3x2g

When using two parallel pipes of diameter d 1

/
Uquid flow in pipu

The head losses would be the same in both cases, so


2

fLC

0.3x2g
or

Substituting for C 1/C from (A) in (B),

d, = 0.3(0. 5
d

= 6.075 X 10"'

d1 =0.227m
Use rwo 227 nun diameter pipes in parallel.

Conclusion:
The rwo 227 mm pipes in parallel will provide the same flow rate as a 300 mm pipe and
incur the same frictional loss.

19.12 Sll'HON
A siphon is a closed conduit which conveys liquid witll a free surface from one level
to a lower level via an intermediate higher level as shown in Figure 19.28. This
arrangement can be used to convey water from a lake over a ridge witllout any external
source of power.

AB: \. .. \SO m
AC: L .a()O
M CO:
l

200m

d SOOmm

d SOOmm

d 700mm

Figure 19.28 Siphon

r
Ciwpt<r/9

610

For a siphon to work, lhe pipe must be filled wilh water. Also the pressure at lhe
highest poin1 should not drop below !he vapour pressure.olherwise !here will be vapour
formation which will imerrupllhe now.
Example 19.15
Two reservoits.whose surface levels differ by 5 m.are connected by a pipe-line which is
500 mm in diame.ter for the first400 m and 700mm in diameter for the remaining200
m.The pipe-line crosses a ridge whosesummit is2m abovelhe level of and 150m distant
from lhe higher reservoir as shown in Figure19.28.Taking(=0.04 forbolh pipes and
neglecting minor losses, find lhe rate Of now and lhe pressure a11he highest point of lhe
pipe-line.

Data: Pipe AC = pipe I:d


400m

= 0.5m; L

Pipe CO = pipe 2:d, = 0.7m; L, =200m

So/urion:

By conainui1y or now,

2
rtd
rtd1 xC = -xC
2

Simplifying,
or

<; =0.51 c,

Fric1ion loss in pipe 1.

L1 C1
hn =f- d1 2g 400xC2

= 0.04

_.:.,:_:...:.!1

O.Sx2x9.81

= 1.631 c,2
Friction loss in pipe 2,

t.,

hn =f-- -

d2 2g

200x(0.51C )
= 0.04 X .....,....-.:_:...1:.._
0.7 x2
x9.81
=O.ISIS C12

,.
Liquid flow in pipes

611

Applying BernouUi 's equation be-tween poinrs Eand F,

Taking point F as the datum,

5 -< 1.631 c,

+ 0.1515 C2 1 ) =

0
which gives

C1 = 1.675 rn/s

Then the volume flow rate. V =

1td2
1

x C1
2

= JtXO.S X 1.675
4

=0.329
m1/s
Applying Bernoulli's equation between points E and B.
2

PE

Po

C1

pg

pg

2g

-+Ze -DJL=-+ Z.+

Taking the datum line through pointE,

Frictional head loss in pipe


AB.

h =0.04x 150xl.675

0.5x 2x9.81

= 1.716m
Substituting in Bernoulli'seq uation,
)

J .013x!O +0 - 1.7!6 = Po
+ 2 + 1.675
!000x9.81
t000x9.812x9.81
which gives the absolute pressu re,
p0 = 63440 N/m 2 = 0.634

bar