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# SIMPLE PROOFS of

MATHEMATICAL TRUTHS
V. VENKATA NARAYANA, D.E.E. (R&B),
vvnhighways.blogspot.in , 07799139399
vvn.randb@gmail.com, 9440818440

MATHEMATICAL TRUTHS
1) X*0 = 0
2) X0 = 1
3) 1/0 =
4) 1/ = 0
5) = 22/7 = 355/113
6) Pythagoras theorem.
7) Linear INTERPOLATION
Friends
We know and frequently use the above
MATHEMATICAL truths. I am presenting a
simple proof of them.

DEFINITIONS
1)

0- ZERO ::
> No Quantity,
> No Number,
> Nothing at all.
x-x = 0, 100-100=0.

2)

- INFINITY ::
> It is an abstract concept describing something
without any limit.
> Being without finish.
> Unboundedness.
> Another notion is that infinity is a quantity x
such that x + 1 = x . The idea is that the quantity is so
large that increasing its value by 1 does not change it.

1) X*0 = 0
We Know that
X*(Y+Z) = X*Y + X*Z and
AA =0

## Combining the above TWO facts

X*(0) = X(Y Y)
= XY XY
=0
Hence X*0 =0

2)

0
X

=1

We Know that
> a5 = a*a*a*a*a
> a5 / a3 = a*a*a*a*a/a*a*a
= a*a = a2
= a5-3 .

Hence am / an = a (m-n) .
Using the above fact
X0 = X(a a) = Xa/Xa
=1

Hence X0 = 1

3) 1/0 =
We Know that
> 1/1 = 1
> 1/0.1 = 10
> 1/0.01 = 100
> 1/0.001 = 1000
> 1/0.0001 = 10000
> 1/0.00001 = 100000
> 1/0.000001 = 1000000
> 1/0.0000001 = 10000000
> 1/0.00000001 = 100000000
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- -- As the DENOMINATOR decreases, the value of FRACTION increases.
When the DENOMINATOR approaches to 0, the value of FRACTION
increase and increases to INFINITY.

Hence 1/0 =

4) 1/ = 0
We Know that
> 1/1 = 1
> 1/10 = 0.10
> 1/100 = 0.01
> 1/1000 = 0.001
> 1/10000 = 0.0001
> 1/100000 = 0.00001
> 1/1000000 = 0.000001
> 1/10000000 = 0.0000001
> 1/100000000 = 0.00000001
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- -- As the DENOMINATOR increases, the value of FRACTION decreases.
When the DENOMINATOR approaches to INFINITY () , the value of
FRACTION decreases and decreases to ZERO.

Hence 1/ = 0

## 5) = 22/7 = 355/113 = 3.14159

We Know that
> Area of CIRCLE with radius r = *r*r

2r

## 5) = 22/7 = 355/113 = 3.14159

We Know that
> Area of CIRCLE with radius r = *r*r

=2*r*r

r
2r

## 5) = 22/7 = 355/113 = 3.14159

Inside SQUARE area < CIRCLE area < Outside SQUARE area
2*r*r < *r*r < 4*r*r
2< <4

## 5) = 22/7 = 355/113 = 3.14159

Area of ISOSCELES TRIANGLE with
SIDE l and included angle
sin/2 = (s/2)/l = s/2l
>>> s = 2l* sin/2
cos/2 = h/l
>>> h = l* cos/2
AREA = *base*height
= *s*h
=1/2*(2l*sin/2)*(l*cos/2)
=1/2(l*l*2sin/2*cos/2)
=1/2*l*l*sin

/2 /2

h
s/2

s/2
s

## 5) = 22/7 = 355/113 = 3.14159

Area of ISOSCELES TRIANGLE with
Height d and included angle
tan/2 = (s/2)/d = s/2d
>>> s = 2d* tan/2

/2 /2

d
AREA = *base*height
= *s*d
=1/2*(2d*tan/2)*(d)
=d*d*tan/2

s/2

s/2
s

## 5) = 22/7 = 355/113 = 3.14159

A CIRCLE of radius r is drawn.
A REGULAR POLYGON of n sides is
drawn inside to fit in the CIRCLE.
Area of this POLYGON is equal to n
times the are of ISOSCELES triangles.
ISOSCELES TRIANGLE

side = r
included angle = 360/n
Area of inside REGULAR POLUGON

= n*1/2*r*r*sin(360/n)

## 5) = 22/7 = 355/113 = 3.14159

A CIRCLE of radius r is drawn.
A REGULAR POLYGON of n sides is
drawn outside to fit in the CIRCLE.
Area of this POLYGON is equal to n
times the are of ISOSCELES triangles.
ISOSCELES TRIANGLE

height = r
included angle = 360/n
Area of outside REGULAR POLUGON

= n*r*r*tan(360/2n)

## 5) = 22/7 = 355/113 = 3.14159

Inside POLYGON area < CIRCLE area < Outside POLYGON area

## n*sin(360/n) < 2 < 2n*tan(360/2n)

n=6 side 360/n=60 degrees
6*sin60 < 2 < 12 tan30
5.196 < 2 <6.928
2.598 < <3.464

## n=12 side 360/n=30 degrees

12*sin30 < 2 < 24 tan15
6.00 < 2 <6.43
3.00 < <3.215

## n*sin(360/n) < 2 < 2n*tan(360/2n)

n=24 side 360/24=15 degrees
24*sin15 < 2 < 48 tan7.5
6.212 < 2 <6.319
3.106 < <3.159

## From the above statements it can be

concluded that as the number of sides of REGULAR
POLYGON n increases, the value approaches to
3.14159.

6) PYTHAGORAS THEOREM
PYTHAGORAS THEOREM states that
in a RIGHT ANGLE TRIANGLE the square of the
hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal
to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
x
y
A
B
P

x
z
Q

S
z

x
D

R
x

## ABCD is a Square of side

(x+y).
A smaller Square PQRS of
side z is inscribed in ABCD.
Triangles APS, BQP, CRQ and
DSR are 4 RIGHT ANGLED
TRIANGLES with sides x, y, z.

6) PYTHAGORAS THEOREM
FROM THE ABOVE FIGURE
ABCD = PQRS + APS + BQP + CRQ + DSR
(x+y)*(x+y) = z*z + 4*(1/2*x*y)

x2+y2+2xy = z2 +2xy
x2+y2 = z2
The sum of the squares
of the other two sides

The square of
the hypotenuse

7) Linear INTERPOLATION
The HEIGHT of an embankment
At a distance X1 is Y1.
At a distance X2 is Y2.
What is its HEIGHT at distance X ?
Y2
Y= ?
Y1

X1

X2

7) Linear INTERPOLATION
From the Similarity of TRIANGLES
(
(

) (
=
) (

(
=
(
(
+
(

)
)

)
(
)
)
(
)

Y2
)

Y
(Y-Y1)

Y1
(X-X1)

(Y2-Y1)
Y1

X
X1

(X2-X1)

X2

8) Squaring of NUMBERS
) --------- 2*3=6 ----------- 625
( ) --------- 3*4=12 ----------- 1225
( ) ---------- 4*5=20 ----------- 2025
( ) ----------- 5*6=30 ------------- 3025
( ) ------------ 6*7=42 ------------- 4225
( ) ------------ 7*8=56 -------------- 5625
( ) -------------- 8*9=72 --------------- 7225
( ) -------------- 9*10=90 --------------- 9025
(
) -------------- 12*13=156 ------------- 15625
(

## Got the IDEA of RULE ?

The RULE is applicable to the Numbers ending with 5

FRIENDS
HAVE YOU ENJOYED IT ?