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ECO- SAN INDIA

ecosan.org.in

A voluntary organization working in the fields of Health and Sanitation Prof.S.G.Bhate. Architect & Social Entrepreneur

Res:D-9, Durvankur Society, Phase I, Panchavati, Pashan. Pune 411 008. Res:2589 9527 M: 09890 440 648 Email: shrikantbhate@rediffmail.com,bhate48@gmail.com

What is ECO-SANITATION. Eco sanitation is a term coined to indicate a way of disposing off the excreta, which is eco friendly and without polluting the environment, it enriches it with added nutrients and fertilizer. The process is carried out in such a way that the nature s loop is closed without generating any harmful byproducts to human health. The waste generated by human beings is cycled with the help of nature and resulting nutrient rich soil conditioner is returned to the soil. This process causes least damage to the nature and the ecological balance is maintained all the time.

and the ecological balance is maintained all the time. Why practice Eco-Sanitation. If we study the

Why practice Eco-Sanitation. If we study the sewage disposal systems developed in any city or town, it Eco-Sanitation. If we study the sewage disposal systems developed in any city or town, it will be found that water conveyance based system uses huge amount of water, which is going to be in short supply in near future due to reduction in average rain fall throughout India. We use treated water for carrying excreta to the septic tanks or sewage treatment plants. This is a colossal waste of resources considering almost non existent sanitation system in rural areas. So it can be said that the urban areas are enjoying all the benefits in the form of well laid out sewerage system at the cost of rural development, which is so vital considering the spread of deadly epidemics. This shows that eco-sanitation must be practiced by both urban and rural people and then only the scarce resources can be distributed in proper proportion between urban and rural population.

in proper proportion between urban and rural population. Issues of Eco-Sanitation. If we observe the real

Issues of Eco-Sanitation.

If we observe the real issues in popularizing the practice of ECO-SANITATION, it can be said that the complexity of the problem itself is so big that it is going to require huge investments and Herculean efforts by the Govt and other financial institutions for number of years to make any worthwhile impact on overall health and sanitation of rural population. The rapid growth of population, cultural taboos, poverty, and absence of education and awareness make the problem more complicated. Majority of people will be averse to using Urine as excellent nitrogen supplier and humus generated from excreta as a good fertilizer and soil conditioner. This is the reason that huge efforts

are required in educating people, demonstrating the positive aspects of this sanitation, and involvement of stake holders at grass root level. The movement will be successful only when it is sustained by the people, for the people in which women will have to play major role. Involvement of women Self Help Groups will go a long way in alleviating daily drudgery of the women folk such as inadequate sanitation facilities, polluted water, non availability of any form of energy for cooking, malnutrition etc. The root cause obviously is poverty and ignorance.

How can we make Eco-sanitation a mass movement. Eco-sanitation a mass movement.

Considering the literacy level, cultural taboos, blind faith etc, we will require persistent efforts to educate people by demonstrating the benefits of eco- sanitation, namely improved health, less expenditure on medicines, clean environmental conditions in and around the house, improved agricultural produce due to use of urine, and rich fertilizer of excreta thereby generating more income to the family and most importantly removing great hardships of women community.

The movement will require whole hearted support and active participation from the stake holders, NGO s, Govt officials and financial institutions in making more and more finance available to this activity. We feel that by demonstrating the use of toilets in the village and its impact on the family and agricultural produce which will be seen in more income to the farmer, the popularity of these toilets will increase manifold. So concerted efforts will be required to mitigate the problem of unhygienic sanitation.

Design consideration for Eco-San toilets. Eco-San toilets.

The design of toilets and its construction will very according to the region, cultural traditions, human habits, availability of water, soil strata, subsoil water level, locally available material and skilled labour. It is not possible to give one definite design which can be replicated in all the regions and in all kinds of climatic conditions. However certain parameters can be fixed as follows,

1. Urine is very rich source of Nitrogen and hence every effort should be made to collect it.

2. Excreta mainly contains solid substance and also the harmful pathogens. These pathogens can not survive in higher temperatures and if we can create a situation in the pit with increased temperature, the pathogens will get killed and the excreta will become harmless for human handling. However we should avoid handling till it is fully converted in to humus like substance.

3. The technology should be simple for the people to follow and its construction should not involve very complicated procedures.

reduce the construction time, will result in better product quality and more toilets can be constructed in less amount of time. This point is more pertinent considering the huge quantity of toilets we require.

5. The farmer should be able to generate tangible financial income from the toilet in addition to his saving on medicinal cost due to improved health condition. The toilet should appear to be a bonus and an asset to the family in real sense of the term then many families will wholeheartedly opt for it.

6. The toilet should require minimum amount of water and maintenance and should not produce bad odors and unhygienic and filthy condition around.

7. Efforts may be made to use roof of toilet for fixing of solar panel which will produce electricity and will solve the problem of light. This facility can be offered after the family has improved its financial condition.

8. The toilet should be light, and portable and should be easily assembled on site by any unskilled labour available in remotest part of India

9. Use of locally available material should be encouraged for covering and enclosing the toilet.

10. The structure should merge with the surrounding nature and overall environment very nicely without becoming a eyesore.

Our proposal for EcoSanToilet. EcoSanToilet.

We have proposed few designs which consist of using bamboo, wooden bullies and steel as basic materials for skeleton construction.without becoming a eyesore. Our proposal for EcoSanToilet. We also propose to divert urine and collect

We also propose to divert urine and collect it separately.and steel as basic materials for skeleton construction. For seat construction locally available stone slabs,

For seat construction locally available stone slabs, concrete slabs, ferro-cement slabs, or fiberglass molded seats can be used.We also propose to divert urine and collect it separately. Considering the use of different material,

Considering the use of different material, the cost will very considerably but our efforts are concentrated on giving very economical solution which will be affordable to the poorest of poor from rural India.ferro-cement slabs, or fiberglass molded seats can be used. We also wish to devise a model

We also wish to devise a model where entire sanitation programme will be run and managed by women Self Help Groups.will be affordable to the poorest of poor from rural India. The group will install toilets

The group will install toilets in each house, collect urine and manure and will sell it to the farmers thereby generating income from the project. The farmers will in turn sell the ORGANIC AGRI PRODUCE to these SHG s who will sell it in cities and will generate more income.India. We also wish to devise a model where entire sanitation programme will be run and

Alternative proposal of SOLAR TOILETS . Our country boasts huge amount of solar energy and

Alternative proposal of

SOLAR TOILETS .

Our country boasts huge amount of solar energy and almost for the entire year barring few days, we have very bright sunlight which can be harnessed to design Solar Toilets.

MAIN CONCEPT OF SOLAR TOILTES.

The research has shown that the harmful Pathogens in excreta do not survive in higher temperature of around 45 to 55 degrees Celsius. This situation can be very easily created in the toilets by providing solar chamber at the back end of the toilet where the excreta gets collected and which is covered on sides by Galvanized Corrugated Sheets and on top with non breakable Acrylic transparent sheet which will allow the solar heat to get collected in the solar chamber thereby raising the inside temperature considerably and in the process destroying all the harmful pathogens in very short time.

Since we are providing two separate chambers, they can be used alternatively and allow the chamber which is full, to receive maximum solar heat and render the excreta absolutely harmless before it is added to the agriculture field.

The excreta collection chambers in individual toilets are oriented towards South side where maximum solar heat is available and also provided with lot of natural ventilation and the Public Toilets Designs are provided with lot of natural and Mechanical Ventilation so that the incoming air will dry the contents quickly by evaporating the water with its heat and only very small percentage of solid contents remain in the chamber in powder form which is then added to the soil only after it is very safe to handle the excreta.

Thus we wish to empower the women community so that they become self sufficient and lead a life of dignity, self respect and economical freedom.

Brief Bio- Data of Prof. S.G.Bhate.

Prof.Shrikant Bhate age 61, years is an Architect and Social Entrepreneur and recently retired as Principal B.K.P.S College of Architecture, Pune. His areas of interest and research are, cost effective technologies, energy conservation, pre-casting and prefabrication techniques, eco sanitation, primary school buildings , low cost eco friendly housing etc.

As a Social Entrepreneur and Director of NGO,Parisar Niyojan Samiti,he is very much involved in Health and Sanitation Programmes.

Prof.S.G.Bhate

bhate48@gmail.com and his mobile no is-09890440648.

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shrikantbhate@rediffmail.com

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