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Fast food

Atestat professionl limba engleza


Profil bilingv
-2014-
Profesor coordonator: Burlan
Olguta
1
!referat!ro
Bunescu "eorge #$aniel clasa %&& '
Fast food
Contents:
(istor) of Fast Food*********************!pag +
,onvenience food********************!*!!pag -
,uisine and variants******************!***pag .
Business**********************!*****pag
1+
/0e $ar1side of t0e Fast Food*********!******pag 12
Fast Food against 3lo Food*********!******!*pag 1-
Bibliograp0)**************************pag
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2
Fast food
History of Fast Food History of Fast Food
Fast food is t0e term given to food t0at can be
prepared and served ver) 4uic1l)! 50ile an) meal
it0 lo preparation time can be considered to be fast
food6 t)picall) t0e term refers to food sold in a
restaurant or store it0 pre0eated or precoo1ed
ingredients6 and served to t0e customer in a pac1aged
form for ta1e-out7ta1e-aa)! /0e term 8fast food8 as
recognized in a dictionar) b) 9erriam#5ebster in
1.21!
Outlets ma) be stands or 1ios1s6 0ic0 ma)
provide no s0elter or seating6 or fast food restaurants
:also 1non as 4uic1 service restaurants;! Franc0ise
operations 0ic0 are part of restaurant c0ains 0ave
standardized foodstuffs s0ipped to eac0 restaurant
from central locations!
/0e concept of read)-coo1ed food for sale is
closel) connected it0 urban development! &n Ancient
<ome cities 0ad street stands t0at sold bread6 sausages
and ine!

A.Pre-modern Europe
&n t0e cities of <oman anti4uit)6 muc0 of t0e
urban population living in insulae6 multi-store)
apartment bloc1s6 depended on food vendors for muc0 of t0eir meals! &n t0e mornings6
bread soa1ed in ine as eaten as a 4uic1 snac1 and coo1ed vegetables and stes later in
t0e da) at a popina6 a simple t)pe of eating establis0ment! &n t0e 9iddle Ages6 large
+
Fast food
tons and ma=or urban areas suc0 as >ondon and Paris supported numerous vendors t0at
sold dis0es suc0 as pies6 pasties6 flans6 affles6 afers6 panca1es and coo1ed meats!
As in <oman cities during anti4uit)6 man) of t0ese establis0ments catered to t0ose
0o did not 0ave means to coo1 t0eir on food6 particularl) single 0ouse0olds! ?nli1e
ric0er ton dellers6 man) often could not afford 0ousing it0 1itc0en facilities and t0us
relied on fast food! /ravellers6 as ell6 suc0 as pilgrims en route to a 0ol) site6 ere
among t0e customers!
B.United Kingdom
&n areas 0ic0 0ad access to coastal or tidal aters6 @fast food@ ould fre4uentl)
include local s0ellfis0 or seafood6 suc0 as o)sters or6 as in >ondon6 eels! Often t0is
seafood ould be coo1ed directl) on t0e 4ua) or close b)!
/0e development of traler fis0ing in t0e mid nineteent0 centur) ould lead to t0e
development of a Britis0 favourite fis0 and c0ips6 and t0e first s0op in 1AB0!
A blue pla4ue at Old0am@s /omm)field 9ar1et mar1s t0e origin of t0e fis0 and c0ip
s0op and fast food industries in Britain!Britis0 fast food 0ad considerable regional
variation! 3ometimes t0e regionalit) of dis0 became part of t0e culture of its respective
area!
/0e content of fast food pies 0as
varied6 it0 poultr) :suc0 as c0ic1ens; or
ildfol commonl) being used! After
5orld 5ar &&6 tur1e) 0as been used more
fre4uentl) in fast food! As ell as its
native cuisine6 t0e ?C 0as adopted fast
food from ot0er cultures6 suc0 as pizza6
,0inese noodles6 1ebab6 and curr)! 9ore
recentl) 0ealt0ier alternatives to
conventional fast food 0ave also emerged!
C.United States

4
Fast food
Deig0boring fast food restaurant
advertisement signs in Centuc1) for 5end)@s6
CF,6 Cr)stal and /aco Bell! As automobiles
became popular and more affordable folloing
t0e First 5orld 5ar6 drive-in restaurants ere
introduced!
/0e American compan) 50ite ,astle6
founded b) Bill) &ngram and 5alter Anderson in 5ic0ita6 Cansas in 1.216 is generall)
credited it0 opening t0e second fast food outlet and first 0amburger c0ain6 selling 0am
burgers for five cents eac0! 5alter Anderson 0ad built t0e first 50ite ,astle restaurant in
5ic0ita in 1.1B6 introducing t0e limited menu6 0ig0 volume6 lo cost6 0ig0 speed
0amburger restaurant!E Among its innovations6 t0e compan) alloed customers to see t0e
food being prepared! 50ite ,astle as successful from its inception and spaned
numerous competitors!
Franc0ising as introduced in 1.21 b) AF5 <oot Beer6 0ic0 franc0ised its
distinctive s)rup! (oard Go0nson@s first franc0ised t0e restaurant concept in t0e mid-
1.+0s6 formall) standardizing menus6 signage and advertising!
,urb service as introduced in t0e late 1.20s and as mobilized in t0e 1.40s 0en
car0ops strapped on roller s1ates!/0e ?nited 3tates 0as t0e largest fast food industr) in
t0e orld6 and American fast food restaurants are located in over 100 countries!
ApproHimatel) 2 million ?!3! or1ers are emplo)ed in t0e areas of food preparation and
food servicing including fast food in t0e ?3A!
Convenience food
2
Fast food
Fast food outlets are ta1e-aa) or ta1e-out providers6
often it0 a 8drive-t0roug08 service 0ic0 allos
customers to order and pic1 up food from t0eir carsI but
most also 0ave a seating area in 0ic0 customers can eat
t0e food on t0e premises!
Dearl) from its inception6 fast food 0as been designed
to be eaten 8on t0e go86 often does not re4uire traditional
cutler)6 and is eaten as a finger food! ,ommon menu items
at fast food outlets include fis0 and c0ips6 sandic0es6
pitas6 0amburgers6 fried c0ic1en6 frenc0 fries6 c0ic1en
nuggets6 tacos6 pizza6 0ot dogs6 and ice cream6 alt0oug0
man) fast food restaurants offer 8sloer8 foods li1e c0ili6
mas0ed potatoes6 and salads!
9an) petrol7gas stations 0ave convenience stores 0ic0 sell pre-pac1aged
sandic0es6 doug0nuts6 and 0ot food! 9an) gas stations in t0e ?nited 3tates and 'urope
also sell frozen foods and 0ave microaves on t0e premises in 0ic0 to prepare t0em!
/raditional street food is available around t0e orld6 usuall) from small operators and
independent vendors operating from a cart6 table6 portable grill or motor ve0icle!
,ommon eHamples include Jietnamese noodle vendors6 9iddle 'astern falafel stands6
De Kor1 ,it) 0ot dog carts6 and taco truc1s! /uro-/uro vendors :/agalog for point
point; are a feature of P0ilippine life! ,ommonl)6 street vendors provide a colorful and
var)ing range of options designed to 4uic1l) captivate passers-b) and attract as muc0
attention as possible!
$epending on t0e locale6 multiple street vendors ma) specialize in specific t)pes of
food c0aracteristic of a given cultural or et0nic tradition! &n some cultures6 it is t)pical for
street vendors to call out prices6 sing or c0ant sales-pitc0es6 pla) music6 or engage in
ot0er forms of 8street t0eatrics8 in order to engage prospective customers! &n some cases6
t0is can garner more attention t0an t0e food itselfI some vendors represent anot0er form
of tourist attraction!
B
Fast food
Cuisine and variants
9odern commercial fast food is often 0ig0l) processed and prepared in an
industrial fas0ion6 i!e!6 on a large scale it0 standard ingredients and standardized
coo1ing and production met0ods! &t is usuall) rapidl) served in cartons or bags or in a
plastic rapping6 in a fas0ion 0ic0 minimizes cost! &n most fast food operations6 menu
items are generall) made from processed ingredients prepared at a central suppl) facilit)
and t0en s0ipped to in dividual outlets 0ere t0e) are re0eated6 coo1ed :usuall) b)
microave or deep fr)ing; or assembled in a s0ort amount of time! /0is process ensures a
consistent level of product 4ualit)6 and is 1e) to being able to deliver t0e order 4uic1l) to
t0e customer and eliminate labor and e4uipment costs in t0e individual stores!
Because of commercial emp0asis on speed6 uniformit) and lo cost6 fast food
products are often made it0 ingredients formulated to ac0ieve a certain flavor or
consistenc) and to preserve fres0ness!
Alt0oug0 fast food often brings to mind! traditional American fast food suc0 as
0amburgers and fries6 t0ere are man) ot0er forms of fast food t0at en=o) idespread
popularit) in t0e 5est!
,0inese ta1eaa)s7ta1eout
restaurants are particularl)
popular!/0e) normall) offer a
ide variet) of Asian food :not
-
Fast food
ala)s ,0inese;6 0ic0 0as normall) been fried! 9ost options are some form of noodles6
rice6 or meat!
&n some cases6 t0e food is presented as a smLrgMsbord6 sometimes self service! /0e
customer c0ooses t0e size of t0e container t0e) is0 to bu)6 and t0en is free to fill it it0
t0eir c0oice of food! &t is common to combine several options in one container6 and some
outlets c0arge b) eig0t rat0er t0an b) item! 9an) of t0ese restaurants offer free deliver)
for purc0ases over a minimum amount!
A fast-food 1ios1 in Kambol6 Bulgar3us0i 0as seen rapidl) rising popularit) in recent
times! A form of fast food created in Gapan :0ere bentN is t0e Gapanese e4uivalent of fast
food;6 sus0i is normall) cold stic1) rice flavored
it0 a seet rice vinegar and served it0 some
topping :often fis0;6 or6 as in t0e most popular 1ind
in t0e 5est6 rolled in nori :dried laver; it0 filling!
Pizza is a common
fast food categor) in
t0e ?nited 3tates6
it0 c0ains suc0 as
Papa Go0n@s6 $omino@s Pizza6 3barro and Pizza (ut! 9enus
are more limited and standardized t0an in traditional
pizzerias6 and pizza deliver)6 often it0 a time
commitment6 is offered!
Cebab 0ouses are a form of fast food restaurant from
t0e 9iddle 'ast6 especiall) /ur1e) and >ebanon! 9eat is
s0aven from a rotisserie6 and is served on a armed
flatbread it0 salad and a c0oice of sauce and dressing!
/0ese doner 1ebabs or s0aarmas are distinct from s0is0
1ebabs served on stic1s! Cebab s0ops are also found
t0roug0out t0e orld6 especiall) 'urope6 De Oealand
and Australia but t0e) generall) are less common in t0e
?3!
A
Fast food
/0e $utc0 0ave t0eir on t)pes of fast food! A $utc0 fast food meal often consists
of a portion of frenc0 fries :called friet or patat; it0 a
sauce and a meat product! /0e most common sauce to
accompan) frenc0 fries is ma)onnaise6 0ile ot0ers can be
1etc0up or spiced 1etc0up6 peanut sauce or piccalilli!
3ometimes t0e fries are served it0 combinations of
sauces6 most famousl) speciaal :special;: ma)onnaise6 it0
:spiced; 1etc0up and c0opped onionsI and oorlog
ma)onnaise and peanut sauce :sometimes also it0
1etc0up and c0opped onions;! /0e meat product is usuall)
a deep fried snac1I t0is includes t0e fri1andel :a deep fried
s1inless minced meat sausage;6 and t0e 1ro1et :deep fried meat ragout covered in
breadcrumbs;!
&n Portugal6 t0ere are some varieties of local fast-food and restaurants specialized in
t0is t)pe of local cuisine! 3ome of t0e most popular foods
include frango assado :Piri-piri grilled c0ic1en previousl)
marinated;6 francesin0a6 francesin0a poveira6 espetada
:tur1e) or por1 meat on to stic1s; and bifanas :por1 cutlets
in a specific sauce served as a sandic0;! /0is t)pe of food is
also often served it0 frenc0 fries :called batatas fritas;6
some international c0ains started appearing specialized in
some of t0e t)pical Portuguese fast food suc0 as Dando@s!
A fiHture of 'ast Asian cities is t0e noodle s0op! Flatbread and falafel are toda)
ubi4uitous in t0e 9iddle 'ast! Popular &ndian fast food dis0es include vada pav6 panipuri
and da0i vada! &n t0e Frenc0-spea1ing nations of 5est Africa6 roadside stands in and
around t0e larger cities continue to sellPas t0e) 0ave done for generationsPa range of
read)-to-eat6 c0ar-grilled meat stic1s 1non locall) as broc0ettes :not to be confused it
0 t0e bread snac1 of t0e same name found in 'urope;!
Business
.
Fast food
&n t0e ?nited 3tates alone6 consumers spent about ?3Q110 billion on fast food in
2000 :0ic0 increased from ?3QB billion in 1.-0;! /0e Dational <estaurant Association
forecasted t0at fast food restaurants in t0e ?!3! ould reac0 ?3Q142 billion in sales in
200B6 a 2R increase over 2002! &n comparison6 t0e full-service restaurant segment of t0e
food industr) is eHpected to generate Q1-+ billion in sales!
Fast food 0as been losing mar1et s0are to fast casual dining restaurants6 0ic0 offer
more robust and eHpensive cuisines!
According to t0e ?!3! Bureau of >abor 3tatistics6 about 2!- million ?!3! or1ers are
emplo)ed in food preparation and serving :including fast food; as of 200A! /0e B>3@s
pro=ected =ob outloo1 eHpects average grot0 and eHcellent opportunit) as a result of
0ig0 turnover! (oever6 in April 20116 9c$onald@s 0ired approHimatel) B26000 ne
or1ers and received a million applications for t0ese positionsPan acceptance rate of
onl) B!2R!
3ome anal)sts6 suc0 as 9artin Ford6 aut0or of /0e >ig0ts in t0e /unnel: Automation6
Accelerating /ec0nolog) and t0e 'conom) of t0e Future6 argue t0at t0e fast food industr)
ill be succeptible to increased automation6 and t0at t0is ill reduce emplo)ment and7or
=ob creation in t0e industr)!
&n 200B6 t0e global fast food mar1et gre b) 4!AR and reac0ed a value of 102!4 billion
and a volume of A0!+ billion transactions!&n &ndia alone t0e fast food industr) is groing
b) 41R a )ear!9c$onald@s is located in 12B countries and on B continents and operates
over +16000 restaurants orldide! On Ganuar) +16 1..0 9c$onaldSs opened a restaurant
in 9osco6 and bro1e opening da) records for customers served!
/0e 9osco restaurant is t0e busiest in t0e orld! /0e largest 9c$onaldSs in t0e
orld is located in Orlando6 Florida6 ?3A
/0ere are numerous ot0er fast food restaurants located all over t0e orld! Burger
Cing 0as more t0an 116100 restaurants in more t0an B2 countries! CF, is located in 22
countries! 3uba) is one of t0e fastest groing franc0ises in t0e orld it0
approHimatel) +.612. restaurants in .0 countries as of 9a) 200.6 t0e first non-?3
location opening in $ecember 1.A4 in Ba0rain!
Pizza (ut is located in .- countries6 it0 100 locations in ,0ina!
/aco Bell 0as 2-A restaurants located in 14 countries besides t0e ?nited 3tates!
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Fast food
The darkside of the Fast Food

Kou 0ave been at t0e office all da) long6 slaving over a telep0one and a computer
terminal! &t@s lunc0 time and )ou@ve got an 0our to eat! Do problem6 t0ere@s a 9c$onald@s
a mere five minutes from t0e office! Kou could go t0ere--it@s 0ot6 it@s fast6 and it@s
convenient!

Besides6 t0e) 0ave supposedl) 0ealt0) foods li1e c0ic1en and fis0 on t0e menu!
ApproHimatel) 42!A million people are served at fast food restaurants ever) da) in
America6 and 0) notT Fast foods are pre-prepared meals t0at are served 4uic1l) at
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Fast food
several restaurants strategicall) located t0roug0out nearl) ever) American cit)! But t0ere
is a donside to t0e convenience t0e) provide6 t0e) simpl) are not good for us!
Americans are far more prone to 0eart disease6 arteriosclerosis6 and colon cancer t0an
people in an) ot0er countr) in t0e orld ! /0is is due to 0ig0 levels of fat and c0olesterol
found in man) fatt) foods6 suc0 as fast foods--and it0 approHimatel) one-fift0 of t0e
American population dining on fast foods on a dail) basis6 e are definitel) a fast food
nation! 5it0 t0e rapid increase in fast food restaurants spreading t0roug0out t0e countr)6
man) Americans are sacrificing t0eir 0ealt06 establis0ing a 0abit-forming tradition6 and
ris1ing addiction to fat in eHc0ange for t0e convenience of fast food!
Fast food restaurants are breeding a generation of un0ealt0) Americans! According to
t0e article 8?!3! ,an@t be /oo <ic0 or /oo Fat68 t0e aut0or states t0at 8America is t0e
fattest countr) in t0e orld ! ! ! t0e number of obese people over age 1- =umped to 2A
percent in 1.A28!'speciall) orrisome is t0e fact t0at obesit) can lead to 0ig0 blood
pressure6 diabetes6 0ig0 c0olesterol6 and possibl) even cancer! 9an) people carr) t0e
genes for obesit)! /0is fact paired it0 factors suc0 as poor eating 0abits6 suc0 as t0ose
found at fast food restaurants6 and lac1 of eHercise is causing Americans to become
un0ealt0)! &n fact6 poor eating 0abits and lac1 of eHercise is t0e leading cause of obesit)
toda)!
Fast Food against Slow Food
(ave )ou 0eard about t0e slo food movementT A lot of people 0ave 0ad enoug0 of
=un1 food and 0at it seems to be doing to our 0ealt0 and societ) as a 0ole! For t0ese
reasons6 t0e slo food movement as set up!
/0e basic et0os of t0e movement is
about getting bac1 to basics 0en it comes
to food! &tSs bu)ing in season and local! &tSs
about supporting our local econom) and
eating food t0atSs simple6 clean6 basic and
12
Fast food
good for )ou! &t seems e trul) 0ave gone full circle and man) of us are read) to give up
t0e fast food movement t0at 0as dominated our societ) for decades no and move onto
sloer6 more nouris0ing nutrition!
&f )ou feel t0e slo food movement ma) be somet0ing )ouSd li1e to =oin or
contribute to6 0ere are a fe basic ideas to 0elp get )ou started:
Buy local! /0is is a big emp0asis of t0e slo food movement! B) bu)ing foods
locall)6 e support local farming and agriculture! >ocal foods are also better for t0e
environment as t0e) donSt 0ave to be transported for miles to reac0 supermar1et s0elves!
Anot0er bonus of bu)ing local foods is t0at t0e)Sre more nutritious!
After vegetables and fruits are pic1ed6 t0e) slol) start to lose t0eir nutrition content!
B) eating foods earlier after t0e pic1ing process )ou ta1e in more nutrients and vitamins!
Eat in season! Bu)ing local ill mean t0at )ou naturall) eat 0at is in season! 9an)
eHperts believe t0at e are meant to eat 0at is in our local environment so t0at e can
survive t0ose conditions! For eHample6 in 0ot
climates t0e emp0asis is on ater) fruits and
vegetables li1e straberries6 cucumbers6
melons6 peppers! /0ese foods contribute to our
overall need for more fluid and vitamins
needed during 0ot eat0er! &n colder climates
our bodies need filling6 stoc1) foods suc0 as
potatoes and ot0er root vegetables!
'ating in season is not onl) good for )our
0ealt0 but also for )our poc1et boo1! 'ating seasonall) allos )ou to get t0e best produce
it0out 0aving to pa) a fortune for it! Foods t0at need to be imported cost more because
t0ere is a 0ig0er cost in ac4uiring and transporting t0em! B) eating in season )ou support
)our bod)6 t0e environment and local farmers!
Cook rom scratc!. /0is doesnSt mean )ou 0ave to ma1e difficult6 time-consuming
meals! &n fact6 t0e slo food movement emp0asises t0e opposite! Kou can coo1 delicious6
0olesome meals from scratc0 it0 ver) fe ingredients! /0e 1e) is to coo1 a variet) of
fres06 seasonal foods it0out resorting to pre-prepared foods or =un1 food! ,oo1ing from
scratc0 is good for )our overall 0ealt0 as )ou avoid man) additives and preservatives! &t
1+
Fast food
also saves )ou mone)! Pre-pac1aged foods cost on average more t0an fres0 foods! And
it0 onl) t0ree or four ingredients )ou can coo1 a reall) delicious meal t0e 0ole famil)
is sure to en=o)!
"ake ood a priority! A big part of t0e slo food movement is t0at e can once
again ma1e food a priorit) in our lives! /0is movement is about connecting it0 and
en=o)ing our food! &tSs also about families ta1ing a little time to spend more time toget0er6
around t0e famil) table! 50ile t0is isnSt ala)s possible in modern times6 t0e idea is t0at
if parents start putting more emp0asis on t0e importance of famil) meals6 c0ildren ill
follo suit! B) s0oing our c0ildren t0at food is meant to be pleasurable and en=o)ed
rat0er t0an gulped don or rus0ed6 e start to s0o t0em t0e basics of good nutrition!
/0e slo food movement is a sign of progress for man)! &t s0os t0at as communities
e feel t0e need to connect to our food and eac0 ot0er! 'ating fres0 foods6 supporting our
communities and t0e environment6 and coming toget0er around t0e famil) table6 are
positive steps into t0e future!
Bibliography
1.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fastfood
!. http://www.slowfood.co"/

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Fast food
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