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BILFINGER BERGER AG
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Substructures

0 General Descriptions
Appendix 0-4:
SOFiSTiK-Manual STAR2
Konstruktionshandlingar

ORT

DATUM

Godknd
Knnedom

NAMN

REV

ANT

NDRINGEN AVSER

KONSTR

GODKND

DATUM

UTARBETAT

TRAGWERKSPLANUNG
INGENIEURBAU
Mnchen

Mannheim

Kln

Hamburg

TECHNISCHES BRO MANNHEIM


CARL-REISS-PLATZ 1-5
D-68165 MANNHEIM
TELEFON: +49 621 459-0
TELEFAX: +49 621 459-2219

KONSTR

SOFiSTiK
Mannheim

GRANSK

2002-12-19

KONSTBYGGNADSNR

ANTAL SIDOR (INKL DENNA SIDAN)

14-1319-1

2+127

OBJEKT NR

DOKUMENT NR

43 36 05

110K1374

REV

Konstruktionshandlingar

List of revisions

Rev.
No.

433 605 / Deckblatt1374 / 2003-04-15

Changes

Pages
No.

Changed
by

Date

STAR2
Statics of Beam Structure
Theory of 2nd Order
Version 10.20

E SOFiSTiK AG, Oberschleissheim, 2000

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structu


res

This manual is protected by copyright laws. No part of it may be translated, copied or


reproduced, in any form or by any means, without written permission from SOFiSTiK
AG. SOFiSTiK reserves the right to modify or to release new editions of this manual.
The manual and the program have been thoroughly checked for errors. However,
SOFiSTiK does not claim that either one is completely error free. Errors and omissions
are corrected as soon as they are detected.
The user of the program is solely responsible for the applications. We strongly
encourage the user to test the correctness of all calculations at least by random
sampling.

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

Task Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

2
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.3.1.
2.3.2.
2.3.3.
2.3.4.
2.4.
2.4.1.
2.4.2.
2.4.3.
2.5.
2.6.
2.7.
2.7.1.
2.7.2.
2.7.3.
2.7.4.
2.7.5.
2.8.

Theoretical Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beam Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transfer Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stiffness Matrix of the Entire Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Principle Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Springs, Trusses, Cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cable Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solution of the Complete System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Topics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Predeformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creep and Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prestress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear Deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21
21
21
22
22
23
26
26
27
27
29
29
29
29
210
210
210
211
211
212
212

3
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.8.
3.9.
3.10.
3.11.
3.12.
3.13.
3.14.
3.15.

Input Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ECHO Control of the Output Extent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CTRL Parameters Controlling the Analysis Method . . . . . . . .
GRP Selection of an Element Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STEX External Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFL Definition of an Influence Line Loadcase . . . . . . . . . . .
LC Definition of a Loadcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Definiton of Beam Loads on Beam Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NL Nodal Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SL Point Load on a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GSL Point Load on a Beam Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UL Uniform Load on a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GUL Uniform Load on a Beam Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VL Linearly Varying on a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31
31
31
34
36
39
313
314
315
317
319
320
322
325
326
327

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

3.16.
3.17.
3.18.
3.19.
3.20.
3.21.
3.22.
3.23.

GVL Linearly Varying Load on a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


CL Loading of Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TL Loading of Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LCC Importing Loads from another Loadcase . . . . . . . . . . . .
LV Generating Loads from Results of a Loadcase . . . . . . . . . .
REIN Specification for Determining Reinforcement . . . . . . .
DESI Reinforced Concrete Design, Bending, Axial Force . . .
NSTR Nonlinear Stress and Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

330
333
334
335
336
339
345
351

4
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.7.

Output Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output of the Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output during Iterations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convergence Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stiffness Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41
41
42
42
42
43
43
44

5
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.5.1.
5.5.2.
5.5.3.
5.6.
5.6.1.
5.6.2.
5.7.

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Training Example of Cantilever Column. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wind Frame with Cable Diagonals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Girder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Threedimensional Frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction Stages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single Span Beam with Auxiliary Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal Force Redistribution due to Creep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonlinear Material Behaviour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Precast Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steel Frame According to Plastic Zones Theory. . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples in the Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51
51
57
510
513
522
522
522
525
532
532
538
545

ii

Statics of Beam Structures


1

STAR2

Task Description.

The programs of the STARfamily enable the computation of the internal


forces in any threedimensional beam structure by 2nd or 3rd order theory
taking into consideration shear deformations as well as various nonlinear
material effects.
STAR1 3D version without design
STAR2 2D version with design
STAR3 3D version with design
Effects of 3rd order theory are available for truss and cable elements.
The static system must be described by the user in terms of discrete elements,
and the corresponding database must be defined by the generation program
GENF.
Available elements are:
Beam element with straight axis and piecewise constant arbitrary
cross section. Analysis by 2nd order theory with consideration of the
shear deformation. Consideration of nonlinear material behaviour
through iteration.
Spring element such as support spring or nodecoupling spring; non
linear effects include slippage, failure, yielding and friction.
Truss element with prestress
Cable element with prestress (only tensile force is possible)
Distributed support element for elastic support of beams
Couplings for special effects like eccentric beam links, rigid links be
tween nodes etc.
Disk or plate elements as well as solid elements, which can be defined by
GENF, can not be processed by STAR2. The foundation definitions for pile el
ements are not available in STAR2 either.
Concentrated forces or moments may act on the nodes, while support transla
tions or rotations can be defined at any support. The beam elements can be
loaded with point loads at any position in the form of eccentrically acting
Version 10.20

11

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

forces, moments, jumps in displacement or rotation, as well as with linearly


varying loads in the form of forces, moments, strains, curvatures or tempera
ture strains. Unintentional eccentricities of linear, quadratic or cubic vari
ation can be defined for the analysis with 2nd order theory. In addition, creep
deformations or unintentional eccentricities can be generated from already
analysed loadcases. Prestress can be considered by specifying an MV0 or NV0
distribution.
The analysis of frames by 2nd order theory with consideration of material be
haviour is a demanding engineering task. The user of STAR2 should therefore
accumulate experience from simple examples, before attempting to take on
more complicated structures. A check of the results by offhand engineering
calculations is indispensable.

12

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


2

Theoretical Principles.

2.1.

Introduction

STAR2

The static problem is solved by the deformation method. In any iterative tech
nique, nonlinear properties must be decomposed into several individual lin
ear steps by an iterative method. A closed form solution can be computed by
2nd order theory for such a linear step, if the stiffness and the axial force are
assumed constant.

2.2.

Definitions

The program uses exclusively righthanded coordinate systems in accord


ance to DIN 1080 for the description of force, moment, displacement or
rotationvectors. The threedimensional global system of coordinates serves
in defining the nodal coordinates and displacements or rotations.
Each beam possesses a local coordinate system, which is defined by GENF.
Beam deformations and section forces are output in this coordinate system.
When confusion is possible, the local xyzsystem is also designated by S12.
Thus, the essential magnitudes for primary bending are:
Cross section values
Forces, displacements, moments
Rotations, curvatures
Section forces

AZ, IY
Z or 2
Y or 1
VZ, MY

and for secondary bending:


Cross section values
Forces, displacements, moments
Rotations, curvatures
Section forces

AY, IZ
Y or 1
Z or 2
VY, MZ

Section forces are positive if they act in the positive directions of the axes at
an end cross section (when moving in the longitudinal direction of the beam).
Version 10.20

21

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

System of coordinates

2.3.

Beam Elements.

2.3.1.

Introduction

The individual beam elements are analysed by the reduction method (method
of transfer matrices) under the assumption of piecewise constant axial force.
The following assumptions are made as well:
The beam axis is a straight line. Broken or curved beams must be replaced
by several straight beam segments. The beam axis coincides with the centro
baric axis. The stiffnesses and the axial force for each particular segment are
averaged from their end values. Therefore, in case of highly varying values,
one should be careful to define a sufficient number of segments (usually 5 to
10).
The theory of 2nd order satisfies the equilibrium conditions for the deformed
structure. The orientation of the beam axes (transverse force instead of shear
force) and the forces (conservative loading) remain unaltered. By contrast,
the theory of 3rd order considers large deformations, which alter the orienta
tion of the local system of coordinates. The 3rd order theory is not yet implem
ented for beam elements. Thus, by 3rd order theory all beam elements are
handled in the same ways as by 2nd order theory.

22

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Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

The stiffnesses can be modified due to the material by design only (input re
cord NSTR). They remain constant within an iteration step, whereas without
NSTR they remain constant during the entire analysis.
Torsion according to St. Venant (no lateral warping of the cross section).
Warping and torsion according to theory of 2nd order are not implemented in
STAR2.
The effect of shear deformations due to shear force can be taken into consider
ation.
A deviation between the shear centers and the center of gravity can be ulti
mately considered as a rotation of the principal axes with respect to the sys
tem of coordinates of the beam.

2.3.2.

Transfer Matrices

Each beam is partitioned into n segments defined by n+1 sections. The status
magnitudes are collected into a vector z:
v * x,
N,

d * x, MT,

z +

v * z, d * y, MY, VZ
v * y, d * z, MZ, VY

Components 1 and 2 represent the axial force, 3 and 4 the torsion, 58 the pri
mary bending and 912 the secondary bending. The transfer equation from
section i to section i+1 is given by:
z i)1 + U i @ z i ) pi
where Ui stands for the transfer matrix of the beam segment i and pi for the
component of the loading acting on segment i. The transfer matrix is as
sembled under the familiar assumptions. Its components are:
Normal axial force:

1 CNmitCN + 1 1 ) 1
U * N +
1
2 EA i EAi)1
0

Torsion:

1 CTmitCT + 1 1 ) 1
U * T +

2 GIT i GITi)1
0 1
Version 10.20

23

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2
Primary bending:

1
C1 CH @ C2 CH @ C3

0
C0 CH @ C1 CH @ C2

U * P +
C0
C1
0 C4CH

0
0
1

where

CH + 1 1 ) 1
2 EIY i EIY i)1

1 )
1
CSH + 1
2 GAZ i GAZ i)1

KV + CSH 2
CH @ l
+ (CH @ N) @ l
AK + @ 1 ) 2 @ KV
C0 = COS AK
C1 = l SIN AK /
C2 = l2 ( COS AK 1 ) / 2
C3 = l3 ( SIN AK AK ) / 3
C4 = SIN AK / l
Secondary bending:
1
C1 CQ @ C2 CQ @ C3

0
C0
CQ @ C1
CQ @ C2

U * S +
C0
C1
0 C4CQ

0
0
0
1

with similar constants.


The components of the loading vector p are formed from

24

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


px,dpx =
ex,dex

mx,dmx =
py,dpy =
pz,dpz

my,dmy =
mz,dmz =

STAR2

constant and linear component of a load in the


axial direction
constant and linear component of a strain in the
axial direction
constant and linear component of a torsional load
constant and linear component of a lateral load
in the secondary bending direction
constant and linear component of a lateral load
in the primary bending direction
constant and linear component of a moment load
in the primary bending direction
constant and linear component of a moment load
in the secondary bending direction

ky,dky,d2ky,d3ky

kz,dkz,d2kz,d3kz

uy,duy,d2uy,d3uy

uz,duz,d2uz,d3uz

Components of the cubic variation


of a compulsory curvature due to
temperature and prestress in the
primary bending direction
= Components of the cubic variation
of a compulsory curvature due to
temperature and prestress in the
secondary bending direction
= Components of the cubic variation
of an initial deformation in the
secondary bending direction
= Components of the cubic variation
of an initial deformation in the
primary bending direction

With these loads the resulting loading vector components are:


p1 = CN l2 ( px/2 + dpx/6 ) + l ( ex + dex/2 )
p2 = l ( px + dpx/2 )
p3 = CT l2 ( mx/2 + dmx/6 )
p4 = l ( mx + dmx/2 )
p5 = CH ( C5py + C6dpy/l + C3mz C5dmz/l) C2ky
Version 10.20

25

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

C3dky/l + (C1/l1)duz (2C2/l2+1)d2uz (6C3/l3+1)d3uz


p6 = CH (C3py + C5dpy/l + C2mz + C3dmz/l) +
+ C1ky C2dky/l
+ (C01)/lduz + 2(C11)/l2d2uz (6C2/l3+3l)d3uz
p7 = C2py C3dpy/l C1mz + C2dmz/l
+ (C01)/CNky (C1/l1)/CNdky/l
C4/CN/lduz + 2(C01)/l2d2uz + 6(C1l)/l3d3uz
p8 = lpy ldpy/2
with the additional constants
C5 = ( COS AK 1 + AK2/2) (l/AK)4
C6 = ( SIN AK AK + AK3/6) (l/AK)5
Similar expressions are obtained for the secondary bending (p9 p12).
For the axial force stressing (px) and the torsional loading (mx) STAR2 sim
plifies the load components by an average load value at each section.

2.3.3.

Stiffness Matrix of the Entire Beam

By continuous transfer of the status magnitudes and incorporation of the dis


continuities (concentrated load, moment etc.), one obtains a relationship be
tween the state magnitudes at the beginning of the beam and those at its end.
z n)1 + U s @ z 1 ) rs
This relationship can be used as a linear system of equations for the computa
tion of the stiffness matrix. The matrix obtained this way can now be sub
jected to any modifications caused by hingedjoints and to a transformation
into the global system of coordinates.

2.3.4.

Principle Axes

The separate analysis in the primary and secondary direction is correct only
when the axes y and z are the principal axes of the cross section. If this condi
tion is not satisfied, the deformations are not computed correctly in case of
statically determinate structures, whereas in case of statically indetermi
nate structures the section forces are wrong too. STAR2 transforms all the

26

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

loads and the section forces of three dimensional structures into the direc
tions of the principal axes. Variable rotation along the length of a beam can
not be considered however. This transformation can be suppressed in special
cases. The principal axes are always taken into consideration correctly dur
ing design, when biaxial bending is active.

2.4.

Springs, Trusses, Cables.

2.4.1.

Springs

Spring elements model structural parts by a simplified force displacement


relationship. This is usually expressed by means of a spring constant in the
form of a linear equation:
P + c @ u
The spring is defined by its direction ( DX, DY, DZ ) and the spring constants.
The direction can be determined as the difference of two nodes (N2 NA), or
it can be specified explicitly. Support springs must be provided with a direc
tion (see GENF).
The element implemented herein allows for the following nonlinear effects:
Prestress (linear effect)
Failure
Yield
Friction with cohesion
Slip

Forcedisplacement diagrams of springs


Geometrically nonlinear effects are not possible for springs.
Version 10.20

27

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

A prestress shifts the corresponding effects and it always generates a loading


upon the structure. A prestressed spring is relaxed in the absence of external
loading or compulsion. The nonlinear effects apply to rotational springs as
well as lateral springs too. Friction can be defined by a lateral spring. The
force components normal to the springs direction of action are equal to the
product of the displacement components in the lateral direction by the lateral
spring constants. This force is at most equal to the product of the force in the
normal direction by the friction coefficient plus the cohesion. If the normally
oriented spring is eliminated, the lateral spring is automatically eliminated
too.
All spring nonlinearities are activated only during a nonlinear analysis. To
this end, a value for the number of iterations must be specified by the analysis
methods in CTRL.
Upon such request (see input record CTRL) either the force corresponding to
a prescribed displacement value will be determined within an iteration
(strain control a) or the displacement for a prescribed force (stress control b).
A secant stiffness results from the values computed in this way.

Iteration methods a / b
Method a should be used by structures, which soften as they are loaded,
whereas method b should be used for stiffening structural members.
The user must take care so that the system does not become unstable in any
step of the iteration through failure of springs or cables. This can happen, for
instance,if one defines additional springs with small stiffness, resulting to a
small remaining stiffness after the main springs failure. This stiffness
should not be less than the stiffness of the main spring divided by 10000.

28

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


2.4.2.

STAR2

Trusses

Trusses can be analysed by 2nd or 3rd order theory. 2nd order theory is con
sidered as described in /9/; nodal deformations are additionally taken into ac
count in the construction of the element matrices by 3rd order theory.

2.4.3.

Cable Elements

Cable elements are handled similarly to trusses. Cables can not sustain any
compressive forces. 2nd and 3rd order theories are applicable as for trusses.
A correct computation is generally possible through several iterations only.
In order to analyse a cable structure, which is usually stable only under load
ing, by 1st order theory too, it is assumed that the elements are subjected to
a small prestress.

2.5.

Solution of the Complete System.

A global stiffness matrix is obtained by adding all the individual element stiff
nesses; after incorporating the geometric boundary conditions, the displace
ments and thus the section forces get computed. If nonlinear springs or a re
positioning of the axial force are present, the input of a number of iterations
within the defined limits will force the whole process to be repeated by updat
ing the secant stiffnesses until a solution is obtained.

2.6.

Limitations

The number of loadcases is limited to 999.


The number of nodes, beams, sections or loads is only limited by the amount
of the available disk space. 5 digits are usually reserved for the output of their
numbers, thus values above 99999 should not be used.
STAR2 works with double precision. Despite that the following points should
be considered:
1. The stiffness EI/l3 of neighbouring beam elements may not differ
by a factor larger than 105.
2. Beam theory is valid only for structural members, the length of
which is at least twice their height. The length of each individual el
ement should not be smaller than the height of the cross section used.
3. Artificially rigid elements can and must be defined as couplings.
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Statics of Beam Structures

If these criteria are not met, reaction forces will arise on free nodes.
STAR2 sets a constant stiffness for each segment. The buckling length coeffi
cient after Petersen /6/ p.489 reaches a maximum of 1.22 for a conical beam
under its own weight compared to 1.12 for a prismatic beam (8% error). If the
dimensions are changed by just 10% (IValue by 27.1%), reaches 1.14, corre
sponding to an error of about 2%.

2.7.

Special Topics.

2.7.1.

Predeformations

Initial deformations (unintentional eccentricities) are deviations of the


actual beam axis from the ideal beam axis. These are independent of self
arising deformations. They have no effect on an analysis by 1st order theory.
The following variations are possible:
Linear inclination (e.g. DIN 1045 Sec. 15.8.2)
Input in the form of a point load at the column head.
Arbitrary piecewise linear variation.
Input in the form of distributed load.
Arbitrary shape related to the buckling mode (e.g. DIN 1045 17.4).
Defined either by several positions along the column, connected by a
cubic spline, or by the bending line from an already analysed loadcase.

2.7.2.

Creep and Shrinkage

DIN 1045 requires an estimation of the effects of creep and shrinkage accord
ing to Section 17.4, when the slenderness of the compressed member is
greater than 70 for immovable or 45 for movable structures and at the same
time the eccentricity e/d is smaller than 2.
Creep deformations are computed for the permanent loads acting in the ser
vice state as well as for any prescribed permanent beam deflections and ec
centricities including the unintentional ones.
An approximate method using an increased unintentional eccentricity is de
scribed in note 220 of DAfSt.
STAR2, however, can perform a more accurate check. A loadcase is built for
this purpose from the loads that cause creep. The resulting deformations,

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multiplied by a creep factor, can be used either as initial deformations or as


curvature loads during a subsequent run. The same method allows the con
sideration of construction phases.

2.7.3.

Prestress

A fixed prestress can be specified in GENF for springs and trusses. This acts
by every loadcase and generates corresponding stresses. A prestress for each
individual loadcase can be defined in STAR2 as well.
A statically determinate component of the prestress (NV0,MV0) for each
loadcase can be defined separately for bending beams. Then, depending on
the number of parameters, any variation of these values from constant to
cubic can be assumed along the beam axis. The effect of prestress is twofold.
On one hand, the section forces are modified by the corresponding prestress
values, and on the other hand, deformations result from prestress, which in
turn lead to compulsory forces in cases of statically indeterminate structures.
Prestress is considered differently for cables and for beam elements. A cable
or a truss can be only prestressed through the external system. Therefore, the
prestress is then analysed like a temperature stressing caused by a strain im
posed on the element. Forces are generated within the elements of an unde
formable structure, whereas in deformable structures the prestress deterio
rates due to selfarising deformations. If one wants to receive a defined
prestress, one must employ therefore an element with very small strain stif
fness.
For beams, by contrast, prestress is defined as an independent state of stress
(prestressed concrete). Since the prestress is imposed on the element itself,
the resulting forces on freely deformable beams are the input section forces
themselves. If the deformation is hindered, compulsory forces arise. In the li
miting case, e.g. if a beam is prevented from deforming in the longitudinal
direction, the resulting axial force is null, because the forces imposed by the
prestressing steel are resisted by the support instead of the beam.

2.7.4.

Shear Deformations

The shear deformation can be also taken into account by the beam elements.
The program AQUA defines the standard shear areas for some cross sections.
The internal force variation in statically indeterminate structures may differ
from the one obtained by pure bending theory, if shear deformation is taken
into consideration.
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2.7.5.

Design

Since the design or stiffness computation by AQB must be activated for an


iteration with nonlinear material behaviour after any static analysis, the
most important records of AQB are also available in STAR2. These are:
CTRL
REIN
ULTI
NSTR

General parameter
Special parameter for ULTI and NSTR
Reinforcement computation
Strain state

The complete theory for these records can be found in the AQB manual. Only
the descriptions of the input records are given in this manual.
If not all of the beams are to be dimensioned in the same way, this can be
avoided by an external iteration via the record processor PS.

2.8.

Literature.

/1/

Th.Fink, J.St. Kreutz


Berechnungsverfahren nach Fliezonentheorie II. Ordnung fr
rumliche Rahmensysteme aus metallischen Werkstoffen.
Der Bauingenieur 57 (1982), S. 297302

/2/

R. Uhrig
Zur Berechnung der Schnittkrfte in Stabtragwerken nach
Theorie II. Ordnung, insbesondere der Verzweigungslasten unter
Bercksichtigung der Schubdeformation.
Der Stahlbau (2/1981), S. 3942

/3/

V.Gensichen
Zum Ansatz ungnstiger Vorverformungen bei der Berechnung
ebener Stabwerke nach der Elastizittstheorie II. Ordnung
Der Bauingenieur 56 (1981), S. 17

/4/

E.Grasser, K.Kordina, U.Quast


Bemessung von Beton und Stahlbetonbauteilen
Deutscher Ausschu fr Stahlbeton, Heft 220
Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Berlin 1977

/5/

D.Hosser
Tragfhigkeit und Zuverlssigkeit von Stahlbetondruckgliedern
Mitteilungen aus dem Institut fr Massivbau der TH Darmstadt
Heft 28, Wilhelm Ernst&Sohn 1978

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/6/

Chr. Petersen
Statik und Stabilitt der Baukonstruktionen
Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1980

/7/

H.Werner, J.Stieda, C.Katz, K.Axhausen


TOP Benutzer und DVHandbuch.
CADBericht KfkCAD67, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe,
1978

/8/

H.Werner
Rechnerorientierte Nachweise an schlanken Massivbauwerken
Beton und Stahlbetonbau 73 (1978),S. 263268

/9/

S. Palkowski
Einige Probleme der statischen Nachweise von
Seilnetzkonstruktionen
Der Bauingenieur 59 (1984), S. 381388

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3

Input Description.

3.1.

Input Language

STAR2

The input is made in the CADINP language (see general manual SOFiSTiK:
FEA / STRUCTURAL Installation and Basics).

3.2.

Input Records

The input is organised in blocks terminated by the record ENDE. A particular


structure or particular loadcases can be analysed within each block. The pro
gram stops, when an empty block is found:
END
END
Only one loadcase per block must be analysed in case of nonlinear analysis.
The program recognises three operation modes controlled by the extent of the
input.
a. Load generation
During a load generation run the loads are solely read, checked and stored.
The loads generated in such a run can be used as a whole during a subsequent
run or block. A generation run results from an input block with loads but
without any record CTRL.
b. Analysis run
An analysis run is the usual option by input of a record CTRL and loads.
c. Restart
A Restart run can be used to analyse again loadcases defined in the last block
or run with stiffnesses modified after design. A Restart run results from an
input block without any loads.
The following records are defined:
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Record

Items

ECHO
CTRL
GRP
STEX

OPT
OPT
NO
NAME

VAL
VAL
VAL

STIF

SECT

SC

PRES

FACS

FACG

CS

INFL
LC
NL
SL
GSL

NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
STEP
NO
NO
NO
DZE
NO
DZE
NO
NO
NO
TTO
NO
CSMA

TITL
FACT
TYPE
TYPE
TYPE

DLX
P1
P
P

DLY
P2
A
A

DLZ
P3
DY
DY

TITL
PF
DZ
DZ

REF
REF

KTYP
KTYP

NOE

TYPE
TYPE
TYPE
REF
TYPE
REF
TYPE
TYPE
FACT
TINC
PHI
KTYP

P
P
PA

A
A
PE

L
L
A

REF
REF
L

NOE
DYA

STEP
DZA

DYE

PA
NOE
P
P
FROM
CFRO
EPS

PE
STEP

DYA

DZA

DYE

TO
CTO
FACV

INC
CINC
FROM

NFRO

NTO

NINC

TFRO

TO

INC

STIF

CSMI

AM1
MOD
MOD
S1
T03
KMOD
CW

AM2
BMOD
BMOD
S2
TVS
KSV
BB

AM3
LCR
STAT
Z1
KTAU
KSB
HMAX

ED
P7
SC1
Z2
TTOL
KMIN
CW

AMAX
P8
SC2
KSV

EGRE
P9
SS1
KSB

NGRE
P10
SS2
SMOD

ZGRP
P11
C1
T01

TANA
P12
C2
T02

KMAX

ALPH

FMAX

SIGS

CRAC

UL
GUL
VL
GVL
CL
TL
LCC
LV
*REIN
*ULTI

*NSTR

SELE

The records marked by * control the design and the stiffness computation.
They are also included in AQB.
The record STEX can be used only for substructuring techniques in combina
tion with HASE.

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The records HEAD, END and PAGE are described in the general manual SO
FiSTiK: FEA / STRUCTURAL Installation and Basics.
The description of the single records follows.

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3.3.

ECHO Control of the Output


Extent

Item

Description

OPT

A literal from the following list:


NODE Node coordinates, constraints
BEAM Beams (structure)
SPRI Spring elements (structures)
BOUN Distributed supported ele
ments (structure)
SECT Cross section values (as in
AQUA)
MAT
Material constants (as in
AQUA)
LOAD Loads

VAL

FORC
DEFO
BDEF
REAC

Internal forces and moments


Beam deformations
Nodal displacements
Support reactions

REIN
NSTR

Reinforcements
Strains and stiffnesses

STEP
FULL

Output of all iterations


Set all options

Value of output option


NO
no output
YES
regular output
FULL extensive output
EXTR extreme output

ECHO

Dimension

Default

LIT

FULL

LIT

FULL

The default for options NODE, BEAM, SPRI, BOUN, MAT and SECT as well
as BDEF is NO, for FORC FULL, and for all others YES.
For the effects of all options refer to Chapter 4 (Output description).

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The option STEP controls the output during nonlinear analyses and its de
fault value is 99. The last iteration is always printed. A negative value for this
option suppresses the output of the initial linear analysis.

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3.4.

CTRL Parameters Controlling


the Analysis Method

Item

Description

OPT

Control option

VAL

Option value

CTRL

Dimension

Default

LIT

/LIT

CTRL prescribes control parameters of the analysis. The input of a CTRL re


cord with the theory to be used is mandatory. The following particular options
are available:
LIT

Description

Value

De
fault

I
IB
II
IIB
III
IIIB

1st order theory (strain controlled)


1st order theory (stress controlled)
2nd order theory (strain controlled)
2nd order theory (stress controlled)
3rd order theory (strain controlled)
3rd order theory (stress controlled)

nIter
nIter
nIter
nIter
nIter
nIter

1
1
1
1
1
1

GEN
GENM

Tolerance for forces and displacements


Tolerance for moments and rotations

in 0/0
in 0/0

1.0
1.0

AFIX

Handling of freely movable degrees of freedom


0 Degrees of freedom which can move
freely result into an error
1 Degrees of freedom which are almost
movable are considered movable
2 Degrees of freedom which are movable
get subsequently fixed after a warning
3 Almost movable degrees of freedom get
subsequently fixed in a similar manner

STYP

Handling of cable elements


CABL Cables have tension only
TRUS Cables can sustain compression

36

LIT

CABL

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Statics of Beam Structures


GDIV

Group divisor

Temporary different value for group subdivision

STAR2
*

When no CTRL record is input, only the loads are stored, or a restart of the
previous analysis takes place in case there arent any loads.
An analysis by 2nd or 3rd order theory requires an initial analysis by 1st order
theory in order to compute the axial loads. Therefore, except for a restart
upon a structure already analysed by 1st order theory, such an analysis must
precede any higher order analysis.
3rd order theory is only considered for truss and cable elements; the difference
between II and IIB as well as between III and IIIB is similarly of importance
only for spring, truss and cable elements.
The input of CTRL I or Ib and ITER greater than 1 results in an analysis with
nonlinear springs by 1st order theory.
The entry for AFIX controls the programs behaviour, when linearly depend
ent degrees of freedom are encountered. Such examples are the continuous
beam, which does not possess any constraints for torsional or axial force, and
any section forces eliminated by hinges or couplings. Degrees of freedom
which do not possess any stiffness, e.g. rotations of a pure truss, are always
suppressed and therefore, they can not be affected by AFIX.
The input parameter STYP is currently used for cable structures in order to
prevent the occurrence of structural instability during iteration. If TRUS is
input, the results must be manually checked at the end of the analysis, to
make sure that all cables carry only tensional forces. A Restart with STYP
CABL must follow otherwise.
In addition, the following options from AQB are available for the design/
strain computation:
AXIA

Type of bending
1 = uniaxial bending (VY=MZ=0)
(default for plane structures)
2 = biaxial bending,
boundary stresses in system of principal axes
(default for threedimensional structures)

VRED

Maximum allowed inclination for the conversion of shear forces


at haunches. (Default: 0.3333, 0. = no conversion)

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SMOO

Rounding of moments
0 = no rounding
1 = primary bending only (default)
2 = primary and secondary bending
+128 = no use of reference system
+256 = no shear force conversion by inclined centrobaric axis
+512 = no moment conversion by inclined centrobaric axis
Rounding of the moments takes place only when a support
boundary has been defined in GENF. The shear force at the
support is zero.

INTE

Axial stress / shear stress interaction


0 = no consideration
1 = linear reduction
2 = theoretical solution according to Prandtl (default)
3 = shear stresses of prime importance
+4 = additional nonlinear axial strain

VIIA

Application of prestress in State II


(for very experienced users only, see AQB manual)

VM

Factor with which the axial forces due to shear force from Eqn.
(18) of the AQB manual must be taken up by longitudinal rein
forcement (shift)
0.0 = no consideration (default thus far)
> 0 = factor for value from truss analogy (EC2)
< 0 = factor for cross section height as shift (DIN)

ETOL

Tolerance for the computation of the internal section forces


(0.0001)

IMAX
AMAX
AGEN

Maximum number of AQB iterations (30)


Maximum LineSearch factor (1000)
Relative LineSearch tolerance (0.01)
(no input necessary in general)

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3.5.

GRP Selection of an Element


Group

Item

Description

NO

Group number

VAL

Selection
OFF
do not use
YES
use
FULL use and print results

STIF

Stiffness parameters
1
consider rotation of principal
axes
0
do not consider rotation
LIN1 1 + not designed group
LIN0 0 + not designed group

SECT

SC

STAR2

GRP

Dimension

Default

LIT

FULL

Cross section values


BRUT effective gross cross section
TOTA total cross section
DESI design cross section (1/m
multiple)

LIT

Shear centre
NONE do not consider
YES
consider by loads only
FULL consider fully

LIT

FULL

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

PRES

Prestress loading
FULL consider all effects
NOTO no torsional components
REST restraint components only
UNRE unrestraint components only
URNT UNRE + NOTO

LIT

FULL

FACS

Factor of linear stiffnesses

1.0

FACG

Dead weight factor

1.0

CS

Construction stage number

The group number of an element is obtained by dividing its element number


by the group divisor (GENF SYST record, e.g.: 1000). The default is the group
selection of the previous analysis run or input block. In the absence of input
all the elements are used. In the case of explicit input only the specified
groups get activated.
Each particular group can contain different directions regarding the special
effects. This is especially meant for controlling inaccuracies in the input or
the modelling in special cases. The user himself must decide whether this is
permissible.
For the cross section values the user has a choice between the total cross sec
tion and the cooperating cross section (default). The area in both cases is sub
stituted by the value of the total cross section.
Some codes (e.g. DIN 18800) require by the analysis with 2nd order theory the
reduction of the stiffnesses by the material safety factor. For all load cases
with a load factor greater than 1.0 the default is DESI, for all other it is BRUT.
For nonlinear analysis with NSTR this input has only minor effects.
In the analysis with rotation of the principal axes the rotation angle must be
constant along the beam. Multiple beams should eventually be defined each
time with prismatic cross section.
The factors FACS and FACG act upon the stiffnesses and the dead weight of
the elements of this group. FACG acts only as additional factor to the values
DLX through DLZ of the LC record.

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Attention:
Only one group selection can be used inside a block for several loadcases.
When no group selection is found, the old one remains in effect along with all
its parameters!

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3.6.

STEX External Stiffness

Item

Description

NAME

Name of the external stiffness

STAR2

STEX

Dimension

Default

LIT24

A complete external stiffness can be added by STEX. External stiffnesses are


generated for the time being only by the program HASE for the halfspace
(stiffness coefficient method) and for substructures.
The project name is the default value for NAME. The mere input of STEX
(without name) usually suffices.

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3.7.

INFL Definition of an
Influence Line Loadcase

Item

Description

NO

Loadcase number (1999)

TITL

Title of influence line loadcase

INFL

Dimension

Default

LIT24

An influence line loadcase is defined by the input of INFL. Any INFLrecord


must be followed by at least one load card describing the type of the influence
line. A separate loadcase INFL must be defined for each point of interest and
each section force. Only the displacements (=influence line) of the structure
are computed and output for an INFLloadcase. Computation by 2nd order
theory is not possible.
Influence line

Required loading

e.g.

Moment
Axial or shear force
Support reaction
Displacement

Unit rotation
Unit displacement
Nodal displacement
Unit load

SL
SL
NL
SL

D.
W.
W.
P.

Example for the influence line of the moment MY at beam 1001 at position
2 by loadcase number 91:
INFL 91
SL 1001 D1 1.0 A 2.0

This concept can be used to compute very particular influence lines too. If e.g.
the influence line for the upper marginal stress of a cross section = N/A
M/W is sought, it can be found by the following input (area A is #10, section
modulus W is #11):
INFL 92
SL 1001 WS 1.0/#10 2.0
SL 1001 D1 1.0/#11 2.0

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3.8.

LC Definition of a Loadcase

Item

Description

NO

STAR2

LC

Dimension

Default

Loadcase number (1999)

FACT

Factor for all loads of type P (forces) and


M (moments) of the loadcase

DLX
DLY
DLZ

Factor dead weight load in xdirection


Factor dead weight load in ydirection
Factor dead weight load in zdirection

0
0
0

TITL

Title of loadcase

LIT24

The input of LC results in the analysis or the definition of the corresponding


loadcase. If the LCinput contains only a global factor and if the LCrecord
is not followed by any loads, the old loads including the possibly defined dead
weight are imported with this factor. If some loads do follow the LCrecord
or if a factor of the dead weight is entered, all other loads that were stored by
the same loadcase number are first deleted.
In case of restart of a nonlinear calculation with NSTR no record LC must
be indicated since otherwise the nonlinear strains are extinguished.
STAR2 analyses all loadcases for which LC or INFLinput was generated
in some block. For nonlinear calculations it is sensible to analyse each time
one loadcase per block only.
FACT affects the loads only temporarily, these are copied into another load
case, so the factor of the new loadcase is valid. It does not perform in addition
either onto the loads DLX, DLY or DLZ if these are entered in the same LC
input. Different factors for dead weight and other loads should be defined
therefore with a FACT 1.0 and corresponding DLfactors as well as further
records of the typ LCC with a factor. If FACT is > 1.0, the design values of the
stiffness will be used (see record GRP).
The factor FACG of the record GRP acts as additional multiplier.
If dead loads should be taken over by the program SOFiLOAD, then only the
load case number NO has to be input for LC. No dead loads are used from the
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program SOFiLOAD, if factors for the dead load are defined for DLX, DLY
and DLZ.

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3.9.

STAR2

Definiton of Beam Loads on Beam Groups.

The loads of beam elements can be defined either in reference to an individual


element or to beam groups. The records GSL, GUL and GVL are identical
with SL, UL and VL as far as their parameters and meaning. The loading,
however, acts not only upon a single beam but on a series of beams beginning
with the given beam number and including all following beams with the same
group number. The dimensions of the load refer to the entire series of beams.
e.g.

NO = 100 generates loads on beams 100,101,...


NO = 156 generates loads on beams 156,157,...
NO = 2350 generates loads on 2350,2351,........

Attention:
The end number is not given any more, as it used to, by the end figure 99, but
through either the specified group divisor (from the database or the value de
fined with CTRL GDIV) or an explicit input of the end number NOE. The load
is limited in either cases, so long as a load length has been defined.
Independently of their actual geometric layout, the beams are interrelated in
the order stored in the database and the numbering increment defined
through STEP. Any entry for REF is taken though into consideration. A warn
ing is issued if the node numbers of two adjacent beams do not match.

Group loads
Explanations about reference system REF:
If a negative A is input, its value will be measured from the end of the beam.
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The eccentricities are defined in the local beam system of the gravity centre
of the beam. Torsional or bending moments are thus generated from loads of
type P.
REF can define the system in which the dimensions of the load (values A and
L) will be input:
S
XX
YY
ZZ

=
=
=
=

SS

= dimensionless, normalized by the beam length


(0.5 = midbeam)
= projection of the beam axis on the global XYplane
= projection of the beam axis on the global XZplane
= projection of the beam axis on the global YZplane

XY
XZ
YZ

in m along the beam axis


projection of the beam axis on the global Xdirection
projection of the beam axis on the global Ydirection
projection of the beam axis on the global Zdirection

Reference system REF

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3.10.

STAR2

NL Nodal Load

Item

Description

NO

Node number

TYPE

Type and direction of the load

P1
P2
P3
PF

Load values or directional components

NL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m
kN, m
kN, m

0
0
0
1

Factor for P1 through P3

One can input for TYPE:


P
PX
PY
PZ

=
=
=
=

Load (P1,P2,P3) in (X,Y,Z)direction


Load P1 in Xdirection
Load P1 in Ydirection
Load P1 in Zdirection

M
MX
MY
MZ

=
=
=
=

Moment (P1,P2,P3) in (x,y,z)direction


Moment P1 about Xdirection
Moment P1 about Ydirection
Moment P1 about Zdirection

WX
WY
WZ

= Support translation in Xdirection in m


= Support translation in Ydirection in m
= Support translation in Zdirection in m

DX
DY
DZ

= Support rotation about Xdirection in rad


= Support rotation about Ydirection in rad
= Support rotation about Zdirection in rad

Attention!
The specification of a support translation for a coupled degree of freedom
deactivates the coupling. A reinstatement of the coupling condition can not
take place.

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3.11.

SL Point Load on a Beam

Item

Description

NO

Beam number

TYPE

Type and direction of the load

P
A

Load value
Distance of load from beginning of beam

DY
DZ

SL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m
m,

!
0

Eccentricity of load application point

m
m

0
0

REF

Reference system for A

KTYP

Vertex type
POL
discontinuous slope
SPL
continuous slope

LIT

SPL

One can input for TYPE:


PS
P1
P2

= Load in local xdirection (axial force)


= Load in local ydirection (secondary bending)
= Load in local zdirection (primary bending)

MS
M1
M2

= Moment about local xdirection (torsion)


= Moment about local ydirection (primary bending)
= Moment about local zdirection (secondary bending)

WS
W1
W2

= Displacement jump in local xdirection in m


= Displacement jump in local ydirection in m
= Displacement jump in local zdirection in m

DS
D1
D2

= Rotation jump about local xdirection in rad


= Rotation jump about local ydirection in rad
= Rotation jump about local zdirection in rad

PX
PY

= Load in global Xdirection


= Load in global Ydirection

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PZ

= Load in global Zdirection

MX
MY
MZ

= Moment about global Xdirection


= Moment about global Ydirection
= Moment about global Zdirection

STAR2

Special load directions:


PXS, PYS, PZS
PX1, PY1, PZ1
PX2, PY2, PZ2

Loads similar to PX, PY, PZ


only the corresponding components in the beam
directions S, 1 or 2 are set however

Vertices of a prestress or initial deformation variation


See record GSL Point Load on a Beam Group
See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

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3.12.

GSL Point Load on a Beam


Group

Item

Description

NO

Number of first beam

TYPE

Type and direction of load

P
A

Load value
Distance of load from beginning of beam

DY
DZ

GSL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m
m,

!
0

Eccentricity of load application point

m
m

0
0

REF

Reference system for A

KTYP

Vertex type
POL
discontinuous slope
SPL
continuous slope

LIT

SPL

NOE
STEP

Number of the last beam


Increment of the beam numbers

*
1

One can input for TYPE:


PS
P1
P2

= Load in local xdirection (axial force)


= Load in local ydirection (secondary bending)
= Load in local zdirection (primary bending)

MS
M1
M2

= Moment about local xdirection (torsion)


= Moment about local ydirection (primary bending)
= Moment about local zdirection (secondary bending)

WS
W1
W2

= Displacement jump in local xdirection in m


= Displacement jump in local ydirection in m
= Displacement jump in local zdirection in m

DS
D1
D2

= Rotation jump about local xdirection in rad


= Rotation jump about local ydirection in rad
= Rotation jump about local zdirection in rad

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PX
PY
PZ

= Load in global Xdirection


= Load in global Ydirection
= Load in global Zdirection

MX
MY
MZ

= Moment about global Xdirection


= Moment about global Ydirection
= Moment about global Zdirection

STAR2

Special load directions:


PXS, PYS, PZS
PX1, PY1, PZ1
PX2, PY2, PZ2

Loads similar to PX, PY, PZ


only the corresponding components in the beam
directions S, 1 or 2 are set however

Vertices of a prestress or initial deformation variation


By TYPE one can input as well:
U1
U2
U1S
U2S

VS
V1
V2

= Initial deformation vertex in m (secondary bending)


= Initial deformation vertex in m (primary bending)
= Initial deformation (secondary bending) as a fraction of
the beam length
= Initial deformation (primary bending) as a fraction of
the beam length
= Prestress vertex NV0
= Prestress vertex MV0 (primary bending)
= Prestress vertex MV0 (secondary bending)

This defines the vertices of a constant, linear, quadratic or cubic variation, de


pending on the number of these vertices.
For each xvalue only one value per direction should be entered. Jumps in the
variation of the function can be defined by means of two values at a distance
of 0.0001 m. Specifying values for DY or DZ (including 0.) along with VS gen
erates prestress moments V2 or V1 (including 0 !). The default values are not
valid for these parameters.
Only the loads in the defined xregion are applied in case of GSLvariations,
thus at least two entries are necessary. In case of SL on the other hand, the
values for the beginning and/or the end of the beam are automatically sup
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plemented. Therefore, any missing values of initial deformations at the beam


ends are assumed to be 0. This means, that a single entry at the beginning
or the end of the beam defines a linear lateral deformation, whereas a single
value at the middle of the beam defines a quadratic parabola. In case of pres
tress, the neighbouring values are applied each time at the beginning or the
end of a beam.
Vertices with discontinuous slope can be marked separately by means of
KTYP. If all vertices are of TYPE POL, the result is a broken polygon line.
The definition of several independent sections in the same series of beams can
be described by GSL and distinct numbers, describing though the same beam
series. A definition in separate loadcases and the use of the LCCrecord may
be of further help in general cases.
The entry for STEP is not further processed by the applied loads.
See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

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3.13.

UL Uniform Load on a Beam

Item

Description

NO

Beam number

TYPE

Type and direction of the load

P
A

Load value
Distance of load from beginning of beam
negative: distance measured from end
of beam
Length of the load
(default: to the end of the beam)

REF

Reference system for A, L

STAR2

UL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m
m,

!
0

m,

m,

If the literal CONT is defined for TYPE by UL or GUL, the defaults from the
previous load record are activated.
P (new) = P
A (new) = A+L

(old)
(old)

For further explanations refer to the records VL and GVL.


See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

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3.14.

GUL Uniform Load on a Beam


Group

Item

Description

NO

Beam number

TYPE

Type and direction of the load

P
A

Load value
Distance of load from beginning of beam
negative: distance measured from end
of beam group
Length of the load
(default: to the end of the beam group)

REF

Reference system for A, L

NOE
STEP

Number of the last beam


Increment of the beam numbers

GUL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m
m,

!
0

m,

m,

*
1

If the literal CONT is defined for TYPE by UL or GUL , the defaults from the
previous load record are activated.
P (new) = P
A (new) = A+L

(old)
(old)

For further explanations refer to the records VL and GVL.


See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

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3.15.

VL Linearly Varying on a
Beam

Item

Description

NO

Beam number

TYPE

Type and direction of the load

PA
PE
A

Start load value


End load value
Distance of load from beginning of beam
negative: distance measured from end
of beam
Length of the load
(default: to the end of the beam)

DYA
DZA
DYE
DZE

Eccentricity of the load application at


load start
Eccentricity of the load application at
load end

REF

Reference system for A und L

STAR2

VL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m
kN, m

!
PA
0

m,

m
m
m
m

0
0
DYA
DZA

m,

Remarks for distributed loads


One can input for TYPE:
PS
P1
P2

= Load in local xdirection (axial force)


= Load in local ydirection (secondary bending)
= Load in local zdirection (primary bending)

MS
M1
M2

= Moment about local xdirection (torsion)


= Moment about local ydirection (primary bending)
= Moment about local zdirection (secondary bending)

ES
K1
K2

= Strain in the axial direction


= Curvature about the local ydirection in 1/m
= Curvature about the local zdirection in 1/m

TS

= Uniform temperature increase in _C

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T1
T2

= Temperature difference in local ydirection in _C


= Temperature difference in local zdirection in _C

PX
PY
PZ

= Load in global Xdirection


= Load in global Ydirection
= Load in global Zdirection

MX
MY
MZ

= Moment about global Xdirection


= Moment about global Ydirection
= Moment about global Zdirection

PXP
PYP
PZP

= Load in global Xdirection


= Load in global Ydirection
= Load in global Zdirection

PXS, PYS, PZS


PX1, PY1, PZ1
PX2, PY2, PZ2
U1
U2
U1S
U2S

= Component loads

= Initial deformation (secondary bending) in m


= Initial deformation (primary bending) in m
= Initial deformation (secondary bending) as a fraction
of the beam length
= Initial deformation (primary bending) as a fraction
of the beam length

In case of PXP,PYP and PZP the load values refer to the projected length (e.g.
snow), whereas in case of PX,PY and PZ they refer to the beam axis (e.g. dead
weight).
In case of component loads, the loads act similarly to PX, PY, or PZ. However,
only the components in the corresponding beam directions S, 1 or 2 are ap
plied.
Positive curvature loads cause deformations similar to those from positive
moments.
Positive values of T1, T2 mean that the temperature increases in the direc
tion of the positive 1 or 2 axis. T1, T2 loads can be only set upon beams with
geometrically defined cross sections (AQUA).

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The eccentricities are defined in the local beam system with respect to the
gravity centre of the beam. Torsional or bending moments are thus generated
from loads of type P.
If by VL or GVL the literal CONT is defined for TYPE, the defaults from the
previous load record are activated.
PA (new) = PE
A (new) = A+L

(old)
(old)

Roof loads etc. can be defined easier this way, e.g:


VL

101
=
=

PZ
CONT
CONT

PE
PE
PE

100
120
0

L
L

2
5

This input describes a load, which in the first 2 m from the beginning of the
beam climbs from 0 to 100, increases to 120 within another 5 m, and from that
point on it decreases linearly to zero at the end of the beam.
See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

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3.16.

GVL Linearly Varying Load on


a Beam

Item

Description

NO

Beam number

TYPE

Type and direction of the load

PA
PE
A

Start load value


End load value
Distance of load from beginning of beam
negative: distance measured from end
of beam group
Length of the load
(default: to the end of the beam group)

DYA
DZA
DYE
DZE

Eccentricity of the load application at


load start
Eccentricity of the load application at
load end

REF
NOE
STEP

Reference system for A und L


Number of the last beam
Increment of the beam numbers

GVL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m
kN, m

!
PA
0

m,

m
m
m
m

0
0
DYA
DZA

m,

S
*
1

Remarks for distributed loads


One can input for TYPE:
PS
P1
P2

= Load in local xdirection (axial force)


= Load in local ydirection (secondary bending)
= Load in local zdirection (primary bending)

MS
M1
M2

= Moment about local xdirection (torsion)


= Moment about local ydirection (primary bending)
= Moment about local zdirection (secondary bending)

ES
K1
K2

= Strain in the axial direction


= Curvature about the local ydirection in 1/m
= Curvature about the local zdirection in 1/m

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TS
T1
T2

= Uniform temperature increase in _C


= Temperature difference in local ydirection in _C
= Temperature difference in local zdirection in _C

PX
PY
PZ

= Load in global Xdirection


= Load in global Ydirection
= Load in global Zdirection

MX
MY
MZ

= Moment about global Xdirection


= Moment about global Ydirection
= Moment about global Zdirection

PXP
PYP
PZP

= Load in global Xdirection


= Load in global Ydirection
= Load in global Zdirection

PXS, PYS, PZS


PX1, PY1, PZ1
PX2, PY2, PZ2
U1
U2
U1S
U2S

STAR2

= Component loads

= Initial deformation (secondary bending) in m


= Initial deformation (primary bending) in m
= Initial deformation (secondary bending) as a fraction
of the beam length
= Initial deformation (primary bending) as a fraction
of the beam length

In case of PXP,PYP and PZP the load values refer to the projected length (e.g.
snow), whereas in case of PX,PY and PZ they refer to the beam axis (e.g. dead
weight).
In case of component loads, the loads act similarly to PX, PY, or PZ. However,
only the components in the corresponding beam directions S, 1 or 2 are ap
plied.
Positive curvature loads cause deformations similar to those from positive
moments.
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Positive values of T1, T2 mean that the temperature increases in the direc
tion of the positive 1 or 2 axis. T1, T2 loads can be only set upon beams with
geometrically defined crosssections (AQUA).
The eccentricities are defined in the local beam system with respect to the
gravity centre of the beam. Torsional or bending moments are thus generated
from loads of type P.
If by VL or GVL the literal CONT is defined for TYPE, the defaults from the
previous load record are activated.
PA (new) = PE (old)
A (new) = A+L (old)
Roof loads etc. can be defined easier this way, e.g:
VL

101
=
=

PZ
CONT
CONT

PE
PE
PE

100
120
0

L
L

2
5

This input describes a load, which in the first 2 m from the beginning of the
beam climbs from 0 to 100, increases to 120 within another 5 m, and from that
point on it decreases linearly to zero at the end of the beam.
See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

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3.17.

CL Loading of Cables

Item

Description

NO

Cable number

TYPE

Type and direction of load

Load value

STAR2

CL

Dimension

Default

LIT

The following values are possible for TYPE:


PX
PY
PZ
PXP
PYP
PZP
ES
VS
TS

Loading in global direction,


referring to the beam/cable length
Loading in global direction,
referring to the projected length
Strain in axial direction
Prestress
Temperature

(kN/m)
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
()
(kN)
(_C)

The loads are converted by the program to corresponding nodal loads. The
cable sag can be calculated by the expression:
fo +

p @ l 2
8H o

where: p = load in the direction of the sag


H = component of cable force normal to the direction
of the loading

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3.18.

TL Loading of Trusses

Item

Description

NO

Truss number

TYPE

Type and direction of the load

Load value

TL

Dimension

Default

LIT

The following values are possible for TYPE:


PX
PY
PZ
PXP
PYP
PZP
ES
VS
TS

334

Loading in global direction


referring to the beam/truss
length
Loading in global direction,
referring to the projected length
Strain in axial direction
Prestress
Temperature

(kN/m)
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
()
(kN)
(_C)

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3.19.

LCC Importing Loads from


another Loadcase

Item

Description

NO
FACT

STAR2

LCC

Dimension

Default

Number of a loadcase
Factor for load values

FROM
TO
INC

Range data for beam numbers

FROM
1

NFRO
NTO
NINC

Range data for node numbers

NFRO
1

TFRO
TTO
TINC

Range data for trussbar numbers

TFRO
1

CFRO
CTO
CINC

Range data for cable numbers

CFRO
1

By entering LCC, all previously generated loads of the given loadcase, pro
vided they fall within the specified range, get multiplied by the factor and
added to the current loadcase. This does not hold for dead weight loads (record
LC).
The input of NO and FACT suffices when loads are to imported for all el
ements or nodes.
Creep loadcases from AQB have also still residual stresses, these can not be
incorporated with LCC.

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3.20.

LV Generating Loads from


Results of a Loadcase

Item

Description

NO

LV

Dimension

Default

Number of an analysed loadcase

PHI
EPS

Creep factor
Shrinkage coefficient

0
0

FACV

Factor for deformations

FROM
TO
INC

Range data for beam numbers

FROM
1

STIF

Loadcase number stiffnesses

NO

CSMI
CSMA

Lowest construction stage number


Highest construction stage number

CSMI

KTYP

Loading type of prestress loads similar to


SL/GSL
SPL
cubic variation
POL
polygonal variation
SPL1 cubic without secondary ben
ding components
POL1 polygonal without secondary
bending components genera
ted

LIT

SPL

Results of earlier analyses can be processed by LV as loads during a new


analysis step. These can be used for the analysis of creep effects and support
changes due to construction phases, as well as for the generation of initial de
formations. Only results of beams and trusses inside the specified range can
be imported. Appropriate separate input of more than one records can be used
e.g. to assign a different creep factor to each beam. If nothing is input for
FROM, all the beams that are defined in the analysed loadcase get loaded.
LV generates three completely different types of loading.

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1. The input to FACV generates an affine initial deformation out of the


stored elastic line. Buckling modes can e.g. be modelled this way as
undesired eccentricities when addressing the difference of the dis
placement according to 2nd and 1st order theory.
The increase of the undesired eccentricity due to creep can be taken
into consideration as well. There are extremely different opinions for
the value of FACV. Since Version 2.095 the initial deformations are
taken into account by the displacements. Most different opinions exist
for this matter too. If necessary, one can subtract the old initial de
formations with LCC and factor 1.
2. The values of PHI and EPS generate corresponding strains or curva
ture loads.
ES = EPS + PHI N/EF
K1 =
PHI MY/EIY
K2 =
PHI MZ/EIZ
The most important special cases are:
1.1. Creep deformations of a loadcase (statically determinate)
PHI =
1.2. Constraints from a construction phase (primary state)
PHI = 1.0
1.3. Creep of a constraint from construction phase
PHI +

f
* 1.0
1 ) f

The stiffnesses can be used by another loadcase too, so long as all in


volved beams exist as well. For applications and further explanations
refer to Chapter 5.5.
3. The input of CSMI/CSMA results in the calculation of the prestress
loads from the prestressing cables stored in the database. Such loads
will usually have already been generated by GEOS. However, these
loads can be also computed by STAR2 for cases of structural system
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changes or prestress cables defined with AQBS.


By CSMI 1 the reinforcement defined in AQUA will be brought in with
prestress for the loading.

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See also:

3.21.

DESI

REIN Specification for


Determining Reinforcement

Item

Description

AM1
AM2
AM3

ED

REIN

Dimension

Default

Minimum reinforcement bending


members
Minimum reinforcement compression
members
Minimum reinforcement statically re
quired cross section

0.1

0.8

Relative eccentricity for boundary be


tween compression and bending
members, if not defined with record
BEAM.

3.5

0/00

0.02

0.001

AMAX
Maximum reinforcement
EC2
8%
DIN
9%
EGRE

NGRE

Strain limit for design


Only sections with internal forces and
moments whose elastic edge strains are
numerically larger than the value of
EGRE are designed.
Lower limit of axial force relative to plas
tic axial force for "compression members"

ZGRP

Grouping of prestressing tendons

TANA

Lower limit inclination of struts of shear


design (tan )

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

MOD

Design mode
SECT Reinforcement in cut
BEAM Reinforcement in beam
SPAN Reinforcement in span
GLOB Reinforcement in all effective
beams
TOTL Reinforcement in all beams

LIT

SECT

RMOD

Minimum reinforcement mode


SEPA Crack width doesnt change
reinforcement
SING Single calculation, not saved
SAVE Saved
SUPE Superposition

LIT

SING

LCR

Number of reinforcment distribution

P7
P8
P9
P10
P11

Parameter for determining reinforce


ment
(See notes)

*
*
*
*
0.20

In the record BEAM the user can define explicitly if this is a bending or com
ressed member. The default value is compressed member if the excentricity
of the load < ED and the magnitude of the compression force > NGRE A r.
The minimum reinforcements AM1 to AM3 apply to all cross sections; they
are input as a percentage of the section area.
The relevant value is the maximum of the minimum reinforcements:
Absolute minimum reinforcement (AM1/AM2)
Minimum reinforcement of statcally required section
Minimum reinforcement defined in cross section program AQUA
Minimum reinforcement stored in the database
Any number of types of reinforcement distribution can be stored in the data
base. Under number LCR, the most recently calculated reinforcement for
graphic depictions and for determinations of strain is stored. LCR=0 is re

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served for the minimum reinforcement. This makes it possible, for instance,
to design some load cases in advance and to prescribe their reinforcements
locally or globally as defaults. The input value RMOD refers to the minimum
and stirrup reinforcement:
SING
SAVE

SUPE

uses the stored minimum reinforcement without modifying


it
ignores the stored minimum reinforcement and overwrites
it the current reinforcement. This permits the establish
ment of an initial condition.
uses the stored minimum reinforcement and overwrites it
with the possibly higher values.

SUPE cannot be used during an iteration, since then the maximum reinforce
ment for an iteration step will no longer be reduced. STAR2 therefore ignores
a specification of SUPE, as long as convergence has not been reached. AQB
can still update the reinforcements at a later time: DESI STAT NO needs to
be specified in that case.
A specification of BEAM, SPAN, GLOB or TOTL under MOD refers to sec
tions with the same section number. For all connected ranges with the same
section, the maximum for the range is incorporated as the minimum rein
forcement. The design is done separately in each case for each load, however,
so that the user can recognize the relevant load cases.

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Distribution of reinforcements
Use of minimum reinforcement in ultimate load design has a detrimental ef
fect on the shear reinforcement, since the lever of internal forces is reduced.
The user can take the appropriate precautions by specifying a minimum lever
arm in AQUA.
Since this effect is especially strong with tendons, AQBS can give special ef
fect to the latter in ultimate load design. This option is controlled with ZGRP:
ZGRP = 0

342

Tendons are considered with both their area and their


prestressing. Normal reinforcement is specified at the
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minimum percentage.
The relative loading capacity is found.
ZGRP > 0

Tendons are specified with their full prestressing, but


with their area (stress increase) only specified in so
far as necessary. Normal reinforcementif installed
only if the prestressing steel alone is not sufficient.
A required area of prestressing steel is determined.

ZGRP < 0

Tendons are specified with their prestressing, only


specified in so far as necessary, otherwise the same
like ZGRP > 0.

If ZGRP < > 0 has been specified, the tendons are grouped into tendon groups.
The group is a whole number proportion which comes from dividing the
identification number of the tendon by ZGRP. Group 0 is specified with its
whole area, the upper group as needed. Any group higher than 4 is assigned
group 4. The group number of the tendons is independent of the group number
of the nonprestressed reinforcement.
Assume that tendons with the numbers 1, 21, 22 and 101 have been defined.
With the appropriate inputs for ZGRP, the following division is obtained:
ZGRP
ZGRP

0
10

All tendons are minimum reinforcement


Tendon 1 is group 0 and minimum reinforcement
Tendons 21 and 22 are group 2 and extra
Tendon 101 is group 4 and extra
ZGRP 100 Tendons 1, 21 and 22 are minimum reinforcement
Tendon 101 is group 1, extra

An example of the effect can be found in Section 5.1.5.3.


Notes: Parameters for determining reinforcement
The following parameters are normally not to be changed by the user:
P7 Weighting factor, axial force

Default
5

Typical
0.5 50

When designing, the strain plane is iterated by the BFGS method. The
required reinforcement is determined in the innermost loop according
to the minimum of the squared errors. The default value for P8 leads
to the same dimensions for the errors. The value of P7 has been deter
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mined empirically. With symmetrical reinforcement and tension it is


better to choose a smaller value, with multiple layers and compression
a larger one. For small maximum values of the reinforcementthe value
of P7 should be increased.
MIN ( (NNI)2 + F1(MYMYI)2 + F2(MZMZI)2 )
where

F1 = P7 (zmaxzmin)P8
F2 = P7 (ymaxymin)P8

P9 Factor for reference point of strain

Default
1.0

Typical
0.21.0

P10 Factor for reference point of moments


1.0
0.21.0
Lack of convergence in the dimensioning with biaxial loading can gen
erally be attributed to the factors no longer shaping the problem con
vexly, so that there are multiple solutions or none. In these cases the
user can increase the value of P7 or can vary the value of P10 between
0.2 and 1.0, for individual sections. In most cases, however, problems
are caused by specifying the minimum reinforcement.
P11 Factor for prefering outer reinforcement
Reinforcement which is only one third of the lever arm, is allowed to be
maximum one third of the area of the outer reinforcement. P11 is the
factor to set this up. For biaxial bending is P11=1.0, for uniaxial bend
ing is P11=0.0

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See also:

3.22.
Item

REIN NSTR

DESI Reinforced Concrete


Design, Bending, Axial Force
Description

DESI

Dimension

Default

MOD

Design mode
SECT Reinforcement in cut
BEAM Reinforcement in beam
SPAN Reinforcement in span
GLOB Reinforcement in all effective
beams
TOTL Reinforcement in all beams

LIT

RMOD

Minimum reinforcement mode


SING Single calculation, not saved
SAVE Saved
SUPE Superposition

LIT

STAT

Load condition and code


NO
Save reinforcement only
SERV Serviceability loads
ULTI Ultimate loads old DIN 1045
EC2
Load combination EC2
DIN
Load combination DIN10451
EC2B Buckling load combination
DINB per EC2 resp DIN 10451
EC2A Accidential load combination
DINA EC2 resp DIN 10451
Additional combinations may be found on
the following pages.

LIT

SERV

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

SC1
SC2
SS1
SS2
C1
C2
S1
S2
Z1

Safety coefficient concrete


Safety coefficient concrete
Safety coefficient steel
Safety coefficient steel
Maximum compression
Maximum centric compression
Optimum tensile strain
Maximum tensile strain
Maximum effective compressive strain
of prestressing steel
Maximum effective tensional strain
of prestressing steel

o/oo
o/oo
o/oo
o/oo
o/oo

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

o/oo

KSV
KSB

Control for material of cross section


Control for material of reinforcements

UL
UL

SMOD

Design mode shear


NO
No shear design
EC2
Design per EC2
DIN
Design per DIN 10451
1045
Design per DIN 1045
4227
Design per DIN 4227
SIA
Design per SIA 162
8110
Design per BS 8110
5400
Design per BS 5400
5402
Design per BS 5400 class 1/2
5403
Design per BS 5400 class 3
(vtu < 5.8)
4250
Design per OeNORM B 4250
4253
Design per OeNORM B 4253
4700
Design per OeNORM B 4700

LIT

Z2

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Item

Description

T01

Shear stress limit


(e.g. DIN 1045 Table 13 line 3)
Shear stress limit
(e.g. DIN 1045 Table 13 line 4)
Shear stress limit
(e.g. DIN 1045 Table 13 line 5)
Boundary between reduced and full
shear coverage

T02
T03
TVS
KTAU

Shear design for plates


K1
not staggered for normal
plates (DIN 1045 17.5.5.
equation 14)
K2
not staggered for plates with
constant, evenly distributed
full loading (DIN 1045 17.5.5.
equation 15)
K1S
like K1, tension reinforcement
staggered (DIN 1045 17.5.5.
Table 13 1a)
K2S
like K2, but staggered
num
coefficient k per equation 4.18
EC2
0.0
no shear check

TTOL

Tolerance fot the limit values

Dimension

Default

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

T02

/LIT

0.02

Defaults for strain limits and safety coefficients:

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SC1

GEBR
BRUC
DIN
DINA
DINL
DINC
EC2
EC2A
EC2B
OE
OEB
SIA
SIAB
BS
BSU
ACI
AASH

1.75
1.00
1.50
1.30
1.30
1.10
1.50
1.30
1.35
1.50
1.30
1.20
1.00
1.50
1.30
0.90
0.90

SC2

SS1

SS2

C1

C2

S1

S2

Z1

Z2

2.10 1.75 2.10 3.5


1.00 1.00 1.00 3.5
1.50 1.15 1.15 3.5
1.30 1.00 1.00 3.5
1.30 1.30 1.30 3.5
1.10 1.10 1.10 3.5
1.50 1.15 1.15 3.5
1.30 1.00 1.00 3.5
1.35 1.15 1.15 3.5
1.50 1.15 1.15 3.5
1.30 1.00 1.00 3.5
1.20 1.20 1.20 3.5
1.00 1.00 1.00 3.5
1.50 1.115 1.15 3.5
1.30 1.00 1.00 3.5
0.70 0.85(shear)3.0
0.70 0.85(shear)3.0

2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.1
2.1

5.0
5.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
20.0
20.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0

2.2
2.2
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0

5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0

When designing for ultimate load or combinations with divided safety factors,
the load factor must be contained in the internal forces and moments. One
way to accomplish this is with the COMB records.
The maximum strain depends on the stressstrain curve. The value of 2.2 is
reduced for example at the old DIN or high strength concrete automatically.
Note:
The statically determined portion of the forces and moments of prestressing
is always deducted when determining the external forces and moments. This
contribution is found from the location of the tendons and their tensile force.
The specification of MOD and RMOD describe the handling of the minimum
reinforcement. This is explained in more detail in the record REIN. The va
lues which are input there serve as the defaults for the values in this record.
For stirrup reinforcement only the values of the record REIN are used.
A specifiaction of the bifurcation factor BETA in record BEAM is changed to
additional moments according to DIN 1045 17.4.3 resp. Eurocode 4.3.5.6.

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resp. DIN 1045 neu 5.6.4. resp. OeNORM B 4700 2.4.3.. The design will al
ways generate both bending axis. The output of the extra moments is given
with the stresses of the combinations.
This design operation is also suitable for nonreinforced sections. In that case
the program produces internal forces and moments which are in the same
proportion to each other as the external forces and moments. The safety fac
tors SC1 and SC2 have to be defined dependent on the design code. The pro
gram then shows the relative load carrying capacity and prints a warning if
this should fall below 1.0.
The values Z1 and Z2 do not limit the range of possible strains, but the maxi
mum corresponding values are used as strain increments for the tension
members in the section. This is necessary, for instance, when designing with
partial prestressing under DIN 4227 Part 2.
With KSV and KSB will be controlled the material law. You may enter:
EL
ELD
SL
SLD
UL
ULD
PL
PLD

linear elastic, but without tension if concrete


linear elastic with material safety factor
service nominal without material safety factor
service design with material safety factor
ultimate nominal without material safety factor
ultimate design with material safety factor
plastic nominal without material safety factor
plastic design with material safety factor

The calculation can be carried out with other material values than those de
fined in AQUA by entering a numerical value fpor KSV/KSB. The entered
value is then added to all material numbers. If the input value KSV or KSB
is defined with 100 more than its value, then the partial safety coefficients
which are defined in AQUA are not selected. This is normally the case be
cause of the different safety coefficients of individual loadcase combinations.
If this value is increased by 200, then the stressstrain curve for the service
bility limit will be used if such a law has been defined in AQUA.
The shear design finds the lever of internal forces for all load cases with com
pression and tension forces in the section, and finds the shear stress and
shear reinforcement resulting from shearing force and torsion. The shear
stress limits are set automatically depending on SMOD and the material. De
viating values for the shear stress limits can be defined with a record STRE
(under 4227 only) or T01 to TVS. Since in case of excess of the shear stress
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limits no design more occurs, this with a tolerance can be exceeded onto own
responsibility of the user.
Consideration of the displacement of the envelope line of the tensile force
(shift rule) depends upon the CTRL option VM.
If a section is to be considered as a plate has already been defined with the
section itself. The definition of KTAU is thus only effective for those sections.
By entering 4253 this OENORM design code will by in effect. Then instead
of decreasing the stress TVS, the inclination of the truss according to
12.2.2.(3) will be decreased.

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See also:

3.23.

REIN DESI

NSTR Nonlinear Stress and


Strain

Item

Description

KMOD

STAR2

NSTR

Dimension

Default

Determining stiffness
S0
State definition without
change of stiffnesses
S1
Secant stiffness from given
curvatures
SN
Secant stiffness from given
moments
K0
Plastic strains without itera
tion
K1
Plastic strains from given
curvatures
KN
Plastic strains from given
moments
T0
Tangent stiffness without
iteration
T1
Tangent stiffness from given
curvatures
TN
Tangent stiffness from given
moments

S0/S1

KSV
KSB

Control for material of the cross section


Control for material of the reinforce
ments and tension stiffening

*
*

KMIN
KMAX

Minimum stiffness
Maximum stiffness

0.01
4.00

ALPH
FMAX

Damping factor
Acceleration factor

0.4
5.0

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

SIGS

Range of stresses in the reinforcement


wich are to be investigated.

N/mm2

CRAC

Type of crack width design


EC2
Eurocode EC2
1045
Heft 400 / DIN 1045 old
DIN
DIN 10451 (May 2000)
4227
Prestressed conrete DIN4227
4700
OeNORM B 4700

LIT

CW
BB

Crack width or factor for enviroment


Factor 2 (0.5 to 1.0)
resp. t of DIN 1045 new (0.25)
resp. reduction acc. 3.2.2. B4700 (0.0)

mm/

0.2/1
0.5

HMAX
CW

Maximum height of tension zone


Crack width or factor above"

m
mm/

0.8
CW

With NSTR a nonlinear tension and strain determination is carried out.


This contains checks in the state II or plastic checkss generally. "Byproducts"
are the determination of stress ranges or crack widths and nonlinear secant
stiffnesses. The default for KMOD is S0 within AQB, while S1 within STAR2.
Design for Structural Steelwork (DIN 18800, EC3)
Design elasticplastic
NSTR S0 KMIN 0.8

It will be checked if the forces can be supported by calculating internal


forces with nonlinear stress strain relations. A Warning will be
printed, if the resistance is not sufficient. KMIN 0.8 will mark all sec
tions where the stiffness is reduced to less than a factor of 1/1.25. This
is a better equivalent than clause 755 of DIN 18800 requiring M<1.25
Mmax,elastic.
NSTR S1 KSV PLD

Very large (fully plastic) strains will be created which are in the same
ratio as given moment and shear force. Internal forces will be calcu

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lated which are not exactly with the same ratio, but the points will be
on the interaktion curve.
Design plasticplastic
When iterating between STAR2 and AQB a calculation according to the
yield zone theory is allowed.
The design check of the b/tratio has differences for the elastic region and the
fully plastic region. As an interpolation is not foreseen, AQB will use the more
restrictive formulas whenever the maximum stress is within 1 o/oo of the
yield limit. With NSTR DEHN S0 table 15 of DIN 18800 is used, for all other
cases table 18.
Different variants are provided for determining the strain condition, because
of the complicated iterative calculation with STAR2 (see Section 2.7.6.). Se
lecting another method than S0 only makes sense within AQB if an iterative
calculation in alternation with STAR2 is being used, see procedure PS (cf.
5.2.2. prefabricated column).
The calculation can be carried out with different material values and safeties.
This is controlled via KSV and KSB. With that one can define for example also
deviating stressstrain curves for the service state. Meant in this case:
EL
ELD
SL
SLD
UL
ULD
PL
PLD

linear elastic, but without tension if concrete


linear elastic with material safety factor
service nominal without material safety factor
service design with material safety factor
ultimate nominal without material safety factor
ultimate design with material safety factor
plastic nominal without material safety factor
plastic design with material safety factor

TS0

tension stiffening (only at KSB)

The default values are dependant on the input to DESI:


Without DESI
without crackwidth (steel)
with crack width (concrete)
Input DESI for ultimate loads
Input DESI for regular loads
Version 10.20

KSV=KSB=ULD (with safety)


KSV=KSB=SL (without safety)
KSV=KSB=UL (without safety)
KSV=KSB=SL (without safety)

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The calculation can be carried out with other material values than those de
fined in AQUA by entering a numerical value for KSV and KSB (=ULD). The
entered value is then added to all material numbers. If the input value KSV
or KSB is defined with 100 more than its value, then the partial safety coeffi
cients which are defined in AQUA are not selected (=ULM). If this value is
increased by 200, then the stressstrain curve for the servicebility limit will
be used if such a law has been defined in AQUA (=SL).
To calculate the correct strain condition, knowledge of the actual existing re
inforcement is needed. If the latter was not defined in AQUA as the minimum
reinforcement, then an appropriate DESI record needs to have been calcu
lated in advance. The most recently determined distribution of reinforce
ments for each case is saved in the database. This is not valid, however, for
the intenal forces and moments of the load case 0 !
Static calculation with nonlinear stiffnesses in AQB is successful only if
STAR2 is called again with a new iteration as a restart after AQB, and this
process is repeated until convergence occurs. Thus it is recommended to de
fine these records within STAR2 and to increase the number of iterations
within STAR2.
Selection of the optimum iteration method is difficult. The user should start
with SN for lightly loaded systems and with S1 for more heavily loaded sys
tems, and should then shift to K1 or K0 if necessary. When there are many
similar systems, it pays to find the optimum method by experimentation.
To prevent endangering the iteration procedure, only changes of stiffness of
a certain magnitude are permitted. A value of 0.4 for ALPH means that in
each step the stiffness can decrease at most to 1/(1+0.4) times its value, or in
crease at most to 1/(10.4) times its value. Independently of that, the stiff
nesses remain limited to the range between KMIN and KMAX, referenced to
the elastic stiffness.
With critical systems, which exceed their loading capacity in the course of the
iteration, it may be necessary to limit the maximum acceleration factor with
FMAX. A value of less than 1.0 damps the iteration procedure. A value of 0.0
turns the procedure off. The default of FMAX is 2.0 at a calculation with
NSTR KMOD SN and CTRL INTE 4.
With default of CRAC a check of the crack width and/or the limit diameter
with the diameters defined in AQUA and possible reference areas is led. The
parameter CW then has various meanings:

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EC2 / DIN 1045 / B 4700:


CW is the necessary crack width (wk, cal), with a default of 0.2 mm. The re
duced values for restraining loading of thick cross sections under EC2 must
be converted by the user (e.g. by a factor of 1.3/1.7). The coefficient 2 must
be specified, the coefficient 1 is calculated from the bond coefficient k1
(0.8/k1) by analogy to the CEB code. Deviations from this can be handled with
BB. For B 4700 the values BB will control an interpolation between tables 7/8
and 9/10. BB=1 selects mostly constraining, while BB=0 (default) selects
mostly loading (no constraint).
Because not only the codes to the crack width but also their interpretation
change continuously, it it is very probable that with different versions slightly
different results show.
DIN 4227:
The more recent design check according to Appendix A1 is selectable via re
cord STRE. CW is the factor for environmental conditions. The following va
lues can be used:
Environment 1
Environment 2
Environment 3

Version 10.20

CW = 1.0
CW = 0.75
CW = 0.50

(default)

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4

STAR2

Output Description.

Upon request the output can be controlled by the user.

4.1.

Load Assembly

Provided that loads were generated, the global factor for each loadcase as well
as the dead weight components and all other loads of the loadcase (multiplied
by the factor) are output.
The load type and the direction of the beam loads is given by a four letter
combination:
a b c d
Possible values for a:

S
U
V
C

Single load
Uniform load
Variable load
Cubic load
(values generated by program)

for b:

L
P

Load referring to the beam axis


Load referring to the projection

for c:

P
M
W
D
U
T
V
E
K

Force
Moment
Displacement
Rotation
Initial deformation
Temperature
Prestress
Strain
Curvature

for d:

S
1
2
X
Y
Z

Local directions

Version 10.20

Global directions

41

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4.2.

Statics of Beam Structures

Output of the Structure

Nodes and support conditions as well as all elements can be output. This is
done by merely inputting the corresponding ECHO options NODE, BEAM,
SPRI, BOUN or FULL. ECHO NODE FULL causes the additional output of
the equation numbers of the degrees of freedom. This is helpful in detecting
movable parts of the structure.
Every time the equation system is reassembled, its parameters are output to
the protocol file.

4.3.

Results

The beam section forces and possibly the deformations are output for each
section as well as for all positions, at which point loads are applied. The sign
convention can be found in Section 2.2. In case of SECT and DEFO, YES re
sults in a printout of values at explicit output sections only. Values at posi
tions between sections where point loads are applied are printed using FULL.
Values at all sections are printed using EXTR.
Where applicable, the internal forces and deformations of springs, truss and
cable elements are output.
The displacements and rotations of nodes are output in mm and 0/00, respect
ively, in the directions of the coordinates. Rotations are positive clockwise.
Forces arise at all nodes with supports, couplings or elastic foundations.
These are output as follows:
ECHO REAC YES
ECHO REAC FULL
ECHO REAC EXTR

only reactions
reactions + coupling forces
all nodal forces (accuracy check)

When forces are exerted on a free node, then either a support has been erron
eously specified or the machines accuracy is not sufficient for solving the sys
tem.
The sum of the reaction forces is an important index for the completeness of
the loads.

4.4.

Output during Iterations

A printout of the 1st iteration step (1st order theory) as well as a printout
after the last step take place when nothing is input. If convergence is reached
within the specified limits, its results are output too.

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Output after every nth step can be requested by ECHO STEP. The output
of the initial linear analysis can be suppressed by using ECHO STEP 99.

4.5.

Convergence Criteria

It gets checked by every iteration step, whether the accuracy lies within the
prescribed limits. This is performed separately for forces, moments, displace
ments and rotations. The procedure is the following:
The difference between the result value during the current and the one
during the previous iteration is determined at each result point. This
difference must be smaller than the absolute result value multiplied by
the precision tolerance. If the value is smaller than the largest value
encountered in the structure times the precision tolerance, the percen
tage difference is not computed. This way very small values, which e.g.
oscillate around zero from one iteration to the other, thus generating
very high percentage changes, get no consideration at all.
A summary of these values is printed at the beginning of each output iter
ation. These values are also output to the screen or to the protocol file for all
iterations.

4.6.

Design Output

Design results are output after every iteration which was requested by
ECHO STEP, as well as after reaching convergence. There are three tables:
1. Design results of the individual loadcases
(only by ECHO REIN FULL)
2. Design parameters
3. Accumulation of the computed reinforcement
The design parameter tables include for each section:
Beamno
x(m)
NCS
LC
NI
MyI/MzI
Version 10.20

Beam number
Xvalue of the beam section
Cross section number
Loadcase number
Internal axial force in kN
Internal moments in kNm

43

STAR2
e1
e2
yN
zN
sc/ss
RELTRA

As
R

Statics of Beam Structures


Edge strain at compression side in 0/00
= Steel strain in case of pure tension
Edge strain on tension side in 0/00
= Steel strain when not surprinted
Intersection of neutral line with axis
Intersection of neutral line with axis
Safety factors for concrete and steel
Relative ultimate strength
The total ultimate strength amounts to
scRELTRA, when sc and ss are identical.
Total reinforcement for each activated layer
in cm2
Layer number

If the strength of the cross section is not exhausted, the internal section forces
are larger than the external forces by the factor RELTRA. If the cross section
is overstressed, RELTRA can be smaller than 1.0 as well. If the minimum re
inforcement of the statically required cross section is critical, the internal sec
tion forces are computed using the minimum reinforcement percentage,
while the reinforcement is already reduced by the factor. The indication "not
recommended" appears, when a cross section is not designed due to low stres
sing. The absolute limit strain EGRE defined in record REIN serves as cri
terion in this case.
The global parameters of the design (limit strains, safety factors and mini
mum reinforcement ratios) are output in a preceding table.
The maximum reinforcement ratios are output in an additional table. (By
GLOB and TOTL for each cross section, by SPAN and BEAM for the begin
ning of each region, by SECT for each section).

4.7.

Stiffness Computation

The stiffness parameter table includes for each section:


Beamno
x(m)
NCS
LC
Ni
e0

44

Beam number
Xvalue of beam section
Cross section number
Loadcase number
Internal axial force
Strain at gravity centre in 0/00
Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


Myi
Mzi
ky/kz
Ey
Ez
x

STAR2

Internal moment
Internal moment
Curvatures in (1/km)
Effective Emodulus
Effective Emodulus
Height of compressive zone

ECHOOptions NSTR or FULL


NO
YES
FULL

EXTR

Table omitted
Table as described above
In addition, the maximum and minimum
strains and stresses of the full cross section
(Q), the prestressing steel (S) and the plain
reinforcement (B).
Stress and strain at all points of the cross
section

Remark:
The effective Emoduli are corrected after output in order to improve conver
gence as well as to conform to current maximum and minimum values. These
values are secant moduli and they can even be larger than the elastic
Emoduli in case of oblique bending.
The maximum strains for prestressing steel are given as differences from the
concrete strains, not as total values.

Version 10.20

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5

Examples

5.1.

Training Example of Cantilever Column.

STAR2

The elastically restrained cantilever column from /6/, Page 344, is used as an
example (see figure):

Cantilever column
The cross section is generated by the program AQUA and the following input:
PROG
HEAD
HEAD
STEE
SECT
END

AQUA
EXAMPLE 1 : ELASTICALLY RESTRAINED CANTILEVER SUPPORT
SEE PETERSEN 2. EDITION PAGE 344
1 ST 37
1 ; PROF 1 IPB 500

Version 10.20

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In order to obtain intermediate results, the beam was subdivided into 3 seg
ments. The input for GENF is:
PROG
HEAD
HEAD
NODE
BEAM
SPRI
END

GENF
EXAMPLE 1 : ELASTICALLY RESTRAINED CANTILEVER SUPPORT
SEE PETERSEN 2. EDITION PAGE 344
1 0 0 PP ; NODE 2 8 0
1 1 2 NCS 1 DIV 3
1 1 DZ 1.0 CM 1.447E5

The following output results:


N O D A L
C O O R D I N A T E S
AND
S U P P O R T S
Number
X[m]
Y[m]
Z[m] Support Conditions
1
.000
.000
.000
PX
PY
2
8.000
.000
.000

MIN
.000
.000
.000
MAX
8.000
.000
.000
MATERIALS
No. 1 ST 37 (DIN 17100)

Youngsmodulus
210000
[MPa]
Safetyfactor
1.00
[]
PoissonRatio
0.30
[]
Yield stress fy
240.00
[MPa]
Shearmodulus
81000
[MPa]
Tens. strength
370.00
[MPa]
Compression modulus 171821
[MPa]
Ultim. plast. strain
0.00 [o/oo]
Weight
78.5 [kN/m3]
Relaxation at .55ft
0.00
[]
Weight buoyancy
0.0 [kN/m3]
Relaxation at .70ft
0.00
[]
Temp.elongat.coeff.1.20E05
[]
national bond coeff.
0.00
[]
EC2 bondcoeff. K1
0.00
[]
Hardening modulus
0.00
[MPa]
C R O S S S E C T I O N S
S T A T I C
P R O P E R T I E S
No MNo
A[m2] Ay/Az/Ayz Iy/Iz/Iyz
ys/zs y/zsc
modules
gam
MNs
It[m4]
[m2]
[m4]
[m]
[m]
[MPa] [kN/m3]
1
1 2.3864E02 1.400E02 1.073E03
.000
.000
210000
78.5
4.925E06 6.694E03 1.260E04
.000
.000
81000
= IPB 500
B E A M
E L E M E N T S
beam
node
x[m] NoS Ref
1
1
.000
1
2.667
1
5.333
1
2
8.000
1

52

hinges

direction local yaxis


.000
.000 1.000

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S P R I N G
E L E M E N T S
Number Nodeno dX[] dY[] dZ[]
1
1
.000
.000 1.000

CP[kN/m]

STAR2
CQ[kN/m]

CM[kNm] Np[kN]
1.447E+05

The analysis for 1,71times bigger load follows first:


PROG
HEAD
CTRL
LC 1
NL 2
NL 2
END

STAR2
ANALYSIS UNDER 1.71TIMES LOAD AFTER 2ND ORDER THEORY
II 2
1.71
PY 35
PX 1150

The analysis gets started with the above input. An output of the loads comes
first:
L O A D C A S E
load factor
factor
dlx
factor
dly
factor
dlz

1
1.710
.000
.000
.000

N O D A L
L O A D S
node
PX[kN]
PY[kN]
2
1966.5
2
59.9

PZ[kN]

MX[kNm]

MY[kNm]

MZ[kNm]

The input loads have already been multiplied here by the safety factor.
A printout of the results from 1st order theory follows, and then from 2nd
order theory:
linear
results
Loadfactor 1.71

B E A M
F O R C E S
A N D
M O M E N T S
Loadcase
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration 0
beam
X
N
VZ
MY
No
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1
.00
1966.5
59.9 478.80
2.67
1966.5
59.9 319.18
5.33
1966.5
59.9 159.62
8.00
1966.5
59.9
.00
F O R C E S AND
D I S P L A C E M E N T S
Loadcase
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration 0

Version 10.20

OF

S P R I N G S

53

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2
Number
1
N O D A L
Loadcase
nodes
No
1
2

P[kN]
.0

PV[kN]
.0

M[kNm]
478.80

u[mm]
.000

uq[mm] phi[mrad]
.000
3.309

D I S P L A C E M E N T S
AND
R E A C T I O N S
2nd Order Theory Iteration 0
uX
uY
PHIZ
PX
PY
MZ
[mm]
[mm] [mrad]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
.000
.000
3.309 1966.5
59.9 478.80
3.139 72.686 11.809
1

S U M
PX [kN]
1966.5
1966.5

Loads
Reactions

PY [kN]
59.9
59.9

PZ [kN]
.0
.0

The sum of the reaction forces should be checked for correctness every time;
it is an indication for the completeness of the loads.
Since the axial force is statically determinate, one iteration is sufficient for
obtaining results by 2nd order theory; additional results were not requested
by the record CTRL. The program, however, can determine only through a
2nd iteration that nothing has changed from the previous one, and only then
can it terminate the analysis.
second order theory results
iteration 2
Loadfactor 1.71

C O N V E R G E N C E
A C H I E V E D
accuracy:
absolute
relative
achieved
limit
achieved
limit
( kN, kNm, m, rad)
(percent)
forces
0.000E+00 1.966E+01
1.00
moments
0.000E+00 6.898E+00
1.00
displacements
0.000E+00 1.073E03
1.00
rotations
0.000E+00 1.762E04
1.00
B E A M
F O R C E S
A N D
M O M E N T S
Nonlinear loadcase
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration
beam
X
N
VZ
MY
No
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1
.00
1966.5
59.9 689.78
2.67
1966.5
59.9 485.03
5.33
1966.5
59.9 250.32
8.00
1966.5
59.9
.00
F O R C E S
AND
Nonlinear loadcase
Number
P[kN]

54

D I S P L A C E M E N T S
OF
S P R I N G S
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration 2
PV[kN]
M[kNm]
u[mm]
uq[mm] phi[mrad]

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


1

.0

.0

689.78

STAR2
.000

.000

4.767

N O D A L
D I S P L A C E M E N T S
AND
R E A C T I O N S
Nonlinear loadcase
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration 2
nodes
uX
uY
PHIZ
PX
PY
MZ
No
[mm]
[mm] [mrad]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1
.000
.000
4.767 1966.5
59.9 689.78
2
3.139 107.288 17.618
S U M
Loads
Reactions

PX [kN]
1966.5
1966.5

PY [kN]
59.9
59.9

PZ [kN]
.0
.0

The moment by 2nd order theory is somewhat smaller than the one calculated
by Petersen; this can be traced back to the fact, that the "DischingerFor
mula" used by Petersen can not produce results better than the exact solution
computed by STAR2.
In a second computation the column is analysed for 1,50times bigger load
and an 1/250 oblique position of the cantilever. The oblique position is given
as a point beam load and it is not multiplied by the safety factor (see check
output of the loads).
The input is as follows:
PROG STAR2
HEAD LOADING CASE 2:
CTRL II 2
ECHO LOAD
LC 2 1.50
LCC 1
SL 1 U2 0.032 8
END

1.50TIMES LOAD WITH INITIAL DEFORMATION

The STAR2 output has the following form:


L O A D C A S E
load factor
factor
dlx
factor
dly
factor
dlz

2
1.500
.000
.000
.000

N O D A L
L O A D S
node
PX[kN]
PY[kN]
2
1725.0
2
52.5

Version 10.20

PZ[kN]

MX[kNm]

MY[kNm]

MZ[kNm]

55

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

B E A M
L O A D S
Beamno type
a[m]
1 VLU2
.00

l[m]
8.00

load1
.00

load2 [dim] ya[m] za[m] ye[m] ze[m]


32.00 MM

The sign of the oblique position must be input in the local coordinate system
of the beam. For the selected system of coordinates (zaxis pointing to the
back), the positive zregion is to the right of the beam direction.
The following values result from 2nd order theory:
second order theory results
iteration 2
Loadfactor 1.50

C O N V E R G E N C E
A C H I E V E D
accuracy:
absolute
relative
achieved
limit
achieved
limit
( kN, kNm, m, rad)
(percent)
forces
0.000E+00 1.725E+01
1.00
moments
0.000E+00 6.485E+00
1.00
displacements
0.000E+00 1.324E03
1.00
rotations
0.000E+00 2.049E04
1.00
B E A M
F O R C E S
A N D
M O M E N T S
Nonlinear loadcase
2
2nd Order Theory Iteration
beam
X
N
VZ
MY
No
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1
.00
1725.0
52.5 648.47
2.67
1725.0
52.5 452.93
5.33
1725.0
52.5 232.83
8.00
1725.0
52.5
.00
F O R C E S
AND
Nonlinear loadcase
Number
P[kN]
1
.0

D I S P L A C E M E N T S
OF
S P R I N G S
2
2nd Order Theory Iteration 2
PV[kN]
M[kNm]
u[mm]
uq[mm] phi[mrad]
.0
648.47
.000
.000
4.482

N O D A L
D I S P L A C E M E N T S
AND
R E A C T I O N S
Nonlinear loadcase
2
2nd Order Theory Iteration 2
nodes
uX
uY
PHIZ
PX
PY
MZ
No
[mm]
[mm] [mrad]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1
.000
.000
4.482 1725.0
52.5 648.47
2
2.754 100.449 16.489
S U M
Loads
Reactions

56

PX [kN]
1725.0
1725.0

PY [kN]
52.5
52.5

PZ [kN]
.0
.0

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

The restraining moment is smaller than in /6/, because Petersen, apparently


by mistake, applies the safety factor twice upon the oblique position.

5.2.

Wind Frame with Cable Diagonals.

Presented below is a wind frame crossed with tensile diagonals, which serves
as an example for the application of the nonlinear effects of truss and cable
elements.

Wind frame
The input for the program GENF reads as follows:
PROG GENF
HEAD CABLE ELEMENT LATERAL BRACING
NODE 1 0 0 F ; 2 0 3 ; 3 3 3 ; 4 3 0 F
MAT 1
SVAL 1 1 .001
TRUS (1 3 1) (1 1) (2 1)
CABL 11 1 3 ; 12 2 4
END

The output by GENF is again very short:


N O D A L
C O O R D I N A T E S
AND
S U P P O R T S
Number
X[m]
Y[m]
Z[m] Support Conditions
1
.000
.000
.000
PX
PY
MZ
2
.000
3.000
.000
3
3.000
3.000
.000
4
3.000
.000
.000
PX
PY
MZ

Version 10.20

57

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2
MIN
MAX

.000
3.000

.000
3.000

.000
.000

M A T E R I A L S
No. 1

Youngmodule
30000
[MPa]
Safetyfactor
1.00
[]
PoissonRatio
.20
[]
Shearmodule
12500
[MPa]
Compress.module
16667
[MPa]
Weight
25.0 [kN/m3]
Weight buoyancy
15.0 [kN/m3]
Temperat. coeff. 1.00E05
[]
C R O S S S E C T I O N S
S T A T I C
P R O P E R T I E S
No MNo
A[m2] Ay/Az/Ayz Iy/Iz/Iyz
ys/zs y/zsc
modules
gam
MNs
It[m4]
[m2]
[m4]
[m]
[m]
[MPa] [kN/m]
1
1 1.0000E03
8.333E11
.000
.000
30000
25.0
1.520E04
8.333E11
.000
.000
12500
T R U S S
Number
1
2
3

E L E M E N T S
Nodeno
section
1
2
1
2
3
1
3
4
1

L[m]
3.000
3.000
3.000

Np[kN]

C A B L E
Number
11
12

E L E M E N T S
Nodeno
section
1
3
1
2
4
1

L[m]
4.243
4.243

Np[kN]

Both loading cases are analysed using two data blocks of STAR2 input. This
is usually required by nonlinear loadcases. A maximum of 5 iterations is al
lowed by the CTRL record, while the input of ECHO STEP 1 requests a print
out after every iteration for the observation of the iteration progress.
PROG
HEAD
CTRL
ECHO
LC 1
NL 2
END
CTRL
ECHO
LC 2

58

STAR2
WIND TO THE LEFT WIND TO THE RIGHT
II 5
STEP 1
PX 10
II 5
STEP 1

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

NL 3 PX 10
END

The results for loadcase 1 after the linear analysis as well as after the 2nd
iteration are given in the next pages.
linear
results
Loadfactor 1.00

F O R C E S
IN
T R U S S E L E M E N T S
Loadcase
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration 0
Number
N[kN]
u[mm]
1
5.6
.558
2
4.4
.442
3
4.4
.442
F O R C E S
IN
C A B L E E L E M E N T S
Loadcase
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration 0
Number
N[kN]
u[mm]
uq[mm]
11
6.3
.884
12
7.9
1.115
N O D A L
Loadcase
nodes
No
1
2
3
4

D I S P L A C E M E N T S
AND
R E A C T I O N S
2nd Order Theory Iteration 0
uX
uY
PHIZ
PX
PY
MZ
[mm]
[mm] [mrad]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
.000
.000
.000
4.4
10.0
.00
2.135
.558
.000
1.693
.442
.000
.000
.000
.000
5.6
10.0
.00

S U M
Loads
Reactions

PX [kN]
10.0
10.0

PY [kN]
.0
.0

PZ [kN]
.0
.0

second order theory results


iteration 2
Loadfactor 1.00

C O N V E R G E N C E
A C H I E V E D
accuracy:
absolute
relative
achieved
limit
achieved
limit
( kN, kNm, m, rad)
(percent)
forces
1.639E02 1.415E01
1.00
moments
0.000E+00 1.000E05
1.00
displacements
3.455E06 4.830E05
1.00
rotations
0.000E+00 1.000E05
1.00

Version 10.20

59

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

F O R C E S
IN
T R U S S E L E M E N T S
Nonlinear loadcase
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration
Number
N[kN]
u[mm]
1
.0
.000
2
10.0
1.000
3
10.0
1.000
F O R C E S
IN
C A B L E E L E M E N T S
Nonlinear loadcase
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration
Number
N[kN]
u[mm]
uq[mm]
11
14.1
2.001
12
.0
3.415

N O D A L
D I S P L A C E M E N T S
AND
R E A C T I O N S
Nonlinear loadcase
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration 2
nodes
uX
uY
PHIZ
PX
PY
MZ
No
[mm]
[mm] [mrad]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1
.000
.000
.000
10.0
10.0
.00
2
4.830
.000
.000
3
3.830 1.000
.000
4
.000
.000
.000
.0
10.0
.00
S U M
Loads
Reactions

PX [kN]
10.0
10.0

PY [kN]
.0
.0

PZ [kN]
.0
.0

If vertical loads are applied in this example too, both cables will be subjected
to compression. The structure is then movable. One should additionally intro
duce either prestress (followup drawing of the tension jacks) or auxiliary el
ements with approximately 1 0/00 of the cable elongation stiffness.

5.3.

Girder.

Girders lie in the XY plane and they are loaded perpendicularly to their
plane. The Zaxis points downwards in this case. The encountered section
forces are Vz, Mt and My (corresponding to the crosssectional parameters Az,
It and Iy). The analysis of girders is possible by 1st order theory only.

510

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

Girder
A 2span girder with 3 main girders serves as an example. The outer main
girder is loaded by 50 kN/m. The input data for GENF and STAR2 read:
PROG GENF
HEAD GIRDER
SYST GIRD
CONC 1 B 25
SVAL 1 1 1 IT .024279
SVAL 2 1 1 IT .002794
NODE 1 0 7 ; 7 24 7 ;
MESH 1 7 27 21 6 2
$ FIXED NODES
NODE (1 21 10) FIX PZ
BEAM ( 1 6 1) ( 1 1)
BEAM (11 16 1) (11 1)
BEAM (21 26 1) (21 1)
BEAM (31 37 1) ( 1 1)
BEAM (41 47 1) (11 1)
END

IY .030375
IY .003125
21 0 0 ; 27 24 0

; (4 24 10) FIX PZ ; (7 27 10) FIX PZ


( 2 1) 1 DIV 4
(12 1) 1 DIV 4
(22 1) 1 DIV 4
(11 1) 2 DIV 4
(21 1) 2 DIV 4

and:
PROG STAR2
HEAD GRIDWORK
CTRL I
LC 1
UL (1 6 1) PZ 50
END

An extract of the results follows along with the graphical representation


of the 3 section forces:
Version 10.20

511

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

B E A M
F O R C E S
A N D
M O M E N T S
Loadcase
1
beam
X
VZ
MT
MY
No
[m]
[kN]
[kNm]
[kNm]
1
.00
206.2
43.39
13.41
1.00
156.2
43.39
167.77
2.00
106.2
43.39
298.95
3.00
56.2
43.39
380.14
4.00
6.2
43.39
411.32
2
.00
40.8
8.45
407.19
1.00
9.2
8.45
422.99
2.00
59.2
8.45
388.79
3.00
109.2
8.45
304.58
4.00
159.2
8.45
170.38
3
.00
142.9
27.81
178.84 ... and so on

Torsional moments of the girder

512

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

Shear forces and bending moments of the girder

5.4.

Threedimensional Frame.

A steel roof structure is given.

Version 10.20

513

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

Wind screen with loading


The crosssections are piecewise assembled from MSHprofiles and they are
defined by the program AQUA.
PROG
HEAD
STEE
SECT
SECT
SECT

AQUA
POS D2: WINDBREAK
1 ST 37
1 ; PROF 1 SH 100 100 4
2 ; PROF 2 SH 100 100 4
3 ; PLAT 1
0
0
95 141
2
95 141 178
85
3 178 85 100
20
4 100
20 100
140
5 100 140
0
140
6
0 140
0
0
SECT 4 ; PLAT 1
0
0 185
274
2 185 274 102
330
3 102 330
7
189
4
7 189 55
97
5 55
97 83
56
6 83
56
0
0
7
7 189 88
330
8 88 330 169
274
9 169 274 55
97
SECT 5 ..... (not printed here)
END

5
=
=
=
=
=
5.6
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

The input for GENF reads:

514

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

PROG GENF
HEAD POS D2: WINDBREAK
SYST SPAC
NODE 1 3.00 0.00 4.25
2 2.00 0.60 5.9
3 1.00 0.00 4.25
4 2.00 0.00 2.65 YP
5 0.00 0.00 2.65
11 3.00 1.66 4.25
12 3.27 1.66 3.85 PP
NODE 21 3.00 3.32 4.25
22 2.00 2.72 5.9
23 1.00 3.32 4.25
24 2.00 3.32 2.65 YP
25 0.00 3.32 2.65
NODE 6 3.1 0.00 5.90 F $ REFERENCE NODE
7 2
3.40 2.65 F
8 2
3.40 5.90 F
9 3.1 3.40 2.65 F
10 3.1 0.00 4.25 F
NODE 11 FIX KF 12
ADEF 1 ; BDIV .07 ; .66 ; .66 ; .66 ; .07 .07
ADEF 2 ; BDIV .67 ; .66 ; .66 ; .66 ; .67 .67
ADEF 3 ; BDIV .67 ; .66 ; .33 .33
ADEF 4 ; BDIV .33 ; .66 ; .67 .67
BEAM 1 1 11 10 4 NBD 3
2 2 22
6 5 NBD 1
3 11 21 10 4 NBD 4
4 4 24
9 3 NBD 2
5 5 25 56 1 NBD 2
10 4 5 9 2 DIV 2 ; 11 24 25 9 2 DIV 2
20 4 3 7 1 DIV 2 ; 21 24 23 7 1 DIV 2
30 5 3 0 1 DIV 2 ; 31 25 23 0 1 DIV 2
40 3 1 0 2 DIV 2 ; 41 23 21 0 2 DIV 2
50 4 1 0 1 DIV 2 ; 51 24 21 0 1 DIV 2
60 1 2 0 1 DIV 2 ; 61 21 22 0 1 DIV 2
70 3 2 0 1 DIV 2 ; 71 23 22 0 1 DIV 2
END

The correct position in space of the local system of coordinates is important.


Direction angles and reference nodes were used in the previous example as
required. The directional components of the principal axis (yaxis) are output
by GENF and they should be carefully checked by the user.
The output from GENF is presented in the following.
N O D A L
Number

C O O R D I N A T E S
AND
S U P P O R T S
X[m]
Y[m]
Z[m] Support Conditions

Version 10.20

515

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

1
3.000
.000
4.250
2
2.000
.600
5.900
3
1.000
.000
4.250
4
2.000
.000
2.650
5
.000
.000
2.650
6
3.100
.000
5.900
7
2.000
3.400
2.650
8
2.000
3.400
5.900
9
3.100
3.400
2.650
10
3.100
.000
4.250
11
3.000
1.660
4.250
12
3.270
1.660
3.850
21
3.000
3.320
4.250
22
2.000
2.720
5.900
23
1.000
3.320
4.250
24
2.000
3.320
2.650
25
.000
3.320
2.650

MIN
.000
.000
5.900
MAX
3.270
3.400
2.650

PX

PZ

PX
PX
PX
PX
PX

PY
PY
PY
PY
PY

PZ
PZ
PZ
PZ
PZ

PX

PY

PZ

PX

MX
MX
MX
MX
MX

MY
MY
MY
MY
MY

MZ
MZ
MZ
MZ
MZ

MB
MB
MB
MB
MB

K I N E M A T I C
C O N S T R A I N T S
Node LV type reference
dx
11
1
KF
12
.270

PZ

dy
.000

dz

df

.400

MATERIALS
No. 1 ST 37 (DIN 17100)

Youngsmodulus
210000
[MPa]
Safetyfactor
1.10
[]
PoissonRatio
0.30
[]
Yield stress fy
240.00 [MPa]
Shearmodulus
81000
[MPa]
Tens. strength ft
370.00 [MPa]
Compression modulus
171821
[MPa]
Ultim. plast. strain 0.00 [o/oo]
Weight
78.5 [kN/m3]
Relaxation at .55ft
0.00
[]
Weight buoyancy
0.0 [kN/m3]
Relaxation at .70ft
0.00
[]
Temp.elongat.coeff. 1.20E05
[]
national bond coeff. 0.00
[]
CROSSSECTIONS STATIC PROPERTIES
No MNo
A[m2] Ay/Az/Ayz Iy/Iz/Iyz
MNs
It[m4]
[m2]
[m4]
1
=
SH 100 x 100 x 4
1 1.5244E03 6.420E04 2.332E06
3.572E06 6.420E04 2.332E06
2
=
SH 100 x 100 x 4
1 1.5244E03 6.420E04 2.332E06
3.572E06 6.420E04 2.332E06
3
1 3.8047E03 6.895E04 3.216E05
1.997E05 1.816E03 1.152E05
2.660E038.612E06

516

ys/zs
[m]

y/zsc
[m]

modules
[MPa]

gam
[kN/m]

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000

210000
81000

0.12

0.000
0.000
0.075
0.008

0.000
0.000
0.058
0.005

210000
81000
210000
81000

0.12
0.30

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


4

1 7.5067E03 1.870E03 6.677E05


4.972E05 3.406E03 6.747E05
9.051E03 6.100E06
1 4.7189E03 5.714E04 2.716E05
4.933E08 1.390E03 2.498E05
2.613E03 1.181E06

B E A M
beam
1

10

11

20

21

30

E L E M E N T S
node
x[m] NoS
1
.000
4
.670
4
1.330
4
11
1.660
4
2
.000
5
.070
5
.730
5
1.390
5
2.050
5
22
2.120
5
11
.000
4
.330
4
.990
4
21
1.660
4
4
.000
3
.670
3
1.330
3
1.990
3
2.650
3
24
3.320
3
5
0.000
1
0.670
1
1.330
1
1.990
1
2.650
1
25
3.320
1
4
0.000
2
1.000
2
5
2.000
2
24
0.000
2
1.000
2
25
2.000
2
4
0.000
1
0.943
1
3
1.887
1
24
0.000
1
0.943
1
23
1.887
1
5
0.000
1

Version 10.20

Ref

STAR2

0.001
0.190

0.002
0.133

210000
81000

0.59

0.002
0.152

0.054
0.045

210000
81000

0.37

hinges

direction local yaxis


1.000
.000
.000

0.56

1.000

.000

.000

1.000

.000

.000

0.00 0.83

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

517

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

31

3
25
23

0.943
1.887
0.000
0.943
1.887

1
1
1
1
1

0.00

1.00

0.00

and so on

The secondary beams were analysed first, and their reaction forces were used
as loads. The input for STAR2 reads:
PROG STAR2
HEAD POS D2: WINDBREAK
CTRL I
LC 1 DLZ 1
SL 2 PZ 1.05 (.07 2.05
SL 5 PZ 0.70 (.67 2.65
SL 4 PZ 0.35 (.67 2.65
SL 1 PZ .7 .67 ; = = =
3 PZ .7 .33 ; = = =
UL 30 PZ .18 ; 31 ==
UL 50 PZ .18 ; 51 ==
UL 60 PZ .18 ; 61 ==
UL 70 PZ .18 ; 71 ==
END

.66)
.66)
.66)
1.33
.99

One then obtains the following output:


L O A D C A S E
load factor
factor
dlx
factor
dly
factor
dlz

1
1.000
.000
.000
1.000

B E A M
L O A D S
Beamno type
a[m]
1 SLPZ
.67
1 SLPZ
1.33
2 SLPZ
.07
2 SLPZ
.73
2 SLPZ
1.39
2 SLPZ
2.05
3 SLPZ
.33
3 SLPZ
.99
4 SLPZ
.67
4 SLPZ
1.33
4 SLPZ
1.99
4 SLPZ
2.65
5 SLPZ
.67

518

l[m]

load1
.70
.70
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
.70
.70
.35
.35
.35
.35
.70

load2 [dim] ya[m] za[m] ye[m] ze[m]


KN
KN
KN
KN
KN
KN
KN
KN
KN
KN
KN
KN
KN

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


5
5
5
30
31
50
51
60
61
70
71

ELPZ
ELPZ
ELPZ
GLPZ
GLPZ
GLPZ
GLPZ
GLPZ
GLPZ
GLPZ
GLPZ

1.330
1.990
2.650
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

1.887
1.887
1.887
1.887
2.021
2.021
2.021
2.021

0.70
0.70
0.70
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18

STAR2

KN
KN
KN
KN/M
KN/M
KN/M
KN/M
KN/M
KN/M
KN/M
KN/M

linear
results
Loadfactor 1.00

B E A M
F O R C E S
A N D
D I S P L A C E M E N T S
Loadcase
1
beam
X
N
VY
VZ
MT
MY
No
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
[kNm]
1
.00
.6
.9
2.9
.19
.39
.67
.6
.9
2.5
.19
1.40
.67
.6
.9
1.8
.19
1.40
1.33
.6
.9
1.4
.19
2.44
1.33
.6
.9
.7
.19
2.44
1.66
.6
.9
.5
.19
2.64
2
.00
1.4
.0
2.5
.14
.26
.07
1.4
.0
2.5
.14
.09
.07
1.4
.0
1.4
.08
.09
.73
1.4
.0
1.2
.07
.77
.73
1.4
.0
.1
.01
.77
1.39
1.4
.0
.1
.01
.77
1.39
1.4
.0
1.2
.07
.77
2.05
1.4
.0
1.4
.08
.09
2.05
1.4
.0
2.5
.14
.09
2.12
1.4
.0
2.5
.14
.26
3
.00
.6
.9
.5
.19
2.64
.33
.6
.9
.7
.19
2.44
.33
.6
.9
1.4
.19
2.44
.99
.6
.9
1.8
.19
1.40
.99
.6
.9
2.5
.19
1.40
1.66
.6
.9
2.9
.19
.39
4
.00
.4
.0
1.2
.02
.13
.67
.4
.0
1.0
.02
.60
.67
.4
.0
.6
.01
.60
1.33
.4
.0
.4
.01
.97
1.33
.4
.0
.1
.00
.97
1.99
.4
.0
.1
.00
.97
1.99
.4
.0
.4
.01
.97

Version 10.20

MZ
[kNm]
.11
.51
.51
1.12
1.12
1.43
.04
.04
.04
.04
.04
.04
.04
.04
.04
.04
1.43
1.12
1.12
.51
.51
.11
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09

519

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

2.65
2.65
3.32
.00
.67
.67
1.33
1.33
1.99
1.99
2.65
2.65
3.32

.4
.4
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3

.0
.0
.0
1.3
1.3
.7
.6
.0
.0
.6
.7
1.3
1.3

.6
1.0
1.2
.9
.8
.5
.4
.0
.0
.4
.5
.8
.9

.01
.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.60
.60
.13
.47
.12
.12
.40
.40
.40
.40
.12
.12
.47

.09
.09
.09
.57
.29
.29
.72
.72
.72
.72
.29
.29
.57

. . .
and so on
Loadcase
nodes
No
4
12
24
N O D A L
Loadcase
nodes
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
21
22
23
24
25

1
PX
[kN]
.9
1.9
.9

PY
[kN]
.0
.0
.0

PZ
[kN]
11.2
1.0
11.2

MX
[kNm]
.00
.00
.00

MY
[kNm]
.00
.00
.00

MZ
[kNm]
.00
.00
.00

PHIY
[mrad]
.294
.135
.158
.175
.172
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.372
.372
.294
.135
.158
.175
.172

PHIZ
[mrad]
.094
.004
.128
.060
.228
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.094
.004
.128
.060
.228

D I S P L A C E M E N T S
1
uX
[mm]
.260
.535
.290
.000
.007
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.149
.000
.260
.535
.290
.000
.007

uY
[mm]
.001
.001
.068
.001
.002
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.001
.001
.068
.001
.002

uZ
[mm]
.122
.061
.218
.000
.419
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.101
.000
.122
.061
.218
.000
.419

PHIX
[mrad]
.185
.084
.069
.166
1.040
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.185
.084
.069
.166
1.040

S U M
PX [kN]

520

PY [kN]

PZ [kN]

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


Loads
Reactions

.0
.0

.0
.0

STAR2

21.4
21.4

The structure, the loading and the section forces can be represented graphi
cally by GRAF:
PROG
SIZE
LC 1
BEAM
BEAM
END

GRAF
4 0 ; VIEW STAN 1.5 1 1 POSZ
LP2 1
N 5 ; MY 1 ; MZ 1

Version 10.20

521

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

Wind screen bending moments

5.5.

Construction Stages.

5.5.1.

Introduction

The analysis of construction stages is by no means an easy task, rather it re


quires an engineering understanding of the special conditions. The simula
tion of its effects by simple examples is therefore absolutely necessary prior
to undertaking a more complicated analysis.
Construction stages can be considered separately in an exact manner. Nat
urally, the simplest method is to analyse the individual construction stages
with their own statical systems independently from each other, and then
superimpose them and perform the design. The individual statical systems
are distinguished by the beam number after the arrangement of the beam el
ements in groups.
STAR2, however, possesses a very powerful option, which allows the analysis
of the rearrangement of supports due to statical system changes as well as
to creep and shrinkage.
Strains and curvatures from any analysed loadcase can be converted by
means of the record LV to loads for a new loadcase.
If these initial deformations are applied as loads with reversed sign (PHI 1.),
two principal possibilities result for an unmodified statical system:
The loads of the previous loadcase are applied as well. In this case the
curvature and strain loads are in equilibrium with the previous loads
and there is no resulting loading. The system remains still.
The previous loading is not applied. Now the curvature loads act alone
and they cause a force free deformation opposite to the one caused by
the loads.
If the system on the other hand has been modified, there is no equilibrium be
tween PHI 1 and the loading of the new system. The difference in the loading
alters the internal forces in such a way, that the additional effects of the sup
port rearrangement due to the system change are accounted for.

5.5.2.

Single Span Beam with Auxiliary Support.

A 60 m long beam, fixed at both ends, is put together from two prefabricated
parts and an auxiliary support. It is subjected to gravity loading. The auxili
ary support is removed after establishing a monolithic connection.

522

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

Single span beam


The statical system is first defined as a double single span beam with GENF,
and the dead weight loadcase is analyzed with STAR2. Since during a restart
one can only change supports and couplings, but not articulations, the closing
articulation must be introduced by means of a duplicate node.
The input to GENF reads:
PROG GENF
HEAD SINGLE SPAN BEAM WITH AUXILIARY SUPPORT STAR3 MANUAL
NODE 1 0 0 PP ; 2 30. 0.0 PP ; 3 0. 0. KP 2 ; 4 60 0. PP
MAT 1 ; SCIR 1 MNO 1 RA 1.5/2
BEAM 1001 1 2 DIV 6
1002 3 4 DIV 6
END

The input to STAR2 is:


PROG STAR2
KOPF CONSTRUCTION PHASE
CTRL I
LC 1
UL 1001,1002 PY 10.0
END
END

The following section forces result:


B E A M
Loadcase

F O R C E S
1

Version 10.20

A N D

M O M E N T S

523

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2
beam
No
1001

X
[m]
.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
1002
.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00

N
[kN]
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

VZ
[kN]
150.0
100.0
50.0
.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
150.0
100.0
50.0
.0
50.0
100.0
150.0

MY
[kNm]
.00
625.00
1000.00
1125.00
1000.00
625.00
.00
.00
625.00
1000.00
1125.00
1000.00
625.00
.00

Next, GENF is invoked again in order to change the statical system:


PROG GENF
HEAD CHANGE FIXATIONS FOR FINAL PHASE
NODE 1 FIX F ; 2 FIX FREI ; 3 FIX KF 2 ; 4 FIX F
END

and STAR2 is started with:


PROG STAR2
HEAD FINAL PHASE
ECHO LOAD
CTRL I
LC 2
UL 1001,1002 PY 10.0
LV 1 PHI 1.0
END
END

Only the support rearrangement due to the modification of the statical sys
tem is to be analysed here. Additional loads are usually applied at this point.
The internally generated curvatures appear in the load printout:
B E A M
L O A D S
Beamno type
a[m]
l[m]
1001 ULPY
.00 30.00
1001 CLK1
.00
5.00
1001 CLK1
5.00
5.00
1001 CLK1 10.00
5.00
1001 CLK1 15.00
5.00

524

load1
10.00
.00
.08
.13
.15

load2 [dim] ya[m] za[m] ye[m] ze[m]


KN/M
.08 1/KM
.13 1/KM
.15 1/KM
.13 1/KM

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


1001
1001
1002
1002
1002
1002
1002
1002
1002

CLK1
CLK1
ULPY
CLK1
CLK1
CLK1
CLK1
CLK1
CLK1

20.00
25.00
.00
.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00

5.00
5.00
30.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00

.13
.08
10.00
.00
.08
.13
.15
.13
.08

STAR2

.08 1/KM
.00 1/KM
KN/M
.08 1/KM
.13 1/KM
.15 1/KM
.13 1/KM
.08 1/KM
.00 1/KM

and the results are


B E A M
F O R C E S
A N D
M O M E N T S
Loadcase
2
beam
X
N
VZ
MY
No
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1001
.00
.0
300.0 2250.00
5.00
.0
250.0 875.00
10.00
.0
200.0
250.00
15.00
.0
150.0 1125.00
20.00
.0
100.0 1750.00
25.00
.0
50.0 2125.00
30.00
.0
.0 2250.00
1002
.00
.0
.0 2250.00
5.00
.0
50.0 2125.00
10.00
.0
100.0 1750.00
15.00
.0
150.0 1125.00
20.00
.0
200.0
250.00
25.00
.0
250.0 875.00
30.00
.0
300.0 2250.00

The resulting moment diagram shows a superposition of the moment of load


case 1 and that of the support rearrangement loadcase (force of 300 kN at mid
span of a beam fixed at both ends). This result (MaxM=MinM=2250 kNm)
is not the same as that of a single span beam with uniform load (MaxM=1500
kNm, MinM=3000 kNm).

5.5.3.

Internal Force Redistribution due to Creep.

It can not be the task of this manual to offer a complete review of the various
theories on creep. The method implemented in STAR2, by which the stresses
of any loadcase can be converted to creep deformations, allows the consider
ation of all theories through proper manipulation of the input (with corre
sponding input expense).
The creep law describes the relationship between creep deformations and act
ing stress:
Version 10.20

525

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

eps +

f @ s

Eb

Whether one for the chronological process onto a product accretion according
to the ageing theory (older theories and EC2) or applied a sum approach ac
cording to the theory of the structure crawling elastically (DIN4227) is not for
this method decisive. Here only the entire coefficient is necessary.
The creep law holds, in general, only for constant acting stress. This is only
the case though for statically determinate structures and 1st order theory. In
such case the creep factor PHI of the record LV is identical to the creep coeffi
cient. The system undergoes force free deformations in this case.
The stress in statically indeterminate structures, however, changes due to
constraints. With the above accretion and full creep coefficient one receives
wrong results. Even if construction stages must be considered, this accretion
is inadequate. A relatively complicated differential equation results which,
of course, can not be solved by STAR2.
One has now the choice between two procedures:
A numeric integration of the differential equations with the socalled Euler
method is most general. This subdivides the creep process into intervals, at
which in each case the stress at the beginning of the interval about the inter
val unchangeable performing is accepted. A relatively large number of inter
vals (5 to 20) is required though for obtaining good results.
Better accuracy can be reached if an average creep stress is used. DIN 4227
allows the calculation in a single interval with an average creep stress, so long
as the final stress does not differ from the initial value by more than 30 per
cent. Unfortunately the final value is usually not known in advance, thus this
method is not generally practicable.
It is however possible to receive valid results with an interval also with
changeable stresses. One must introduce for this purpose creep factors which
consider this effect.
An acceptable solution is offered by the Trost method with a relaxation coeffi
cient. Instead of the complicated differential equation, an introductory analy
sis results in an algebraic relation with a relaxation coefficient which can be
usually assumed equal to = 0.8 without significant loss of accuracy.
t + 01 ) f )

526

Ds

E 1 ) f
Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

These coefficients are defined also by the kind and manner of the load. The
resulting decrease of the restraint section forces for progressively applied re
straining is
Z + Z R @

1
1 ) f

and for suddenly applied restraining

Z + Z 0 @ 1 *

f
1 ) f

A segmentally constructed twospan beam with distinct creep coefficients for


each of the two spans is examined as an example. This example can be found
in the book Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete by Rusch/Jungwirth Part
2, Page 224.

Twospan beam
The structure is defined with two groups in GENF:
PROG GENF
HEAD CONTINUOUS BEAM BY CONSTRUCTION STAGES
SYST GDIV 1000
NODE 1 0 0 PP ; 2 20. 0 PP ; 3 40 0 PP
MAT 1 ; SREC 1 MNO 1 H 1.5 B 4.0
GRP 1; BEAM 1001 1 2 DIV 5
GRP 2; BEAM 2001 2 3 DIV 5
END

The first construction phase (left singlespan beam) as well as the second one
are defined in STAR2 as described in the previous chapter. In addition, the
socalled singlecasting phase is analysed, which would be the case if the sys
tem were constructed monolithically in one phase.
Version 10.20

527

STAR2
PROG
HEAD
CTRL
LC 1
END
HEAD
CTRL
LC 2
LV 1
END
HEAD
CTRL
LC 3
END

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2
CONSTRUCTION PHASE 1
I ; GRP 1 ; ECHO BDEF
; UL 1001 PY 30.0
CONSTRUCTION PHASE 2
I ; GRP 1,2 ; ECHO BDEF
; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0
PHI 1 FROM 1001
POURING PHASE
I ; GRP 1,2 ; ECHO BDEF
; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

The resulting section forces of loadcase 2 include a support moment half as


big as the one of the usual twospan beam.
B E A M
F O R C E S
A N D
M
Loadcase
2
beam
X
N
VZ
No
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
1001
.00
.0
262.5
4.00
.0
142.5
8.00
.0
22.5
12.00
.0
97.5
16.00
.0
217.5
20.00
.0
337.5
2001
.00
.0
337.5
4.00
.0
217.5
8.00
.0
97.5
12.00
.0
22.5
16.00
.0
142.5
20.00
.0
262.5

O M E N T S
MY
[kNm]
.00
810.00
1140.00
990.00
360.00
750.00
750.00
360.00
990.00
1140.00
810.00
.00

u
[mm]
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000

uz
[mm]
.000
.284
.498
.569
.427
.000
.000
.673
1.195
1.266
.815
.000

PHIY
[mrad]
.074
.065
.039
.006
.068
.148
.148
.167
.082
.049
.169
.222

The problem will be first analysed with a wellestablished method employing


creep factors. As known, the disturbed phase creeps towards the socalled
singlecasting phase. In case of a constant creep coefficient over the struc
ture, the resulting relationship between the singlecasting moment Me and
the construction moment Mb is:
Ms = Me ( Me Mb ) ephi
However, the difference of the two phases is already given by the LVload, so
that a multiplication of the creep factor by ephi accounts for the creep up to
the final state.

528

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

By inputting a creep coefficient of 2.18


PROG
HEAD
CTRL
LC 4
LV 1
END

STAR2
CREEP OF THE MOMENT DIFFERENCE
I ; GRP 1,2
; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0
PHI 0.11304 FROM 1001

one obtains a support moment of 1415.22 kNm.


By this method, however, the different creep in the two spans must remain
unconsidered, because loadcase 1 includes defined section forces, that LV can
refer to, in the first beam only. The computed value though is in very good
agreement with the value of 1380 kNm given by a more precise calculation
by Rusch or the value of 1411.9 kNm given by a more approximate calculation
using three creep intervals.
A different method must be adopted for the consideration of the distinct creep
coefficients in the two spans. One uses loadcase 2 in further calculations and
creates creep deformations from its stresses. A first thoughtless investiga
tion with the input
PROG STAR2
HEAD CREEP OF CONSTRUCTION PHASE AT ONE STEP WRONG WAY!!!
CTRL I ; GRP 1,2
LC 4 ; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0
$ PHI = 2.18 / 2.62
LV 2 PHI 2.181.0 FROM 1001 ; 2 PHI 2.621.0 FROM 2001
END

results in a completely useless value of 2550 kNm. This error is due to the fact
that only the stress at the beginning of the creep is used in the calculations.
One can achieve an improvement by subdividing the creep into intervals.
The total creep coefficients are 2.18 for the right part and 2.62 for the left. A
subdivision into 6 time intervals with approximately equal creep coefficients
results in:

Start
I

kv

Age

li

0.50

45
70

Days 0.66
Days 0.76

Version 10.20

kf

PHI Age
Value

re

0.40

Days 0.44
Days 0.58

15
40

kf

PHI
Value

0.48

529

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

II
0.11 105 Days 0.86 0.24 75
Days 0.78 0.44
III
0.19 205 Days 1.03 0.41 175 Days 1.00 0.52
IV
0.13 445 Days 1.18 0.35 415 Days 1.16 0.37
V
0.05 1045 Days 1.27 0.20 1015 Days 1.25 0.20
VI
0.02
Days 1.55 0.58
Days 1.55 0.61

1.00
2.18
2.62
The stresses are now processed for each one of the six creep intervals with the
corresponding creep increments:
PROG
HEAD
CTRL
LC 3
LV 2
END
HEAD
CTRL
LC 4
LV 3
END
HEAD
CTRL
LC 5
LV 4
END
HEAD
CTRL
LC 6
LV 5
END
HEAD
CTRL
LC 7
LV 6
END
HEAD
CTRL
LC 8
LV 7
END

STAR2
EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 1
I ; GRP 1,2
; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0
PHI 0.401 FROM 1001 ; 2 PHI 0.481 FROM 2001
EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 2
I ; GRP 1,2
; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0
PHI 0.241 FROM 1001 ; 3 PHI 0.441 FROM 2001
EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 3
I ; GRP 1,2
; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0
PHI 0.411 FROM 1001 ; 4 PHI 0.521 FROM 2001
EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 4
I ; GRP 1,2
; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0
PHI 0.351 FROM 1001 ; 5 PHI 0.371 FROM 2001
EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 5
I ; GRP 1,2
; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0
PHI 0.201 FROM 1001 ; 6 PHI 0.201 FROM 2001
EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 6
I ; GRP 1,2
; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0
PHI 0.581 FROM 1001 ; 7 PHI 0.611 FROM 2001

The support moment reaches a final value of 1469 kNm. This computation
overestimates the creep deformations by about 8 percent. An improvement
is reached, of course, if one defines the creep coefficients multiplied by the re

530

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

laxation coefficient 0.8. A moment of 1430 kNm is obtained in such case. If one
though assumes that a sudden restraint is creeping here, and applies the fac
tor /(1+) instead, the resulting value is 1412 kNm.
The support moments take the following values:
Variantion
750.00
1080.00
1222.80
1351.70
1405.09
1424.07
1469.25

kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm

Variantion
750.00
1014.00
1146.19
1277.81
1341.80
1367.11
1430.37

kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm

Variantion /(1+)
750.00
993.75
1126.89
1253.00
1321.92
1352.55
1411.97

kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm

In this last case one should even do without the creep intervals and compute
in one total step. The best value so far of 1365 kNm results that way. The input
for that is:
PROG
HEAD
CTRL
LC 9
LV 2
END

STAR2
EULERMETHOD CREEP PHI/(1+RHO*PHI) GENERAL STEP
I ; GRP 1,2 ; ECHO BDEF
; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0
PHI 0.7941 FROM 1001 ; 2 PHI 0.8461 FROM 2001

Contemplation on limit values for the support moment shows that the value
by PHI should lie between 0.0 and 1.0 only. The creep must therefore be
subdivided at least in such a way that all intervals lie within that range. In
the case of direct specification according to the last input these limit values
are automatically observed. PHI=1.0 results for =0.0 and PHI=0.0 results
for =.
The separate consideration of the delayed elastic components would have re
quired an immense increase of the input effort, which is justifiable in very sel
dom cases only.
One more important piece of advice. If one is interested in the deformations,
one must take into consideration that each analysis step calculates the incre
mental deformations only.
When a construction phase is analysed as repetition, i.e. same system with
same loads and LV 1.0, the same section forces are reported. The applied
loads though as well as the deformations are zero.
Version 10.20

531

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

Because of that the deformations of the loadcase 2 analysed here are identical
to those of a loadcase by which only the left beam is loaded are identical. The
deformations are:

Beam
No
1001

x
(m)
0.00
4.00
8.00
12.00
16.00
20.00
2001 0.00
4.00
8.00
12.00
16.00
20.00

Loadcase 1
uz
PHIY
(mm)
(o/oo)
0.000
0.296
1.100
0.235
1.764
0.088
1.764
0.088
1.100
0.235
0.000
0.296

Loadcase 2
uz
PHIY
(mm)
(o/oo)
0.000
0.074
0.284
0.065
0.498
0.039
0.569
0.006
0.427
0.068
0.000
0.148
0.000
0.148
0.673
0.167
1.195
0.082
1.266
0.049
0.815
0.169
0.000
0.222

Loadcase 9
uz
PHIY
(mm)
(o/oo)
0.000
0.116
0.414
0.081
0.597
0.007
0.482
0.060
0.185
0.076
0.000
0.004
0.000
0.004
0.220
0.085
0.544
0.064
0.663
0.010
0.457
0.090
0.000
0.127

The larger creep deformation of the right span in LC 9 is obvious.


The total deformations must be computed with MAXIMA. The beam de
formations must be added in such case. The corresponding section forces are
naturally unusable. The nodal deformations are only partially usable for the
calculation of the total deformation, because a jump occurs at intermediate
support nodes. A duplicate node with coupling should therefore be intro
duced, if the nodal deformations are to be added.
If, as is usual, the right span already exists in construction stagse 1 as a canti
lever, there is the problem of a bend developing during concrete casting. One
can capture this computationally only if the rest of the span is included in the
system as a force free, yet deformed, element with an articulation and with
out all loading.

5.6.

Nonlinear Material Behaviour.

5.6.1.

Precast Column

The illustrated 2story precast column will be examined by 2nd order theory
with nonlinear material behaviour:

532

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

Precast column
The input of the cross section occurs with AQUA
PROG
HEAD
ECHO
CONC
SECT

AQUA
EXAMPLE 1 PRECAST MEMBER SUPPORT
FULL
1 B 45 ; STEE 2 BST 420
1 ; POLY OPZ ; VERT 1 0.2 0.2 ; 2 0.2 0.2
RF 1 0.16 0.16 1.13 ; 2 0.16 ==
RF 3 0.16 .16 1.13 ; 4 0.16 ==

END

The input for GENF is as follows:


PROG
HEAD
SYST
NODE

GENF
PRECAST MEMBER SUPPORT
FRAM GDIR NEGX
1 0 0 F
2 6 0 PY
3 12 0
BEAM 1 1 2 DIV 4
2 2 3 DIV 4
END

The first check is a regular design of the structure. For this purpose, the loads
are defined and an analysis by 1st order theory is carried out with STAR2. The
STAR2 input for that reads:
Version 10.20

533

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

PROG STAR2
CTRL I
LC 1 1.00 ; NL 2 PX 300. ; 3 == ; 3 PY 20
END

The following section forces result:


linear
results
Loadfactor 1.00

B E A M
F O R C E S
A N D
M O M E N T S
Loadcase
1
beam
X
N
VZ
MY
No
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1
.00
600.0
30.0
60.00
1.50
600.0
30.0
15.00
3.00
600.0
30.0
30.00
4.50
600.0
30.0
75.00
6.00
600.0
30.0 120.00
2
.00
300.0
20.0 120.00
1.50
300.0
20.0
90.00
3.00
300.0
20.0
60.00
4.50
300.0
20.0
30.00
6.00
300.0
20.0
.00
N O D A L
Loadcase
nodes
No
1
2
3

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

AND

R E A C T I O N S

1
uX
[mm]
.000
.608
.912

uY
[mm]
.000
.000
31.926

PHIZ
[mrad]
.000
2.280
6.841

PX
[kN]
600.0
.0

PY
[kN]
30.0
50.0

MZ
[kNm]
60.00
.00

AQB is now started by


PROG
HEAD
ECHO
LC 1
ULTI
END

AQB
REGULAR DIMENSIONING
REIN
BEAM SAVE

A regular design according to DIN 1045 will be performed; the reinforcement


will be constant in each span and it will be stored as minimum reinforcement.
The user obtains the following output:
U L T I M A T E
L O A D
D E S I G N
========================================================================

534

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


Design for live loads DIN 1045
uniaxial bending
Safety factors SC1 SC2 SS1
1.75 2.10 1.75
Strain limits
C1
C2
S1
3.50 2.00 3.00

SS2 PIIa
2.10
7
S2
Z1
5.00 2.00

parameters for reinforcements


Minimum reinforcements compression
Bending. Compress.
e/d
N/Npl
.00
.10
3.50
.0010

STAR2

Z2
5.00

min.reinf.
requ.sect.
.80

maximum
reinforc.
9.00

R E Q U I R E D
R E I N F O R C E M E N T S
Beam
x(m) NCS LC
Ni
Myi/Mzi e1/yn e2/zn
(KN)
(KNm) (o/oo / mm)
1
.000 1
1 1328.38
132.84 3.50
.90
1.500 1
1 1977.27
49.43 3.20 .40
3.000 1
1 1715.05
85.75 3.50 .17
4.500 1
1 1182.11
147.77 3.50 1.49
6.000 1
1
768.33
153.67 3.50 4.69
2
.000 1
1
300.00
120.00 1.90 5.00
1.500 1
1
356.43
106.93 1.98 5.00
3.000 1
1
768.33
153.67 3.50 4.69
4.500 1
1 1328.38
132.84 3.50
.90
6.000 1
1 2313.14
.00 2.00 2.00

nue
C/S
1.99
2.10
2.10
1.93
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.99
2.10

rel
Tra
2.21
3.30
2.86
1.97
1.28
1.00
1.19
2.56
4.43
7.71

As L
(cm2)
5.78 0
4.52 0
4.52 0
6.50 0
10.00 0
18.42 0
10.77 0
5.00 0
4.52 0
4.52 0

L O N G I T U D I N A L
R E I N F O R C E M E N T S
Note: Layer includes reinforcements for torsion if followed by T
Note: Layer has only compression reinforcements if followed by
Beamno
x(m) NCS mue
AsSum Lay0&5 Lay1&6 Lay2&7 Lay3&8 Lay4&9
[]
[cm2]
[cm2]
[cm2]
[cm2]
[cm2]
[cm2]
1
.000 1
.62
10.00
10.0
2
.000 1 1.15
18.42
18.4
Reinforcements converted to minimum reinforcements

The maximum values of reinforcement for each span are presented in the
table "Longitudinal reinforcement" and they are output at the beginning of
each span. The first table appears only when ECHO REIN is used.
PROG
HEAD
ECHO
CTRL
LC 1
ULTI
END

STAR2
COMPUTATION AFTER 2ND ORDER THEORY AND NEW STIFFNESS
REIN
II 20
1.75
BEAM ULTI S2 3.0 ; NSTR SN

Version 10.20

535

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

initiates the analysis for 1.75 times bigger load by 2nd order theory. It is of ad
vantage in case of heavily stressed members to reduce the maximum limit
strain to 0.003, so that the cross section does not become too weak. Conver
gence will be reached after a number of iterations and the computed state will
be output.
second order theory results
iteration 6
Loadfactor 1.75

C O N V E R G E N C E
A C H I E V E D
accuracy:
absolute
relative
achieved
limit
achieved
limit
( kN, kNm, m, rad)
(percent)
forces
3.009E01 1.050E+01
1.00
moments
1.244E+00 3.220E+00
1.00
displacements
1.069E03 2.133E03
1.00
rotations
2.253E04 4.393E04
1.00
B E A M
F O R C E S
A N D
M O M E N T S
Nonlinear loadcase
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration
beam
X
N
VZ
MY
No
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1
.00
1050.0
85.0
187.73
1.50
1050.0
85.0
56.87
3.00
1050.0
85.0
76.60
4.50
1050.0
85.0 206.51
6.00
1050.0
85.0 322.00
2
.00
525.0
35.0 322.00
1.50
525.0
35.0 251.43
3.00
525.0
35.0 171.65
4.50
525.0
35.0
86.83
6.00
525.0
35.0
.00

N O D A L
D I S P L A C E M E N T S
AND
R E A C T I O N S
Nonlinear loadcase
1
2nd Order Theory Iteration 6
nodes
uX
uY
PHIZ
PX
PY
MZ
No
[mm]
[mm] [mrad]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1
.000
.000
.000 1050.0
85.0 187.73
2
1.064
.000 15.202
.0 120.0
.00
3
1.596 213.339 43.935
U L T I M A T E
L O A D
D E S I G N
========================================================================
Design for ultimate loads DIN 1045/4227
uniaxial bending
Safety factors SC1 SC2 SS1 SS2 PIIa
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
7
Strain limits
C1
C2
S1
S2
Z1
Z2

536

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


3.50 2.00

3.00

3.00 2.00

parameters for reinforcements


Minimum reinforcements compression
Bending. Compress.
e/d
N/Npl
.00
.10
3.50
.0010
REQUIRED REINFORCEMENTS
Beam
x[m] NCS LC
1

0.000
1.500
3.000
4.500
6.000
0.000
1.500
3.000
4.500
6.000

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Ni
[kN]
1578.2
3511.9
3138.1
1362.2
1050.0
525.0
525.0
525.0
1758.0
4857.6

STAR2
5.00

min.reinf.
requ.sect.
.80

Myi/Mzi
[kNm]
282.26
190.58
228.46
267.67
321.80
321.80
251.26
171.52
290.57
0.00

e1/yn
[o/oo
3.17
3.50
3.50
2.64
2.21
1.68
1.57
1.42
3.50
2.00

maximum
reinforc.
9.00

e2/zn
/ mm]
3.00
0.09
0.29
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.77
2.00

nue
C/S
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

rel
tra
1.50
3.34
2.99
1.30
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
3.35
9.25

As L
[cm2]
8.5 0
4.5 0
4.5 0
9.9 0
26.0 0
36.3 0
25.5 0
13.2 0
4.5 0
4.5 0

L O N G I T U D I N A L
R E I N F O R C E M E N T S
Note: Layer includes reinforcements for torsion if followed by T
Note: Layer has only compression reinforcements if followed by
Beamno
x(m) NCS mue
AsSum Lay0&5 Lay1&6 Lay2&7 Lay3&8 Lay4&9
[]
[cm2]
[cm2]
[cm2]
[cm2]
[cm2]
[cm2]
1
.000 1 1.63
26.05
26.0
2
.000 1 2.27
36.33
36.3
Parameters for nonlinear stresses
Iteration for all forces and moments
Material of sections uses Ultimate Limit strainstress law without
safety factors
Material of reinforcementsuses Ultimate Limit strainstress law without
safety factors
N O N L I N E A R
S T R E S S E S
Beam
x(m) NCS LC
Ni
e0
[kN] [o/oo]
1
.000 1
1 1050.07 .091
1.500 1
1 1050.01 .230
3.000 1
1 1050.04 .232
4.500 1
1 1050.00 .041
6.000 1
1 1050.01
.685
2
.000 1
1
525.01
.920
1.500 1
1
525.00
.317
3.000 1
1
525.07
.119

Version 10.20

Myi/Mzi
Ky/Kz
[kNm] [1/km]
187.73
4.618
56.87
.875
76.60 1.180
206.51 5.442
322.00 14.470
322.00 13.006
251.43 7.180
171.65 4.365

Ey/Ezeff
x
[MPa] [cm]
19056.0 22.0
30462.7 40.0
30428.5 39.6
17786.9 20.8
10430.8 15.3
11605.1 12.9
16415.5 15.6
18431.0 17.3

537

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2
4.500
6.000

1
1

1
1

525.02
525.03

.068
.106

86.83
.00

1.592
.000

25565.0
37000.0

24.3
40.0

Iteration of stiffness
SN
Deviation of Moments
.000
Deviation of Shear
.000
Minimum stiffness
.010
Maximum stiffness
4.000
Crisfield faktors
.038
.780

The reinforcement was assumed constant for each beam in this example. This
is usually best, because it corresponds to normal practice and because this
way the support becomes stiffer and the deformations, which in turn induce
additional stresses, remain small. For long structural members of course it
is more economical to graduate the reinforcement along the length. In such
cases the value SECT should be input for ULTI instead of BEAM. The follow
ing table compares the reinforcement for the two distinct options. Interest
ingly, the maximum value of the uniform reinforcement per span is markedly
smaller than the graduate one.
x= 0.00
1.50
3.00
4.50
6.00
0.00
1.50
3.00
4.50
6.00

a) 26.05
...
36.33
...
b) 11.70
4.52
4.52 18.89 39.60 50.00 37.43 22.39
6.56
4.52

a) Uniform Span Reinforcement


b) Graduate Reinforcement

5.6.2.

SumAs = 374.28 cm2m


SumAs = 220.83 cm2m

Steel Frame According to Plastic Zones Theory.

STAR2 is especially appropriate for analysing steel frames by the plastic


zones theory. Compared to the plastic hinges theory, which can also be
employed by STAR2, this method has some significant advantages. On one
hand, the user does not have to make any assumptions about the location of
possible plastic hinges. A proper subdivision of the beam elements is suffi
cient (i.e. segment length must be about twice the height of the profile). On
the other hand, this method is much closer to the physical conditions than the
plastic hinges theory, in that the spreading of the plastified regions and the
eventually reduced rotation capacity are taken into account in an exact
manner.
The simple steel frame illustrated below will be checked for adequate
strength against flexural buckling according to the design format of DIN

538

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

18800 Parts 1 and 2. The design parameters of the plastic hinges theory are
used, because DIN 18800 does not contain any simplified rules for the plastic
zones theory. The new EC3 (ENV 1993) will include the plastic zones theory
among the codes design methods for the check of the flexural buckling
strength.
PROG
HEAD
STEE
SECT
END

AQUA
FRAME MANUAL STAR 2/3
1 ST 37
1 ; PROF 1 IPE 360

PROG GENF
HEAD FRAME MANUAL
SYST FRAM
NODE 1 0 6 F ;
2 0 0
;
BEAM 1 1 2 DIV
2 2 12 DIV
3 12 11 DIV
END
PROG
HEAD
CTRL
LC 1
LC 2
LC 3
LC 4

STAR 2/3
11 15 6 F
12 15 0
9
20
9

STAR2
LOAD CASES
0
DLY 1.0 ; UL 2 PY 4.2
; NL 2 PX 12
; UL 2 PY
6
; VL 1 U2 0 0.0234
3 U2 0.0234 0

$ PERMANENT LOAD
$ WIND
$ SNOW
$ PREDEFORMATION AFTER DIN 18800 PART 2

END

The number of the beam segments has an important influence on the result,
since it affects the accuracy of the modelling of the plastic zones.
The geometrical equivalent imperfections are input as separate loadcase (for
a frame height of 6 m and for 2 vertical loadcarrying posts the results are:
r1 = 0,91 ; r2 = 0,85 ; inclined position by 2,34 cm according to DIN 18800 Part
2).
The input of an analysis by plastic zone theory with STAR2 has the following
form:
PROG STAR2
HEAD GENERAL LOAD CASE
LC 10 ; LCC 1 1.35 ; 2 1.35 ; 3 1.5 ; 4 1.0

Version 10.20

539

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

CTRL II 50 ; ECHO NSTR FULL


CTRL INTE 2 ; REIN EGRE 0
NSTR S1
END

The input CTRL INTE 2 activates the interaction between shear and axial
stresses, which should not be ignored because it accounts for the effect of
shear forces and torsional moments upon the longitudinal stress capacity.
In each iteration the program computes for each section the actual stresses
and curvatures and from them new secant stiffnesses. In this analysis this
is also performed for the shear stiffness. The number of required iterations
depends on the problem; relocation of the axial forces, restiffening of plastic
zones and consideration of the shear stresses may lead to a large number of
iterations until equilibrium is found. There is no example known, however,
to have required more than 100 iterations for reaching equilibrium.
The results of the linear theory are presented first:
L O A D C A S E
load factor
factor
dlx
factor
dly
factor
dlz
N O D A L
node
2

10
1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

L O A D S
PX[kN]
PY[kN]
16.2

PZ[kN]

MX[kNm]

MY[kNm]

MZ[kNm]

B E A M
L O A D S
Beamno type
a[m]
l[m]
load1
load2 [dim] ya[m] za[m] ye[m] ze[m]
1 VLU2
0.00
6.00
0.00
23.40 MM
2 ULPY
0.00 15.00
5.67
KN/M
2 ULPY
0.00 15.00
9.00
KN/M
3 VLU2
0.00
6.00 23.40
0.00 MM
linear
results
Loadfactor 1.00

B E A M
F O R C E S
A N D
M O M E N T S
Loadcase 10
2nd Order Theory Iteration 0
beam
X
N
VZ
MY
No
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1 0.00
107.7
47.9
77.07
0.67
107.7
47.9
45.11
1.33
107.7
47.9
13.21
2.00
107.7
47.9
18.75
2.67
107.7
47.9
50.70

540

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


3.33
4.00
4.67
5.33
6.00
2 0.00
0.75
1.50
2.25
3.00
3.75
4.50
5.25
6.00
6.75
7.50
8.25
9.00
9.75
10.50
11.25
12.00
12.75
13.50
14.25
15.00
3 0.00
0.67
1.33
2.00
2.67
3.33
4.00
4.67
5.33
6.00

107.7
107.7
107.7
107.7
107.7
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
112.3
112.3
112.3
112.3
112.3
112.3
112.3
112.3
112.3
112.3

N O D A L
D I S P
Loadcase 10
2nd
nodes
uX
No
[mm]
1
0.000
2
8.587
11
0.000
12
7.957

Version 10.20

47.9
47.9
47.9
47.9
47.9
107.7
96.7
85.7
74.7
63.7
52.7
41.7
30.7
19.7
8.7
2.3
13.3
24.3
35.3
46.3
57.3
68.3
79.3
90.3
101.3
112.3
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1
64.1

STAR2

82.61
114.57
146.52
178.43
210.38
210.38
133.70
65.27
5.09
46.83
90.51
125.93
153.10
172.02
182.69
185.10
179.27
165.18
142.84
112.24
73.40
26.30
29.04
92.64
164.49
244.60
244.60
201.84
159.14
116.38
73.62
30.92
11.84
54.60
97.30
140.06

L A C E M E N T S
AND
R E A C T I O N S
Order Theory Iteration 0
uY
PHIZ
PX
PY
MZ
[mm] [mrad]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
0.000
0.000
47.9 107.7
77.07
0.423 11.702
0.000
0.000
64.1 112.3 140.06
0.441 9.177

541

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

After 9 iterations, STAR2 announces convergence and one obtains the final
moment distribution as well as the nonlinear stiffnesses.

Moment distribution
The following output of AQB is given here in excerpts as an extra. Four lines
per section are output due to the ECHOoption. The first line contains axial
force, strain at the gravity centre, moment and curvature, as well as the effec
tive Emodulus. The second and third line contain the maximum and the
minimum strains and stresses of the cross section as well as the location of
the neutral axis.
Lastly, the fourth line contains the available remaining plastic shear force
and the effective shear modulus. A shear hinge has practically formed at the
right corner. The plastified regions can be easily recognised from the reduced
E and Gmoduli. The drawings show bending moments and stiffnesses, as
they can be plotted with GRAF by BEAM MY and BEAM EIY or GAZ.
B E A M
F O R C E S
A N D
M O M E N T S
Nonlinear loadcase 10
2nd Order Theory Iteration 9
beam
X
N
VZ
MY
No
[m]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
1 0.00
109.5
45.3
56.39
0.67
109.5
45.3
26.41
1.33
109.5
45.3
3.57
2.00
109.5
45.3
33.58
2.67
109.5
45.3
63.54
3.33
109.5
45.3
93.36
4.00
109.5
45.3 123.08

542

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures


4.67
5.33
6.00
2 0.00
0.75
1.50
2.25
3.00
3.75
4.50
5.25
6.00
6.75
7.50
8.25
9.00
9.75
10.50
11.25
12.00
12.75
13.50
14.25
15.00
3 0.00
0.67
1.33
2.00
2.67
3.33
4.00
4.67
5.33
6.00

109.5
109.5
109.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
110.6
110.6
110.6
110.6
110.6
110.6
110.6
110.6
110.6
110.6

N O D A L
D I S P
Nonlinear loadcase
nodes
uX
No
[mm]
1
0.000
2
18.120
11
0.000
12
17.516

45.3
45.3
45.3
109.5
98.5
87.5
76.5
65.5
54.5
43.5
32.5
21.5
10.5
0.5
11.6
22.6
33.6
44.6
55.6
66.6
77.6
88.6
99.6
110.6
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5
61.5

STAR2

152.60
181.84
210.83
210.83
131.97
61.22
1.34
55.65
101.64
139.27
168.49
189.26
201.57
205.40
200.73
187.57
165.95
135.89
97.43
50.60
4.53
67.92
139.48
219.07
219.07
178.22
136.97
95.45
53.78
12.08
29.69
71.42
112.98
154.41

L A C E M E N T S
AND
R E A C T I O N S
10
2nd Order Theory Iteration 9
uY
PHIZ
PX
PY
MZ
[mm] [mrad]
[kN]
[kN]
[kNm]
0.000
0.000
45.3 109.5
56.39
0.430 15.709
0.000
0.000
61.5 110.6 154.41
0.434 11.557

PARAMETER FOR NONLINEAR STRESSES


Material of cross sections with
material safety factors
Material of reinforcements without material safety factors
Interaction normal and shearstress via Prandtl flow rule

Version 10.20

543

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structures

N O N L I N E A R
S T R E S S E S
Beam
x(m) NCS LC
Ni
e0 Myi/Mzi
Ky/Kz
Ey/Ezeff
x
[kN] [o/oo]
[kNm] [1/km]
[MPa] [cm])
e(o/oo) s(N/mm2) As(cm2) muez rw(mm) D(mm)
2
0.000 1 10
62.08 0.215 215.74 11.891
111481.4 19.2
sect. c
2.280 218.18 neut. axis
Z 1.8 (cm)
1.849
218.18
Vzi
141.78
GEFF
59497.9
0.750 1 10
62.08 0.045 136.56 4.395
190909.1 18.4
sect.
0.808 154.25 neut. axis
Z 1.0 (cm)
0.719
137.18
Vzi
234.23
GEFF
73426.6
1.500 1 10
62.08 0.045
65.41 2.105
190909.1 19.5
sect.
0.410
78.33 neut. axis
Z 2.1 (cm)
0.321
61.26
Vzi
290.34
GEFF
73426.6
....
6.750 1 10
62.09 0.067
200.11
6.611
185993.6 18.4
sect.
1.215 218.18 neut. axis Z
1.0 (cm)
1.081
206.44
Vzi
43.67
GEFF
73210.0
7.500 1 10
61.97 0.100
204.50
7.007
179322.5 18.8
sect.
1.316 218.18 neut.axis Z
1.4 (cm)
1.117
213.29
Vzi
1.02
GEFF
73426.6
8.250 1 10
62.09 0.069
200.41
6.636
185564.2 18.4
sect. 1.221 218.18 neut. axis
Z
1.0 (cm)
1.084
206.89
Vzi
44.93
GEFF
73283.2
....
13.500 1 10
62.08 0.045
65.47 2.107
190909.1 19.5
sect.
0.411
78.39 neut. axis
Z 2.1 (cm)
0.321
61.32
Vzi
290.65
GEFF
73426.6
14.250 1 10
62.08 0.045 136.63 4.397
190909.1 18.4
sect
. 0.808 154.32 neut. axis
Z 1.0 (cm)
0.719
137.25
Vzi
234.59
GEFF
73426.6
15.000 1 10
62.08 0.293 218.32 16.247
82567.3 19.2
sect
. 3.114 218.18 neut. axis
Z 1.8 (cm)
2.529
218.18
Vzi
111.65
GEFF
391.4
Maximum Usage of Allowable Forces
N[]
Vy[]
Vz[]
Mt[]
0.071
0.000
0.302
0.000

544

My[]
1.113

Mz[]
0.000

Mb[]
0.000

Mt2[]
0.000

Tot[]
1.154

Version 10.20

Statics of Beam Structures

STAR2

Bending stiffnesses

Shear stiffnesses

5.7.

Examples in the Internet.

Different statics examples are to be found in the Internet at www.sofis


tik.com/bibliothek.htm

Version 10.20

545

STAR2

546

Statics of Beam Structures

Version 10.20