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Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 129

(NYA SVINESUNDSBRON) vid BJLLVARPET

BILFINGER BERGER AG

Projekt Ny Svinesundsbro

Postlda 44 60

SE-452 92 STRMSTAD

Lilla Bommen 8

SE-405 33 GTEBORG

Substructures

0 General Descriptions

Appendix 0-4:

SOFiSTiK-Manual STAR2

Konstruktionshandlingar

ORT

DATUM

Godknd

Knnedom

NAMN

REV

ANT

NDRINGEN AVSER

KONSTR

GODKND

DATUM

UTARBETAT

TRAGWERKSPLANUNG

INGENIEURBAU

Mnchen

Mannheim

Kln

Hamburg

CARL-REISS-PLATZ 1-5

D-68165 MANNHEIM

TELEFON: +49 621 459-0

TELEFAX: +49 621 459-2219

KONSTR

SOFiSTiK

Mannheim

GRANSK

2002-12-19

KONSTBYGGNADSNR

14-1319-1

2+127

OBJEKT NR

DOKUMENT NR

43 36 05

110K1374

REV

Konstruktionshandlingar

List of revisions

Rev.

No.

Changes

Pages

No.

Changed

by

Date

STAR2

Statics of Beam Structure

Theory of 2nd Order

Version 10.20

STAR2

res

reproduced, in any form or by any means, without written permission from SOFiSTiK

AG. SOFiSTiK reserves the right to modify or to release new editions of this manual.

The manual and the program have been thoroughly checked for errors. However,

SOFiSTiK does not claim that either one is completely error free. Errors and omissions

are corrected as soon as they are detected.

The user of the program is solely responsible for the applications. We strongly

encourage the user to test the correctness of all calculations at least by random

sampling.

STAR2

Task Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

2

2.1.

2.2.

2.3.

2.3.1.

2.3.2.

2.3.3.

2.3.4.

2.4.

2.4.1.

2.4.2.

2.4.3.

2.5.

2.6.

2.7.

2.7.1.

2.7.2.

2.7.3.

2.7.4.

2.7.5.

2.8.

Theoretical Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Beam Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transfer Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stiffness Matrix of the Entire Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Principle Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Springs, Trusses, Cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cable Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Solution of the Complete System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Special Topics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Predeformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Creep and Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Prestress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Shear Deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

21

21

22

22

23

26

26

27

27

29

29

29

29

210

210

210

211

211

212

212

3

3.1.

3.2.

3.3.

3.4.

3.5.

3.6.

3.7.

3.8.

3.9.

3.10.

3.11.

3.12.

3.13.

3.14.

3.15.

Input Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Input Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Input Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ECHO Control of the Output Extent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CTRL Parameters Controlling the Analysis Method . . . . . . . .

GRP Selection of an Element Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

STEX External Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

INFL Definition of an Influence Line Loadcase . . . . . . . . . . .

LC Definition of a Loadcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Definiton of Beam Loads on Beam Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

NL Nodal Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SL Point Load on a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

GSL Point Load on a Beam Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

UL Uniform Load on a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

GUL Uniform Load on a Beam Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VL Linearly Varying on a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

31

31

34

36

39

313

314

315

317

319

320

322

325

326

327

STAR2

3.16.

3.17.

3.18.

3.19.

3.20.

3.21.

3.22.

3.23.

CL Loading of Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TL Loading of Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LCC Importing Loads from another Loadcase . . . . . . . . . . . .

LV Generating Loads from Results of a Loadcase . . . . . . . . . .

REIN Specification for Determining Reinforcement . . . . . . .

DESI Reinforced Concrete Design, Bending, Axial Force . . .

NSTR Nonlinear Stress and Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

330

333

334

335

336

339

345

351

4

4.1.

4.2.

4.3.

4.4.

4.5.

4.6.

4.7.

Output Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Load Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Output of the Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Output during Iterations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Convergence Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Design Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stiffness Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

41

42

42

42

43

43

44

5

5.1.

5.2.

5.3.

5.4.

5.5.

5.5.1.

5.5.2.

5.5.3.

5.6.

5.6.1.

5.6.2.

5.7.

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Training Example of Cantilever Column. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Wind Frame with Cable Diagonals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Girder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Threedimensional Frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Construction Stages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Single Span Beam with Auxiliary Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Internal Force Redistribution due to Creep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Nonlinear Material Behaviour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Precast Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Steel Frame According to Plastic Zones Theory. . . . . . . . . . . .

Examples in the Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

51

57

510

513

522

522

522

525

532

532

538

545

ii

1

STAR2

Task Description.

forces in any threedimensional beam structure by 2nd or 3rd order theory

taking into consideration shear deformations as well as various nonlinear

material effects.

STAR1 3D version without design

STAR2 2D version with design

STAR3 3D version with design

Effects of 3rd order theory are available for truss and cable elements.

The static system must be described by the user in terms of discrete elements,

and the corresponding database must be defined by the generation program

GENF.

Available elements are:

Beam element with straight axis and piecewise constant arbitrary

cross section. Analysis by 2nd order theory with consideration of the

shear deformation. Consideration of nonlinear material behaviour

through iteration.

Spring element such as support spring or nodecoupling spring; non

linear effects include slippage, failure, yielding and friction.

Truss element with prestress

Cable element with prestress (only tensile force is possible)

Distributed support element for elastic support of beams

Couplings for special effects like eccentric beam links, rigid links be

tween nodes etc.

Disk or plate elements as well as solid elements, which can be defined by

GENF, can not be processed by STAR2. The foundation definitions for pile el

ements are not available in STAR2 either.

Concentrated forces or moments may act on the nodes, while support transla

tions or rotations can be defined at any support. The beam elements can be

loaded with point loads at any position in the form of eccentrically acting

Version 10.20

11

STAR2

varying loads in the form of forces, moments, strains, curvatures or tempera

ture strains. Unintentional eccentricities of linear, quadratic or cubic vari

ation can be defined for the analysis with 2nd order theory. In addition, creep

deformations or unintentional eccentricities can be generated from already

analysed loadcases. Prestress can be considered by specifying an MV0 or NV0

distribution.

The analysis of frames by 2nd order theory with consideration of material be

haviour is a demanding engineering task. The user of STAR2 should therefore

accumulate experience from simple examples, before attempting to take on

more complicated structures. A check of the results by offhand engineering

calculations is indispensable.

12

Version 10.20

2

Theoretical Principles.

2.1.

Introduction

STAR2

The static problem is solved by the deformation method. In any iterative tech

nique, nonlinear properties must be decomposed into several individual lin

ear steps by an iterative method. A closed form solution can be computed by

2nd order theory for such a linear step, if the stiffness and the axial force are

assumed constant.

2.2.

Definitions

ance to DIN 1080 for the description of force, moment, displacement or

rotationvectors. The threedimensional global system of coordinates serves

in defining the nodal coordinates and displacements or rotations.

Each beam possesses a local coordinate system, which is defined by GENF.

Beam deformations and section forces are output in this coordinate system.

When confusion is possible, the local xyzsystem is also designated by S12.

Thus, the essential magnitudes for primary bending are:

Cross section values

Forces, displacements, moments

Rotations, curvatures

Section forces

AZ, IY

Z or 2

Y or 1

VZ, MY

Cross section values

Forces, displacements, moments

Rotations, curvatures

Section forces

AY, IZ

Y or 1

Z or 2

VY, MZ

Section forces are positive if they act in the positive directions of the axes at

an end cross section (when moving in the longitudinal direction of the beam).

Version 10.20

21

STAR2

System of coordinates

2.3.

Beam Elements.

2.3.1.

Introduction

The individual beam elements are analysed by the reduction method (method

of transfer matrices) under the assumption of piecewise constant axial force.

The following assumptions are made as well:

The beam axis is a straight line. Broken or curved beams must be replaced

by several straight beam segments. The beam axis coincides with the centro

baric axis. The stiffnesses and the axial force for each particular segment are

averaged from their end values. Therefore, in case of highly varying values,

one should be careful to define a sufficient number of segments (usually 5 to

10).

The theory of 2nd order satisfies the equilibrium conditions for the deformed

structure. The orientation of the beam axes (transverse force instead of shear

force) and the forces (conservative loading) remain unaltered. By contrast,

the theory of 3rd order considers large deformations, which alter the orienta

tion of the local system of coordinates. The 3rd order theory is not yet implem

ented for beam elements. Thus, by 3rd order theory all beam elements are

handled in the same ways as by 2nd order theory.

22

Version 10.20

STAR2

The stiffnesses can be modified due to the material by design only (input re

cord NSTR). They remain constant within an iteration step, whereas without

NSTR they remain constant during the entire analysis.

Torsion according to St. Venant (no lateral warping of the cross section).

Warping and torsion according to theory of 2nd order are not implemented in

STAR2.

The effect of shear deformations due to shear force can be taken into consider

ation.

A deviation between the shear centers and the center of gravity can be ulti

mately considered as a rotation of the principal axes with respect to the sys

tem of coordinates of the beam.

2.3.2.

Transfer Matrices

Each beam is partitioned into n segments defined by n+1 sections. The status

magnitudes are collected into a vector z:

v * x,

N,

d * x, MT,

z +

v * z, d * y, MY, VZ

v * y, d * z, MZ, VY

Components 1 and 2 represent the axial force, 3 and 4 the torsion, 58 the pri

mary bending and 912 the secondary bending. The transfer equation from

section i to section i+1 is given by:

z i)1 + U i @ z i ) pi

where Ui stands for the transfer matrix of the beam segment i and pi for the

component of the loading acting on segment i. The transfer matrix is as

sembled under the familiar assumptions. Its components are:

Normal axial force:

1 CNmitCN + 1 1 ) 1

U * N +

1

2 EA i EAi)1

0

Torsion:

1 CTmitCT + 1 1 ) 1

U * T +

2 GIT i GITi)1

0 1

Version 10.20

23

STAR2

Primary bending:

1

C1 CH @ C2 CH @ C3

0

C0 CH @ C1 CH @ C2

U * P +

C0

C1

0 C4CH

0

0

1

where

CH + 1 1 ) 1

2 EIY i EIY i)1

1 )

1

CSH + 1

2 GAZ i GAZ i)1

KV + CSH 2

CH @ l

+ (CH @ N) @ l

AK + @ 1 ) 2 @ KV

C0 = COS AK

C1 = l SIN AK /

C2 = l2 ( COS AK 1 ) / 2

C3 = l3 ( SIN AK AK ) / 3

C4 = SIN AK / l

Secondary bending:

1

C1 CQ @ C2 CQ @ C3

0

C0

CQ @ C1

CQ @ C2

U * S +

C0

C1

0 C4CQ

0

0

0

1

The components of the loading vector p are formed from

24

Version 10.20

px,dpx =

ex,dex

mx,dmx =

py,dpy =

pz,dpz

my,dmy =

mz,dmz =

STAR2

axial direction

constant and linear component of a strain in the

axial direction

constant and linear component of a torsional load

constant and linear component of a lateral load

in the secondary bending direction

constant and linear component of a lateral load

in the primary bending direction

constant and linear component of a moment load

in the primary bending direction

constant and linear component of a moment load

in the secondary bending direction

ky,dky,d2ky,d3ky

kz,dkz,d2kz,d3kz

uy,duy,d2uy,d3uy

uz,duz,d2uz,d3uz

of a compulsory curvature due to

temperature and prestress in the

primary bending direction

= Components of the cubic variation

of a compulsory curvature due to

temperature and prestress in the

secondary bending direction

= Components of the cubic variation

of an initial deformation in the

secondary bending direction

= Components of the cubic variation

of an initial deformation in the

primary bending direction

p1 = CN l2 ( px/2 + dpx/6 ) + l ( ex + dex/2 )

p2 = l ( px + dpx/2 )

p3 = CT l2 ( mx/2 + dmx/6 )

p4 = l ( mx + dmx/2 )

p5 = CH ( C5py + C6dpy/l + C3mz C5dmz/l) C2ky

Version 10.20

25

STAR2

p6 = CH (C3py + C5dpy/l + C2mz + C3dmz/l) +

+ C1ky C2dky/l

+ (C01)/lduz + 2(C11)/l2d2uz (6C2/l3+3l)d3uz

p7 = C2py C3dpy/l C1mz + C2dmz/l

+ (C01)/CNky (C1/l1)/CNdky/l

C4/CN/lduz + 2(C01)/l2d2uz + 6(C1l)/l3d3uz

p8 = lpy ldpy/2

with the additional constants

C5 = ( COS AK 1 + AK2/2) (l/AK)4

C6 = ( SIN AK AK + AK3/6) (l/AK)5

Similar expressions are obtained for the secondary bending (p9 p12).

For the axial force stressing (px) and the torsional loading (mx) STAR2 sim

plifies the load components by an average load value at each section.

2.3.3.

continuities (concentrated load, moment etc.), one obtains a relationship be

tween the state magnitudes at the beginning of the beam and those at its end.

z n)1 + U s @ z 1 ) rs

This relationship can be used as a linear system of equations for the computa

tion of the stiffness matrix. The matrix obtained this way can now be sub

jected to any modifications caused by hingedjoints and to a transformation

into the global system of coordinates.

2.3.4.

Principle Axes

The separate analysis in the primary and secondary direction is correct only

when the axes y and z are the principal axes of the cross section. If this condi

tion is not satisfied, the deformations are not computed correctly in case of

statically determinate structures, whereas in case of statically indetermi

nate structures the section forces are wrong too. STAR2 transforms all the

26

Version 10.20

STAR2

loads and the section forces of three dimensional structures into the direc

tions of the principal axes. Variable rotation along the length of a beam can

not be considered however. This transformation can be suppressed in special

cases. The principal axes are always taken into consideration correctly dur

ing design, when biaxial bending is active.

2.4.

2.4.1.

Springs

relationship. This is usually expressed by means of a spring constant in the

form of a linear equation:

P + c @ u

The spring is defined by its direction ( DX, DY, DZ ) and the spring constants.

The direction can be determined as the difference of two nodes (N2 NA), or

it can be specified explicitly. Support springs must be provided with a direc

tion (see GENF).

The element implemented herein allows for the following nonlinear effects:

Prestress (linear effect)

Failure

Yield

Friction with cohesion

Slip

Geometrically nonlinear effects are not possible for springs.

Version 10.20

27

STAR2

upon the structure. A prestressed spring is relaxed in the absence of external

loading or compulsion. The nonlinear effects apply to rotational springs as

well as lateral springs too. Friction can be defined by a lateral spring. The

force components normal to the springs direction of action are equal to the

product of the displacement components in the lateral direction by the lateral

spring constants. This force is at most equal to the product of the force in the

normal direction by the friction coefficient plus the cohesion. If the normally

oriented spring is eliminated, the lateral spring is automatically eliminated

too.

All spring nonlinearities are activated only during a nonlinear analysis. To

this end, a value for the number of iterations must be specified by the analysis

methods in CTRL.

Upon such request (see input record CTRL) either the force corresponding to

a prescribed displacement value will be determined within an iteration

(strain control a) or the displacement for a prescribed force (stress control b).

A secant stiffness results from the values computed in this way.

Iteration methods a / b

Method a should be used by structures, which soften as they are loaded,

whereas method b should be used for stiffening structural members.

The user must take care so that the system does not become unstable in any

step of the iteration through failure of springs or cables. This can happen, for

instance,if one defines additional springs with small stiffness, resulting to a

small remaining stiffness after the main springs failure. This stiffness

should not be less than the stiffness of the main spring divided by 10000.

28

Version 10.20

2.4.2.

STAR2

Trusses

Trusses can be analysed by 2nd or 3rd order theory. 2nd order theory is con

sidered as described in /9/; nodal deformations are additionally taken into ac

count in the construction of the element matrices by 3rd order theory.

2.4.3.

Cable Elements

Cable elements are handled similarly to trusses. Cables can not sustain any

compressive forces. 2nd and 3rd order theories are applicable as for trusses.

A correct computation is generally possible through several iterations only.

In order to analyse a cable structure, which is usually stable only under load

ing, by 1st order theory too, it is assumed that the elements are subjected to

a small prestress.

2.5.

A global stiffness matrix is obtained by adding all the individual element stiff

nesses; after incorporating the geometric boundary conditions, the displace

ments and thus the section forces get computed. If nonlinear springs or a re

positioning of the axial force are present, the input of a number of iterations

within the defined limits will force the whole process to be repeated by updat

ing the secant stiffnesses until a solution is obtained.

2.6.

Limitations

The number of nodes, beams, sections or loads is only limited by the amount

of the available disk space. 5 digits are usually reserved for the output of their

numbers, thus values above 99999 should not be used.

STAR2 works with double precision. Despite that the following points should

be considered:

1. The stiffness EI/l3 of neighbouring beam elements may not differ

by a factor larger than 105.

2. Beam theory is valid only for structural members, the length of

which is at least twice their height. The length of each individual el

ement should not be smaller than the height of the cross section used.

3. Artificially rigid elements can and must be defined as couplings.

Version 10.20

29

STAR2

If these criteria are not met, reaction forces will arise on free nodes.

STAR2 sets a constant stiffness for each segment. The buckling length coeffi

cient after Petersen /6/ p.489 reaches a maximum of 1.22 for a conical beam

under its own weight compared to 1.12 for a prismatic beam (8% error). If the

dimensions are changed by just 10% (IValue by 27.1%), reaches 1.14, corre

sponding to an error of about 2%.

2.7.

Special Topics.

2.7.1.

Predeformations

actual beam axis from the ideal beam axis. These are independent of self

arising deformations. They have no effect on an analysis by 1st order theory.

The following variations are possible:

Linear inclination (e.g. DIN 1045 Sec. 15.8.2)

Input in the form of a point load at the column head.

Arbitrary piecewise linear variation.

Input in the form of distributed load.

Arbitrary shape related to the buckling mode (e.g. DIN 1045 17.4).

Defined either by several positions along the column, connected by a

cubic spline, or by the bending line from an already analysed loadcase.

2.7.2.

DIN 1045 requires an estimation of the effects of creep and shrinkage accord

ing to Section 17.4, when the slenderness of the compressed member is

greater than 70 for immovable or 45 for movable structures and at the same

time the eccentricity e/d is smaller than 2.

Creep deformations are computed for the permanent loads acting in the ser

vice state as well as for any prescribed permanent beam deflections and ec

centricities including the unintentional ones.

An approximate method using an increased unintentional eccentricity is de

scribed in note 220 of DAfSt.

STAR2, however, can perform a more accurate check. A loadcase is built for

this purpose from the loads that cause creep. The resulting deformations,

210

Version 10.20

STAR2

curvature loads during a subsequent run. The same method allows the con

sideration of construction phases.

2.7.3.

Prestress

A fixed prestress can be specified in GENF for springs and trusses. This acts

by every loadcase and generates corresponding stresses. A prestress for each

individual loadcase can be defined in STAR2 as well.

A statically determinate component of the prestress (NV0,MV0) for each

loadcase can be defined separately for bending beams. Then, depending on

the number of parameters, any variation of these values from constant to

cubic can be assumed along the beam axis. The effect of prestress is twofold.

On one hand, the section forces are modified by the corresponding prestress

values, and on the other hand, deformations result from prestress, which in

turn lead to compulsory forces in cases of statically indeterminate structures.

Prestress is considered differently for cables and for beam elements. A cable

or a truss can be only prestressed through the external system. Therefore, the

prestress is then analysed like a temperature stressing caused by a strain im

posed on the element. Forces are generated within the elements of an unde

formable structure, whereas in deformable structures the prestress deterio

rates due to selfarising deformations. If one wants to receive a defined

prestress, one must employ therefore an element with very small strain stif

fness.

For beams, by contrast, prestress is defined as an independent state of stress

(prestressed concrete). Since the prestress is imposed on the element itself,

the resulting forces on freely deformable beams are the input section forces

themselves. If the deformation is hindered, compulsory forces arise. In the li

miting case, e.g. if a beam is prevented from deforming in the longitudinal

direction, the resulting axial force is null, because the forces imposed by the

prestressing steel are resisted by the support instead of the beam.

2.7.4.

Shear Deformations

The shear deformation can be also taken into account by the beam elements.

The program AQUA defines the standard shear areas for some cross sections.

The internal force variation in statically indeterminate structures may differ

from the one obtained by pure bending theory, if shear deformation is taken

into consideration.

Version 10.20

211

STAR2

2.7.5.

Design

iteration with nonlinear material behaviour after any static analysis, the

most important records of AQB are also available in STAR2. These are:

CTRL

REIN

ULTI

NSTR

General parameter

Special parameter for ULTI and NSTR

Reinforcement computation

Strain state

The complete theory for these records can be found in the AQB manual. Only

the descriptions of the input records are given in this manual.

If not all of the beams are to be dimensioned in the same way, this can be

avoided by an external iteration via the record processor PS.

2.8.

Literature.

/1/

Berechnungsverfahren nach Fliezonentheorie II. Ordnung fr

rumliche Rahmensysteme aus metallischen Werkstoffen.

Der Bauingenieur 57 (1982), S. 297302

/2/

R. Uhrig

Zur Berechnung der Schnittkrfte in Stabtragwerken nach

Theorie II. Ordnung, insbesondere der Verzweigungslasten unter

Bercksichtigung der Schubdeformation.

Der Stahlbau (2/1981), S. 3942

/3/

V.Gensichen

Zum Ansatz ungnstiger Vorverformungen bei der Berechnung

ebener Stabwerke nach der Elastizittstheorie II. Ordnung

Der Bauingenieur 56 (1981), S. 17

/4/

Bemessung von Beton und Stahlbetonbauteilen

Deutscher Ausschu fr Stahlbeton, Heft 220

Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Berlin 1977

/5/

D.Hosser

Tragfhigkeit und Zuverlssigkeit von Stahlbetondruckgliedern

Mitteilungen aus dem Institut fr Massivbau der TH Darmstadt

Heft 28, Wilhelm Ernst&Sohn 1978

212

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STAR2

/6/

Chr. Petersen

Statik und Stabilitt der Baukonstruktionen

Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1980

/7/

TOP Benutzer und DVHandbuch.

CADBericht KfkCAD67, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe,

1978

/8/

H.Werner

Rechnerorientierte Nachweise an schlanken Massivbauwerken

Beton und Stahlbetonbau 73 (1978),S. 263268

/9/

S. Palkowski

Einige Probleme der statischen Nachweise von

Seilnetzkonstruktionen

Der Bauingenieur 59 (1984), S. 381388

Version 10.20

213

STAR2

214

Version 10.20

3

Input Description.

3.1.

Input Language

STAR2

The input is made in the CADINP language (see general manual SOFiSTiK:

FEA / STRUCTURAL Installation and Basics).

3.2.

Input Records

structure or particular loadcases can be analysed within each block. The pro

gram stops, when an empty block is found:

END

END

Only one loadcase per block must be analysed in case of nonlinear analysis.

The program recognises three operation modes controlled by the extent of the

input.

a. Load generation

During a load generation run the loads are solely read, checked and stored.

The loads generated in such a run can be used as a whole during a subsequent

run or block. A generation run results from an input block with loads but

without any record CTRL.

b. Analysis run

An analysis run is the usual option by input of a record CTRL and loads.

c. Restart

A Restart run can be used to analyse again loadcases defined in the last block

or run with stiffnesses modified after design. A Restart run results from an

input block without any loads.

The following records are defined:

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31

STAR2

Record

Items

ECHO

CTRL

GRP

STEX

OPT

OPT

NO

NAME

VAL

VAL

VAL

STIF

SECT

SC

PRES

FACS

FACG

CS

INFL

LC

NL

SL

GSL

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

STEP

NO

NO

NO

DZE

NO

DZE

NO

NO

NO

TTO

NO

CSMA

TITL

FACT

TYPE

TYPE

TYPE

DLX

P1

P

P

DLY

P2

A

A

DLZ

P3

DY

DY

TITL

PF

DZ

DZ

REF

REF

KTYP

KTYP

NOE

TYPE

TYPE

TYPE

REF

TYPE

REF

TYPE

TYPE

FACT

TINC

PHI

KTYP

P

P

PA

A

A

PE

L

L

A

REF

REF

L

NOE

DYA

STEP

DZA

DYE

PA

NOE

P

P

FROM

CFRO

EPS

PE

STEP

DYA

DZA

DYE

TO

CTO

FACV

INC

CINC

FROM

NFRO

NTO

NINC

TFRO

TO

INC

STIF

CSMI

AM1

MOD

MOD

S1

T03

KMOD

CW

AM2

BMOD

BMOD

S2

TVS

KSV

BB

AM3

LCR

STAT

Z1

KTAU

KSB

HMAX

ED

P7

SC1

Z2

TTOL

KMIN

CW

AMAX

P8

SC2

KSV

EGRE

P9

SS1

KSB

NGRE

P10

SS2

SMOD

ZGRP

P11

C1

T01

TANA

P12

C2

T02

KMAX

ALPH

FMAX

SIGS

CRAC

UL

GUL

VL

GVL

CL

TL

LCC

LV

*REIN

*ULTI

*NSTR

SELE

The records marked by * control the design and the stiffness computation.

They are also included in AQB.

The record STEX can be used only for substructuring techniques in combina

tion with HASE.

32

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The records HEAD, END and PAGE are described in the general manual SO

FiSTiK: FEA / STRUCTURAL Installation and Basics.

The description of the single records follows.

Version 10.20

33

STAR2

3.3.

Extent

Item

Description

OPT

NODE Node coordinates, constraints

BEAM Beams (structure)

SPRI Spring elements (structures)

BOUN Distributed supported ele

ments (structure)

SECT Cross section values (as in

AQUA)

MAT

Material constants (as in

AQUA)

LOAD Loads

VAL

FORC

DEFO

BDEF

REAC

Beam deformations

Nodal displacements

Support reactions

REIN

NSTR

Reinforcements

Strains and stiffnesses

STEP

FULL

Set all options

NO

no output

YES

regular output

FULL extensive output

EXTR extreme output

ECHO

Dimension

Default

LIT

FULL

LIT

FULL

The default for options NODE, BEAM, SPRI, BOUN, MAT and SECT as well

as BDEF is NO, for FORC FULL, and for all others YES.

For the effects of all options refer to Chapter 4 (Output description).

34

Version 10.20

STAR2

The option STEP controls the output during nonlinear analyses and its de

fault value is 99. The last iteration is always printed. A negative value for this

option suppresses the output of the initial linear analysis.

Version 10.20

35

STAR2

3.4.

the Analysis Method

Item

Description

OPT

Control option

VAL

Option value

CTRL

Dimension

Default

LIT

/LIT

cord with the theory to be used is mandatory. The following particular options

are available:

LIT

Description

Value

De

fault

I

IB

II

IIB

III

IIIB

1st order theory (stress controlled)

2nd order theory (strain controlled)

2nd order theory (stress controlled)

3rd order theory (strain controlled)

3rd order theory (stress controlled)

nIter

nIter

nIter

nIter

nIter

nIter

1

1

1

1

1

1

GEN

GENM

Tolerance for moments and rotations

in 0/0

in 0/0

1.0

1.0

AFIX

0 Degrees of freedom which can move

freely result into an error

1 Degrees of freedom which are almost

movable are considered movable

2 Degrees of freedom which are movable

get subsequently fixed after a warning

3 Almost movable degrees of freedom get

subsequently fixed in a similar manner

STYP

CABL Cables have tension only

TRUS Cables can sustain compression

36

LIT

CABL

Version 10.20

GDIV

Group divisor

STAR2

*

When no CTRL record is input, only the loads are stored, or a restart of the

previous analysis takes place in case there arent any loads.

An analysis by 2nd or 3rd order theory requires an initial analysis by 1st order

theory in order to compute the axial loads. Therefore, except for a restart

upon a structure already analysed by 1st order theory, such an analysis must

precede any higher order analysis.

3rd order theory is only considered for truss and cable elements; the difference

between II and IIB as well as between III and IIIB is similarly of importance

only for spring, truss and cable elements.

The input of CTRL I or Ib and ITER greater than 1 results in an analysis with

nonlinear springs by 1st order theory.

The entry for AFIX controls the programs behaviour, when linearly depend

ent degrees of freedom are encountered. Such examples are the continuous

beam, which does not possess any constraints for torsional or axial force, and

any section forces eliminated by hinges or couplings. Degrees of freedom

which do not possess any stiffness, e.g. rotations of a pure truss, are always

suppressed and therefore, they can not be affected by AFIX.

The input parameter STYP is currently used for cable structures in order to

prevent the occurrence of structural instability during iteration. If TRUS is

input, the results must be manually checked at the end of the analysis, to

make sure that all cables carry only tensional forces. A Restart with STYP

CABL must follow otherwise.

In addition, the following options from AQB are available for the design/

strain computation:

AXIA

Type of bending

1 = uniaxial bending (VY=MZ=0)

(default for plane structures)

2 = biaxial bending,

boundary stresses in system of principal axes

(default for threedimensional structures)

VRED

at haunches. (Default: 0.3333, 0. = no conversion)

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37

STAR2

SMOO

Rounding of moments

0 = no rounding

1 = primary bending only (default)

2 = primary and secondary bending

+128 = no use of reference system

+256 = no shear force conversion by inclined centrobaric axis

+512 = no moment conversion by inclined centrobaric axis

Rounding of the moments takes place only when a support

boundary has been defined in GENF. The shear force at the

support is zero.

INTE

0 = no consideration

1 = linear reduction

2 = theoretical solution according to Prandtl (default)

3 = shear stresses of prime importance

+4 = additional nonlinear axial strain

VIIA

(for very experienced users only, see AQB manual)

VM

Factor with which the axial forces due to shear force from Eqn.

(18) of the AQB manual must be taken up by longitudinal rein

forcement (shift)

0.0 = no consideration (default thus far)

> 0 = factor for value from truss analogy (EC2)

< 0 = factor for cross section height as shift (DIN)

ETOL

(0.0001)

IMAX

AMAX

AGEN

Maximum LineSearch factor (1000)

Relative LineSearch tolerance (0.01)

(no input necessary in general)

38

Version 10.20

3.5.

Group

Item

Description

NO

Group number

VAL

Selection

OFF

do not use

YES

use

FULL use and print results

STIF

Stiffness parameters

1

consider rotation of principal

axes

0

do not consider rotation

LIN1 1 + not designed group

LIN0 0 + not designed group

SECT

SC

STAR2

GRP

Dimension

Default

LIT

FULL

BRUT effective gross cross section

TOTA total cross section

DESI design cross section (1/m

multiple)

LIT

Shear centre

NONE do not consider

YES

consider by loads only

FULL consider fully

LIT

FULL

Version 10.20

39

STAR2

Item

Description

Dimension

Default

PRES

Prestress loading

FULL consider all effects

NOTO no torsional components

REST restraint components only

UNRE unrestraint components only

URNT UNRE + NOTO

LIT

FULL

FACS

1.0

FACG

1.0

CS

by the group divisor (GENF SYST record, e.g.: 1000). The default is the group

selection of the previous analysis run or input block. In the absence of input

all the elements are used. In the case of explicit input only the specified

groups get activated.

Each particular group can contain different directions regarding the special

effects. This is especially meant for controlling inaccuracies in the input or

the modelling in special cases. The user himself must decide whether this is

permissible.

For the cross section values the user has a choice between the total cross sec

tion and the cooperating cross section (default). The area in both cases is sub

stituted by the value of the total cross section.

Some codes (e.g. DIN 18800) require by the analysis with 2nd order theory the

reduction of the stiffnesses by the material safety factor. For all load cases

with a load factor greater than 1.0 the default is DESI, for all other it is BRUT.

For nonlinear analysis with NSTR this input has only minor effects.

In the analysis with rotation of the principal axes the rotation angle must be

constant along the beam. Multiple beams should eventually be defined each

time with prismatic cross section.

The factors FACS and FACG act upon the stiffnesses and the dead weight of

the elements of this group. FACG acts only as additional factor to the values

DLX through DLZ of the LC record.

310

Version 10.20

STAR2

Attention:

Only one group selection can be used inside a block for several loadcases.

When no group selection is found, the old one remains in effect along with all

its parameters!

Version 10.20

311

3.6.

Item

Description

NAME

STAR2

STEX

Dimension

Default

LIT24

generated for the time being only by the program HASE for the halfspace

(stiffness coefficient method) and for substructures.

The project name is the default value for NAME. The mere input of STEX

(without name) usually suffices.

Version 10.20

313

STAR2

3.7.

INFL Definition of an

Influence Line Loadcase

Item

Description

NO

TITL

INFL

Dimension

Default

LIT24

must be followed by at least one load card describing the type of the influence

line. A separate loadcase INFL must be defined for each point of interest and

each section force. Only the displacements (=influence line) of the structure

are computed and output for an INFLloadcase. Computation by 2nd order

theory is not possible.

Influence line

Required loading

e.g.

Moment

Axial or shear force

Support reaction

Displacement

Unit rotation

Unit displacement

Nodal displacement

Unit load

SL

SL

NL

SL

D.

W.

W.

P.

Example for the influence line of the moment MY at beam 1001 at position

2 by loadcase number 91:

INFL 91

SL 1001 D1 1.0 A 2.0

This concept can be used to compute very particular influence lines too. If e.g.

the influence line for the upper marginal stress of a cross section = N/A

M/W is sought, it can be found by the following input (area A is #10, section

modulus W is #11):

INFL 92

SL 1001 WS 1.0/#10 2.0

SL 1001 D1 1.0/#11 2.0

314

Version 10.20

3.8.

LC Definition of a Loadcase

Item

Description

NO

STAR2

LC

Dimension

Default

FACT

M (moments) of the loadcase

DLX

DLY

DLZ

Factor dead weight load in ydirection

Factor dead weight load in zdirection

0

0

0

TITL

Title of loadcase

LIT24

loadcase. If the LCinput contains only a global factor and if the LCrecord

is not followed by any loads, the old loads including the possibly defined dead

weight are imported with this factor. If some loads do follow the LCrecord

or if a factor of the dead weight is entered, all other loads that were stored by

the same loadcase number are first deleted.

In case of restart of a nonlinear calculation with NSTR no record LC must

be indicated since otherwise the nonlinear strains are extinguished.

STAR2 analyses all loadcases for which LC or INFLinput was generated

in some block. For nonlinear calculations it is sensible to analyse each time

one loadcase per block only.

FACT affects the loads only temporarily, these are copied into another load

case, so the factor of the new loadcase is valid. It does not perform in addition

either onto the loads DLX, DLY or DLZ if these are entered in the same LC

input. Different factors for dead weight and other loads should be defined

therefore with a FACT 1.0 and corresponding DLfactors as well as further

records of the typ LCC with a factor. If FACT is > 1.0, the design values of the

stiffness will be used (see record GRP).

The factor FACG of the record GRP acts as additional multiplier.

If dead loads should be taken over by the program SOFiLOAD, then only the

load case number NO has to be input for LC. No dead loads are used from the

Version 10.20

315

STAR2

program SOFiLOAD, if factors for the dead load are defined for DLX, DLY

and DLZ.

316

Version 10.20

3.9.

STAR2

element or to beam groups. The records GSL, GUL and GVL are identical

with SL, UL and VL as far as their parameters and meaning. The loading,

however, acts not only upon a single beam but on a series of beams beginning

with the given beam number and including all following beams with the same

group number. The dimensions of the load refer to the entire series of beams.

e.g.

NO = 156 generates loads on beams 156,157,...

NO = 2350 generates loads on 2350,2351,........

Attention:

The end number is not given any more, as it used to, by the end figure 99, but

through either the specified group divisor (from the database or the value de

fined with CTRL GDIV) or an explicit input of the end number NOE. The load

is limited in either cases, so long as a load length has been defined.

Independently of their actual geometric layout, the beams are interrelated in

the order stored in the database and the numbering increment defined

through STEP. Any entry for REF is taken though into consideration. A warn

ing is issued if the node numbers of two adjacent beams do not match.

Group loads

Explanations about reference system REF:

If a negative A is input, its value will be measured from the end of the beam.

Version 10.20

317

STAR2

The eccentricities are defined in the local beam system of the gravity centre

of the beam. Torsional or bending moments are thus generated from loads of

type P.

REF can define the system in which the dimensions of the load (values A and

L) will be input:

S

XX

YY

ZZ

=

=

=

=

SS

(0.5 = midbeam)

= projection of the beam axis on the global XYplane

= projection of the beam axis on the global XZplane

= projection of the beam axis on the global YZplane

XY

XZ

YZ

projection of the beam axis on the global Xdirection

projection of the beam axis on the global Ydirection

projection of the beam axis on the global Zdirection

318

Version 10.20

3.10.

STAR2

NL Nodal Load

Item

Description

NO

Node number

TYPE

P1

P2

P3

PF

NL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m

kN, m

kN, m

0

0

0

1

P

PX

PY

PZ

=

=

=

=

Load P1 in Xdirection

Load P1 in Ydirection

Load P1 in Zdirection

M

MX

MY

MZ

=

=

=

=

Moment P1 about Xdirection

Moment P1 about Ydirection

Moment P1 about Zdirection

WX

WY

WZ

= Support translation in Ydirection in m

= Support translation in Zdirection in m

DX

DY

DZ

= Support rotation about Ydirection in rad

= Support rotation about Zdirection in rad

Attention!

The specification of a support translation for a coupled degree of freedom

deactivates the coupling. A reinstatement of the coupling condition can not

take place.

Version 10.20

319

STAR2

3.11.

Item

Description

NO

Beam number

TYPE

P

A

Load value

Distance of load from beginning of beam

DY

DZ

SL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m

m,

!

0

m

m

0

0

REF

KTYP

Vertex type

POL

discontinuous slope

SPL

continuous slope

LIT

SPL

PS

P1

P2

= Load in local ydirection (secondary bending)

= Load in local zdirection (primary bending)

MS

M1

M2

= Moment about local ydirection (primary bending)

= Moment about local zdirection (secondary bending)

WS

W1

W2

= Displacement jump in local ydirection in m

= Displacement jump in local zdirection in m

DS

D1

D2

= Rotation jump about local ydirection in rad

= Rotation jump about local zdirection in rad

PX

PY

= Load in global Ydirection

320

Version 10.20

PZ

MX

MY

MZ

= Moment about global Ydirection

= Moment about global Zdirection

STAR2

PXS, PYS, PZS

PX1, PY1, PZ1

PX2, PY2, PZ2

only the corresponding components in the beam

directions S, 1 or 2 are set however

See record GSL Point Load on a Beam Group

See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

Version 10.20

321

STAR2

3.12.

Group

Item

Description

NO

TYPE

P

A

Load value

Distance of load from beginning of beam

DY

DZ

GSL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m

m,

!

0

m

m

0

0

REF

KTYP

Vertex type

POL

discontinuous slope

SPL

continuous slope

LIT

SPL

NOE

STEP

Increment of the beam numbers

*

1

PS

P1

P2

= Load in local ydirection (secondary bending)

= Load in local zdirection (primary bending)

MS

M1

M2

= Moment about local ydirection (primary bending)

= Moment about local zdirection (secondary bending)

WS

W1

W2

= Displacement jump in local ydirection in m

= Displacement jump in local zdirection in m

DS

D1

D2

= Rotation jump about local ydirection in rad

= Rotation jump about local zdirection in rad

322

Version 10.20

PX

PY

PZ

= Load in global Ydirection

= Load in global Zdirection

MX

MY

MZ

= Moment about global Ydirection

= Moment about global Zdirection

STAR2

PXS, PYS, PZS

PX1, PY1, PZ1

PX2, PY2, PZ2

only the corresponding components in the beam

directions S, 1 or 2 are set however

By TYPE one can input as well:

U1

U2

U1S

U2S

VS

V1

V2

= Initial deformation vertex in m (primary bending)

= Initial deformation (secondary bending) as a fraction of

the beam length

= Initial deformation (primary bending) as a fraction of

the beam length

= Prestress vertex NV0

= Prestress vertex MV0 (primary bending)

= Prestress vertex MV0 (secondary bending)

pending on the number of these vertices.

For each xvalue only one value per direction should be entered. Jumps in the

variation of the function can be defined by means of two values at a distance

of 0.0001 m. Specifying values for DY or DZ (including 0.) along with VS gen

erates prestress moments V2 or V1 (including 0 !). The default values are not

valid for these parameters.

Only the loads in the defined xregion are applied in case of GSLvariations,

thus at least two entries are necessary. In case of SL on the other hand, the

values for the beginning and/or the end of the beam are automatically sup

Version 10.20

323

STAR2

ends are assumed to be 0. This means, that a single entry at the beginning

or the end of the beam defines a linear lateral deformation, whereas a single

value at the middle of the beam defines a quadratic parabola. In case of pres

tress, the neighbouring values are applied each time at the beginning or the

end of a beam.

Vertices with discontinuous slope can be marked separately by means of

KTYP. If all vertices are of TYPE POL, the result is a broken polygon line.

The definition of several independent sections in the same series of beams can

be described by GSL and distinct numbers, describing though the same beam

series. A definition in separate loadcases and the use of the LCCrecord may

be of further help in general cases.

The entry for STEP is not further processed by the applied loads.

See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

324

Version 10.20

3.13.

Item

Description

NO

Beam number

TYPE

P

A

Load value

Distance of load from beginning of beam

negative: distance measured from end

of beam

Length of the load

(default: to the end of the beam)

REF

STAR2

UL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m

m,

!

0

m,

m,

If the literal CONT is defined for TYPE by UL or GUL, the defaults from the

previous load record are activated.

P (new) = P

A (new) = A+L

(old)

(old)

See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

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3.14.

Group

Item

Description

NO

Beam number

TYPE

P

A

Load value

Distance of load from beginning of beam

negative: distance measured from end

of beam group

Length of the load

(default: to the end of the beam group)

REF

NOE

STEP

Increment of the beam numbers

GUL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m

m,

!

0

m,

m,

*

1

If the literal CONT is defined for TYPE by UL or GUL , the defaults from the

previous load record are activated.

P (new) = P

A (new) = A+L

(old)

(old)

See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

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3.15.

VL Linearly Varying on a

Beam

Item

Description

NO

Beam number

TYPE

PA

PE

A

End load value

Distance of load from beginning of beam

negative: distance measured from end

of beam

Length of the load

(default: to the end of the beam)

DYA

DZA

DYE

DZE

load start

Eccentricity of the load application at

load end

REF

STAR2

VL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m

kN, m

!

PA

0

m,

m

m

m

m

0

0

DYA

DZA

m,

One can input for TYPE:

PS

P1

P2

= Load in local ydirection (secondary bending)

= Load in local zdirection (primary bending)

MS

M1

M2

= Moment about local ydirection (primary bending)

= Moment about local zdirection (secondary bending)

ES

K1

K2

= Curvature about the local ydirection in 1/m

= Curvature about the local zdirection in 1/m

TS

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T1

T2

= Temperature difference in local zdirection in _C

PX

PY

PZ

= Load in global Ydirection

= Load in global Zdirection

MX

MY

MZ

= Moment about global Ydirection

= Moment about global Zdirection

PXP

PYP

PZP

= Load in global Ydirection

= Load in global Zdirection

PX1, PY1, PZ1

PX2, PY2, PZ2

U1

U2

U1S

U2S

= Component loads

= Initial deformation (primary bending) in m

= Initial deformation (secondary bending) as a fraction

of the beam length

= Initial deformation (primary bending) as a fraction

of the beam length

In case of PXP,PYP and PZP the load values refer to the projected length (e.g.

snow), whereas in case of PX,PY and PZ they refer to the beam axis (e.g. dead

weight).

In case of component loads, the loads act similarly to PX, PY, or PZ. However,

only the components in the corresponding beam directions S, 1 or 2 are ap

plied.

Positive curvature loads cause deformations similar to those from positive

moments.

Positive values of T1, T2 mean that the temperature increases in the direc

tion of the positive 1 or 2 axis. T1, T2 loads can be only set upon beams with

geometrically defined cross sections (AQUA).

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The eccentricities are defined in the local beam system with respect to the

gravity centre of the beam. Torsional or bending moments are thus generated

from loads of type P.

If by VL or GVL the literal CONT is defined for TYPE, the defaults from the

previous load record are activated.

PA (new) = PE

A (new) = A+L

(old)

(old)

VL

101

=

=

PZ

CONT

CONT

PE

PE

PE

100

120

0

L

L

2

5

This input describes a load, which in the first 2 m from the beginning of the

beam climbs from 0 to 100, increases to 120 within another 5 m, and from that

point on it decreases linearly to zero at the end of the beam.

See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

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3.16.

a Beam

Item

Description

NO

Beam number

TYPE

PA

PE

A

End load value

Distance of load from beginning of beam

negative: distance measured from end

of beam group

Length of the load

(default: to the end of the beam group)

DYA

DZA

DYE

DZE

load start

Eccentricity of the load application at

load end

REF

NOE

STEP

Number of the last beam

Increment of the beam numbers

GVL

Dimension

Default

LIT

kN, m

kN, m

!

PA

0

m,

m

m

m

m

0

0

DYA

DZA

m,

S

*

1

One can input for TYPE:

PS

P1

P2

= Load in local ydirection (secondary bending)

= Load in local zdirection (primary bending)

MS

M1

M2

= Moment about local ydirection (primary bending)

= Moment about local zdirection (secondary bending)

ES

K1

K2

= Curvature about the local ydirection in 1/m

= Curvature about the local zdirection in 1/m

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TS

T1

T2

= Temperature difference in local ydirection in _C

= Temperature difference in local zdirection in _C

PX

PY

PZ

= Load in global Ydirection

= Load in global Zdirection

MX

MY

MZ

= Moment about global Ydirection

= Moment about global Zdirection

PXP

PYP

PZP

= Load in global Ydirection

= Load in global Zdirection

PX1, PY1, PZ1

PX2, PY2, PZ2

U1

U2

U1S

U2S

STAR2

= Component loads

= Initial deformation (primary bending) in m

= Initial deformation (secondary bending) as a fraction

of the beam length

= Initial deformation (primary bending) as a fraction

of the beam length

In case of PXP,PYP and PZP the load values refer to the projected length (e.g.

snow), whereas in case of PX,PY and PZ they refer to the beam axis (e.g. dead

weight).

In case of component loads, the loads act similarly to PX, PY, or PZ. However,

only the components in the corresponding beam directions S, 1 or 2 are ap

plied.

Positive curvature loads cause deformations similar to those from positive

moments.

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Positive values of T1, T2 mean that the temperature increases in the direc

tion of the positive 1 or 2 axis. T1, T2 loads can be only set upon beams with

geometrically defined crosssections (AQUA).

The eccentricities are defined in the local beam system with respect to the

gravity centre of the beam. Torsional or bending moments are thus generated

from loads of type P.

If by VL or GVL the literal CONT is defined for TYPE, the defaults from the

previous load record are activated.

PA (new) = PE (old)

A (new) = A+L (old)

Roof loads etc. can be defined easier this way, e.g:

VL

101

=

=

PZ

CONT

CONT

PE

PE

PE

100

120

0

L

L

2

5

This input describes a load, which in the first 2 m from the beginning of the

beam climbs from 0 to 100, increases to 120 within another 5 m, and from that

point on it decreases linearly to zero at the end of the beam.

See loading on beam group for explanation of REF

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3.17.

CL Loading of Cables

Item

Description

NO

Cable number

TYPE

Load value

STAR2

CL

Dimension

Default

LIT

PX

PY

PZ

PXP

PYP

PZP

ES

VS

TS

referring to the beam/cable length

Loading in global direction,

referring to the projected length

Strain in axial direction

Prestress

Temperature

(kN/m)

(kN/m)

(kN/m)

(kN/m)

(kN/m)

(kN/m)

()

(kN)

(_C)

The loads are converted by the program to corresponding nodal loads. The

cable sag can be calculated by the expression:

fo +

p @ l 2

8H o

H = component of cable force normal to the direction

of the loading

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3.18.

TL Loading of Trusses

Item

Description

NO

Truss number

TYPE

Load value

TL

Dimension

Default

LIT

PX

PY

PZ

PXP

PYP

PZP

ES

VS

TS

334

referring to the beam/truss

length

Loading in global direction,

referring to the projected length

Strain in axial direction

Prestress

Temperature

(kN/m)

(kN/m)

(kN/m)

(kN/m)

(kN/m)

(kN/m)

()

(kN)

(_C)

Version 10.20

3.19.

another Loadcase

Item

Description

NO

FACT

STAR2

LCC

Dimension

Default

Number of a loadcase

Factor for load values

FROM

TO

INC

FROM

1

NFRO

NTO

NINC

NFRO

1

TFRO

TTO

TINC

TFRO

1

CFRO

CTO

CINC

CFRO

1

By entering LCC, all previously generated loads of the given loadcase, pro

vided they fall within the specified range, get multiplied by the factor and

added to the current loadcase. This does not hold for dead weight loads (record

LC).

The input of NO and FACT suffices when loads are to imported for all el

ements or nodes.

Creep loadcases from AQB have also still residual stresses, these can not be

incorporated with LCC.

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3.20.

Results of a Loadcase

Item

Description

NO

LV

Dimension

Default

PHI

EPS

Creep factor

Shrinkage coefficient

0

0

FACV

FROM

TO

INC

FROM

1

STIF

NO

CSMI

CSMA

Highest construction stage number

CSMI

KTYP

SL/GSL

SPL

cubic variation

POL

polygonal variation

SPL1 cubic without secondary ben

ding components

POL1 polygonal without secondary

bending components genera

ted

LIT

SPL

analysis step. These can be used for the analysis of creep effects and support

changes due to construction phases, as well as for the generation of initial de

formations. Only results of beams and trusses inside the specified range can

be imported. Appropriate separate input of more than one records can be used

e.g. to assign a different creep factor to each beam. If nothing is input for

FROM, all the beams that are defined in the analysed loadcase get loaded.

LV generates three completely different types of loading.

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stored elastic line. Buckling modes can e.g. be modelled this way as

undesired eccentricities when addressing the difference of the dis

placement according to 2nd and 1st order theory.

The increase of the undesired eccentricity due to creep can be taken

into consideration as well. There are extremely different opinions for

the value of FACV. Since Version 2.095 the initial deformations are

taken into account by the displacements. Most different opinions exist

for this matter too. If necessary, one can subtract the old initial de

formations with LCC and factor 1.

2. The values of PHI and EPS generate corresponding strains or curva

ture loads.

ES = EPS + PHI N/EF

K1 =

PHI MY/EIY

K2 =

PHI MZ/EIZ

The most important special cases are:

1.1. Creep deformations of a loadcase (statically determinate)

PHI =

1.2. Constraints from a construction phase (primary state)

PHI = 1.0

1.3. Creep of a constraint from construction phase

PHI +

f

* 1.0

1 ) f

volved beams exist as well. For applications and further explanations

refer to Chapter 5.5.

3. The input of CSMI/CSMA results in the calculation of the prestress

loads from the prestressing cables stored in the database. Such loads

will usually have already been generated by GEOS. However, these

loads can be also computed by STAR2 for cases of structural system

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By CSMI 1 the reinforcement defined in AQUA will be brought in with

prestress for the loading.

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See also:

3.21.

DESI

Determining Reinforcement

Item

Description

AM1

AM2

AM3

ED

REIN

Dimension

Default

members

Minimum reinforcement compression

members

Minimum reinforcement statically re

quired cross section

0.1

0.8

tween compression and bending

members, if not defined with record

BEAM.

3.5

0/00

0.02

0.001

AMAX

Maximum reinforcement

EC2

8%

DIN

9%

EGRE

NGRE

Only sections with internal forces and

moments whose elastic edge strains are

numerically larger than the value of

EGRE are designed.

Lower limit of axial force relative to plas

tic axial force for "compression members"

ZGRP

TANA

design (tan )

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

MOD

Design mode

SECT Reinforcement in cut

BEAM Reinforcement in beam

SPAN Reinforcement in span

GLOB Reinforcement in all effective

beams

TOTL Reinforcement in all beams

LIT

SECT

RMOD

SEPA Crack width doesnt change

reinforcement

SING Single calculation, not saved

SAVE Saved

SUPE Superposition

LIT

SING

LCR

P7

P8

P9

P10

P11

ment

(See notes)

*

*

*

*

0.20

In the record BEAM the user can define explicitly if this is a bending or com

ressed member. The default value is compressed member if the excentricity

of the load < ED and the magnitude of the compression force > NGRE A r.

The minimum reinforcements AM1 to AM3 apply to all cross sections; they

are input as a percentage of the section area.

The relevant value is the maximum of the minimum reinforcements:

Absolute minimum reinforcement (AM1/AM2)

Minimum reinforcement of statcally required section

Minimum reinforcement defined in cross section program AQUA

Minimum reinforcement stored in the database

Any number of types of reinforcement distribution can be stored in the data

base. Under number LCR, the most recently calculated reinforcement for

graphic depictions and for determinations of strain is stored. LCR=0 is re

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served for the minimum reinforcement. This makes it possible, for instance,

to design some load cases in advance and to prescribe their reinforcements

locally or globally as defaults. The input value RMOD refers to the minimum

and stirrup reinforcement:

SING

SAVE

SUPE

it

ignores the stored minimum reinforcement and overwrites

it the current reinforcement. This permits the establish

ment of an initial condition.

uses the stored minimum reinforcement and overwrites it

with the possibly higher values.

SUPE cannot be used during an iteration, since then the maximum reinforce

ment for an iteration step will no longer be reduced. STAR2 therefore ignores

a specification of SUPE, as long as convergence has not been reached. AQB

can still update the reinforcements at a later time: DESI STAT NO needs to

be specified in that case.

A specification of BEAM, SPAN, GLOB or TOTL under MOD refers to sec

tions with the same section number. For all connected ranges with the same

section, the maximum for the range is incorporated as the minimum rein

forcement. The design is done separately in each case for each load, however,

so that the user can recognize the relevant load cases.

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Distribution of reinforcements

Use of minimum reinforcement in ultimate load design has a detrimental ef

fect on the shear reinforcement, since the lever of internal forces is reduced.

The user can take the appropriate precautions by specifying a minimum lever

arm in AQUA.

Since this effect is especially strong with tendons, AQBS can give special ef

fect to the latter in ultimate load design. This option is controlled with ZGRP:

ZGRP = 0

342

prestressing. Normal reinforcement is specified at the

Version 10.20

STAR2

minimum percentage.

The relative loading capacity is found.

ZGRP > 0

with their area (stress increase) only specified in so

far as necessary. Normal reinforcementif installed

only if the prestressing steel alone is not sufficient.

A required area of prestressing steel is determined.

ZGRP < 0

specified in so far as necessary, otherwise the same

like ZGRP > 0.

If ZGRP < > 0 has been specified, the tendons are grouped into tendon groups.

The group is a whole number proportion which comes from dividing the

identification number of the tendon by ZGRP. Group 0 is specified with its

whole area, the upper group as needed. Any group higher than 4 is assigned

group 4. The group number of the tendons is independent of the group number

of the nonprestressed reinforcement.

Assume that tendons with the numbers 1, 21, 22 and 101 have been defined.

With the appropriate inputs for ZGRP, the following division is obtained:

ZGRP

ZGRP

0

10

Tendon 1 is group 0 and minimum reinforcement

Tendons 21 and 22 are group 2 and extra

Tendon 101 is group 4 and extra

ZGRP 100 Tendons 1, 21 and 22 are minimum reinforcement

Tendon 101 is group 1, extra

Notes: Parameters for determining reinforcement

The following parameters are normally not to be changed by the user:

P7 Weighting factor, axial force

Default

5

Typical

0.5 50

When designing, the strain plane is iterated by the BFGS method. The

required reinforcement is determined in the innermost loop according

to the minimum of the squared errors. The default value for P8 leads

to the same dimensions for the errors. The value of P7 has been deter

Version 10.20

343

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better to choose a smaller value, with multiple layers and compression

a larger one. For small maximum values of the reinforcementthe value

of P7 should be increased.

MIN ( (NNI)2 + F1(MYMYI)2 + F2(MZMZI)2 )

where

F1 = P7 (zmaxzmin)P8

F2 = P7 (ymaxymin)P8

Default

1.0

Typical

0.21.0

1.0

0.21.0

Lack of convergence in the dimensioning with biaxial loading can gen

erally be attributed to the factors no longer shaping the problem con

vexly, so that there are multiple solutions or none. In these cases the

user can increase the value of P7 or can vary the value of P10 between

0.2 and 1.0, for individual sections. In most cases, however, problems

are caused by specifying the minimum reinforcement.

P11 Factor for prefering outer reinforcement

Reinforcement which is only one third of the lever arm, is allowed to be

maximum one third of the area of the outer reinforcement. P11 is the

factor to set this up. For biaxial bending is P11=1.0, for uniaxial bend

ing is P11=0.0

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See also:

3.22.

Item

REIN NSTR

Design, Bending, Axial Force

Description

DESI

Dimension

Default

MOD

Design mode

SECT Reinforcement in cut

BEAM Reinforcement in beam

SPAN Reinforcement in span

GLOB Reinforcement in all effective

beams

TOTL Reinforcement in all beams

LIT

RMOD

SING Single calculation, not saved

SAVE Saved

SUPE Superposition

LIT

STAT

NO

Save reinforcement only

SERV Serviceability loads

ULTI Ultimate loads old DIN 1045

EC2

Load combination EC2

DIN

Load combination DIN10451

EC2B Buckling load combination

DINB per EC2 resp DIN 10451

EC2A Accidential load combination

DINA EC2 resp DIN 10451

Additional combinations may be found on

the following pages.

LIT

SERV

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Item

Description

Dimension

Default

SC1

SC2

SS1

SS2

C1

C2

S1

S2

Z1

Safety coefficient concrete

Safety coefficient steel

Safety coefficient steel

Maximum compression

Maximum centric compression

Optimum tensile strain

Maximum tensile strain

Maximum effective compressive strain

of prestressing steel

Maximum effective tensional strain

of prestressing steel

o/oo

o/oo

o/oo

o/oo

o/oo

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

o/oo

KSV

KSB

Control for material of reinforcements

UL

UL

SMOD

NO

No shear design

EC2

Design per EC2

DIN

Design per DIN 10451

1045

Design per DIN 1045

4227

Design per DIN 4227

SIA

Design per SIA 162

8110

Design per BS 8110

5400

Design per BS 5400

5402

Design per BS 5400 class 1/2

5403

Design per BS 5400 class 3

(vtu < 5.8)

4250

Design per OeNORM B 4250

4253

Design per OeNORM B 4253

4700

Design per OeNORM B 4700

LIT

Z2

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Item

Description

T01

(e.g. DIN 1045 Table 13 line 3)

Shear stress limit

(e.g. DIN 1045 Table 13 line 4)

Shear stress limit

(e.g. DIN 1045 Table 13 line 5)

Boundary between reduced and full

shear coverage

T02

T03

TVS

KTAU

K1

not staggered for normal

plates (DIN 1045 17.5.5.

equation 14)

K2

not staggered for plates with

constant, evenly distributed

full loading (DIN 1045 17.5.5.

equation 15)

K1S

like K1, tension reinforcement

staggered (DIN 1045 17.5.5.

Table 13 1a)

K2S

like K2, but staggered

num

coefficient k per equation 4.18

EC2

0.0

no shear check

TTOL

Dimension

Default

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

T02

/LIT

0.02

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SC1

GEBR

BRUC

DIN

DINA

DINL

DINC

EC2

EC2A

EC2B

OE

OEB

SIA

SIAB

BS

BSU

ACI

AASH

1.75

1.00

1.50

1.30

1.30

1.10

1.50

1.30

1.35

1.50

1.30

1.20

1.00

1.50

1.30

0.90

0.90

SC2

SS1

SS2

C1

C2

S1

S2

Z1

Z2

1.00 1.00 1.00 3.5

1.50 1.15 1.15 3.5

1.30 1.00 1.00 3.5

1.30 1.30 1.30 3.5

1.10 1.10 1.10 3.5

1.50 1.15 1.15 3.5

1.30 1.00 1.00 3.5

1.35 1.15 1.15 3.5

1.50 1.15 1.15 3.5

1.30 1.00 1.00 3.5

1.20 1.20 1.20 3.5

1.00 1.00 1.00 3.5

1.50 1.115 1.15 3.5

1.30 1.00 1.00 3.5

0.70 0.85(shear)3.0

0.70 0.85(shear)3.0

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

2.1

2.1

5.0

5.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

20.0

20.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

2.2

2.2

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

When designing for ultimate load or combinations with divided safety factors,

the load factor must be contained in the internal forces and moments. One

way to accomplish this is with the COMB records.

The maximum strain depends on the stressstrain curve. The value of 2.2 is

reduced for example at the old DIN or high strength concrete automatically.

Note:

The statically determined portion of the forces and moments of prestressing

is always deducted when determining the external forces and moments. This

contribution is found from the location of the tendons and their tensile force.

The specification of MOD and RMOD describe the handling of the minimum

reinforcement. This is explained in more detail in the record REIN. The va

lues which are input there serve as the defaults for the values in this record.

For stirrup reinforcement only the values of the record REIN are used.

A specifiaction of the bifurcation factor BETA in record BEAM is changed to

additional moments according to DIN 1045 17.4.3 resp. Eurocode 4.3.5.6.

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resp. DIN 1045 neu 5.6.4. resp. OeNORM B 4700 2.4.3.. The design will al

ways generate both bending axis. The output of the extra moments is given

with the stresses of the combinations.

This design operation is also suitable for nonreinforced sections. In that case

the program produces internal forces and moments which are in the same

proportion to each other as the external forces and moments. The safety fac

tors SC1 and SC2 have to be defined dependent on the design code. The pro

gram then shows the relative load carrying capacity and prints a warning if

this should fall below 1.0.

The values Z1 and Z2 do not limit the range of possible strains, but the maxi

mum corresponding values are used as strain increments for the tension

members in the section. This is necessary, for instance, when designing with

partial prestressing under DIN 4227 Part 2.

With KSV and KSB will be controlled the material law. You may enter:

EL

ELD

SL

SLD

UL

ULD

PL

PLD

linear elastic with material safety factor

service nominal without material safety factor

service design with material safety factor

ultimate nominal without material safety factor

ultimate design with material safety factor

plastic nominal without material safety factor

plastic design with material safety factor

The calculation can be carried out with other material values than those de

fined in AQUA by entering a numerical value fpor KSV/KSB. The entered

value is then added to all material numbers. If the input value KSV or KSB

is defined with 100 more than its value, then the partial safety coefficients

which are defined in AQUA are not selected. This is normally the case be

cause of the different safety coefficients of individual loadcase combinations.

If this value is increased by 200, then the stressstrain curve for the service

bility limit will be used if such a law has been defined in AQUA.

The shear design finds the lever of internal forces for all load cases with com

pression and tension forces in the section, and finds the shear stress and

shear reinforcement resulting from shearing force and torsion. The shear

stress limits are set automatically depending on SMOD and the material. De

viating values for the shear stress limits can be defined with a record STRE

(under 4227 only) or T01 to TVS. Since in case of excess of the shear stress

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limits no design more occurs, this with a tolerance can be exceeded onto own

responsibility of the user.

Consideration of the displacement of the envelope line of the tensile force

(shift rule) depends upon the CTRL option VM.

If a section is to be considered as a plate has already been defined with the

section itself. The definition of KTAU is thus only effective for those sections.

By entering 4253 this OENORM design code will by in effect. Then instead

of decreasing the stress TVS, the inclination of the truss according to

12.2.2.(3) will be decreased.

350

Version 10.20

See also:

3.23.

REIN DESI

Strain

Item

Description

KMOD

STAR2

NSTR

Dimension

Default

Determining stiffness

S0

State definition without

change of stiffnesses

S1

Secant stiffness from given

curvatures

SN

Secant stiffness from given

moments

K0

Plastic strains without itera

tion

K1

Plastic strains from given

curvatures

KN

Plastic strains from given

moments

T0

Tangent stiffness without

iteration

T1

Tangent stiffness from given

curvatures

TN

Tangent stiffness from given

moments

S0/S1

KSV

KSB

Control for material of the reinforce

ments and tension stiffening

*

*

KMIN

KMAX

Minimum stiffness

Maximum stiffness

0.01

4.00

ALPH

FMAX

Damping factor

Acceleration factor

0.4

5.0

Version 10.20

351

STAR2

Item

Description

Dimension

Default

SIGS

wich are to be investigated.

N/mm2

CRAC

EC2

Eurocode EC2

1045

Heft 400 / DIN 1045 old

DIN

DIN 10451 (May 2000)

4227

Prestressed conrete DIN4227

4700

OeNORM B 4700

LIT

CW

BB

Factor 2 (0.5 to 1.0)

resp. t of DIN 1045 new (0.25)

resp. reduction acc. 3.2.2. B4700 (0.0)

mm/

0.2/1

0.5

HMAX

CW

Crack width or factor above"

m

mm/

0.8

CW

This contains checks in the state II or plastic checkss generally. "Byproducts"

are the determination of stress ranges or crack widths and nonlinear secant

stiffnesses. The default for KMOD is S0 within AQB, while S1 within STAR2.

Design for Structural Steelwork (DIN 18800, EC3)

Design elasticplastic

NSTR S0 KMIN 0.8

forces with nonlinear stress strain relations. A Warning will be

printed, if the resistance is not sufficient. KMIN 0.8 will mark all sec

tions where the stiffness is reduced to less than a factor of 1/1.25. This

is a better equivalent than clause 755 of DIN 18800 requiring M<1.25

Mmax,elastic.

NSTR S1 KSV PLD

Very large (fully plastic) strains will be created which are in the same

ratio as given moment and shear force. Internal forces will be calcu

352

Version 10.20

STAR2

lated which are not exactly with the same ratio, but the points will be

on the interaktion curve.

Design plasticplastic

When iterating between STAR2 and AQB a calculation according to the

yield zone theory is allowed.

The design check of the b/tratio has differences for the elastic region and the

fully plastic region. As an interpolation is not foreseen, AQB will use the more

restrictive formulas whenever the maximum stress is within 1 o/oo of the

yield limit. With NSTR DEHN S0 table 15 of DIN 18800 is used, for all other

cases table 18.

Different variants are provided for determining the strain condition, because

of the complicated iterative calculation with STAR2 (see Section 2.7.6.). Se

lecting another method than S0 only makes sense within AQB if an iterative

calculation in alternation with STAR2 is being used, see procedure PS (cf.

5.2.2. prefabricated column).

The calculation can be carried out with different material values and safeties.

This is controlled via KSV and KSB. With that one can define for example also

deviating stressstrain curves for the service state. Meant in this case:

EL

ELD

SL

SLD

UL

ULD

PL

PLD

linear elastic with material safety factor

service nominal without material safety factor

service design with material safety factor

ultimate nominal without material safety factor

ultimate design with material safety factor

plastic nominal without material safety factor

plastic design with material safety factor

TS0

Without DESI

without crackwidth (steel)

with crack width (concrete)

Input DESI for ultimate loads

Input DESI for regular loads

Version 10.20

KSV=KSB=SL (without safety)

KSV=KSB=UL (without safety)

KSV=KSB=SL (without safety)

353

STAR2

The calculation can be carried out with other material values than those de

fined in AQUA by entering a numerical value for KSV and KSB (=ULD). The

entered value is then added to all material numbers. If the input value KSV

or KSB is defined with 100 more than its value, then the partial safety coeffi

cients which are defined in AQUA are not selected (=ULM). If this value is

increased by 200, then the stressstrain curve for the servicebility limit will

be used if such a law has been defined in AQUA (=SL).

To calculate the correct strain condition, knowledge of the actual existing re

inforcement is needed. If the latter was not defined in AQUA as the minimum

reinforcement, then an appropriate DESI record needs to have been calcu

lated in advance. The most recently determined distribution of reinforce

ments for each case is saved in the database. This is not valid, however, for

the intenal forces and moments of the load case 0 !

Static calculation with nonlinear stiffnesses in AQB is successful only if

STAR2 is called again with a new iteration as a restart after AQB, and this

process is repeated until convergence occurs. Thus it is recommended to de

fine these records within STAR2 and to increase the number of iterations

within STAR2.

Selection of the optimum iteration method is difficult. The user should start

with SN for lightly loaded systems and with S1 for more heavily loaded sys

tems, and should then shift to K1 or K0 if necessary. When there are many

similar systems, it pays to find the optimum method by experimentation.

To prevent endangering the iteration procedure, only changes of stiffness of

a certain magnitude are permitted. A value of 0.4 for ALPH means that in

each step the stiffness can decrease at most to 1/(1+0.4) times its value, or in

crease at most to 1/(10.4) times its value. Independently of that, the stiff

nesses remain limited to the range between KMIN and KMAX, referenced to

the elastic stiffness.

With critical systems, which exceed their loading capacity in the course of the

iteration, it may be necessary to limit the maximum acceleration factor with

FMAX. A value of less than 1.0 damps the iteration procedure. A value of 0.0

turns the procedure off. The default of FMAX is 2.0 at a calculation with

NSTR KMOD SN and CTRL INTE 4.

With default of CRAC a check of the crack width and/or the limit diameter

with the diameters defined in AQUA and possible reference areas is led. The

parameter CW then has various meanings:

354

Version 10.20

STAR2

CW is the necessary crack width (wk, cal), with a default of 0.2 mm. The re

duced values for restraining loading of thick cross sections under EC2 must

be converted by the user (e.g. by a factor of 1.3/1.7). The coefficient 2 must

be specified, the coefficient 1 is calculated from the bond coefficient k1

(0.8/k1) by analogy to the CEB code. Deviations from this can be handled with

BB. For B 4700 the values BB will control an interpolation between tables 7/8

and 9/10. BB=1 selects mostly constraining, while BB=0 (default) selects

mostly loading (no constraint).

Because not only the codes to the crack width but also their interpretation

change continuously, it it is very probable that with different versions slightly

different results show.

DIN 4227:

The more recent design check according to Appendix A1 is selectable via re

cord STRE. CW is the factor for environmental conditions. The following va

lues can be used:

Environment 1

Environment 2

Environment 3

Version 10.20

CW = 1.0

CW = 0.75

CW = 0.50

(default)

355

STAR2

356

Version 10.20

4

STAR2

Output Description.

4.1.

Load Assembly

Provided that loads were generated, the global factor for each loadcase as well

as the dead weight components and all other loads of the loadcase (multiplied

by the factor) are output.

The load type and the direction of the beam loads is given by a four letter

combination:

a b c d

Possible values for a:

S

U

V

C

Single load

Uniform load

Variable load

Cubic load

(values generated by program)

for b:

L

P

Load referring to the projection

for c:

P

M

W

D

U

T

V

E

K

Force

Moment

Displacement

Rotation

Initial deformation

Temperature

Prestress

Strain

Curvature

for d:

S

1

2

X

Y

Z

Local directions

Version 10.20

Global directions

41

STAR2

4.2.

Nodes and support conditions as well as all elements can be output. This is

done by merely inputting the corresponding ECHO options NODE, BEAM,

SPRI, BOUN or FULL. ECHO NODE FULL causes the additional output of

the equation numbers of the degrees of freedom. This is helpful in detecting

movable parts of the structure.

Every time the equation system is reassembled, its parameters are output to

the protocol file.

4.3.

Results

The beam section forces and possibly the deformations are output for each

section as well as for all positions, at which point loads are applied. The sign

convention can be found in Section 2.2. In case of SECT and DEFO, YES re

sults in a printout of values at explicit output sections only. Values at posi

tions between sections where point loads are applied are printed using FULL.

Values at all sections are printed using EXTR.

Where applicable, the internal forces and deformations of springs, truss and

cable elements are output.

The displacements and rotations of nodes are output in mm and 0/00, respect

ively, in the directions of the coordinates. Rotations are positive clockwise.

Forces arise at all nodes with supports, couplings or elastic foundations.

These are output as follows:

ECHO REAC YES

ECHO REAC FULL

ECHO REAC EXTR

only reactions

reactions + coupling forces

all nodal forces (accuracy check)

When forces are exerted on a free node, then either a support has been erron

eously specified or the machines accuracy is not sufficient for solving the sys

tem.

The sum of the reaction forces is an important index for the completeness of

the loads.

4.4.

A printout of the 1st iteration step (1st order theory) as well as a printout

after the last step take place when nothing is input. If convergence is reached

within the specified limits, its results are output too.

42

Version 10.20

STAR2

Output after every nth step can be requested by ECHO STEP. The output

of the initial linear analysis can be suppressed by using ECHO STEP 99.

4.5.

Convergence Criteria

It gets checked by every iteration step, whether the accuracy lies within the

prescribed limits. This is performed separately for forces, moments, displace

ments and rotations. The procedure is the following:

The difference between the result value during the current and the one

during the previous iteration is determined at each result point. This

difference must be smaller than the absolute result value multiplied by

the precision tolerance. If the value is smaller than the largest value

encountered in the structure times the precision tolerance, the percen

tage difference is not computed. This way very small values, which e.g.

oscillate around zero from one iteration to the other, thus generating

very high percentage changes, get no consideration at all.

A summary of these values is printed at the beginning of each output iter

ation. These values are also output to the screen or to the protocol file for all

iterations.

4.6.

Design Output

Design results are output after every iteration which was requested by

ECHO STEP, as well as after reaching convergence. There are three tables:

1. Design results of the individual loadcases

(only by ECHO REIN FULL)

2. Design parameters

3. Accumulation of the computed reinforcement

The design parameter tables include for each section:

Beamno

x(m)

NCS

LC

NI

MyI/MzI

Version 10.20

Beam number

Xvalue of the beam section

Cross section number

Loadcase number

Internal axial force in kN

Internal moments in kNm

43

STAR2

e1

e2

yN

zN

sc/ss

RELTRA

As

R

Edge strain at compression side in 0/00

= Steel strain in case of pure tension

Edge strain on tension side in 0/00

= Steel strain when not surprinted

Intersection of neutral line with axis

Intersection of neutral line with axis

Safety factors for concrete and steel

Relative ultimate strength

The total ultimate strength amounts to

scRELTRA, when sc and ss are identical.

Total reinforcement for each activated layer

in cm2

Layer number

If the strength of the cross section is not exhausted, the internal section forces

are larger than the external forces by the factor RELTRA. If the cross section

is overstressed, RELTRA can be smaller than 1.0 as well. If the minimum re

inforcement of the statically required cross section is critical, the internal sec

tion forces are computed using the minimum reinforcement percentage,

while the reinforcement is already reduced by the factor. The indication "not

recommended" appears, when a cross section is not designed due to low stres

sing. The absolute limit strain EGRE defined in record REIN serves as cri

terion in this case.

The global parameters of the design (limit strains, safety factors and mini

mum reinforcement ratios) are output in a preceding table.

The maximum reinforcement ratios are output in an additional table. (By

GLOB and TOTL for each cross section, by SPAN and BEAM for the begin

ning of each region, by SECT for each section).

4.7.

Stiffness Computation

Beamno

x(m)

NCS

LC

Ni

e0

44

Beam number

Xvalue of beam section

Cross section number

Loadcase number

Internal axial force

Strain at gravity centre in 0/00

Version 10.20

Myi

Mzi

ky/kz

Ey

Ez

x

STAR2

Internal moment

Internal moment

Curvatures in (1/km)

Effective Emodulus

Effective Emodulus

Height of compressive zone

NO

YES

FULL

EXTR

Table omitted

Table as described above

In addition, the maximum and minimum

strains and stresses of the full cross section

(Q), the prestressing steel (S) and the plain

reinforcement (B).

Stress and strain at all points of the cross

section

Remark:

The effective Emoduli are corrected after output in order to improve conver

gence as well as to conform to current maximum and minimum values. These

values are secant moduli and they can even be larger than the elastic

Emoduli in case of oblique bending.

The maximum strains for prestressing steel are given as differences from the

concrete strains, not as total values.

Version 10.20

45

STAR2

46

Version 10.20

5

Examples

5.1.

STAR2

The elastically restrained cantilever column from /6/, Page 344, is used as an

example (see figure):

Cantilever column

The cross section is generated by the program AQUA and the following input:

PROG

HEAD

HEAD

STEE

SECT

END

AQUA

EXAMPLE 1 : ELASTICALLY RESTRAINED CANTILEVER SUPPORT

SEE PETERSEN 2. EDITION PAGE 344

1 ST 37

1 ; PROF 1 IPB 500

Version 10.20

51

STAR2

In order to obtain intermediate results, the beam was subdivided into 3 seg

ments. The input for GENF is:

PROG

HEAD

HEAD

NODE

BEAM

SPRI

END

GENF

EXAMPLE 1 : ELASTICALLY RESTRAINED CANTILEVER SUPPORT

SEE PETERSEN 2. EDITION PAGE 344

1 0 0 PP ; NODE 2 8 0

1 1 2 NCS 1 DIV 3

1 1 DZ 1.0 CM 1.447E5

N O D A L

C O O R D I N A T E S

AND

S U P P O R T S

Number

X[m]

Y[m]

Z[m] Support Conditions

1

.000

.000

.000

PX

PY

2

8.000

.000

.000

MIN

.000

.000

.000

MAX

8.000

.000

.000

MATERIALS

No. 1 ST 37 (DIN 17100)

Youngsmodulus

210000

[MPa]

Safetyfactor

1.00

[]

PoissonRatio

0.30

[]

Yield stress fy

240.00

[MPa]

Shearmodulus

81000

[MPa]

Tens. strength

370.00

[MPa]

Compression modulus 171821

[MPa]

Ultim. plast. strain

0.00 [o/oo]

Weight

78.5 [kN/m3]

Relaxation at .55ft

0.00

[]

Weight buoyancy

0.0 [kN/m3]

Relaxation at .70ft

0.00

[]

Temp.elongat.coeff.1.20E05

[]

national bond coeff.

0.00

[]

EC2 bondcoeff. K1

0.00

[]

Hardening modulus

0.00

[MPa]

C R O S S S E C T I O N S

S T A T I C

P R O P E R T I E S

No MNo

A[m2] Ay/Az/Ayz Iy/Iz/Iyz

ys/zs y/zsc

modules

gam

MNs

It[m4]

[m2]

[m4]

[m]

[m]

[MPa] [kN/m3]

1

1 2.3864E02 1.400E02 1.073E03

.000

.000

210000

78.5

4.925E06 6.694E03 1.260E04

.000

.000

81000

= IPB 500

B E A M

E L E M E N T S

beam

node

x[m] NoS Ref

1

1

.000

1

2.667

1

5.333

1

2

8.000

1

52

hinges

.000

.000 1.000

Version 10.20

S P R I N G

E L E M E N T S

Number Nodeno dX[] dY[] dZ[]

1

1

.000

.000 1.000

CP[kN/m]

STAR2

CQ[kN/m]

CM[kNm] Np[kN]

1.447E+05

PROG

HEAD

CTRL

LC 1

NL 2

NL 2

END

STAR2

ANALYSIS UNDER 1.71TIMES LOAD AFTER 2ND ORDER THEORY

II 2

1.71

PY 35

PX 1150

The analysis gets started with the above input. An output of the loads comes

first:

L O A D C A S E

load factor

factor

dlx

factor

dly

factor

dlz

1

1.710

.000

.000

.000

N O D A L

L O A D S

node

PX[kN]

PY[kN]

2

1966.5

2

59.9

PZ[kN]

MX[kNm]

MY[kNm]

MZ[kNm]

The input loads have already been multiplied here by the safety factor.

A printout of the results from 1st order theory follows, and then from 2nd

order theory:

linear

results

Loadfactor 1.71

B E A M

F O R C E S

A N D

M O M E N T S

Loadcase

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration 0

beam

X

N

VZ

MY

No

[m]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1

.00

1966.5

59.9 478.80

2.67

1966.5

59.9 319.18

5.33

1966.5

59.9 159.62

8.00

1966.5

59.9

.00

F O R C E S AND

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

Loadcase

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration 0

Version 10.20

OF

S P R I N G S

53

STAR2

Number

1

N O D A L

Loadcase

nodes

No

1

2

P[kN]

.0

PV[kN]

.0

M[kNm]

478.80

u[mm]

.000

uq[mm] phi[mrad]

.000

3.309

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

AND

R E A C T I O N S

2nd Order Theory Iteration 0

uX

uY

PHIZ

PX

PY

MZ

[mm]

[mm] [mrad]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

.000

.000

3.309 1966.5

59.9 478.80

3.139 72.686 11.809

1

S U M

PX [kN]

1966.5

1966.5

Loads

Reactions

PY [kN]

59.9

59.9

PZ [kN]

.0

.0

The sum of the reaction forces should be checked for correctness every time;

it is an indication for the completeness of the loads.

Since the axial force is statically determinate, one iteration is sufficient for

obtaining results by 2nd order theory; additional results were not requested

by the record CTRL. The program, however, can determine only through a

2nd iteration that nothing has changed from the previous one, and only then

can it terminate the analysis.

second order theory results

iteration 2

Loadfactor 1.71

C O N V E R G E N C E

A C H I E V E D

accuracy:

absolute

relative

achieved

limit

achieved

limit

( kN, kNm, m, rad)

(percent)

forces

0.000E+00 1.966E+01

1.00

moments

0.000E+00 6.898E+00

1.00

displacements

0.000E+00 1.073E03

1.00

rotations

0.000E+00 1.762E04

1.00

B E A M

F O R C E S

A N D

M O M E N T S

Nonlinear loadcase

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration

beam

X

N

VZ

MY

No

[m]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1

.00

1966.5

59.9 689.78

2.67

1966.5

59.9 485.03

5.33

1966.5

59.9 250.32

8.00

1966.5

59.9

.00

F O R C E S

AND

Nonlinear loadcase

Number

P[kN]

54

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

OF

S P R I N G S

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration 2

PV[kN]

M[kNm]

u[mm]

uq[mm] phi[mrad]

Version 10.20

1

.0

.0

689.78

STAR2

.000

.000

4.767

N O D A L

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

AND

R E A C T I O N S

Nonlinear loadcase

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration 2

nodes

uX

uY

PHIZ

PX

PY

MZ

No

[mm]

[mm] [mrad]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1

.000

.000

4.767 1966.5

59.9 689.78

2

3.139 107.288 17.618

S U M

Loads

Reactions

PX [kN]

1966.5

1966.5

PY [kN]

59.9

59.9

PZ [kN]

.0

.0

The moment by 2nd order theory is somewhat smaller than the one calculated

by Petersen; this can be traced back to the fact, that the "DischingerFor

mula" used by Petersen can not produce results better than the exact solution

computed by STAR2.

In a second computation the column is analysed for 1,50times bigger load

and an 1/250 oblique position of the cantilever. The oblique position is given

as a point beam load and it is not multiplied by the safety factor (see check

output of the loads).

The input is as follows:

PROG STAR2

HEAD LOADING CASE 2:

CTRL II 2

ECHO LOAD

LC 2 1.50

LCC 1

SL 1 U2 0.032 8

END

L O A D C A S E

load factor

factor

dlx

factor

dly

factor

dlz

2

1.500

.000

.000

.000

N O D A L

L O A D S

node

PX[kN]

PY[kN]

2

1725.0

2

52.5

Version 10.20

PZ[kN]

MX[kNm]

MY[kNm]

MZ[kNm]

55

STAR2

B E A M

L O A D S

Beamno type

a[m]

1 VLU2

.00

l[m]

8.00

load1

.00

32.00 MM

The sign of the oblique position must be input in the local coordinate system

of the beam. For the selected system of coordinates (zaxis pointing to the

back), the positive zregion is to the right of the beam direction.

The following values result from 2nd order theory:

second order theory results

iteration 2

Loadfactor 1.50

C O N V E R G E N C E

A C H I E V E D

accuracy:

absolute

relative

achieved

limit

achieved

limit

( kN, kNm, m, rad)

(percent)

forces

0.000E+00 1.725E+01

1.00

moments

0.000E+00 6.485E+00

1.00

displacements

0.000E+00 1.324E03

1.00

rotations

0.000E+00 2.049E04

1.00

B E A M

F O R C E S

A N D

M O M E N T S

Nonlinear loadcase

2

2nd Order Theory Iteration

beam

X

N

VZ

MY

No

[m]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1

.00

1725.0

52.5 648.47

2.67

1725.0

52.5 452.93

5.33

1725.0

52.5 232.83

8.00

1725.0

52.5

.00

F O R C E S

AND

Nonlinear loadcase

Number

P[kN]

1

.0

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

OF

S P R I N G S

2

2nd Order Theory Iteration 2

PV[kN]

M[kNm]

u[mm]

uq[mm] phi[mrad]

.0

648.47

.000

.000

4.482

N O D A L

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

AND

R E A C T I O N S

Nonlinear loadcase

2

2nd Order Theory Iteration 2

nodes

uX

uY

PHIZ

PX

PY

MZ

No

[mm]

[mm] [mrad]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1

.000

.000

4.482 1725.0

52.5 648.47

2

2.754 100.449 16.489

S U M

Loads

Reactions

56

PX [kN]

1725.0

1725.0

PY [kN]

52.5

52.5

PZ [kN]

.0

.0

Version 10.20

STAR2

by mistake, applies the safety factor twice upon the oblique position.

5.2.

Presented below is a wind frame crossed with tensile diagonals, which serves

as an example for the application of the nonlinear effects of truss and cable

elements.

Wind frame

The input for the program GENF reads as follows:

PROG GENF

HEAD CABLE ELEMENT LATERAL BRACING

NODE 1 0 0 F ; 2 0 3 ; 3 3 3 ; 4 3 0 F

MAT 1

SVAL 1 1 .001

TRUS (1 3 1) (1 1) (2 1)

CABL 11 1 3 ; 12 2 4

END

N O D A L

C O O R D I N A T E S

AND

S U P P O R T S

Number

X[m]

Y[m]

Z[m] Support Conditions

1

.000

.000

.000

PX

PY

MZ

2

.000

3.000

.000

3

3.000

3.000

.000

4

3.000

.000

.000

PX

PY

MZ

Version 10.20

57

STAR2

MIN

MAX

.000

3.000

.000

3.000

.000

.000

M A T E R I A L S

No. 1

Youngmodule

30000

[MPa]

Safetyfactor

1.00

[]

PoissonRatio

.20

[]

Shearmodule

12500

[MPa]

Compress.module

16667

[MPa]

Weight

25.0 [kN/m3]

Weight buoyancy

15.0 [kN/m3]

Temperat. coeff. 1.00E05

[]

C R O S S S E C T I O N S

S T A T I C

P R O P E R T I E S

No MNo

A[m2] Ay/Az/Ayz Iy/Iz/Iyz

ys/zs y/zsc

modules

gam

MNs

It[m4]

[m2]

[m4]

[m]

[m]

[MPa] [kN/m]

1

1 1.0000E03

8.333E11

.000

.000

30000

25.0

1.520E04

8.333E11

.000

.000

12500

T R U S S

Number

1

2

3

E L E M E N T S

Nodeno

section

1

2

1

2

3

1

3

4

1

L[m]

3.000

3.000

3.000

Np[kN]

C A B L E

Number

11

12

E L E M E N T S

Nodeno

section

1

3

1

2

4

1

L[m]

4.243

4.243

Np[kN]

Both loading cases are analysed using two data blocks of STAR2 input. This

is usually required by nonlinear loadcases. A maximum of 5 iterations is al

lowed by the CTRL record, while the input of ECHO STEP 1 requests a print

out after every iteration for the observation of the iteration progress.

PROG

HEAD

CTRL

ECHO

LC 1

NL 2

END

CTRL

ECHO

LC 2

58

STAR2

WIND TO THE LEFT WIND TO THE RIGHT

II 5

STEP 1

PX 10

II 5

STEP 1

Version 10.20

STAR2

NL 3 PX 10

END

The results for loadcase 1 after the linear analysis as well as after the 2nd

iteration are given in the next pages.

linear

results

Loadfactor 1.00

F O R C E S

IN

T R U S S E L E M E N T S

Loadcase

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration 0

Number

N[kN]

u[mm]

1

5.6

.558

2

4.4

.442

3

4.4

.442

F O R C E S

IN

C A B L E E L E M E N T S

Loadcase

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration 0

Number

N[kN]

u[mm]

uq[mm]

11

6.3

.884

12

7.9

1.115

N O D A L

Loadcase

nodes

No

1

2

3

4

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

AND

R E A C T I O N S

2nd Order Theory Iteration 0

uX

uY

PHIZ

PX

PY

MZ

[mm]

[mm] [mrad]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

.000

.000

.000

4.4

10.0

.00

2.135

.558

.000

1.693

.442

.000

.000

.000

.000

5.6

10.0

.00

S U M

Loads

Reactions

PX [kN]

10.0

10.0

PY [kN]

.0

.0

PZ [kN]

.0

.0

iteration 2

Loadfactor 1.00

C O N V E R G E N C E

A C H I E V E D

accuracy:

absolute

relative

achieved

limit

achieved

limit

( kN, kNm, m, rad)

(percent)

forces

1.639E02 1.415E01

1.00

moments

0.000E+00 1.000E05

1.00

displacements

3.455E06 4.830E05

1.00

rotations

0.000E+00 1.000E05

1.00

Version 10.20

59

STAR2

F O R C E S

IN

T R U S S E L E M E N T S

Nonlinear loadcase

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration

Number

N[kN]

u[mm]

1

.0

.000

2

10.0

1.000

3

10.0

1.000

F O R C E S

IN

C A B L E E L E M E N T S

Nonlinear loadcase

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration

Number

N[kN]

u[mm]

uq[mm]

11

14.1

2.001

12

.0

3.415

N O D A L

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

AND

R E A C T I O N S

Nonlinear loadcase

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration 2

nodes

uX

uY

PHIZ

PX

PY

MZ

No

[mm]

[mm] [mrad]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1

.000

.000

.000

10.0

10.0

.00

2

4.830

.000

.000

3

3.830 1.000

.000

4

.000

.000

.000

.0

10.0

.00

S U M

Loads

Reactions

PX [kN]

10.0

10.0

PY [kN]

.0

.0

PZ [kN]

.0

.0

If vertical loads are applied in this example too, both cables will be subjected

to compression. The structure is then movable. One should additionally intro

duce either prestress (followup drawing of the tension jacks) or auxiliary el

ements with approximately 1 0/00 of the cable elongation stiffness.

5.3.

Girder.

Girders lie in the XY plane and they are loaded perpendicularly to their

plane. The Zaxis points downwards in this case. The encountered section

forces are Vz, Mt and My (corresponding to the crosssectional parameters Az,

It and Iy). The analysis of girders is possible by 1st order theory only.

510

Version 10.20

STAR2

Girder

A 2span girder with 3 main girders serves as an example. The outer main

girder is loaded by 50 kN/m. The input data for GENF and STAR2 read:

PROG GENF

HEAD GIRDER

SYST GIRD

CONC 1 B 25

SVAL 1 1 1 IT .024279

SVAL 2 1 1 IT .002794

NODE 1 0 7 ; 7 24 7 ;

MESH 1 7 27 21 6 2

$ FIXED NODES

NODE (1 21 10) FIX PZ

BEAM ( 1 6 1) ( 1 1)

BEAM (11 16 1) (11 1)

BEAM (21 26 1) (21 1)

BEAM (31 37 1) ( 1 1)

BEAM (41 47 1) (11 1)

END

IY .030375

IY .003125

21 0 0 ; 27 24 0

( 2 1) 1 DIV 4

(12 1) 1 DIV 4

(22 1) 1 DIV 4

(11 1) 2 DIV 4

(21 1) 2 DIV 4

and:

PROG STAR2

HEAD GRIDWORK

CTRL I

LC 1

UL (1 6 1) PZ 50

END

of the 3 section forces:

Version 10.20

511

STAR2

B E A M

F O R C E S

A N D

M O M E N T S

Loadcase

1

beam

X

VZ

MT

MY

No

[m]

[kN]

[kNm]

[kNm]

1

.00

206.2

43.39

13.41

1.00

156.2

43.39

167.77

2.00

106.2

43.39

298.95

3.00

56.2

43.39

380.14

4.00

6.2

43.39

411.32

2

.00

40.8

8.45

407.19

1.00

9.2

8.45

422.99

2.00

59.2

8.45

388.79

3.00

109.2

8.45

304.58

4.00

159.2

8.45

170.38

3

.00

142.9

27.81

178.84 ... and so on

512

Version 10.20

STAR2

5.4.

Threedimensional Frame.

Version 10.20

513

STAR2

The crosssections are piecewise assembled from MSHprofiles and they are

defined by the program AQUA.

PROG

HEAD

STEE

SECT

SECT

SECT

AQUA

POS D2: WINDBREAK

1 ST 37

1 ; PROF 1 SH 100 100 4

2 ; PROF 2 SH 100 100 4

3 ; PLAT 1

0

0

95 141

2

95 141 178

85

3 178 85 100

20

4 100

20 100

140

5 100 140

0

140

6

0 140

0

0

SECT 4 ; PLAT 1

0

0 185

274

2 185 274 102

330

3 102 330

7

189

4

7 189 55

97

5 55

97 83

56

6 83

56

0

0

7

7 189 88

330

8 88 330 169

274

9 169 274 55

97

SECT 5 ..... (not printed here)

END

5

=

=

=

=

=

5.6

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

514

Version 10.20

STAR2

PROG GENF

HEAD POS D2: WINDBREAK

SYST SPAC

NODE 1 3.00 0.00 4.25

2 2.00 0.60 5.9

3 1.00 0.00 4.25

4 2.00 0.00 2.65 YP

5 0.00 0.00 2.65

11 3.00 1.66 4.25

12 3.27 1.66 3.85 PP

NODE 21 3.00 3.32 4.25

22 2.00 2.72 5.9

23 1.00 3.32 4.25

24 2.00 3.32 2.65 YP

25 0.00 3.32 2.65

NODE 6 3.1 0.00 5.90 F $ REFERENCE NODE

7 2

3.40 2.65 F

8 2

3.40 5.90 F

9 3.1 3.40 2.65 F

10 3.1 0.00 4.25 F

NODE 11 FIX KF 12

ADEF 1 ; BDIV .07 ; .66 ; .66 ; .66 ; .07 .07

ADEF 2 ; BDIV .67 ; .66 ; .66 ; .66 ; .67 .67

ADEF 3 ; BDIV .67 ; .66 ; .33 .33

ADEF 4 ; BDIV .33 ; .66 ; .67 .67

BEAM 1 1 11 10 4 NBD 3

2 2 22

6 5 NBD 1

3 11 21 10 4 NBD 4

4 4 24

9 3 NBD 2

5 5 25 56 1 NBD 2

10 4 5 9 2 DIV 2 ; 11 24 25 9 2 DIV 2

20 4 3 7 1 DIV 2 ; 21 24 23 7 1 DIV 2

30 5 3 0 1 DIV 2 ; 31 25 23 0 1 DIV 2

40 3 1 0 2 DIV 2 ; 41 23 21 0 2 DIV 2

50 4 1 0 1 DIV 2 ; 51 24 21 0 1 DIV 2

60 1 2 0 1 DIV 2 ; 61 21 22 0 1 DIV 2

70 3 2 0 1 DIV 2 ; 71 23 22 0 1 DIV 2

END

Direction angles and reference nodes were used in the previous example as

required. The directional components of the principal axis (yaxis) are output

by GENF and they should be carefully checked by the user.

The output from GENF is presented in the following.

N O D A L

Number

C O O R D I N A T E S

AND

S U P P O R T S

X[m]

Y[m]

Z[m] Support Conditions

Version 10.20

515

STAR2

1

3.000

.000

4.250

2

2.000

.600

5.900

3

1.000

.000

4.250

4

2.000

.000

2.650

5

.000

.000

2.650

6

3.100

.000

5.900

7

2.000

3.400

2.650

8

2.000

3.400

5.900

9

3.100

3.400

2.650

10

3.100

.000

4.250

11

3.000

1.660

4.250

12

3.270

1.660

3.850

21

3.000

3.320

4.250

22

2.000

2.720

5.900

23

1.000

3.320

4.250

24

2.000

3.320

2.650

25

.000

3.320

2.650

MIN

.000

.000

5.900

MAX

3.270

3.400

2.650

PX

PZ

PX

PX

PX

PX

PX

PY

PY

PY

PY

PY

PZ

PZ

PZ

PZ

PZ

PX

PY

PZ

PX

MX

MX

MX

MX

MX

MY

MY

MY

MY

MY

MZ

MZ

MZ

MZ

MZ

MB

MB

MB

MB

MB

K I N E M A T I C

C O N S T R A I N T S

Node LV type reference

dx

11

1

KF

12

.270

PZ

dy

.000

dz

df

.400

MATERIALS

No. 1 ST 37 (DIN 17100)

Youngsmodulus

210000

[MPa]

Safetyfactor

1.10

[]

PoissonRatio

0.30

[]

Yield stress fy

240.00 [MPa]

Shearmodulus

81000

[MPa]

Tens. strength ft

370.00 [MPa]

Compression modulus

171821

[MPa]

Ultim. plast. strain 0.00 [o/oo]

Weight

78.5 [kN/m3]

Relaxation at .55ft

0.00

[]

Weight buoyancy

0.0 [kN/m3]

Relaxation at .70ft

0.00

[]

Temp.elongat.coeff. 1.20E05

[]

national bond coeff. 0.00

[]

CROSSSECTIONS STATIC PROPERTIES

No MNo

A[m2] Ay/Az/Ayz Iy/Iz/Iyz

MNs

It[m4]

[m2]

[m4]

1

=

SH 100 x 100 x 4

1 1.5244E03 6.420E04 2.332E06

3.572E06 6.420E04 2.332E06

2

=

SH 100 x 100 x 4

1 1.5244E03 6.420E04 2.332E06

3.572E06 6.420E04 2.332E06

3

1 3.8047E03 6.895E04 3.216E05

1.997E05 1.816E03 1.152E05

2.660E038.612E06

516

ys/zs

[m]

y/zsc

[m]

modules

[MPa]

gam

[kN/m]

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

210000

81000

0.12

0.000

0.000

0.075

0.008

0.000

0.000

0.058

0.005

210000

81000

210000

81000

0.12

0.30

Version 10.20

4

4.972E05 3.406E03 6.747E05

9.051E03 6.100E06

1 4.7189E03 5.714E04 2.716E05

4.933E08 1.390E03 2.498E05

2.613E03 1.181E06

B E A M

beam

1

10

11

20

21

30

E L E M E N T S

node

x[m] NoS

1

.000

4

.670

4

1.330

4

11

1.660

4

2

.000

5

.070

5

.730

5

1.390

5

2.050

5

22

2.120

5

11

.000

4

.330

4

.990

4

21

1.660

4

4

.000

3

.670

3

1.330

3

1.990

3

2.650

3

24

3.320

3

5

0.000

1

0.670

1

1.330

1

1.990

1

2.650

1

25

3.320

1

4

0.000

2

1.000

2

5

2.000

2

24

0.000

2

1.000

2

25

2.000

2

4

0.000

1

0.943

1

3

1.887

1

24

0.000

1

0.943

1

23

1.887

1

5

0.000

1

Version 10.20

Ref

STAR2

0.001

0.190

0.002

0.133

210000

81000

0.59

0.002

0.152

0.054

0.045

210000

81000

0.37

hinges

1.000

.000

.000

0.56

1.000

.000

.000

1.000

.000

.000

0.00 0.83

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

517

STAR2

31

3

25

23

0.943

1.887

0.000

0.943

1.887

1

1

1

1

1

0.00

1.00

0.00

and so on

The secondary beams were analysed first, and their reaction forces were used

as loads. The input for STAR2 reads:

PROG STAR2

HEAD POS D2: WINDBREAK

CTRL I

LC 1 DLZ 1

SL 2 PZ 1.05 (.07 2.05

SL 5 PZ 0.70 (.67 2.65

SL 4 PZ 0.35 (.67 2.65

SL 1 PZ .7 .67 ; = = =

3 PZ .7 .33 ; = = =

UL 30 PZ .18 ; 31 ==

UL 50 PZ .18 ; 51 ==

UL 60 PZ .18 ; 61 ==

UL 70 PZ .18 ; 71 ==

END

.66)

.66)

.66)

1.33

.99

L O A D C A S E

load factor

factor

dlx

factor

dly

factor

dlz

1

1.000

.000

.000

1.000

B E A M

L O A D S

Beamno type

a[m]

1 SLPZ

.67

1 SLPZ

1.33

2 SLPZ

.07

2 SLPZ

.73

2 SLPZ

1.39

2 SLPZ

2.05

3 SLPZ

.33

3 SLPZ

.99

4 SLPZ

.67

4 SLPZ

1.33

4 SLPZ

1.99

4 SLPZ

2.65

5 SLPZ

.67

518

l[m]

load1

.70

.70

1.05

1.05

1.05

1.05

.70

.70

.35

.35

.35

.35

.70

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

KN

Version 10.20

5

5

5

30

31

50

51

60

61

70

71

ELPZ

ELPZ

ELPZ

GLPZ

GLPZ

GLPZ

GLPZ

GLPZ

GLPZ

GLPZ

GLPZ

1.330

1.990

2.650

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

1.887

1.887

1.887

1.887

2.021

2.021

2.021

2.021

0.70

0.70

0.70

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.18

STAR2

KN

KN

KN

KN/M

KN/M

KN/M

KN/M

KN/M

KN/M

KN/M

KN/M

linear

results

Loadfactor 1.00

B E A M

F O R C E S

A N D

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

Loadcase

1

beam

X

N

VY

VZ

MT

MY

No

[m]

[kN]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

[kNm]

1

.00

.6

.9

2.9

.19

.39

.67

.6

.9

2.5

.19

1.40

.67

.6

.9

1.8

.19

1.40

1.33

.6

.9

1.4

.19

2.44

1.33

.6

.9

.7

.19

2.44

1.66

.6

.9

.5

.19

2.64

2

.00

1.4

.0

2.5

.14

.26

.07

1.4

.0

2.5

.14

.09

.07

1.4

.0

1.4

.08

.09

.73

1.4

.0

1.2

.07

.77

.73

1.4

.0

.1

.01

.77

1.39

1.4

.0

.1

.01

.77

1.39

1.4

.0

1.2

.07

.77

2.05

1.4

.0

1.4

.08

.09

2.05

1.4

.0

2.5

.14

.09

2.12

1.4

.0

2.5

.14

.26

3

.00

.6

.9

.5

.19

2.64

.33

.6

.9

.7

.19

2.44

.33

.6

.9

1.4

.19

2.44

.99

.6

.9

1.8

.19

1.40

.99

.6

.9

2.5

.19

1.40

1.66

.6

.9

2.9

.19

.39

4

.00

.4

.0

1.2

.02

.13

.67

.4

.0

1.0

.02

.60

.67

.4

.0

.6

.01

.60

1.33

.4

.0

.4

.01

.97

1.33

.4

.0

.1

.00

.97

1.99

.4

.0

.1

.00

.97

1.99

.4

.0

.4

.01

.97

Version 10.20

MZ

[kNm]

.11

.51

.51

1.12

1.12

1.43

.04

.04

.04

.04

.04

.04

.04

.04

.04

.04

1.43

1.12

1.12

.51

.51

.11

.09

.09

.09

.09

.09

.09

.09

519

STAR2

2.65

2.65

3.32

.00

.67

.67

1.33

1.33

1.99

1.99

2.65

2.65

3.32

.4

.4

.4

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.3

.0

.0

.0

1.3

1.3

.7

.6

.0

.0

.6

.7

1.3

1.3

.6

1.0

1.2

.9

.8

.5

.4

.0

.0

.4

.5

.8

.9

.01

.02

.02

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.60

.60

.13

.47

.12

.12

.40

.40

.40

.40

.12

.12

.47

.09

.09

.09

.57

.29

.29

.72

.72

.72

.72

.29

.29

.57

. . .

and so on

Loadcase

nodes

No

4

12

24

N O D A L

Loadcase

nodes

No

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

21

22

23

24

25

1

PX

[kN]

.9

1.9

.9

PY

[kN]

.0

.0

.0

PZ

[kN]

11.2

1.0

11.2

MX

[kNm]

.00

.00

.00

MY

[kNm]

.00

.00

.00

MZ

[kNm]

.00

.00

.00

PHIY

[mrad]

.294

.135

.158

.175

.172

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.372

.372

.294

.135

.158

.175

.172

PHIZ

[mrad]

.094

.004

.128

.060

.228

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.094

.004

.128

.060

.228

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

1

uX

[mm]

.260

.535

.290

.000

.007

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.149

.000

.260

.535

.290

.000

.007

uY

[mm]

.001

.001

.068

.001

.002

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.001

.001

.068

.001

.002

uZ

[mm]

.122

.061

.218

.000

.419

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.101

.000

.122

.061

.218

.000

.419

PHIX

[mrad]

.185

.084

.069

.166

1.040

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.185

.084

.069

.166

1.040

S U M

PX [kN]

520

PY [kN]

PZ [kN]

Version 10.20

Loads

Reactions

.0

.0

.0

.0

STAR2

21.4

21.4

The structure, the loading and the section forces can be represented graphi

cally by GRAF:

PROG

SIZE

LC 1

BEAM

BEAM

END

GRAF

4 0 ; VIEW STAN 1.5 1 1 POSZ

LP2 1

N 5 ; MY 1 ; MZ 1

Version 10.20

521

STAR2

5.5.

Construction Stages.

5.5.1.

Introduction

quires an engineering understanding of the special conditions. The simula

tion of its effects by simple examples is therefore absolutely necessary prior

to undertaking a more complicated analysis.

Construction stages can be considered separately in an exact manner. Nat

urally, the simplest method is to analyse the individual construction stages

with their own statical systems independently from each other, and then

superimpose them and perform the design. The individual statical systems

are distinguished by the beam number after the arrangement of the beam el

ements in groups.

STAR2, however, possesses a very powerful option, which allows the analysis

of the rearrangement of supports due to statical system changes as well as

to creep and shrinkage.

Strains and curvatures from any analysed loadcase can be converted by

means of the record LV to loads for a new loadcase.

If these initial deformations are applied as loads with reversed sign (PHI 1.),

two principal possibilities result for an unmodified statical system:

The loads of the previous loadcase are applied as well. In this case the

curvature and strain loads are in equilibrium with the previous loads

and there is no resulting loading. The system remains still.

The previous loading is not applied. Now the curvature loads act alone

and they cause a force free deformation opposite to the one caused by

the loads.

If the system on the other hand has been modified, there is no equilibrium be

tween PHI 1 and the loading of the new system. The difference in the loading

alters the internal forces in such a way, that the additional effects of the sup

port rearrangement due to the system change are accounted for.

5.5.2.

A 60 m long beam, fixed at both ends, is put together from two prefabricated

parts and an auxiliary support. It is subjected to gravity loading. The auxili

ary support is removed after establishing a monolithic connection.

522

Version 10.20

STAR2

The statical system is first defined as a double single span beam with GENF,

and the dead weight loadcase is analyzed with STAR2. Since during a restart

one can only change supports and couplings, but not articulations, the closing

articulation must be introduced by means of a duplicate node.

The input to GENF reads:

PROG GENF

HEAD SINGLE SPAN BEAM WITH AUXILIARY SUPPORT STAR3 MANUAL

NODE 1 0 0 PP ; 2 30. 0.0 PP ; 3 0. 0. KP 2 ; 4 60 0. PP

MAT 1 ; SCIR 1 MNO 1 RA 1.5/2

BEAM 1001 1 2 DIV 6

1002 3 4 DIV 6

END

PROG STAR2

KOPF CONSTRUCTION PHASE

CTRL I

LC 1

UL 1001,1002 PY 10.0

END

END

B E A M

Loadcase

F O R C E S

1

Version 10.20

A N D

M O M E N T S

523

STAR2

beam

No

1001

X

[m]

.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

1002

.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

N

[kN]

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

VZ

[kN]

150.0

100.0

50.0

.0

50.0

100.0

150.0

150.0

100.0

50.0

.0

50.0

100.0

150.0

MY

[kNm]

.00

625.00

1000.00

1125.00

1000.00

625.00

.00

.00

625.00

1000.00

1125.00

1000.00

625.00

.00

PROG GENF

HEAD CHANGE FIXATIONS FOR FINAL PHASE

NODE 1 FIX F ; 2 FIX FREI ; 3 FIX KF 2 ; 4 FIX F

END

PROG STAR2

HEAD FINAL PHASE

ECHO LOAD

CTRL I

LC 2

UL 1001,1002 PY 10.0

LV 1 PHI 1.0

END

END

Only the support rearrangement due to the modification of the statical sys

tem is to be analysed here. Additional loads are usually applied at this point.

The internally generated curvatures appear in the load printout:

B E A M

L O A D S

Beamno type

a[m]

l[m]

1001 ULPY

.00 30.00

1001 CLK1

.00

5.00

1001 CLK1

5.00

5.00

1001 CLK1 10.00

5.00

1001 CLK1 15.00

5.00

524

load1

10.00

.00

.08

.13

.15

KN/M

.08 1/KM

.13 1/KM

.15 1/KM

.13 1/KM

Version 10.20

1001

1001

1002

1002

1002

1002

1002

1002

1002

CLK1

CLK1

ULPY

CLK1

CLK1

CLK1

CLK1

CLK1

CLK1

20.00

25.00

.00

.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

5.00

5.00

30.00

5.00

5.00

5.00

5.00

5.00

5.00

.13

.08

10.00

.00

.08

.13

.15

.13

.08

STAR2

.08 1/KM

.00 1/KM

KN/M

.08 1/KM

.13 1/KM

.15 1/KM

.13 1/KM

.08 1/KM

.00 1/KM

B E A M

F O R C E S

A N D

M O M E N T S

Loadcase

2

beam

X

N

VZ

MY

No

[m]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1001

.00

.0

300.0 2250.00

5.00

.0

250.0 875.00

10.00

.0

200.0

250.00

15.00

.0

150.0 1125.00

20.00

.0

100.0 1750.00

25.00

.0

50.0 2125.00

30.00

.0

.0 2250.00

1002

.00

.0

.0 2250.00

5.00

.0

50.0 2125.00

10.00

.0

100.0 1750.00

15.00

.0

150.0 1125.00

20.00

.0

200.0

250.00

25.00

.0

250.0 875.00

30.00

.0

300.0 2250.00

case 1 and that of the support rearrangement loadcase (force of 300 kN at mid

span of a beam fixed at both ends). This result (MaxM=MinM=2250 kNm)

is not the same as that of a single span beam with uniform load (MaxM=1500

kNm, MinM=3000 kNm).

5.5.3.

It can not be the task of this manual to offer a complete review of the various

theories on creep. The method implemented in STAR2, by which the stresses

of any loadcase can be converted to creep deformations, allows the consider

ation of all theories through proper manipulation of the input (with corre

sponding input expense).

The creep law describes the relationship between creep deformations and act

ing stress:

Version 10.20

525

STAR2

eps +

f @ s

Eb

Whether one for the chronological process onto a product accretion according

to the ageing theory (older theories and EC2) or applied a sum approach ac

cording to the theory of the structure crawling elastically (DIN4227) is not for

this method decisive. Here only the entire coefficient is necessary.

The creep law holds, in general, only for constant acting stress. This is only

the case though for statically determinate structures and 1st order theory. In

such case the creep factor PHI of the record LV is identical to the creep coeffi

cient. The system undergoes force free deformations in this case.

The stress in statically indeterminate structures, however, changes due to

constraints. With the above accretion and full creep coefficient one receives

wrong results. Even if construction stages must be considered, this accretion

is inadequate. A relatively complicated differential equation results which,

of course, can not be solved by STAR2.

One has now the choice between two procedures:

A numeric integration of the differential equations with the socalled Euler

method is most general. This subdivides the creep process into intervals, at

which in each case the stress at the beginning of the interval about the inter

val unchangeable performing is accepted. A relatively large number of inter

vals (5 to 20) is required though for obtaining good results.

Better accuracy can be reached if an average creep stress is used. DIN 4227

allows the calculation in a single interval with an average creep stress, so long

as the final stress does not differ from the initial value by more than 30 per

cent. Unfortunately the final value is usually not known in advance, thus this

method is not generally practicable.

It is however possible to receive valid results with an interval also with

changeable stresses. One must introduce for this purpose creep factors which

consider this effect.

An acceptable solution is offered by the Trost method with a relaxation coeffi

cient. Instead of the complicated differential equation, an introductory analy

sis results in an algebraic relation with a relaxation coefficient which can be

usually assumed equal to = 0.8 without significant loss of accuracy.

t + 01 ) f )

526

Ds

E 1 ) f

Version 10.20

STAR2

These coefficients are defined also by the kind and manner of the load. The

resulting decrease of the restraint section forces for progressively applied re

straining is

Z + Z R @

1

1 ) f

Z + Z 0 @ 1 *

f

1 ) f

each of the two spans is examined as an example. This example can be found

in the book Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete by Rusch/Jungwirth Part

2, Page 224.

Twospan beam

The structure is defined with two groups in GENF:

PROG GENF

HEAD CONTINUOUS BEAM BY CONSTRUCTION STAGES

SYST GDIV 1000

NODE 1 0 0 PP ; 2 20. 0 PP ; 3 40 0 PP

MAT 1 ; SREC 1 MNO 1 H 1.5 B 4.0

GRP 1; BEAM 1001 1 2 DIV 5

GRP 2; BEAM 2001 2 3 DIV 5

END

The first construction phase (left singlespan beam) as well as the second one

are defined in STAR2 as described in the previous chapter. In addition, the

socalled singlecasting phase is analysed, which would be the case if the sys

tem were constructed monolithically in one phase.

Version 10.20

527

STAR2

PROG

HEAD

CTRL

LC 1

END

HEAD

CTRL

LC 2

LV 1

END

HEAD

CTRL

LC 3

END

STAR2

CONSTRUCTION PHASE 1

I ; GRP 1 ; ECHO BDEF

; UL 1001 PY 30.0

CONSTRUCTION PHASE 2

I ; GRP 1,2 ; ECHO BDEF

; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

PHI 1 FROM 1001

POURING PHASE

I ; GRP 1,2 ; ECHO BDEF

; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

big as the one of the usual twospan beam.

B E A M

F O R C E S

A N D

M

Loadcase

2

beam

X

N

VZ

No

[m]

[kN]

[kN]

1001

.00

.0

262.5

4.00

.0

142.5

8.00

.0

22.5

12.00

.0

97.5

16.00

.0

217.5

20.00

.0

337.5

2001

.00

.0

337.5

4.00

.0

217.5

8.00

.0

97.5

12.00

.0

22.5

16.00

.0

142.5

20.00

.0

262.5

O M E N T S

MY

[kNm]

.00

810.00

1140.00

990.00

360.00

750.00

750.00

360.00

990.00

1140.00

810.00

.00

u

[mm]

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

uz

[mm]

.000

.284

.498

.569

.427

.000

.000

.673

1.195

1.266

.815

.000

PHIY

[mrad]

.074

.065

.039

.006

.068

.148

.148

.167

.082

.049

.169

.222

creep factors. As known, the disturbed phase creeps towards the socalled

singlecasting phase. In case of a constant creep coefficient over the struc

ture, the resulting relationship between the singlecasting moment Me and

the construction moment Mb is:

Ms = Me ( Me Mb ) ephi

However, the difference of the two phases is already given by the LVload, so

that a multiplication of the creep factor by ephi accounts for the creep up to

the final state.

528

Version 10.20

STAR2

PROG

HEAD

CTRL

LC 4

LV 1

END

STAR2

CREEP OF THE MOMENT DIFFERENCE

I ; GRP 1,2

; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

PHI 0.11304 FROM 1001

By this method, however, the different creep in the two spans must remain

unconsidered, because loadcase 1 includes defined section forces, that LV can

refer to, in the first beam only. The computed value though is in very good

agreement with the value of 1380 kNm given by a more precise calculation

by Rusch or the value of 1411.9 kNm given by a more approximate calculation

using three creep intervals.

A different method must be adopted for the consideration of the distinct creep

coefficients in the two spans. One uses loadcase 2 in further calculations and

creates creep deformations from its stresses. A first thoughtless investiga

tion with the input

PROG STAR2

HEAD CREEP OF CONSTRUCTION PHASE AT ONE STEP WRONG WAY!!!

CTRL I ; GRP 1,2

LC 4 ; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

$ PHI = 2.18 / 2.62

LV 2 PHI 2.181.0 FROM 1001 ; 2 PHI 2.621.0 FROM 2001

END

results in a completely useless value of 2550 kNm. This error is due to the fact

that only the stress at the beginning of the creep is used in the calculations.

One can achieve an improvement by subdividing the creep into intervals.

The total creep coefficients are 2.18 for the right part and 2.62 for the left. A

subdivision into 6 time intervals with approximately equal creep coefficients

results in:

Start

I

kv

Age

li

0.50

45

70

Days 0.66

Days 0.76

Version 10.20

kf

PHI Age

Value

re

0.40

Days 0.44

Days 0.58

15

40

kf

PHI

Value

0.48

529

STAR2

II

0.11 105 Days 0.86 0.24 75

Days 0.78 0.44

III

0.19 205 Days 1.03 0.41 175 Days 1.00 0.52

IV

0.13 445 Days 1.18 0.35 415 Days 1.16 0.37

V

0.05 1045 Days 1.27 0.20 1015 Days 1.25 0.20

VI

0.02

Days 1.55 0.58

Days 1.55 0.61

1.00

2.18

2.62

The stresses are now processed for each one of the six creep intervals with the

corresponding creep increments:

PROG

HEAD

CTRL

LC 3

LV 2

END

HEAD

CTRL

LC 4

LV 3

END

HEAD

CTRL

LC 5

LV 4

END

HEAD

CTRL

LC 6

LV 5

END

HEAD

CTRL

LC 7

LV 6

END

HEAD

CTRL

LC 8

LV 7

END

STAR2

EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 1

I ; GRP 1,2

; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

PHI 0.401 FROM 1001 ; 2 PHI 0.481 FROM 2001

EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 2

I ; GRP 1,2

; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

PHI 0.241 FROM 1001 ; 3 PHI 0.441 FROM 2001

EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 3

I ; GRP 1,2

; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

PHI 0.411 FROM 1001 ; 4 PHI 0.521 FROM 2001

EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 4

I ; GRP 1,2

; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

PHI 0.351 FROM 1001 ; 5 PHI 0.371 FROM 2001

EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 5

I ; GRP 1,2

; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

PHI 0.201 FROM 1001 ; 6 PHI 0.201 FROM 2001

EULERMETHOD CREEP TIME SEGMENT 6

I ; GRP 1,2

; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

PHI 0.581 FROM 1001 ; 7 PHI 0.611 FROM 2001

The support moment reaches a final value of 1469 kNm. This computation

overestimates the creep deformations by about 8 percent. An improvement

is reached, of course, if one defines the creep coefficients multiplied by the re

530

Version 10.20

STAR2

laxation coefficient 0.8. A moment of 1430 kNm is obtained in such case. If one

though assumes that a sudden restraint is creeping here, and applies the fac

tor /(1+) instead, the resulting value is 1412 kNm.

The support moments take the following values:

Variantion

750.00

1080.00

1222.80

1351.70

1405.09

1424.07

1469.25

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

Variantion

750.00

1014.00

1146.19

1277.81

1341.80

1367.11

1430.37

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

Variantion /(1+)

750.00

993.75

1126.89

1253.00

1321.92

1352.55

1411.97

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

kNm

In this last case one should even do without the creep intervals and compute

in one total step. The best value so far of 1365 kNm results that way. The input

for that is:

PROG

HEAD

CTRL

LC 9

LV 2

END

STAR2

EULERMETHOD CREEP PHI/(1+RHO*PHI) GENERAL STEP

I ; GRP 1,2 ; ECHO BDEF

; UL 1001,2001 PY 30.0

PHI 0.7941 FROM 1001 ; 2 PHI 0.8461 FROM 2001

Contemplation on limit values for the support moment shows that the value

by PHI should lie between 0.0 and 1.0 only. The creep must therefore be

subdivided at least in such a way that all intervals lie within that range. In

the case of direct specification according to the last input these limit values

are automatically observed. PHI=1.0 results for =0.0 and PHI=0.0 results

for =.

The separate consideration of the delayed elastic components would have re

quired an immense increase of the input effort, which is justifiable in very sel

dom cases only.

One more important piece of advice. If one is interested in the deformations,

one must take into consideration that each analysis step calculates the incre

mental deformations only.

When a construction phase is analysed as repetition, i.e. same system with

same loads and LV 1.0, the same section forces are reported. The applied

loads though as well as the deformations are zero.

Version 10.20

531

STAR2

Because of that the deformations of the loadcase 2 analysed here are identical

to those of a loadcase by which only the left beam is loaded are identical. The

deformations are:

Beam

No

1001

x

(m)

0.00

4.00

8.00

12.00

16.00

20.00

2001 0.00

4.00

8.00

12.00

16.00

20.00

Loadcase 1

uz

PHIY

(mm)

(o/oo)

0.000

0.296

1.100

0.235

1.764

0.088

1.764

0.088

1.100

0.235

0.000

0.296

Loadcase 2

uz

PHIY

(mm)

(o/oo)

0.000

0.074

0.284

0.065

0.498

0.039

0.569

0.006

0.427

0.068

0.000

0.148

0.000

0.148

0.673

0.167

1.195

0.082

1.266

0.049

0.815

0.169

0.000

0.222

Loadcase 9

uz

PHIY

(mm)

(o/oo)

0.000

0.116

0.414

0.081

0.597

0.007

0.482

0.060

0.185

0.076

0.000

0.004

0.000

0.004

0.220

0.085

0.544

0.064

0.663

0.010

0.457

0.090

0.000

0.127

The total deformations must be computed with MAXIMA. The beam de

formations must be added in such case. The corresponding section forces are

naturally unusable. The nodal deformations are only partially usable for the

calculation of the total deformation, because a jump occurs at intermediate

support nodes. A duplicate node with coupling should therefore be intro

duced, if the nodal deformations are to be added.

If, as is usual, the right span already exists in construction stagse 1 as a canti

lever, there is the problem of a bend developing during concrete casting. One

can capture this computationally only if the rest of the span is included in the

system as a force free, yet deformed, element with an articulation and with

out all loading.

5.6.

5.6.1.

Precast Column

The illustrated 2story precast column will be examined by 2nd order theory

with nonlinear material behaviour:

532

Version 10.20

STAR2

Precast column

The input of the cross section occurs with AQUA

PROG

HEAD

ECHO

CONC

SECT

AQUA

EXAMPLE 1 PRECAST MEMBER SUPPORT

FULL

1 B 45 ; STEE 2 BST 420

1 ; POLY OPZ ; VERT 1 0.2 0.2 ; 2 0.2 0.2

RF 1 0.16 0.16 1.13 ; 2 0.16 ==

RF 3 0.16 .16 1.13 ; 4 0.16 ==

END

PROG

HEAD

SYST

NODE

GENF

PRECAST MEMBER SUPPORT

FRAM GDIR NEGX

1 0 0 F

2 6 0 PY

3 12 0

BEAM 1 1 2 DIV 4

2 2 3 DIV 4

END

The first check is a regular design of the structure. For this purpose, the loads

are defined and an analysis by 1st order theory is carried out with STAR2. The

STAR2 input for that reads:

Version 10.20

533

STAR2

PROG STAR2

CTRL I

LC 1 1.00 ; NL 2 PX 300. ; 3 == ; 3 PY 20

END

linear

results

Loadfactor 1.00

B E A M

F O R C E S

A N D

M O M E N T S

Loadcase

1

beam

X

N

VZ

MY

No

[m]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1

.00

600.0

30.0

60.00

1.50

600.0

30.0

15.00

3.00

600.0

30.0

30.00

4.50

600.0

30.0

75.00

6.00

600.0

30.0 120.00

2

.00

300.0

20.0 120.00

1.50

300.0

20.0

90.00

3.00

300.0

20.0

60.00

4.50

300.0

20.0

30.00

6.00

300.0

20.0

.00

N O D A L

Loadcase

nodes

No

1

2

3

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

AND

R E A C T I O N S

1

uX

[mm]

.000

.608

.912

uY

[mm]

.000

.000

31.926

PHIZ

[mrad]

.000

2.280

6.841

PX

[kN]

600.0

.0

PY

[kN]

30.0

50.0

MZ

[kNm]

60.00

.00

PROG

HEAD

ECHO

LC 1

ULTI

END

AQB

REGULAR DIMENSIONING

REIN

BEAM SAVE

will be constant in each span and it will be stored as minimum reinforcement.

The user obtains the following output:

U L T I M A T E

L O A D

D E S I G N

========================================================================

534

Version 10.20

Design for live loads DIN 1045

uniaxial bending

Safety factors SC1 SC2 SS1

1.75 2.10 1.75

Strain limits

C1

C2

S1

3.50 2.00 3.00

SS2 PIIa

2.10

7

S2

Z1

5.00 2.00

Minimum reinforcements compression

Bending. Compress.

e/d

N/Npl

.00

.10

3.50

.0010

STAR2

Z2

5.00

min.reinf.

requ.sect.

.80

maximum

reinforc.

9.00

R E Q U I R E D

R E I N F O R C E M E N T S

Beam

x(m) NCS LC

Ni

Myi/Mzi e1/yn e2/zn

(KN)

(KNm) (o/oo / mm)

1

.000 1

1 1328.38

132.84 3.50

.90

1.500 1

1 1977.27

49.43 3.20 .40

3.000 1

1 1715.05

85.75 3.50 .17

4.500 1

1 1182.11

147.77 3.50 1.49

6.000 1

1

768.33

153.67 3.50 4.69

2

.000 1

1

300.00

120.00 1.90 5.00

1.500 1

1

356.43

106.93 1.98 5.00

3.000 1

1

768.33

153.67 3.50 4.69

4.500 1

1 1328.38

132.84 3.50

.90

6.000 1

1 2313.14

.00 2.00 2.00

nue

C/S

1.99

2.10

2.10

1.93

1.75

1.75

1.75

1.75

1.99

2.10

rel

Tra

2.21

3.30

2.86

1.97

1.28

1.00

1.19

2.56

4.43

7.71

As L

(cm2)

5.78 0

4.52 0

4.52 0

6.50 0

10.00 0

18.42 0

10.77 0

5.00 0

4.52 0

4.52 0

L O N G I T U D I N A L

R E I N F O R C E M E N T S

Note: Layer includes reinforcements for torsion if followed by T

Note: Layer has only compression reinforcements if followed by

Beamno

x(m) NCS mue

AsSum Lay0&5 Lay1&6 Lay2&7 Lay3&8 Lay4&9

[]

[cm2]

[cm2]

[cm2]

[cm2]

[cm2]

[cm2]

1

.000 1

.62

10.00

10.0

2

.000 1 1.15

18.42

18.4

Reinforcements converted to minimum reinforcements

The maximum values of reinforcement for each span are presented in the

table "Longitudinal reinforcement" and they are output at the beginning of

each span. The first table appears only when ECHO REIN is used.

PROG

HEAD

ECHO

CTRL

LC 1

ULTI

END

STAR2

COMPUTATION AFTER 2ND ORDER THEORY AND NEW STIFFNESS

REIN

II 20

1.75

BEAM ULTI S2 3.0 ; NSTR SN

Version 10.20

535

STAR2

initiates the analysis for 1.75 times bigger load by 2nd order theory. It is of ad

vantage in case of heavily stressed members to reduce the maximum limit

strain to 0.003, so that the cross section does not become too weak. Conver

gence will be reached after a number of iterations and the computed state will

be output.

second order theory results

iteration 6

Loadfactor 1.75

C O N V E R G E N C E

A C H I E V E D

accuracy:

absolute

relative

achieved

limit

achieved

limit

( kN, kNm, m, rad)

(percent)

forces

3.009E01 1.050E+01

1.00

moments

1.244E+00 3.220E+00

1.00

displacements

1.069E03 2.133E03

1.00

rotations

2.253E04 4.393E04

1.00

B E A M

F O R C E S

A N D

M O M E N T S

Nonlinear loadcase

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration

beam

X

N

VZ

MY

No

[m]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1

.00

1050.0

85.0

187.73

1.50

1050.0

85.0

56.87

3.00

1050.0

85.0

76.60

4.50

1050.0

85.0 206.51

6.00

1050.0

85.0 322.00

2

.00

525.0

35.0 322.00

1.50

525.0

35.0 251.43

3.00

525.0

35.0 171.65

4.50

525.0

35.0

86.83

6.00

525.0

35.0

.00

N O D A L

D I S P L A C E M E N T S

AND

R E A C T I O N S

Nonlinear loadcase

1

2nd Order Theory Iteration 6

nodes

uX

uY

PHIZ

PX

PY

MZ

No

[mm]

[mm] [mrad]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1

.000

.000

.000 1050.0

85.0 187.73

2

1.064

.000 15.202

.0 120.0

.00

3

1.596 213.339 43.935

U L T I M A T E

L O A D

D E S I G N

========================================================================

Design for ultimate loads DIN 1045/4227

uniaxial bending

Safety factors SC1 SC2 SS1 SS2 PIIa

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

7

Strain limits

C1

C2

S1

S2

Z1

Z2

536

Version 10.20

3.50 2.00

3.00

3.00 2.00

Minimum reinforcements compression

Bending. Compress.

e/d

N/Npl

.00

.10

3.50

.0010

REQUIRED REINFORCEMENTS

Beam

x[m] NCS LC

1

0.000

1.500

3.000

4.500

6.000

0.000

1.500

3.000

4.500

6.000

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Ni

[kN]

1578.2

3511.9

3138.1

1362.2

1050.0

525.0

525.0

525.0

1758.0

4857.6

STAR2

5.00

min.reinf.

requ.sect.

.80

Myi/Mzi

[kNm]

282.26

190.58

228.46

267.67

321.80

321.80

251.26

171.52

290.57

0.00

e1/yn

[o/oo

3.17

3.50

3.50

2.64

2.21

1.68

1.57

1.42

3.50

2.00

maximum

reinforc.

9.00

e2/zn

/ mm]

3.00

0.09

0.29

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

2.77

2.00

nue

C/S

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

rel

tra

1.50

3.34

2.99

1.30

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

3.35

9.25

As L

[cm2]

8.5 0

4.5 0

4.5 0

9.9 0

26.0 0

36.3 0

25.5 0

13.2 0

4.5 0

4.5 0

L O N G I T U D I N A L

R E I N F O R C E M E N T S

Note: Layer includes reinforcements for torsion if followed by T

Note: Layer has only compression reinforcements if followed by

Beamno

x(m) NCS mue

AsSum Lay0&5 Lay1&6 Lay2&7 Lay3&8 Lay4&9

[]

[cm2]

[cm2]

[cm2]

[cm2]

[cm2]

[cm2]

1

.000 1 1.63

26.05

26.0

2

.000 1 2.27

36.33

36.3

Parameters for nonlinear stresses

Iteration for all forces and moments

Material of sections uses Ultimate Limit strainstress law without

safety factors

Material of reinforcementsuses Ultimate Limit strainstress law without

safety factors

N O N L I N E A R

S T R E S S E S

Beam

x(m) NCS LC

Ni

e0

[kN] [o/oo]

1

.000 1

1 1050.07 .091

1.500 1

1 1050.01 .230

3.000 1

1 1050.04 .232

4.500 1

1 1050.00 .041

6.000 1

1 1050.01

.685

2

.000 1

1

525.01

.920

1.500 1

1

525.00

.317

3.000 1

1

525.07

.119

Version 10.20

Myi/Mzi

Ky/Kz

[kNm] [1/km]

187.73

4.618

56.87

.875

76.60 1.180

206.51 5.442

322.00 14.470

322.00 13.006

251.43 7.180

171.65 4.365

Ey/Ezeff

x

[MPa] [cm]

19056.0 22.0

30462.7 40.0

30428.5 39.6

17786.9 20.8

10430.8 15.3

11605.1 12.9

16415.5 15.6

18431.0 17.3

537

STAR2

4.500

6.000

1

1

1

1

525.02

525.03

.068

.106

86.83

.00

1.592

.000

25565.0

37000.0

24.3

40.0

Iteration of stiffness

SN

Deviation of Moments

.000

Deviation of Shear

.000

Minimum stiffness

.010

Maximum stiffness

4.000

Crisfield faktors

.038

.780

The reinforcement was assumed constant for each beam in this example. This

is usually best, because it corresponds to normal practice and because this

way the support becomes stiffer and the deformations, which in turn induce

additional stresses, remain small. For long structural members of course it

is more economical to graduate the reinforcement along the length. In such

cases the value SECT should be input for ULTI instead of BEAM. The follow

ing table compares the reinforcement for the two distinct options. Interest

ingly, the maximum value of the uniform reinforcement per span is markedly

smaller than the graduate one.

x= 0.00

1.50

3.00

4.50

6.00

0.00

1.50

3.00

4.50

6.00

a) 26.05

...

36.33

...

b) 11.70

4.52

4.52 18.89 39.60 50.00 37.43 22.39

6.56

4.52

b) Graduate Reinforcement

5.6.2.

SumAs = 220.83 cm2m

zones theory. Compared to the plastic hinges theory, which can also be

employed by STAR2, this method has some significant advantages. On one

hand, the user does not have to make any assumptions about the location of

possible plastic hinges. A proper subdivision of the beam elements is suffi

cient (i.e. segment length must be about twice the height of the profile). On

the other hand, this method is much closer to the physical conditions than the

plastic hinges theory, in that the spreading of the plastified regions and the

eventually reduced rotation capacity are taken into account in an exact

manner.

The simple steel frame illustrated below will be checked for adequate

strength against flexural buckling according to the design format of DIN

538

Version 10.20

STAR2

18800 Parts 1 and 2. The design parameters of the plastic hinges theory are

used, because DIN 18800 does not contain any simplified rules for the plastic

zones theory. The new EC3 (ENV 1993) will include the plastic zones theory

among the codes design methods for the check of the flexural buckling

strength.

PROG

HEAD

STEE

SECT

END

AQUA

FRAME MANUAL STAR 2/3

1 ST 37

1 ; PROF 1 IPE 360

PROG GENF

HEAD FRAME MANUAL

SYST FRAM

NODE 1 0 6 F ;

2 0 0

;

BEAM 1 1 2 DIV

2 2 12 DIV

3 12 11 DIV

END

PROG

HEAD

CTRL

LC 1

LC 2

LC 3

LC 4

STAR 2/3

11 15 6 F

12 15 0

9

20

9

STAR2

LOAD CASES

0

DLY 1.0 ; UL 2 PY 4.2

; NL 2 PX 12

; UL 2 PY

6

; VL 1 U2 0 0.0234

3 U2 0.0234 0

$ PERMANENT LOAD

$ WIND

$ SNOW

$ PREDEFORMATION AFTER DIN 18800 PART 2

END

The number of the beam segments has an important influence on the result,

since it affects the accuracy of the modelling of the plastic zones.

The geometrical equivalent imperfections are input as separate loadcase (for

a frame height of 6 m and for 2 vertical loadcarrying posts the results are:

r1 = 0,91 ; r2 = 0,85 ; inclined position by 2,34 cm according to DIN 18800 Part

2).

The input of an analysis by plastic zone theory with STAR2 has the following

form:

PROG STAR2

HEAD GENERAL LOAD CASE

LC 10 ; LCC 1 1.35 ; 2 1.35 ; 3 1.5 ; 4 1.0

Version 10.20

539

STAR2

CTRL INTE 2 ; REIN EGRE 0

NSTR S1

END

The input CTRL INTE 2 activates the interaction between shear and axial

stresses, which should not be ignored because it accounts for the effect of

shear forces and torsional moments upon the longitudinal stress capacity.

In each iteration the program computes for each section the actual stresses

and curvatures and from them new secant stiffnesses. In this analysis this

is also performed for the shear stiffness. The number of required iterations

depends on the problem; relocation of the axial forces, restiffening of plastic

zones and consideration of the shear stresses may lead to a large number of

iterations until equilibrium is found. There is no example known, however,

to have required more than 100 iterations for reaching equilibrium.

The results of the linear theory are presented first:

L O A D C A S E

load factor

factor

dlx

factor

dly

factor

dlz

N O D A L

node

2

10

1.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

L O A D S

PX[kN]

PY[kN]

16.2

PZ[kN]

MX[kNm]

MY[kNm]

MZ[kNm]

B E A M

L O A D S

Beamno type

a[m]

l[m]

load1

load2 [dim] ya[m] za[m] ye[m] ze[m]

1 VLU2

0.00

6.00

0.00

23.40 MM

2 ULPY

0.00 15.00

5.67

KN/M

2 ULPY

0.00 15.00

9.00

KN/M

3 VLU2

0.00

6.00 23.40

0.00 MM

linear

results

Loadfactor 1.00

B E A M

F O R C E S

A N D

M O M E N T S

Loadcase 10

2nd Order Theory Iteration 0

beam

X

N

VZ

MY

No

[m]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1 0.00

107.7

47.9

77.07

0.67

107.7

47.9

45.11

1.33

107.7

47.9

13.21

2.00

107.7

47.9

18.75

2.67

107.7

47.9

50.70

540

Version 10.20

3.33

4.00

4.67

5.33

6.00

2 0.00

0.75

1.50

2.25

3.00

3.75

4.50

5.25

6.00

6.75

7.50

8.25

9.00

9.75

10.50

11.25

12.00

12.75

13.50

14.25

15.00

3 0.00

0.67

1.33

2.00

2.67

3.33

4.00

4.67

5.33

6.00

107.7

107.7

107.7

107.7

107.7

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

112.3

112.3

112.3

112.3

112.3

112.3

112.3

112.3

112.3

112.3

N O D A L

D I S P

Loadcase 10

2nd

nodes

uX

No

[mm]

1

0.000

2

8.587

11

0.000

12

7.957

Version 10.20

47.9

47.9

47.9

47.9

47.9

107.7

96.7

85.7

74.7

63.7

52.7

41.7

30.7

19.7

8.7

2.3

13.3

24.3

35.3

46.3

57.3

68.3

79.3

90.3

101.3

112.3

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

64.1

STAR2

82.61

114.57

146.52

178.43

210.38

210.38

133.70

65.27

5.09

46.83

90.51

125.93

153.10

172.02

182.69

185.10

179.27

165.18

142.84

112.24

73.40

26.30

29.04

92.64

164.49

244.60

244.60

201.84

159.14

116.38

73.62

30.92

11.84

54.60

97.30

140.06

L A C E M E N T S

AND

R E A C T I O N S

Order Theory Iteration 0

uY

PHIZ

PX

PY

MZ

[mm] [mrad]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

0.000

0.000

47.9 107.7

77.07

0.423 11.702

0.000

0.000

64.1 112.3 140.06

0.441 9.177

541

STAR2

After 9 iterations, STAR2 announces convergence and one obtains the final

moment distribution as well as the nonlinear stiffnesses.

Moment distribution

The following output of AQB is given here in excerpts as an extra. Four lines

per section are output due to the ECHOoption. The first line contains axial

force, strain at the gravity centre, moment and curvature, as well as the effec

tive Emodulus. The second and third line contain the maximum and the

minimum strains and stresses of the cross section as well as the location of

the neutral axis.

Lastly, the fourth line contains the available remaining plastic shear force

and the effective shear modulus. A shear hinge has practically formed at the

right corner. The plastified regions can be easily recognised from the reduced

E and Gmoduli. The drawings show bending moments and stiffnesses, as

they can be plotted with GRAF by BEAM MY and BEAM EIY or GAZ.

B E A M

F O R C E S

A N D

M O M E N T S

Nonlinear loadcase 10

2nd Order Theory Iteration 9

beam

X

N

VZ

MY

No

[m]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

1 0.00

109.5

45.3

56.39

0.67

109.5

45.3

26.41

1.33

109.5

45.3

3.57

2.00

109.5

45.3

33.58

2.67

109.5

45.3

63.54

3.33

109.5

45.3

93.36

4.00

109.5

45.3 123.08

542

Version 10.20

4.67

5.33

6.00

2 0.00

0.75

1.50

2.25

3.00

3.75

4.50

5.25

6.00

6.75

7.50

8.25

9.00

9.75

10.50

11.25

12.00

12.75

13.50

14.25

15.00

3 0.00

0.67

1.33

2.00

2.67

3.33

4.00

4.67

5.33

6.00

109.5

109.5

109.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

110.6

110.6

110.6

110.6

110.6

110.6

110.6

110.6

110.6

110.6

N O D A L

D I S P

Nonlinear loadcase

nodes

uX

No

[mm]

1

0.000

2

18.120

11

0.000

12

17.516

45.3

45.3

45.3

109.5

98.5

87.5

76.5

65.5

54.5

43.5

32.5

21.5

10.5

0.5

11.6

22.6

33.6

44.6

55.6

66.6

77.6

88.6

99.6

110.6

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

61.5

STAR2

152.60

181.84

210.83

210.83

131.97

61.22

1.34

55.65

101.64

139.27

168.49

189.26

201.57

205.40

200.73

187.57

165.95

135.89

97.43

50.60

4.53

67.92

139.48

219.07

219.07

178.22

136.97

95.45

53.78

12.08

29.69

71.42

112.98

154.41

L A C E M E N T S

AND

R E A C T I O N S

10

2nd Order Theory Iteration 9

uY

PHIZ

PX

PY

MZ

[mm] [mrad]

[kN]

[kN]

[kNm]

0.000

0.000

45.3 109.5

56.39

0.430 15.709

0.000

0.000

61.5 110.6 154.41

0.434 11.557

Material of cross sections with

material safety factors

Material of reinforcements without material safety factors

Interaction normal and shearstress via Prandtl flow rule

Version 10.20

543

STAR2

N O N L I N E A R

S T R E S S E S

Beam

x(m) NCS LC

Ni

e0 Myi/Mzi

Ky/Kz

Ey/Ezeff

x

[kN] [o/oo]

[kNm] [1/km]

[MPa] [cm])

e(o/oo) s(N/mm2) As(cm2) muez rw(mm) D(mm)

2

0.000 1 10

62.08 0.215 215.74 11.891

111481.4 19.2

sect. c

2.280 218.18 neut. axis

Z 1.8 (cm)

1.849

218.18

Vzi

141.78

GEFF

59497.9

0.750 1 10

62.08 0.045 136.56 4.395

190909.1 18.4

sect.

0.808 154.25 neut. axis

Z 1.0 (cm)

0.719

137.18

Vzi

234.23

GEFF

73426.6

1.500 1 10

62.08 0.045

65.41 2.105

190909.1 19.5

sect.

0.410

78.33 neut. axis

Z 2.1 (cm)

0.321

61.26

Vzi

290.34

GEFF

73426.6

....

6.750 1 10

62.09 0.067

200.11

6.611

185993.6 18.4

sect.

1.215 218.18 neut. axis Z

1.0 (cm)

1.081

206.44

Vzi

43.67

GEFF

73210.0

7.500 1 10

61.97 0.100

204.50

7.007

179322.5 18.8

sect.

1.316 218.18 neut.axis Z

1.4 (cm)

1.117

213.29

Vzi

1.02

GEFF

73426.6

8.250 1 10

62.09 0.069

200.41

6.636

185564.2 18.4

sect. 1.221 218.18 neut. axis

Z

1.0 (cm)

1.084

206.89

Vzi

44.93

GEFF

73283.2

....

13.500 1 10

62.08 0.045

65.47 2.107

190909.1 19.5

sect.

0.411

78.39 neut. axis

Z 2.1 (cm)

0.321

61.32

Vzi

290.65

GEFF

73426.6

14.250 1 10

62.08 0.045 136.63 4.397

190909.1 18.4

sect

. 0.808 154.32 neut. axis

Z 1.0 (cm)

0.719

137.25

Vzi

234.59

GEFF

73426.6

15.000 1 10

62.08 0.293 218.32 16.247

82567.3 19.2

sect

. 3.114 218.18 neut. axis

Z 1.8 (cm)

2.529

218.18

Vzi

111.65

GEFF

391.4

Maximum Usage of Allowable Forces

N[]

Vy[]

Vz[]

Mt[]

0.071

0.000

0.302

0.000

544

My[]

1.113

Mz[]

0.000

Mb[]

0.000

Mt2[]

0.000

Tot[]

1.154

Version 10.20

STAR2

Bending stiffnesses

Shear stiffnesses

5.7.

tik.com/bibliothek.htm

Version 10.20

545

STAR2

546

Version 10.20

- Detailed Designs of bridgeЗагружено:Deepak Kr Gupta
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