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PSYCHOLOGY
UNIT I
Text I
I. Read and translate the text:
Scope of Psychology
Psychology as a science studies mental activity and human
behaviour. Psychologists study basic functions such as
learning, memory, language, thinking, emotions, and motives.
They investigate development throughout the life span from
birth to death. They are involved in mental and physical health
care. They treat people who are emotionally distressed.
Psychology occupies a strategic position between natural and
social sciences on the one hand, and between sciences and
humanities, on the other.
Diagram to illustrate the place of psychology among
the sciences and humanities
I. Natural Sciences Zoology III Humanities
Physics ! Philosophy
Chemistry Neuropsychology Literature
Pharmacology and Anatomy History of Art
Mathematics ! Religion
Psychology
II Social Sciences IV Applications
Anthropology Education
Sociology Law and Criminology
Economics Management
Political Science Medicine
Linguistics Psychiatry
5

Each of the subjects listed in the four groups has its own
relationship with psychology. For example, knowledge of physics
and chemistry is necessary to provide a scientific basis for
experimental psychology. Psychology is also closely linked to
sociology. But whereas sociologists direct their attention to
groups, group processes, and social forces, social psychologists
focus on group and social influences on individuals. Psychology
and biology are also closely connected. Physiological
psychologists investigate the role of the brain and the nervous
system in such functions as memory, language, sleep, attention,
movement, perception, hunger, anger and joy. On the other
hand, psychologists took much from the theory of knowledge,
logic and philosophy of science. Besides, psychology separated
from philosophy.
The word psychology is derived from the Greek word
meaning study of the mind or soul. So in the definition of
psychology there are three basic words: science, behaviour,
mental processes.
Science means rational investigation of processes and
phenomena. By behavior psychologists mean everything that
people and animals do: actions, emotions, ways of
communication, developmental processes. Mental processes
characterize the work of the mind and the nervous system.

Major Specialists in Psychology


SPECIALIST PRIMARY ACTIVITIES
Clinical
psychologist
Assesses and treats people with
psychological problems; conducts
research

Counseling
psychologist
Counsels people with adjustment
problems and promotes
achievement in educational and
work settings; combines research,
consultation and treatment
6

Industrial
(organizational)
psychologist
Combines research, consultation,
and program development lo
enhance morale and efficiency on the
fob
Educational
psychologist
Develops, designs and evaluates
materials and procedures for
educational programs
Social psychologist Studies how people influence one
another
Developmental
psychologist
Studies change in behaviour with
age
Experimental
psychologist
Conducts research
School
psychologist
Establishes programs, consults,
treats youngsters' problems, and
does research in the school setting
Cognitive
psychologist

Studies mental processes


Community
psychologist
Treats distressed people within the
community; initiates community
action and develops community
programs to enhance mental health

Engineering
psychologist
Designs and evaluates environments,
machinery, training devices,
programs, and systems to improve
relationships between people and
environment

Personality
psychologist
Studies how and why people differ
from one another and how those
differences can be assessed

Physiological
psychologist
Studies the physical bases of
behaviour and cognition

Psychometric
(quantitative)
psychologist
Develops and evaluates tests;
designs research to measure
psychological functions


7

II. Answer the following questions:

1. What basic functions do psychologists study?
2. What position does psychology occupy among the sciences
and humanities?
3. What basic words are there in the definition of psychology?
What do they mean?
4. Why is there a great number of different specialists in the
field of psychology?
5. Which group of psychology experts is the largest?


III. Prove that...

1. Each of the subjects listed in four groups has its own
relationship with psychology (use Diagram I).
Use the words: a scientific basis, to be closely linked to, to
focus on, to be closely connected, to investigate.
2. Psychologists tend to specialize in what might be called
subfields.
Use the words: to master, an expert, much information, small
area, particular therapy knowledge, single disorder.


IV. Explain:
1. The origin of the word psychology.
2. The subject-matter of psychology.
3. The place of psychology in the system of sciences.
4. The primary activities of a community psychologist, an
engineering psychologist and a personality psychologist.

V. Make up disjunctive questions:
1. Psychology studies mental activity and human behaviour.
2. Psychology occupies a strategic position between natural and
social sciences.
8

3. Psychology separated from philosophy.
4. Developmental psychologist studies changes in behaviour
with age.
5. Experimental psychologist conducts research.


VI. What psychology specialist would you like to be
and why?
VII. Speak on the text.
Text 2
I. Read the text and give its general idea in
Russian:

The Historical Background of Psychology

Psychology has both a traditional and scientific history, as
any other science. Traditionally, psychology dates back to the
earliest speculations about the relationships of man with his
environment. Beginning from 600 B.C. the Greek intellectuals
observed and discussed these relationships. Empedocles said
that the cosmos consisted of four elements: earth, air, fire, and
water. Hippocrates translated these elements into four bodily
humors and characterized the temperament of individuals on
the basis of these humors.
Plato recognized two classes of phenomena: things and ideas.
Ideas, he said, come from two sources: some are innate and
come with a soul, others are product of observations through
the sense organs. The giant of the thinkers was Aristotle. He
was interested in anatomy and physiology of the body, he
explained learning on the basis of association of ideas, he said
knowledge should be achieved on the basis of observations.
9

After the birth of Christ, St. Augustine characterized the
method of introspection and developed a field of knowledge,
later called as faculty psychology. According to St. Thomas
Aquinas, scientific truth must be based on observation and
experimentation.
During the 15
th
and 16
th
centuries the scientific knowledge
developed greatly. Among the most important scientific
investigations were those of Newton in psychology of vision and
Harvey in physiology.
The mind-body problem was a very important for the 17
th
and
18
th
centuries philosophers and entered recent psychology. Here
appeared such theories as: 1) occasionalism, according to which
God is between a mind and a body; 2) double aspect theory, in
which a mind and a body are different aspects of the same
substance; 3) psychophysical parallelism, according to which a
mind and a body are parallel in their actions.
The associanists, or empiricists, developed the doctrine of
associations: simple ideas form complex sensations and ideas
(Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were the founders of this
theory). Opposed to the association theory was the doctrine of
mental faculties.
Nowadays psychology is a separate discipline, a real
combination of true knowledge of human nature.

II. Make up 10 questions to the text and ask your
partner to answer them.
III. Enumerate all the thinkers mentioned In the text
and their investigations.
IV. Discuss in the group:

1. The contribution to the development of psychology made by
the ancient thinkers.
2. The development of psychology in the Middle Ages.
10


Text 3

I. Read and translate the text:
Learning and Environment

On August 15
th
, 1977, the world lost one of its greatest
psychologists Alexander R. Luria. Honored and respected in
many countries of the world, Luria's 300 scientific works have
been translated into English and have influenced thinking in
the fields of psychology, neurology and neuropsychology,
education and speech pathology.
Luria's first translated work, Nature of Human Conflicts
(1932), supported the idea that human behaviour could not be
reduced to a sum of neurological reflexes. He urged the study of
the specific systems of behaviour produced in the process of the
individual's social and historical development.
Luria's psychology concentrates on the development of
mental capacities through learning. The correct organization of
a child's learning leads to mental development. One does not
wait for a child to be ready to learn to read, for example, but
teaches the child the pre-reading skills at the level at which he
or she is functioning. In turn, the child's knowledge influences
the structure of his intellectual processes. Learning is a social-
historic process.
Luria and his team investigated such mental processes as
perception, ability to generalize, logical reasoning, imagination
and self-awareness. Luria's team discovered that new structures
of cognitive activity appeared. Human consciousness was
developing to a higher level as the society was transformed.
Luria was a true scientist and a true humanist who
contributed to a social progress and to the development of
human capacity.

11


II. Choose the right answer:
1. How many Luria's works have been translated into other
languages?
a) 250 works have been translated;
b) 300 works have been translated;
c) 350 works have been translated.
2. What idea did Luria's first work support?
a) Human behaviour could be reduced to a sum of
neurological reflexes.
b) Human behaviour could be reduced to specific systems of
behaviour.
3. What does Luria's psychology concentrate on?
a) His psychology concentrates on environmental influences.
b) His psychology concentrates on the development of mental
capacities through learning.
c) His psychology concentrates on introspection.
4. What mental processes did Luria investigate?
a) He investigated accomodation and assimilation.
b) He investigated social aspects of mental capacities.
c) He investigated perception, imagination and self-
awareness.
I I I .Explain the headline of the text.
I V. Role-play.
1. You are going to enter the Psychology Faculty but your
parents object. You are trying to persuade them that
psychology is one of the basic fields of knowledge.
2. Ask your friends if they know the differences in the
specialties of a psychologist, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst.
If they don't, enlighten them.
3. You are interviewing a famous psychologist. What possible
questions could you ask about the development of psychology
as a separate discipline.


12

4. You have just made a report on Luria's research and are
ready to answer your friends' questions.
WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
mental activity; human behaviour; throughout the life span;
emotionally distressed; to provide a scientific basis; to be closely
linked to; to be derived from; to conduct research; school
setting; training devices.
III. Give English equivalents for:
; ; ; ;
; ; ;
; ; ; ; ;
; .

III. Translate and memorize the following words and
their derivatives:
psychology - psychological psychologist;
science - scientific scientist;
relate - relation - relationship;
human - humanity - humanities - human beings;
perceive - perception - perceptual;
observe - observer - observation;
connect - connection - connected - closely connected.

IV. Arrange the following in pairs of synonyms:
basic to connect
to investigate social intercourse
throughout to evaluate
to provide to increase
to link teenager
people main
communication during
to assess to give
setting to study
to enhance human beings
ungster environment
13


V. Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms:
birth joy
on the one hand to worsen
anger inside
to separate death
primary regress
achievement to decrease
within on the other hand
to enhance to unite
to improve final

VI. Complete the sentences:
1. Psychologists study basic functions such as ... .
2. Psychology occupies a strategic position between .
3. The word psychology is derived from ... .
4. Psychology dates back to ... .
5. Ancient thinkers were interested in ... .
6. In the Middle Ages there appeared such theories as .
7. A. Luria is famous for ... .
8. He is famous throughout .
9. I should like to specialize in ... .

14

UNIT II
Text I

I. Read and translate the text:
Why Do People Work?
A simple question which goes deeper than the obvious
answer, earn enough is to live on. Psychologists have found
that mental and physical activity - and work in particular - is a
dominant human driving force. Some argue that it is the same
set of motivators which led a primitive man to hunt and fight in
a tribal setting.
Are some motives more basic than others? Many
psychologists refer to the theory of Abraham Maslow, a
humanistic psychologist, which suggests that motives are
ordered. Maslow felt that human beings are born with five
systems of needs which are arranged in the hierarchy.
People remain wanting animals all their lives. As one set of
needs (motives) is taken care of, a new set replaces it. We work
our way up through various systems in order. Maslow's theory
begins with physiological needs, such as food, water, oxygen,
sex, protection from temperature extremes, activity. These
needs for survival are the strongest. They must be satisfied to
some degree before other needs appear. If only one of them
remains unsatisfied, it may dominate all the others. Once
human physiological needs are satisfied, the other needs arise.
Adults want stable jobs, saving accounts, and insurance. Thus
adequate pay and working conditions are of fundamental
importance. When safety needs are achieved, people seek to love
and be loved. The family is the most important unit where they
receive support. In larger organization it is the team, the
department, the company, the trade union or the profession
which may satisfy the need.

15



16

Once love needs are satisfied, needs to be esteemed by
oneself and others dominate. People want to be valued in their
communities, at work and at home. They want to respect
themselves. Self-esteem is an important part of job satisfaction
and is another step in the hierarchy. It means that the
individual understands the contribution needed from him and is
receiving recognition for making it. Words of congratulation and
rewards are necessary things for self-esteem.
The final step is the release of potential. This may be a simple
ambition to succeed or the desire to make a contribution to a
body of knowledge. People struggle to realize their potentials
and to fulfil their ideals. Maslow theorized that these needs
predominate in healthy personalities. In his view, only 1 per
cent of Americans achieve self-actualization. Why is it so rare?
Most of us, Maslow believed, are blind to our true potentials. We
conform to cultural stereotype rather than for persona! needs.
Concerns about safety make us fearful of risk taking and closed
to new experiences.


II. Answer the following questions:
1. What is a dominant human driving force?
2. What do you know of Abraham Maslow?
3. What system of needs does he suggest?
4. What are the strongest human needs, according to his
hierarchy?
5. What do adults want to receive when their physiological needs
are satisfied?
6. What do people seek when safety needs are achieved?
7. Where can people receive support?
8. What does self-esteem mean?
9. How do people try to realize their potentials?
10.Why do most people fail to realize their potentials?

17

III. Find the facts in the text to prove that:
1. Human beings are born with five systems of needs.
2. People remain wanting animals all their lives.
3. The family is the most important unit.
4. People do not realize their potentials completely.
IV. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
Give your arguments:
1. Mental and physical activity is a dominant driving force.
2. Safety needs are the strongest in human beings.
3. In their work people do not think of their self-esteem at all.
4. Most of us are blind to our true potentials.
V. Make up a list of problems raised in the text.
Which one is the most important? Why do you think
so?
VI. Make up a plan of the text.
VII. Explain the theory of hierarchy suggested by A.
Maslow.

Text 2

I. Read the text and give its general idea in
Russian:
Management - Science or Art?
The management is not an easy process. Every person at
work has a unique character, set of skills, attitudes and
weaknesses. Every group of people working together will
behave differently from every other group because of its
individuality. Every manager is different and so is his
relationship with the people he manages. Each management
process is under unique conditions.
Using a simple analogy it is rather like playing on the
same golf course every day. The course remains the same but
the combination of conditions makes every round unique.
18

What the good manager needs to know is the following. A
successful manager has the ability to read the characters and
behaviour of his colleagues. This enables them to act in the
right way at the right time and as a result to win loyalty,
enthusiasm and effort from those around them. How do good
managers do it?
Good managers study human behaviour - including their
own. People's characters are formed in different ways, the
interplay between their intellect and their emotions varies
widely. Their capacities for insecurity, aggression, anxiety and
ambition also differ greatly. With this kaleidoscope of human
types what is it that gives the manager the insight he needs?
The answer lies in having an understanding of the general
characteristics of behaviour and relating this knowledge to
specific individuals and to the team. Plus the ability to learn
from his own experience and that of others.
Notes:
Anxiety -
ambition

II. Make up questions to the text and ask your friend
to answer them.

III. Explain:
a) why the management is not an easy process;
b) what is understood by a good manager;
c) what managers should study

IV. Discuss in the group:
a) characteristics of an ideal manager;
b) optimal working conditions;
c) what is better - to manage or to have a good manager.


19


Text 3


I. Read the text and be ready to answer the questions:
1. What experiments does the laboratory carry out?
2. How do people relax?
3. What do the psychologists recommend?
4. How do the psychologists try to help people?

A Calm Person Works Calmly
Any firm in this country is motivated by the consideration
of Man's well-being. But Man is also a productive force that
keeps a business going. A thoughtful approach is needed not to
divide the two concepts of Man as a productive force and as the
main concern. Special efforts are also needed to ensure that the
principal goal - Man's well-being - is the focus of attention every
day and every hour.
A special social-psychological service has been set up in
many firms to help make its principal goal a reality. The service
is a laboratory and a group of psychology experts. The
laboratory carries out experiments, using visual display units,
to study the ability for team work, the characters of the working
people and their manager. Other methods include
questionnaires, polls, and specially-oriented studies. They
produce either immediate results or give recommendations a bit
later. Fatigue is studied from every angle - the nature of work,
age, sex, and working conditions. And the recommendations
vary.
In one case it is an additional 15-minute break in work
spent in relaxation room. Sitting in an atmosphere of quiet,
coolness and semidarkness people hear a soft voice talking
about self-training. This is followed by watching a beautiful
scenery on the screen to the accompaniment of music. Fifteen
20

minutes of this relaxation can make a person feel as if he has
been away from work for several hours.
In another case physical exercise, some sitting-up
exercises may be recommended, or a person may be advised to
go to refreshment room and have a glass of specially-prepared
cocktail of juices.
There are certain monotonous, mechanical jobs in which
only part of the brain is used. According to the psychologists,
the other part can and should be used for the general
development. So a psychologist would go to such people and
talk about new films, plays or books. He does his best to help
workers overcome stress situations.


Notes:
fatigue
scenery
to overcome


II. Read the text again and explain why it is
headlined in such way.
III. Read the article and say what you think of
its contents:



If you Lose your Job Ways to Survive


Interview with Mr. May, Financial Planner


Q. Mr. May, is it possible for a person to emerge unscathed
from a long period of being out of job?
A. Id say unscathed would be too optimistic. But its
certainly possible to plan ahead and to survive a period of
unemployment without deep emotional and psychological scars.
Especially in this recession, the whole concept of long-
term job security whether it be in government, the auto
21

industry or whatever is changing. People seem more aware
that if theyre laid off they may not get called back.
Q. Whats the most painful part of unemployment?
A. For most people, its psychological and emotional
stress. There are four stages that people seem to go through
when they lose a job.
The first usually is panic: What am I going to do
financially, personally? Second is guilt: Im not worth
anything. My coworkers are still there and Im not. Something
must be wrong with me. The third step, usually, is to turn it
outward and say, Aha! It wasnt me, it was that guy. You
externalize the blame and really get angry at the world, your
boss or whomever.
Its not until the last stage, which is renewed self-
confidence and determination, that you are in a frame of mind
to convince someone to hire you. That, in the end, is what all
the career books and counseling sessions really do: They build
you back up, convince you that it wasnt anything personal.
Q. Just how can someone cope with psychological
stress?
A. The main thing is to realize that youre not alone, that
this is not unique situation. I liken it to divorce and death. Its
in that magnitude of psychological, emotional trauma.
You should be willing to ask for help and to communicate
with others. A lot of strong-willed people never do. They even
hide it from family and friends to the extent that they fake going
to work in the morning. Sometimes, its weeks before they are
found out because they wont admit it to themselves and their
world.



IV. Answer the following questions:


1. What effect may a long period of unemployment produce?
2. What stages of psychological state does a person out of work
go through?
22

3. Why do some people conceal their unemployment from their
close relatives?
4. Do you consider Mr. May's advice helpful?
5. How would you react in a similar situation?
V. Role-play:
1. You are talking with a manager. You are interested in his
methods of management, his successes and failures.
2. You would like to organize a social-psychological service at
your work. You discuss this problem with the manager of
your firm.
3. You are working in the firm where there is a special social-
psychological service. Tell the students about the relaxation
practice in this service.
WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
a dominant driving force; a tribal setting; human beings; self-
esteem; a set of needs; to be satisfied; to receive support; release
of potential; management process; experience; well-being; main
concern; to carry out experiments; self-training; to overcome
stress situations.
II. Give English equivalents for:
; ; ;
; ; ; ; ;
; ; .

III. Combine the following words into the word-
combinations:
human conditions
release of a contribution
working a social-psychological service
to satisfy beings
to receive needs
to make greatly
23

to differ goal
a productive potentials
to set up support
a principal force
to give recommendations
IV. Arrange the following in pairs of synonyms:
to answer people
basic safety
human beings to appear
adults to involve
importance to reply
unique various
relationship significance
different interplay
security capacity
to arise rare
ability grown-ups
to include main

V. Make up your own sentences with:
to take care of; to satisfy one's needs; to achieve a principal
goal; to receive support; to make a contribution; to succeed in;
to differ greatly; to study the ability; to overcome stress
situations.

VI. Think of the possible situations in which the
above-mentioned word-combinations may be used.

24

UNIT III

Text I
I. Read and translate the text:
Memory
Many psychologists believe that there are three main
kinds of memory: sensory, short-term and long-term. What
makes up each of them?
Imagine that a friend who collects facts informs you about
brain weight: a human brain weighs about 3 pounds, an
elephant brain approximately 13 pounds, a whale brain -
roughly 20 pounds. How may this information make its way into
memory? When you simply hear your friend cite the facts, some
remembering that you are aware of is going on.
Information that strikes our sense organs is stored on the
basis of the so-called sensory memory (SM). Materials held by
sensory memory resemble afterimages. Typically, they disappear
in less than a second unless they are transferred immediately to
a second memory system, short-term memory (STM). How do
you transfer sensory data to the short-term store? All you have
to do is to attend to the material for a moment. If you listen as
your friend talks, you will pass into your short-term memory.
The STM is pictured as the centre of consciousness. The STM
holds everything we are aware of - thoughts, information,
experiences, - at any point in time. The store part of STM
houses a limited amount of data for some time (usually for
about fifteen minutes). We can keep information in SM system
longer by repeating it. In addition, the short-term memory
works as a central executive. It inserts materials into, and
removes it from, a third, more or less permanent system, the
long-term memory (LTM).


25





To move the information into the long-term store, you
probably have to process it. During this deep processing people
pay close attention, think about meanings or operate with
related objects in long-term memory. While deep processing is
one way to remember something, the other one is to repeat the
information.
The short- and long-term systems continually pass
information back and forth. The material in the LTM may be
activated and transferred to the ST store. It is the ST system
that retrieves both long- and short-term memories. Imagine that
someone asks you, Do people have the largest brain of any
26

animal? Some time after your friend's lecture, the necessary
information will be given quickly, it is in the ST store.
If the question about the human brain comes up a year later,
you will have to address to your long-term store.

II. Answer the following questions:
1. What are the kinds of memory?
2. Where is the information stored?
3. What does the short-term memory hold?
4. How can we keep information in SM system longer?
5. Which system is less permanent: STM or LTM?
6. What is it necessary to do to move the information into the
long-term store?
III. Complete the following sentences:
1. There are three kinds of memory ... .
2. Information is stored on the basis of ... .
3. Short-term memory is pictured as ... .
4. It holds everything we are aware of ... .
5. We keep information longer by ...
6. During processing people pay ... .
7. The STM and LTM systems pass information ... .
8.
IV. Find in the text the facts to prove that:
1. It is quite possible to keep information in SM system longer.
2. The STM works as a central executive.
V. Explain:

1. The meaning of sensory memory.
2. The mechanism of short-term memory.
3. The mechanism of long-term memory.

VI. Look at the diagram that follows the text and
describe the system of information processing.
27

VII. Divide the text into logical parts and state the
general idea of each part.

Text 2
I. Read the following text and find the information
about the experiment:

Attention


Some students try to learn while listening to the radio,
talking to friends, and thinking about a coming to-an-end-week.
They believe that studying requires only a little attention. But
when people divide their attention between several different
tasks, performance usually suffers.
In one study that supports this idea, the psychologists
compared what students could do under several conditions.
Subjects in one group listened to a tape of an unfamiliar
passage from a psychology text. At the same time, they pushed
a button whenever a signal light brightened.
Another group of students confronted a more challenging
situation. In addition to monitoring the light and attending to
the unfamiliar material, they had to ignore a familiar passage
presented simultaneously in the other ear by the same voice.
Subjects in the easy condition reacted more quickly to the
signal light and comprehended the passage much more better
than the students in the difficult condition. While attention
can be divided (especially if one task is familiar and easy),
concentration helps the processing of complex information.
Even something as automatic as reading is not a simple task.
You have to identify written words on a page. You must also
combine words into phrases and sentences and comprehend the
meaning. At the same time, you must think about the meaning
of the material and associate new facts with old information and
experiences.
28

In short, attention is very important in everyday life. The
ability to attend and its opposite, distraction, have been widely
studied by the psychologists. The number of outstanding people
in psychology studying the phenomenon of attention is rather
impressive, including such names as E.B. Titchener, W. James,
R.S. Woodworth and G. Piaget.

II. Read the text once more and answer:
1. When does performance suffer?
2. What helps the information processing?
3. What is the opposite of attention?
III. Speak on:
1. The experiment described in the text.
2. The methods to promote attention.
IV. Look through the text and say:
1. Which is the best way to remember things.
2. What our memory is compared with in the text.
Learning By Heart


Some people have good memories, and can learn easily long
poems by heart. But they often forget them as quickly as they
learn them. There are other people who can only remember
things when they repeat them many times, and then they don't
forget them.
Charles Dickens, the famous English author, said he could
walk down any long street in London and then tell you the name
of every shop he had passed. Many of the great men of the world
have had wonderful memories.
A good memory is a good help in learning a language.
Everybody learns his own language by remembering what he
hears when he is a small child, and some children like boys
and girls who live abroad with their parents seem to learn
29

two languages almost as easily as one. In school it is not so easy
to learn a second language because the pupils have so little time
for it, and they are busy with other subjects as well.
The best way for most of us to remember things is to join
them in our mind with something which we know already, or
which we easily remember because we have a picture of it in our
mind. That is why it is better to learn words in sentences, not
by themselves; or to see, or do, or feel what a word means when
we first use it.
The human mind is rather like a camera, but it takes
photographs not only of what we see but of what we feel, hear,
smell and taste. And there is much work to be done before we
can make a picture remain forever in the mind.
Memory is the diary that we all carry about with us.

V. Give the general idea of the text in English.

VI. Make up a list of your own recommendations to
remember things properly.

WORD STUDY

I. Give Russian equivalents for:
sensory memory; short-term memory; long-term memory; to cite
facts; remembering; to be aware of; to transfer data; to hold in
memory; to store (keep) information; to learn by heart.

II. Give English equivalents for:
; ; ;
; ; ;
; ; .

30

III. Combine the following words into word-
combinations:
to collect information
to remember numbers
to select facts
to process data
to store thoughts
to transfer ideas
to resemble material
to encode afterimages
to attend words
to keep in memory sounds
to divide pictures
to support attention
IV. Give derivatives of:
to remember; to attend; to process; to inform; to appear; to
be conscious of; to be aware of.

V. Make up your own sentences with:
to be aware of; to disappear; in addition; to give information;
to address to; to attend to.

VI. Translate the following proverbs:
1. Creditors have better memories than debtors.
2. Liars have need of good memories.
3. That which was bitter to endure may be sweet to remember.
VII. Develop the following situations:
1. It's a great problem for you sometimes to hold in your
memory even the slightest things or data. And you envy your
friend who can remember quite a number of them. You ask him
how he manages to do it. Ask your partner:
what he memorizes more quickly: names or data;
if he practises his memory in any way;
31

- if it is possible for him to remember things by repeating
them;
- if he has got a special diary to put down some important
facts;
- how he remembers telephone numbers;
- in what way he makes notes of the lectures.

2. Your friend knows English very well. You would like to
know it as well as he does. You ask him about his way of
learning a language.

Ask your partner:
- when he started learning English;
- how he learned new words;
- what is the best way to remember things;
- if it is better to learn words or phrases;
- if different odors help memorize something;
- if attention plays any role in the process of memorizing.
3. Your friend has written an essay on the problem of
memory. You have been greatly interested in the
phenomenon of memorizing things for a long time. You would
like to understand this complicated mechanism.

Ask your friend:

- what kinds of memory exist;
- if short-term memory keeps information long;
- what we should do to move information into the long-
term store;
- what system is less permanent: STM or LTM;
- if deep processing of information is the only way to
remember something;
- what the human mind reminds of.
4. You are an absent-minded person by your nature. You
constantly forget your mother's request to buy something.
And your mother says you are always in the clouds. You
32

come to a psychoanalyst for advice.

Ask him:
- if your situation is hopeless;
- if your bad memory is associated with mental disorders;
- what it is necessary to do to correct the situation;
- if you must make some special notes lest you should forget
what they mean;
if there are many people with the same syndrome of absent-
mindedness;
- what training exercises he can suggest.

VIII. Read the article and answer the questions:
1. What is relative pitch called?
2. What experiment was made by the US researchers?
3. What was the really interesting finding?
4. What have psychiatrists found out?


Music and Memory


Some people are able to listen to isolated musical notes
and identify them correctly. This rare musical gift is known
as perfect pitch or absolute pitch. It is not something that
can be learned. Either you have the ability or you haven't.
But most people, given the necessary musical training, can
acquire what is known as relative pitch. This is the ability
to compare two notes accurately, to name a note by reference
to one which has already been played and named.
The interesting thing about the difference between
these two abilities is that they make use of different brain
functions. According to existing evidence, relative pitch is a
feature of a highly-trained memory. But people with perfect
pitch don't seem to be using memory at all. Instead they
seem to have some set of internal standards that allows
33

them to name a note without comparing it to anything
previously heard.
Researchers at the University of Illinois in the USA
used this difference to try and identify the parts of the brain
used in updating short-term memory. They compared the
brain waves of two groups of musicians as they tried to
identify a series of computer-generated musical notes. One
group had perfect pitch, the other used relative pitch.
Each person's brain waves were measured by
electrodes placed near the front of the head. The really
interesting finding was that what are known as P300 waves
were produced in abundance by the group of musicians
without perfect pitch, but scarcely at all by those with perfect
pitch. The P300 wave, then, seems to be an indicator of how
much use the brain is making of short-term memory.
Scientists had suspected this, but if the only difference
between the mental activities of the two groups was whether
they were using short-term memory or not, the research
appears to confirm it.
Psychiatrists now know more about which parts of the
brain are associated with short-term memory, but the
musical gift of perfect pitch is as much of a mystery as ever.
(by John Wilson, from BBC English)

IX. Give the general idea of the article in seven
sentences.
X. Translate the text in writing:
Memory's Mind Games
(by Sharon Begley)
When it comes to memory problems, forgetting is only the
34

tip of the iceberg, The failings of memory run much deeper
than an ability to recall your neighbor's name or the location
of your keys. Much recent memory research has focused on
why we forget, shedding light on tragedies like Alzheimer's as
well as puzzles like why we often know the first letter of a
word we're trying to remember but not the rest of it. But
unlike absent-mindedness and other sins of omission,
memory's sins of commission shape - and often distort - our
view of reality and relationships. Some of the sins:
Blocking. Somewhere between remembering and
forgetting lies blocking. You know that the word for an
oration at a funeral begins with a vowel, but it just won't
spring into consciousness. Proper names are blocked more
often than any other words, memory researchers find, and
more in old people than young. The sound of a word is
encoded in the brain in a different place from its meaning. If
the links from concept to visual representation to the word
itself are weak, then we can't get to the word even though we
may remember everything about it. You may tickle neurons
here, but the reverberations never reach those deeper in the
circuit.
Sometimes we get to the first sound in the word but no
further: the phonemes of words are apparently encoded
separately, too. Words we use infrequently are especially
subject to this tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
Misattribution. In misattribution, people unconsciously
transfer a memory from one mental category to another
from imagination to reality, from this time and place to that
one, from hearsay to personal experience. The brain has
made what psychologists call a binding error, incorrectly
linking the content of a memory with its context. The fault
may lie in the hippocampus, a seahorse-shaped structure
deep in the brain's temporal lobe, whose job includes binding
together all facets of a memory. When the hippocampus is
damaged, patients are more prone to binding errors.
Suggestibility. In this memory error, people confuse
personal recollection with outside sources of information.
35

Suggestibility is therefore a form of misattribution, but an
especially pernicious one. Leading questions or even
encouraging feedback may result in 'memories' of events that
never happened.
Suggestibility can lead to false eyewitness identities,
because even seemingly innocuous feedback can distort
recall. In one study, psychologist Gary Wells of Iowa State
University showed volunteers a security video of a man
entering a Target store. Moments later, Wells told them, the
man murdered a guard. He then showed them photos and
asked them to identify the gunman (who actually appeared in
none of the snapshots). Good, you identified the actual
suspect, the scientists told some of the volunteers. Those
who received this encouragement later told Wells they were
more confident in their recall and had had a better view of
the man on the video than those who were not praised for
their 'correct' ID. Certainty and your assurance that you got
a good look at the suspect are the kinds of details a jury uses
when weighing eyewitness testimony. Positive feedback
seems to cement memory and even erase any original
uncertainty.
Persistence. Memories that refuse to fade tend to involve
regret, trauma and other potent negative emotions. All
emotions strengthen a memory, but negative ones seem to
write on the brain an indelible link. That's especially true if
the memory reinforces your self-image: if you think of
yourself as a screw-up, you'll have a hard time erasing the
memory of the time you spilled wine on your boss.
Bias. It is a clich that couples in love recall their
courtship as a time of bliss, while unhappy pairs recall that I
never really loved him (or her). But the clich is true. We
rewrite our memories of the past to fit our present views and
needs. That may be an outgrown of forgetting: we can't recall
how we felt in the past, so we assume it must be how we feel
today. But often bias arises when more powerful mental
systems bully poor little memory. The left brain, driven to
keep thoughts of yesterday and today from conflicting,
reconciles past and present.
36

Stereotyping can also bias memory. When memory
conflicts with what you're convinced is true, it often comes
out of the losing end. And that can make forgetting where
you put your keys seem trivial indeed.

(NEWSWEEK 2002)

37


UNIT IV

I. Read and translate the text:


Is There a Secret of Long Life?

Mankind has been seeking to unravel the mystery of
long life for more than millennium, with hundreds of
hypotheses and theories being suggested. It has become
evident that long life comes from a whole set of factors,
such as purely genetic, but also biological factors and, of
course, successful social adaptation. Whereas until quite
recently long life in the scientific community was the
subject of close attention for gerontologists alone, in
recent years, biologists, ethnographers, ecologists,
psychologists and sociologists have also joined in with the
research.
The distinctive feature of their approach is that
rather than examining individual centenarians, the
scientists today study entire populations, i.e., large
groups, among whom many people have lived long lives,
and what is most essential, long lives in these groups have
become a regular occurrence in the course of history.
Scientists compare long-living groups with control
populations with shorter lives in the vicinity.
Todays centenarians are people who were as a rule
born and lived in one place, without going anywhere,
without changing either habits, occupations or diets.
Moreover, it has been discovered that the studies played
down the role of the psychological factor. We call it a
psychic health factor. It deserves special attention and
can prove to be one of the main reasons for longevity as a
regular occurrence. What is it?
In the first place, this is what we describe as the
gerontophile atmosphere, a socio-psychological milieu of
marked respect for the old people. This undoubtedly has a
38

favourable effect on the tonus and optimistic mood among
the elderly and maintains their interest in life and
longevity as a whole.
Secondly, and this is even more important, there are anti -
stress attitudes incorporated in society. These are mutual
relations which are designed to relieve stress both among
individuals and whole groups. The strong family and
kinship have a strong positive effect, especially in
dramatic situations following death or i llness. In other
words, we must live without stresses.
So anti-stress behaviour is perhaps the most important
thing. With time this will enable the geneticists to extend
the natural life span. However, we should not really pin
our hopes on this. A comprehensive study of longevity can
help scientists not so much to increase the time that any
human being spends here on Earth, as to prolong his
active life which is worth living as much as possible.

II. Answer the following questions:
1. What factors influence our life?
2. What scientists are interested in the problem of long
life?
3. How do they organize their research?
4. What people comprise today's centenarians?
5. What factor plays a leading role in longevity?
6. What is this factor called?
7. What is meant by the gerontophile atmosphere?
8. What attitude should be incorporated in society?
9. What is the aim of geneticists

III. Find the facts in the text to prove that:
1. A great number of scientists are engaged in the
research of long life.
2. The gerontophile atmosphere is necessary for people to
live longer.
3. Anti-stress behaviour is the most important thing.

39

IV. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
Give your arguments.
1. It is quite possible to live a long life.
2. Only genetic factor plays a main part in the life span.
3. In stressful situations we become strong and healthy.
4. It is necessary to create a socio-psychological milieu of
mutual respect.

V. Make up a list of problems raised in the text.
Which one do you think to be of primary importance?
Why?
VI. Make up a plan of the text.
VII. Speak on the text.
VII.Read the text and give its general idea in
Russian:



Possible Human Life Expectancy

The biologists have arrived at the conclusion that
maximum human life expectancy constitutes 170-200
years, provided a person doesn't die of illness. Men and
women have equal chances.
To determine a person's possible life-span it is
necessary to possess practical data on their life history in
the period between two and 30 years of age. The more
comprehensive the data are, the more accurately a
computer will estimate the possible life-span.
The hypothesis is based on that when a person ages, the
water content in cells, the kidneys filtrating ability and
the vital capacity of the lungs - all become reduced. And
on the whole the weight of both men and women reduces.
40

It has been proved that in the process of development,
growth and ageing of everything living, the change in the
mass serves, as it were, the sum total of all the changes.
The gerontologists are unanimous that a person very
rarely dies due to the total loss of life force. Usually death
results from the increase in pathological changes due to
different diseases. Taking this into account, the doctors
will be able to determine more accurately the methods of
treating their patients, and prescribe medicines which
would be most effective for the given person.
Notes:
life expectancy
comprehensive -
cell -
kidneys

IX. Make up 6 questions to the text and ask your
friend to answer them.
X. Explain:
a) how it is possible to determine a person's life-span;
b)what changes take place in the human organism
throughout life;
c) what gerontologists deal with.
XI. Discuss in the group:
a) maximum human life expectancy;
b) the biologists' hypothesis;
c) the doctors task to prolong patients life.
XII. Read the text and be ready to answer the
questions:
1. What problem does the text deal with?
2. What do the latest statistical data show?
3. What information about migration does the article
contain?
4. What place does Russia occupy in population?
41


More Deaths Than Births In Russia

According to 1989 census, Russia's population was as
high as 147,4 mln. It looked as if we would soon celebrate
the birth of the 150 millionth inhabitant of Russia. The
latest statistical figures have dashed this hope. Russia's
population has started decreasing.
A year ago the first publications appeared in the press
about a phenomenon that was unprecedented for Russia
since the war: the mortality rate had surpassed the birth
rate. In 1992, 11 percent fewer people were born than in
the previous year, while the number of those who died
increased by 5 percent. The number of second and third
children born into families had declined by almost a
quarter.
The losses from the fall in the birth rate and the rise in
the death rate are so high that they are not compensated
by the increased influx of migrants into Russia from the
countries of the near abroad. According to the figures of
Russia's Ministry of Internal Affairs, there were over
360,000 refugees and forced migrants in 1993. Russians'
emigration to countries other than the former republics of
the USSR remains high: over 80,000 people were granted
permission to leave for a permanent place of residence
abroad during 1993.
Hundreds of thousands of migrants to Russia are in bad
need of jobs, housing, medical services and social security.
Today Russia is the world's sixth largest country in
population (after China, India, USA, Indonesia and Brazil).
To stop the birth rate fall it is necessary to at least
stabilize the economic situation in the country. It is more
important to keep its political integrity intact. Then the
deepening of the demographic crisis may come to a halt.



42

Notes:
census
mortality rate (death rate) -
birth rate - influx
refugee

XIII. Discuss in the group:
a) reasons of birth rate decrease;
b) psychological factors that influence birth rate.

XIV. Read the text and explain why it is
headlined in such a way:

Mysteries of Sex? Or Why Women Live
Longer?
We rarely stop and think why Nature has created
living beings of two different sexes, such as men and
women. Nevertheless, if we understand this, we can
explain why women live longer than men. A higher
mortality rate is peculiar not only to people, but also to
animals and plants.
Any living system does not exist in isolation, but in a
certain environment which constantly changes. In order to
survive, therefore, it should grasp these changes and
quickly adapt to them. There is a contradiction between
the environment and a living organism in the mutual
relations. To achieve a better state of preservation, a living
system must be as remote from the environment as
possible. On the other hand, to be aware of the changes, it
should be closer to the environment. How can we
eliminate this conflict?
Solution One. The living system must stay at the most
favourable distance from the environment.
Solution Two. The system must be divided into two
subsystems connected with each other. One of the
subsystems must be moved closer to the environment in
43

order to obtain the necessary information, and the other
must stay at a distance so as to be able to preserve the
information.
It is the male's job to be aware of these changes or of
the information obtained from the environment, and the
female has to preserve and pass on the genetic
information.
Men are more sensitive than women and less tolerant to
distress, heat, cold, hunger and unpleasant situation at
work. As a rule, men are the first to die in extreme
situations.
The female organism is more flexible, and can adapt to
the changing environment better. It is known for certain,
for example, that a woman's body can adjust itself to a
cold climate better than a man's. More women than men
survive extreme or stress-type situations. Because of their
greater vulnerability, men develop more often such
diseases as heart attacks, cancer, and mental diseases.
The pioneering spirit and the need for risk have been
built into the male subsystem by Nature. It has been
proved by the experiment with rats. They were placed in a
separate room and had enough food and water. In one of
the walls a narrow slit was left leading to another room
where there was a cat. The she-rats did not venture into
the slit which led to an unfamiliar place. Some males,
however, were curious and went through, only to be
caught by the cat. Having lost their lives, they warned the
rest about the cat and saved their lives.
Being in the vanguard of the population, men are
exposed more to the environment. If its fatal influence is
removed and the best possible conditions are provided,
men will live longer. Yet, there are more centenarian men
than women.





44

XV. Translate the text into Russian.
XVI. What interesting information did you get
from the text?
XVII. Role-play:
1. You are interviewing a centenarian. What possible
questions can you ask him?
2. You are a gerontologist. Tell the students about the
problems you are dealing with.
3. You are leaving the country. Explain why you are going
abroad forever.

XVIII. Would you like to live longer? Read the article
and follow its recommendations.


Do Something Now
Did you realize that once you've passed the age of
twenty, you start to die? Of course, it takes fifty years or
so in most cases, but it's not something you want to
hurry, is it? Once past twenty, your body begins to wear
out, very slowly. Or not so slowly, depending on the way
you treat it.
But you can slow the march of time to stay young
longer and enjoy an active and healthy life for as many of
those years as possible. And you cannot begin too soon.
Teenagers find it difficult if not impossible to imagine
becoming middle-aged, let alone old. Young people are
naturally fit, but unless you get into the habit of taking
regular exercise and conditioning yourself to do so, you
will find it more and more difficult as you get older.
So what are you going to do about it? First, I must
emphasize that anything I write from now on applies only
to people in normal health and with no medical problems.
45

For a start, check your weight. Jump up and down in
front of a mirror. If everything wobbles, you're overweight;
if some of it wobbles, you're still overweight. So watch your
diet and burn off the excess with a fitness programme
which will prolong youth and life.
The easiest way to reach and maintain fitness is
through sport. It's fun and it has social and psychological
advantages. But if sport holds no appeal, you'll have to do
it the hard way - and it will require will-power. Not at the
start, but in order to keep going when the novelty wears
off.
It is vital to progress slowly. First, jog as far as you can.
Then do some simple form of exercise - sit ups or press
ups will do for as long as you can. Set no targets.
Simply discover your starting point. If you repeat your
exercise daily, you will automatically make progress. What
is unbearable the first few sessions will gradually become
within your scope.
How can you tell when you are fit? When you can run
three miles (slightly less for girls) without getting
exhausted.

( by Dick Norman, from Current)

WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
to unravel the mystery; social adaptation; close attention;
a distinctive feature; to deserve special attention; in the
first place; secondly; as a whole; in other words; to pin
one's hopes on; to be worth of.
II. Give English equivalents for:
; ; ; ;
; ; ; ;
; ; ; .

46

III. Make up sentences with the following word-
combinations:
to deserve special attention; to pay attention to; to draw
attention to; to attend to; to be in the centre of attention.
IV. Arrange in pairs of antonyms:
to seek insignificant
recently birth
important to shorten
to relieve to begin
positive to lose
death to enhance
to extend to narrow
to increase similar
prolong long ago
different negative
to fall to decrease
to stop to rise

V. Substitute the italicized words with the similar
ones. Choose them from the brackets:
(community; elderly; to unravel; adaptation; milieu; death
rate; disease)
1. For many years people have been trying to discover the
mystery of long life.
2. Social setting plays a great part in prolonging human
life.
3. Social adjustment is one of the main factors to be
taken into account.
4. Death is connected with organic changes in the
human body as a result of different illnesses.
5. Mortality rate increased in Russia by 5 per cent.
6. Undoubtedly the old people should be respected by
youngsters.
7. The scientific society of psychologists,
gerontologists, biologists pays due attention to the life-
span problems.
47



VI. Make up situations with the following word-
combinations:
to create socio-psychological environment
to respect the old people
to have positive effect
to prolong life-span
to relieve stresses
to experience pleasant emotions
to take care of
to go in for public activities


48


UNIT V
Exercises For Pleasure

I. Missing words - people's characteristics. Fill in the
blanks with missing words:
ambitious, rude, strict, obstinate, sympathetic, intelligent,
moody, immature, conceited (big-headed)
1. John is always telling people how well he plays the guitar. He
is so ... .
2. Many girls of 16 and 17 are too ... to get married and have
children.
3. I see Clive's passed all his exams again. It must be wonderful
to be so ... .
4. The trouble with Jane is that she is so ... . One minute she is
laughing, the next she is sulking. You just don't know where
you are with her.
5. One of the things I like about Pamela is that she is so ... . If
you have a problem you know you can go to her and that
she'll listen to you and try to help all she can.
6. Mrs. Green's children are so.... They never say please or
thank you and only last week I heard them swearing at the
postman.
7. My son is very ... . He doesn't want to work in an office all his
life. In fact he keeps telling me that one day he is going to be
Prime Minister.
8. My husband never sees my point of view. He has opinions
and nothing I say will ever change them. He is so ... .
9. When I was a teenager, my father was very ... . He would
never allow me to wear make-up or have a boyfriend, and if I
went out with friends I always had to be home by 10 o'clock.

49

II. Write down a synonym for each of the words on the
left, choose from the ones on the right. Number I has
been done for you:
1. sad unhappy
2. amusing evil
3. wicked thrilling
4. hard-working funny
5. stubborn furious
6. curious dreadful
7. polite industrious
8. angry reserved
9. exciting well-mannered
10. terrible inquisitive
11. shy obstinate

III. Words to describe temporary moods, states and
feelings. Fill in the blanks with missing words. Use
each word once only.

sympathetic amazed terrified unconscious

depressed offended pregnant embarrassed

drowsy relieved sober desponded

homesick faint nostalgic preoccupied

tense upset disgusted disappointed

furious listless thrilled
weary

giddy dejected

1. My father was ... when I told him that I had crashed his
car. I don't think I have ever seen him so angry.
2. The boxer hit his opponent so hard that he was knocked
50

3. Alison was very ... when she heard that her mother had been
taken to hospital.
4- When I first moved to Sweden I felt very ... I missed
Russia so much.
5. She was really ... when she heard that she had got the
job.
6. I spoke to her, but she was too ... to notice me.
7. My sister was ... when her friend's dog started barking at her.
8. She was very ... when I told her that I had lost my job.
9. I felt really ... when my mother started telling my girlfriend
about the strange habits I used to have when I was a child.
10. My husband was really thrilled when I told him that I was ...
.
11. You look ... , Alan. Cheer up! Things can't be that bad.
12. The sight of blood always makes me feel ... .
13. Listening to She loves you by the Beatles made me feel very
... .
14. She felt very ... when the doctor told her that it wasn't a
cancer.
15. Lying in the sun made me feel very ... .
16. Amanda was so ... when she failed her driving-test, she had
really set her heart on passing it first time.
17. The hotel room was so dirty that I felt thoroughly ... and
complained to the manager.
18. My cousin was deeply ... when 1 didn't invite him to my
wedding.
19. When we heard that he had passed the exam we were all ... .
20. I hate the heat it makes me so ... . I just don't want
to move or do anything.
21. He told me that his wife left him he felt really ... .
Life didn't seem worth living, and he even
contemplated committing suicide.
22. I felt very ... before the interview. But once I actually
started talking I began to relax.
23. Although he was perfectly ... when he arrived at the party,
by 11.30 he was as drunk as everyone else.
24. When Mary refused to go out with him, John felt really ... .
51

25. After walking for 6 hours we were so that we couldn't go
on.
26. I always feel ... when I look down from the top of a high
building.

IV. Choose the answer. Choose the correct answer
for each of the following:
1. If a person is conceited, he or she is ... .
a) careful d) suspicious
b) shy e) crazy
c) big-headed
2. What is the opposite of rude?
a) certain d) courteous
b) impolite e) successful
c) clean
3. To be broken is ... .
a) to be ill d) to be without friends
b) to be sad e) to be in love
c) to be without money
4. Which of these words means hard-working?
a) flighty d) conscious
b) industrial e) industrious
c) job

V. Choose the word. Choose the word which best
completes each sentence.
1. He is always telling me what to do. He is so ... .
a) cruel b) bossy c) helpful d) charming
2. He wants to get to the top before he is thirty. He is very ... .
a) tall b) ambitious c) intelligent
d) industrial
3. John always arrives on time. He is so ... .
a) careful b) boring c) punctual d) timeless
4. I was very ... for all the advice she gave me. a) glad b) grateful
c) in debt d) pleased

52

VI. Opposites adjectives. Find the opposites of the
words on the left. Choose from the ones on the right.
Number 1 has been done for you:
Adjectives Opposites
1. harmless harmful
2. generous lazy
3. permanent broad-minded
4. industrious timid
5. friendly sudden
6. dull unfortunate
7. daring mean
8. narrow-minded wonderful
9. real hostile
10. horrible temporary
11. gradual uninterested
12. keen (on) exiting
13. fortunate imaginary
VII. Synonyms - adjectives. Give a synonym for each
of the words in brackets in the following sentences.
Choose them from the ones below:
odd attractive
cheeky unbelievable
enormous big-headed
bashful keen
enjoyable obstinate
vital appalling

1. He was one of the most (good-looking) men she had ever seen.
2. We had a really (pleasant) time in Brighton last week.
3. David is always telling people how good he is at everything.
He is so (conceited).
4. The play last night was (terrible). At least half the audience
walked out in the middle of it.
5. There is something very (peculiar) about Mr. Brown's
behaviour today. Didn't you notice?
53

6. Have you seen James and Sally's new house? It's really
(huge).
7. He won't take my advice. He is so (stubborn).
8. I was always very (shy) as a child and hated going to parties
or meeting new people.
9. My son loves school. In fact, in some ways he is too
(enthusiastic), I mean, it's the only thing he ever talks about.
10. I think Martha is going to have a lot of problems with her
children. They are so (rude) to everyone.
11. You must read this story - it's quite (incredible)!
12. Hard work and ambition are (essential) if you want to get on
life.


VIII. Definitions types of people. Fill in the
missing words in the definitions below. Choose from
the following:

chauvinistic versatile
illiterate magnanimous
bilingual indefatigable
erudite scintillating
gullible convivial
vivacious greedy
A/an ... person is someone who has a variety of skills and
abilities and who is able to change easily from one sort of
activity to another.
A/an ... person is someone who is very friendly and fond of
eating, drinking and good company.
A/an ... person is who is very generous towards other people.
'1. A/an ... person is someone who always wants more than his
or her fair share of something - especially food, money or power.
5. A/an ... person is someone who is easily taken in or tricked
by others.
54

6. A/an ... person is someone who believes that the sex he or
she belongs to (male or female) is better than the opposite sex
in all ways.
7. A/an ... person is someone who is unable to read or write.
8. A/an ... person is someone who is fluent in two languages.
9. A/an ... person is someone who seems to have so much
energy that he or she never tires.
10. A/an ... person is someone who has studied a lot and is very
knowledgeable.
11. A/an person is someone who is able to make clever, witty
and entertaining remarks in conversation.
12. A/an ... person is someone (usually a woman) who is full of
life.


IX. Test yourself.

1. You hear an indistinct miaow. Without looking around,
how well can you place the cat?
a) If you think about it, you can point to it.
b) You can point straight to it.
c) You don't know if you can point to it.
2. How good are you at remembering a song you have just
heard?
a) You find it easy, and you can sing the part of it in tune.
b) You can do it only if it's simple and rhythmical.
c) You find it difficult.
3. A person you have met a few times telephones you. How
easy is it for you to recognize that voice in a few seconds before
the person identifies himself?
a) You find it quite easy.
c) You recognize the voice at least half the time.
b) You recognize the voice less than half the time.
4. You are with a group of married friends. Two of them are
having an affair. Would you detect this?
a) Nearly always.
b) Half the time.
c) Seldom.
55

5. You are introduced to five strangers at a large social
gathering. If the names are mentioned the following day, how
easy is it for you to picture their faces?
a) You remember most of them.
b) You remember a few of them.
c) You seldom remember any of them.
6. In your early school days, how easy was spelling
and writing the essays?
a) Both were quite easy.
b) One was easy.
c) Neither was easy.
7. You spot a parking place, but you need to reverse
into it - and it's going to be a fairly tight squeeze.
a) You look for another place.
b) You back into it carefully.
c) You reverse into it without much thought.
8. You've spent three days in an unfamiliar village
and someone asks you which way is north.
a) You're unlucky to know.
b) You're not sure but given a moment you can work it out.
c) You point north.
9. You're in a dentist's waiting room. How close can you sit to
people of the same sex as yourself without feeling
uncomfortable?
a) Less than six inches.
b) Six inches to two feet.
c) More than two feet.
10. You're visiting your new neighbour, and the two of you
are talking. There is a tap dripping in the background.
Otherwise the room is quiet.
a) You notice the dripping sound immediately and try to
ignore it.
b) If you notice it, you probably mention it.
c) It doesn't bother you at all.
Scoring the test: Males:
For each (a) answer, score 10 points.
For each (b) answer, score 5 points.
56

For each (c) answer, score minus 5 points.
Females:
For each (a) answer, score 15 points.
For each (b) answer, score 5 points.
For each (c) answer, score minus 5 points.

Unanswered questions for both sexes count as 5 points.
Most males will score between 0 and 60, female between 50
and 100. The overlap-scores between 50 and 60 indicate a slight
compatibility between the sexes.
Male scores above 60 may show a bias to female mental
attributes. Females who score below 50 may show a brain bias
to the male thought processes.
X. Describing people. Character and personality.
Match the following adjectives 1-20 with the correct meanings
a-t to form complete sentences.
People who are:
1 absent-minded a) like to say how good they are at
something

2 adventurous b) have strong feelings and are easily
moved by things

3 amusing c) are rude and disrespectful, especially
towards people like parents and teachers

4 bashful d) are always trying to control others
without worrying or caring about how they feel

57


5.boastful e) deliberately try to hurt or harm others
6. bright f) are very forgetful because they are too busy
thinking about other things
7. calm g)are sure of themselves and their abilities
8. cheeky h)are easily tricked and tend to believe everything
they are told
9. conceited i) are very clever and learn things quickly
10. confident j) hate having to wait for things and are not very
tolerant of other people weaknesses
11. creative k) are very interested and excited about something
and this shows in the way we talk or behave
12. domineering l) are daring and always ready to have riscs
13. down-to-earth m) are always friendly and welcoming
towards guests
14. emotional n) dont get excited or nervous about
things
15. enthusiastic o) find it hard to accept or understand new
or different ideas
16. gullible p) are very funny and make you laugh
17. hospitable q) are very practical and honest
18. impatient r) have a very high opinion of
themselves
19. malicious s) find it easy to produce new and
original ideas and things
20. narrow-minded t) are shy and feel uncomfortable in social
situations


XI. Develop the following situations:


1. You are writing a paper on the theme: Major Personality
Characteristics. You experience some hardships in your
research. You come to your scientific advisor to receive some
explanations.
Ask him:
58

- if it is a correct trend to divide all people into extroverts
and introverts;
- what is meant by personality traits;
- what he thinks whether a personality formation is
genetically predisposed;
- what role the family plays in shaping a personality;
- how a social setting influences the personality
development;
- at what age the personality character is formed.


2. Your friend is sure that our mood and emotional state
depend on the weather and horoscope forecasts. You are not
inclined to believe in astrology but still you ask some questions
on the subject.
Ask him:
- what his sign of zodiac is;
- what positive characteristics his star sign supposes;
- whom he is like in character: his mother or father;
- if he has got any negative traits;
- if he believes in horoscope forecasts partly or completely;
- what he does to match his star sign.

3. You are making up a questionnaire in order to find out
basic personality characteristics and categorize them.
Ask your respondent:
- how he feels in an unfamiliar situation;
- what helps him feel at ease;
- in what situation he feels shy and worried;

- what he considers to be the necessary qualities to feel
comfortable everywhere;
- if he can describe the most pleasant situation in his life;
- what he experiences seeing beggars in the streets.


59

4. Your friend has just come from England. He had a chance
to study there for three weeks. He spoke with a number of the
British people noted for their peculiar features. You are eager to
receive information first-hand.
Ask him:
- how he would characterize the English as a separate
nation;
- if they are as reserved as they seem to be;
- what relationships exist between different generations;
- what are the most distinctive features of their character;
- in what dwellings the British people live;
- why they prefer to live in cottages.


Text I

I. Read the text and answer the following
questions:
1. What should we do to balance our emotions, to keep quiet?
2. What is the most important thing we can do according to the
text?
3. What phrases are often used in the people's intercourse in the
USA?

Don' t Worry!
Cheer Up!
We say all these things to balance our emotions and gain
strength. But it is not as easy as it seems. So, what's the
answer? We cannot go and live on a desert island. There are lots
of things we can do of course. We can take more exercise. We
can eat less, smoke less, we can have a well-organized rest.
But perhaps the most important thing we can do is to learn
to relax. Stress grows very slowly. It is made up of all the little
things that make us tense, day after day, year after year. Every
time we relax, every time we put our feet up, every time we have
60

a cup of tea and a chat with an old friend we take away some of
the tension that causes stress.
Americans worry about relaxing. They take classes to learn
how to relax. They read books that tell them how to take it
easy. Relaxing is a multidollar industry in the USA. So, why not
master this skill and do it on your own (without paying much
money)?
But before your start, think of what doctors say nowadays, Too
much relaxation is bad for you too.
Answer: In what way do you understand the term
Relaxation?


II. Read the recommendations given by the
psychologist and take them into consideration:
What Are The Ways To Prevent Tiredness?


1. Rest before you get tired (not after).
2. Learn to relax. If you're having a tough time, find a quiet half
an hour all to yourself to gain strength and balance.
3. Don't forget about four good working habits:
a) Clear your desk of all papers except those you need closely
at hand.
b) Do things in order of their importance.
c) When you face a problem, first analyze the facts to make a
decision.
4. Put enthusiasm into your work, it is the only way to enjoy
what you are doing.
5. Remember, no one was ever killed by doing well-organized
work (The busiest man finds the most leisure).
6. Don't be a mental loafer. Don't be afraid to concentrate on
some ideas, to think hard and to exercise your will and
memory.
7. Don't forget about good manners, avoid getting hot-tempered.
8. Take time to get the facts before you act.
61

9. Live and learn, analyze your mistakes.
10. Think and act cheerfully and you will feel cheerful; keep
smiling.

III. When we give advice we often use the words
should and shouldn't. Now read the story and
give some advice:

Mr. Miller is a businessman. He has just had a heart attack
and is now in hospital. Mr. Miller is a heavy smoker and drinks
heavily too. He works very, very hard, both at the office and at
home. He also worries about his work. He drives a big,
comfortable car, cats large business lunches and never takes
any exercise. He is married, has two lovely children, though he
doesn't see them very often. The last time he had a real holiday
was three years ago.
Fortunately, Mr. Miller has survived his heart attack. Now,
what's your advice to be? (Use: I think you should; I don't think
you should; you shouldn't ...).


IV. Read the story and tell its contents in Russian:


Pets Are Good For Us

Perhaps the British are too good to their pets? But more
interesting is a recent theory amongst psychologists that pets
are very good for us.
Dr. R. writes:
The basic meaning of pet is an animal we keep for emotional
rather than economic reasons. A pet animal is kept as a
companion, and we all need companions to keep us feeling
happy. But pets offer us more than mere companionship; they
62

invite us to love and be loved. Many owners feel their pets
understand them, for animals are quick to sense anger and
sorrow. Often a cat or dog can comfort us at times when human
words don't help. We feel loved, too, by the way pets depend on
us for a home, for food and drink. Dogs especially look up to
their owners, which makes them feel important and needed.
A pet can be something different to each member of the
family, another baby to the mother, a sister or brother to an
only child, a grandchild to the elderly, but for all of us pets
provide pleasure and companionship. It has even been
suggested that tiny pets should be sent as companions to
astronauts on spaceships, to help reduce the stress and
loneliness of space flights.
In this Plastic Age, when most of us live in large cities, pets
are particularly important for children. A pet in the family keeps
people in touch with the more natural, animal world. Seeing an
animal give birth brings understanding of the naturalness of
childbirth. Learning to care for a pet helps a child to grow up
into a loving adult who feels responsible towards those
dependent on him. Rightly we teach children to be good to their
pets. They should learn, too, that pets are good for us human
beings.

(From New Avenues in Reading)


V. Read the story and be ready to tell its contents in
English:

The Englishmen' s Garden
.
The English like growing flowers. It's a useful occupation
because it doesn't harm anyone. In winter the most romantic
thing for some people is to pick up a seed catalogue and look at
the brightly coloured pictures of summer flowers. Even people
with a tiny patch of ground in towns like growing plants and
people who have never seriously tried to speak any foreign
63

language carefully learn the Latin names of the flowers they
plant, so that they can tell their friends.
If you want to please an English person, be very polite about
his garden. He will probably tell you about his garden. So you
listen and say: How interesting! How clever of you!
The English gardens are internationally famous. Some of
them are very beautiful, especially the big ones that are open to
the public.

Notes:
a seed catalogue -
a tiny patch -



Text 2
I. Read and translate the text:

Handwriting Secrets Revealed

The principles of graphology are very simple. Everything on a
page of handwriting - or missing from it -says something about
the writer. It is like a jigsaw where all the pieces fit together but
have a hidden message as well as a revealed image.
Many of the deductions made in handwriting analysis are
really commonsense. Think about how people behave at a party:
some people love the noise and beat of the music and spend
most of their time dancing, enjoying the attention their actions
attract. Others prefer to find somewhere quiet and talk with
friends. We make judgments of character from this behaviour.
We could make similar judgments by looking at people's
handwriting.
64

The showy, affectionate, active person will have large,
flamboyant writing which demands the reader's attention,
together with other signs of an extrovert character.
The quieter, more reflective soul will have smaller, probably
neater and more controlled writing, with pointers to a slightly
less exhibitionist personality.
Two of the most common things people say about
handwriting are: I have two styles of writing; and I can't read
anything my doctor writes!
Taking the first statement, it is true that some people have
styles of writing that appear, on first sight, to be different.
However, closer examination usually reveals that the key
character indicators are the same in both examples: the
changes are merely cosmetic. Being more relaxed and not
feeling that what you are writing is of great significance does
affect the look of the writing rather as if you have changed
from a business outfit to jeans and a T-shirt.
On the question of doctors' writing, it seems to be true that
many members of the medical profession have a particularly
illegible script. There are two reasons for this. The first is
doctors are usually under a lot of pressure and are carrying out
the task as quickly as possible. They write in a hurry, and
although this does not invariably lead to neglected letter forms,
it can have an effect.
The second, and more revealing point, is that illegible writing
is subconsciously deliberate: the writer does not want everyone
to be able to read it.
Why? Well, doctors like lawyers and some other
professionals are in the secret business. Part of their job
involves knowing things but not letting on. This requirement
has crept into their writing style.
The first thing to do with any piece of writing you wish to
analyze is to take a long careful look at the page and the general
impression the writing creates.

65


Is it neat and tidy, or messy? Is it easy to read? Does it flow
smoothly and fluently across the page? Is it full of eccentricities
and odd shapes? You can be sure that the writer deliberately
produced it in this form, even if the reasons are subconscious.
Many people protest: I do all I can to make my writing neat,
but it always turns out a mess. They cannot contradict their
true nature: they may wish they were perfectionists, super-
organized and superb communicators, but if they are not, their
handwriting will show their real self.
Messy writing does not necessarily indicate a messy person:
they may be highly adaptable and versatile, or hyperactive, for
example.
The bigger the writing, the more emotional (which can mean
sentimental or impulsive - or other traits which stem from
emotions) is its author. Equally, the smaller the size of the
overall text, the more perfectionist and inhibited is its writer,
and the more they keep a tight hold on their emotions.
Small writing indicates a slightly withdrawn, often quite
intelligent person.
If it is very legible, the writer is pedantic, intelligent, perhaps
academic, with excellent powers of concentration, and has low
self-esteem.
If it is difficult to read, the writer is more independent,
perhaps lacking in social skills - a 'difficult' person. In either
case, the writer prefers life backstage to out in the glare of the
lights.
Medium writing indicates someone who is fairly
conventional, and has a healthy balance between heart and
head.
Large writing suggests ambition, generosity, a tendency
towards exaggeration and a need for self-expression.
Very large writing means watch out! This person is bordering
on the obsessional, and will stop at nothing to get his own way,
although he will probably switch on something new before the
challenge is over. They will encounter many adventures as they
barge through life.
66


II. Answer the following questions:
1. What kind of science is graphology?
2. Does graphology help make judgments of people by their
handwriting?
3. How does an extrovert write?
4. Can people have two styles of writing?
5. Members of the medical profession have an illegible script,
don't they?
6. What are the reasons for that?
7. Messy writing indicates a messy person, doesn't it?
8. What does big writing signify?
9. What can you say about a person with small writing?
10. What does medium writing indicate?
11. What does large writing suggest?

III. Copy out all personality characteristics in
accordance with:
a) messy writing;
b) big writing;
c) medium writing;
d) small writing;
e) large writing
Do you agree with these characteristics? What is your personal
experience?


V. Speak on the article.

Text3
I. Read the text and answer the questions that
follow:

Your signature is unique. It is also your public face, it
represents you on important documents, on messages to
67

friends: it is your mark of promise, your bond. And it says more
about you than any other set of letters.
The first thing to consider with the signature is how it
compares with the rest of the individual's handwriting. Although
signatures tend to be slightly stylized, they echo traits in the
script. Any differences between the two show a discrepancy
between the writer's view of her own character and how she
expects to be regarded - there is something false here.
The larger the signature, the greater the writer's self-esteem,
and expectation that should be recognized.
Large signature: This shows a sense of high status which
may in real life be the case, but in terms of the signature that is
not the point. If the signature is larger than the handwriting,
the writer carries a pretence of higher self-esteem - and
confidence - than is the case. It is a 'front'.
Medium size signature (same as handwriting): shows a
balance of sense of value and modesty. It is the same size as the
script, it shows someone with knowledge of, and acceptance of,
how she is perceived.
Small signature: The writer expects little esteem from other
people. This may imply a high degree of self-motivation and
disregard for what people think, but is more likely to be a sign
of low self-confidence. If the signature is smaller than the script,
the writer does not expect recognition of her worth. It may be
this is a deliberate holding-back, a defensive posture.
Most people use their full first name and surname. Those
who write their initials instead of their Christian names will do
so for one of two reasons:
a) They prefer the formality and reserve of the more
'businesslike' initials, in which case they are likely to
have conventional, perhaps even old-fashioned, values:
or
b) They deeply dislike their first name.
Writing your full name in your signature reveals a more
informal, relaxed approach to life.
Legibility bears little relation to speed: the fast writer can still be
perfectly readable, and the slow writer can have an impossibly messy
68

script. In handwriting and signatures, legibility is, subconsciously, a
matter of choice. The same applies in the signature.
If the illegible signature closes a business letter, it shows that the
writer does not consider their name to be of great importance to the
matter in hand: they are a mere functionary. The personal signature
may be very different.
A consistently illegible signature implies that you really ought to know
who I am, and if you don't, it is your loss! Arrogance is apparent.
If the surname is more legible than the first name, the writer
shows reserve on first contact with people a holding back of
familiarity until they get to know a person better.
A first name more legible that the surname reveals a more
approachable, direct person who will make a great effort to friendly.
Complete legibility shows open and straightforward attitudes. The
writer is happy to be accepted as she is.
The questions to be answered are:

1. What role does your signature play in your personal life?
2. Do signatures echo traits in the script?
3. What do the differences between one's handwriting and signature
show?
A. What connection is there between the writer's signature and his
self-esteem?
5. What does large signature show?
6. Medium size signature shows a balance of sense of value and
modesty, doesn't it?
7. What may small signature imply?
8. Why do some people use their full first names and surnames?
9. What does legibility depend on?
10. What do you think of a person who writes his first name more
legible than his surname?
11. What does complete legibility show?

69

II. Complete the following sentences:
1. Your signature is unique as ... .
2. Signature tends to ... .
3. The larger the signature, ... .
4. Large signature shows ... .
5. Medium size signature is the same as ... .
6. Small signature implies ... .
7. Most people use their full surname because ... .
8. Legibility bears little relation to ... .

III. Characterize the interrelationships
between signature and handwriting.

VI. Read this item and give its general idea
in three sentences:


About a fifth of all people are left-handed. Some of them
experience difficulty in writing because the act of pushing a pen across
the page as opposed to the pulling notion used by the right-handed
writer causes some problems.
Left-handed people have to adapt and hold the pen in a different
way to write across the page, and some end up with a very contorted
pose in their efforts to achieve this.
Provided this does not cause physical pain or affect the
handwriting, it does not matter how the left-hander solves the
problem. Some sensible suggestions include placing the writing paper
slightly to the left, to give the arm more room to move in to; and
ensuring that the pen is gripped at least 3 cm from the tip, so that
words already written are not smudged or concealed by the
moving hand.
Using this advice, the left-handed writer should suffer no
disadvantage in how she writes - you cannot spot her from her
handwriting style.
70

The worst thing you can do is to force her to hold the pen in
her right hand, because this repression inflicts deep
psychological suffering.



V. Reproduce the idea of this Russian article in the
English language:

no


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20
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, , ,
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71

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72

,
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( )


Text IV

I. Read the text and say:
a) what information is new for you;
b) what facts surprised you in any way.

How Did it All Begin?



Do you ever wonder why people do, or wear, or say
certain things? Why they shake hands when they meet or why
they wear wigs or trousers? Did you ever say that someone was
mad as a hatter and then wonder how this saying comes to
mean what it does? Many things you say and do could have
reasons that date back thousands of years. How did some of
those customs begin?
Shaking hands. It's very strange to think that shaking
hands a friendly custom today was originally a means of
keeping a stranger's weapon hand where it could do no harm.
In primitive times, when man was constantly threatened by
beasts and other men, he never went about without some
weapon of defense - usually a club. Any stranger was suspect,
and upon meeting one, a man could either stand and fight, turn
away before discovering if the stranger was a friend or foe, or
greet the stranger and possibly become friends.
73

But how could he be sure the stranger would be friendly -
and how could the stranger trust him in return? There was only
one way to show friendly intentions, and that was for both men
to lay down their weapons and hold out their empty palms. For
added insurance, each would reach for the other's right hand.
As long as both men's weapon hands were safely clasped,
neither could harm the other. Therefore, a handshake originally
was a means of self-defense.
Wigs. For thousands of years both men and women
considered long hair to be a source of strength, the very source,
in fact, of the spirit of life. They believed that long hair
frightened enemies and, of course, that it made people more
attractive. Warriors especially let their hair grow long; they
thought that losing their hair meant losing their strength - and
thereby inviting defeat.
An abundance of hair was so desirable that people bought
wigs to add to whatever hair they already had. Wigs have been
used for many purposes through the centuries. Actors, spies,
and fugitives have all used them to disguise themselves. Statues
of Greek actors from as far back as the fifth century B.C. show
elaborate wigs and headpieces, and it is thought that comic
servants in Greek plays were easily identified by their bright red
or orange wigs.
In Europe wigs were not popular until the seventeenth
century, when Louis XIII of France became bald. He started
using false hair, and his courtiers followed suit. Soon the
common people copied the nobility. By the middle of the
eighteenth century, there were almost forty different types of
wigs with names like the staircase, the artichoke, the
pigeon's wig, etc. Just before the French revolution of 1789
wigs up to three feet in height were worn, with blond being the
most stylish color.
The craze for wigs and the demand for natural hair to make
their wigs created some interesting problems.
Corpses were shorn of their hair, women and children had to
be protected from hair robbers, and poor people made money by
selling their hair to the highest bidders. In the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries most educated men had their own hair cut
74

off and made into wigs. They considered this more sanitary than
using hair bought from another person or a corpse.
(from Cricket)

Notes:
Hatter
Club
Wig
Fugitive


II. Read the article and find answers to the
following questions:
1. Why is the field of plastic surgery important?
2. What wonders can plastic surgery work today?
3. What is the leading Russian plastic surgery clinic?
4. What is its new direction?

Surgeon. Sculptor or Artist?

A plastic surgeon cannot take a break when he works. While
making the human body look more harmonious, he is restricted
in choosing the time, the place and the means at his disposal.
Moreover, he should be able to deal properly with any surprises
which can emerge while he is operating on a human body.
Those who know about plastic surgery only by hearsay may
think it serves only to satisfy some whims or caprices of clients
not happy with their own looks - the snub nose, the shape of
the ears or too many wrinkles on the neck. But in fact this field
75

of surgery is as important as others, since as a rule, it deals not
only with changing a person's appearance, but also with
restoring the proper functioning of organs. The plastic surgeon
is much more than the average doctor he must have an
exquisite aesthetic taste and should know history and art as
well, in order not to mix Venus' Hellenic nose with Caesar's
profile.
Incidentally, plastic surgery began originally as the plastics
of the nose, or rhinoplasty.
The first cases of rhinoplasty were performed five thousand
years ago in India, Tibet and Egypt. It might have begun with
the then usual practice of cutting off a criminal's nose for
violating the contemporary moral norms. In some Indian tribes
prisoners of war were punished by cutting their lips off. In India
these deformities were corrected by the lower caste of priests. In
ancient Indian books there can be found descriptions on nose
surgery using skin taken from the cheeks and forehead. Some
potters and even executioners who were ordered to cut the
noses could do the operation.
This kind of surgery came to Europe many centuries later,
with the beginning of the Renaissance period in the 15
th
century
giving an impetus to plastic surgery. Unlike Indian doctors,
Italian physicians took the transplantation skin not only from
the forehead and cheeks but from the arm as well. The
operation itself became more complicated. In Bologna appeared
professor Tagliacozzi's illustrated manuscript scientifically
describing the details of the transplanting operations. He was
the first to operate on lips, taking pieces of skin from the
shoulder, and he tried to operate on ears.
During this period, however, rhinoplasty was not used widely
and remained the privilege of narrow circle of those who knew of
its existence. The new phase for plastic surgery began only in
the 19
th
century and continues to this day. India, and later
Russia, became the leaders in this field. In Russia, Pirogov,
Filatov and Shimanovsky made their contribution by performing
new types of plastic surgeries.
The applications for plastic surgery became much wider
when it became possible to correct not only the shape of the
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nose or lips, but also of the eyelids, cheeks, ears and breasts. At
the beginning of the century the theory of floating piece of skin
appeared, when some pieces of skin were first transplanted from
the breast to the arm and only later to the face. At this time
there were also the first attempts at bone transplantations.
While in ancient times people undergoing plastic surgery
were usually criminals or prisoners of war, from the Middle Ages
till today they come from aristocratic and business circles. After
world wars plastic surgery found uses primarily with head, face
and body wounds.
Today plastic surgery is capable of working wonders it can
bring back youthful looks and beauty, giving a new mindset and
outlook on life to the patient. In this case the aesthetic and
medical aspects are closely interwined. The Republican
Reproduction Center is one of the leading Russian clinics where
plastic surgery is performed on the face and body. Physicians
working there perform more than a thousand operations a year.
By means of plastic surgery they strive to make their patients
more attractive and therefore prepare them psychologically for
new acquaintances which can in the end result in marriages
and childbirths.
Such clinics accomodate to the changing needs of their
clients. The market laws are already influencing the plastic
surgery business among the patients, along with young girls
not satisfied with the shape of their snub nose, are transsexuals
who believe that when they change their sex they will be able to
begin a new life. To what extent can the surgeon influence the
patient's decision to change his or her appearance?
In trying to solve the problems of reproduction, plastic
surgery is truly moving in a new direction.

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III. Read the article again and say what
psychological aspects plastic surgery is connected
with.
IV. Divide the article into logical parts.
V. Speak on the article in accordance with the
following major points:
1. The importance of plastic surgery.
2. Rhinoplasty.
3. History of plastic surgery.
4. Applications for plastic surgery.
VI. Make up a dialogue.


Your friend has been made an operation on the snub
nose. You feel her attitude to life has changed. Ask her
questions on new experiences.




78

UNIT VI
ADDITIONAL READING



Text I
I. Read and translate the article:
Are we Getting Smarter?
(by Sharon Begley)


IQ scores rose steadily in the 20
th
century. As scientists
search for the reasons, they are shedding new light on the
dance between genes and life experience that determines
intelligence.
While generations of schoolchildren, military recruits, job
applicants have wrestled with IQ questions like these, some
smart scientists who study intelligence have been stumped by
an even more exasperating puzzle: why have IQ scores been
rising? The rise is so sharp that the average child today is as
bright as the near genius of yesterday. This shatters the
psychologists' belief about the rigidity of IQ. It's powerful
evidence that you can change it.
Psychologists who study intelligence mostly agree that
hereditary factors explain the lion's share of IQ differences. The
high heritability of IQ suggests that environment is feeble, but
IQ gains over time suggest that environment is overwhelmingly
powerful. The researchers conclude that people's IQs are
affected by both environment and genes, but their environments
are matched to their IQs. In other words, genes do indeed have
an important effect: they cause people to seek out certain
environments, certain life experiences.

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If you have a biological edge in intelligence, for instance, you
will likely enjoy school, books, puzzles, asking questions and
thinking abstractly. All of which will tend to amplify your innate
brainpower. Higher IQ leads one into better environments,
causing still higher IQ. Thanks to that multiplier effect, you will
likely study even more, haunt the Library, pester adults with
questions and choose bright peers as friends, boosting your
intelligence yet again.
The dance between genes and environment starts young. A
naturally verbal toddler will likely elicit hour after hour of
reading from her parents, for instance. That will amplify her
cognitive gifts even if her verbal IQ genes are only the slightest
bit smarter than other kids. A modest genetic advantage turns
into a huge performance advantage.
But if you start out with a slight deficit in IQ, you may get
frustrated by reading and cogitating, stumble in school and
grow to hate learning, reinforcing your genetic bent.
As far as scientists can tell, experiences that boost the
intelligence of someone born with an IQ edge have just about
the same positive effect on people of average intelligence. In
other words, whether you seek out an IQ-boosting environment
or whether it finds you makes no difference. In either case,
experiences and the social and technological surrounding
should work their magic. This effect may account for the IQ rise
over the decades. Crowded computer screens, videogames,
hidden-word games might be training young brains in the
pattern analysis that IQ tests assess. Smaller families, which
offer children more individual attention and indulge their
passion for why's, might boost a generation's IQ. Jobs that
demand more brainpower, more free time and technological
gadgets that challenge our gray matter could also lift all IQ
boats. Leisure and even ordinary conversation are more
cognitively demanding today.
All these expressions of social and technological change
have one key characteristic: they are enduring. All parents can
do is hope that the love of learning they imbue in their child
takes hold, causing him to seek out the experiences and people
that will keep stimulating his intelligence.
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Those who believe in the power of genes and those who
believe in the power of environment are both right. Genes
working through environment account for the lion's share of
individual differences in IQ, but only because genes lead you to
certain life experiences, which collectively form your
environment. It is that environment which directly fosters IQ
differences. People often have a fatalistic sense that IQ is fixed.
However, IQ can be enhanced by good environment. It doesn'
have to be some fixed capacity you're born with.

(NEWSWEEK 2001)

II. Find in the article sentences with the following
word-combinations:
To shatter one's belief; the lion's share; to have an important
effect; to amplify one's innate brainpower; to reinforce a genetic
bent; to indulge passion; to foster IQ differences.
III. Make up your own sentences with these
word-combinations.
IV. Answer the following questions:

1. Are we really getting smarter?
2. Is IQ rise sharp or gradual?
3. What may explain the lion's share of IQ differences?
4. What interrelationship is there between IQ and environment?
5. What does higher IQ lead to?
6. What stimulates intellectual development?
7. What is the role of parents in cultivating love for learning?
8. IQ is not fixed, or is it? What do you think?


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V. Agree or disagree with, the following:
1. IQ scores are rigid and remain with you all your life.
2. Genes account for 75 percent of the difference between
individuals' IQs.
3. People's IQs are affected only by genes.
4. Genes cause people to seek out certain environments.
5. The dance between genes and environment starts young.
6. Large families offer children more individual attention.
VI. Choose the facts from the article that may
help you characterize:
a) new light on IQ scores shed by psychologists;
b) parental role in developing cognitive abilities;
c) environmental influence on thirst for knowledge.

VII. Review the article.
VIII. Develop the following situations:
1. It is a well-known fact that computers play an important
part in the educational process nowadays. You are going to buy
a computer and ask your friend whether it is a useful means in
self-education.
Ask him:
- if he often uses a computer in his studies:
- what perspectives are open for the computer users;
- how it is possible to become a user of the INTERNET;

- if he has got any ties with computer users from foreign
countries;
- how often he communicates with them;
- what problems they discuss;
- if he is looking forward for such contacts.

2. Your friend has been a constant Internet user for
two years. He can't imagine his life without INTERNET.
He has got a lot of foreign friends by INTERNET and
now he is going to marry a girl from Germany.
Ask him:
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what the first talk was about;
what interested him in their communication;
why he decided to continue E-mail correspondence;
if he experiences any problems in conversing through the
INTERNET;
what problems he discussed with the girlfriend;
where they would like to live;
why they chose this country for their residence.
3. Your younger brother is fond of playing computer
games. It is like non-stop music for him. You are worried
as you are sure that too much computing is of certain
harm for a developing mind.
Ask him:
what games he prefers playing;
if violent episodes arise a desire of fighting or bullying;
if his academic performance worsened or improved;
how much time on the average he spends in front of the
monitor;
if he gets tired physically;
if his eyes hurt or he doesn't notice any change in his
eyesight.
4. You are having a talk with a leading specialist in
informatics. You would like to ask a number of questions
concerning the system of education based exclusively on
computer programmes.
Ask him:
what academic disciplines he recommends to teach by
means of computing;
if it is possible to teach a foreign language in this way;
how basic knowledge is tested by computing;
if any special programs already exist;
what he knows of such practice abroad:
what is his opinion of the so-called computerized mind.



83


Text 2
I. Read and translate the text;


It Doesn't Hurt to Be Alone


Being an only child is a disease in itself, the noted
psychologist G.Stanley Hall asserted more than a century ago.
Old myths apparently die hard. For years, a growing body of
research has suggested that only children are more likely to be
helped than to be hurt by their solitary status. Yet the portrait
of only children as spoiled and maladjusted and their parents as
selfish or eccentric retains a firm hold on the popular
imagination. Even as the number of one-child families in
America continues to grow, surveys show that most people still
believe the ideal family contains two children.
A major new study of only children has now provided the
strongest evidence yet that the myth is just that. This sweeping
study of 150,000 adults and children found that onlys are
better educated, score higher on IQ tests and develop better
social skills than children from larger families. It has been
found that, on average, children from one-child families get 20
percent more years of education than do children from families
with several siblings. Onlys scored higher, than any other group
on verbal IQ tests.
There is no scientific basis for the idea that life without
brothers and sisters makes a child overly self-absorbed, either.
Onlys are at no disadvantage whatsoever when it comes to
personality attributes. In the two personality categories where
onlys differ significantly from other children, self-esteem and
achievement, they fare better.
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The simplest explanation for the benefits of onlyhood,
researchers say, is that only children receive more parental
attention and a larger slice of the family resources than children
from large families. Onlys are more likely to have been read
aloud to as children and to have been given music, dance and
art lessons. Because only children are forced to become more
socially sophisticated at seeking companionship outside the
family, they are also more likely to get involved in
extracurricular activities than are other children.
The enforced solitude that goes with being an only child may
even have benefits. Only children don't easily assimilate into
large groups, and when they do they tend to dominate. For
others, having to rely on imagination rather than the constant
company of playmates may set off a creative spark. Onlys have
more of a sense of creating their own worlds than other kids.
The experts concede, however, that conventional wisdom is
not all wet. Children with siblings develop thicker skins from
frequent teasing. Other onlys have trouble expressing anger
because they never had to stand up for themselves. Some
experts even suggest that onlys run a higher risk of becoming
adult hypochondriacs, the result of parents who treated every
sniffle as a life-threatening illness. Parents have a heightened
fear of losing their only child.
With 52 percent of women with children under age 1
working, strained family budgets and the frenzied schedules of
two-career couples contribute to the preference for smaller
families. Despite the growing ranks of one-child families,
however, many parents feel guilty for denying their child a
sibling or two.
The world's biggest research experiment on only children is
a victim of misperceptions. China imposed a one-child-per-
family rule in 1979 to control population growth. Worldwide
press reports soon followed, detailing spoiled little emperors
who tyrannize their parents and grandparents with outrageous
behaviour. But the media exaggerated the problem. On average,
Chinese onlys fared no worse than children with siblings in
terms of personality and achievement. The biggest problem
Chinese youngsters face, especially in a culture that reveres its
85

elders is not whether the kid will grow up to be a little snot but
how they will cope as the sole caretakers for aging parents and
grandparents.
Only children are forced to confront a particular family crisis
all alone. And when a parent dies, only children have no
siblings with whom they can share mutual grief and happy
memories.
The negative myths will persist, no doubt, as long as only
children continue to be outnumbered by people with siblings.
But onlys can take great solace in America's changing
demographics. The number of one-child families had increased
sharply in recent years; only 1 in 5 American mothers who has
completed childbearing now has one child, double the
percentage 10 years ago. In the coming years, only children will
be able to find plenty of company.



II. Give Russian equivalents for:
Solitary status; maladjusted; one-child family; onlys; social
skills; on average; siblings; self-absorbed; personality attributes;
onlyhood; self-esteem; socially sophisticated; extracurricular
activities; solitude; a creative spark; to develop thicker skins; a
life-threatening disease; a victim of misperception; outrageous
behaviour; to exaggerate a problem; sole caretakers; to share
mutual grief.


III. Explain what the following means:
Onlys; siblings; a creative spark; IQ; a playmate; a
hypochondriac; childbearing; maladjusted; extracurricular
activities.




86

IV. Complete the following sentences:
1. The portrait of lonely children is like ... .
2. The onlys develop better ....
3. They receive more ... .
4. They are involved in ... .
5. But children with siblings develop ... .
6. Parents of onlys have a heightened fear of ... .
7. Only children are forced to confront ... .
V. Answer the following questions:
1. Being an only child is a disease in itself, isn't it?
2. What did the study of only children show?
3. How did the onlys score in IQ?
4. What benefits do only children enjoy?
5. What statistical data are given in the article?
6. Why is China mentioned in the paper?
7. Does the article draw optimistic or pessimistic perspectives?

VI. Speak on benefits enjoyed by onlys.
VII. Describe negative moments in being an only
child in the family.


87

FAMILY



Text I

I. Read and translate the text:
The Functions of the Family

The family performs several important social functions.
Taken together, they suggest why the family is sometimes
described as the backbone of society.
The family is the first and most important agent in
socialization process. The personalities of each new generation
are shaped within the family, so that, ideally, children grow to
be well-integrated and contributing members of the larger
societies. In industrial societies, of course, peer groups, schools,
churches, and the mass media are also important in the
socialization of children. But this remains the primary function
of the family. The family also contributes to the continuing
socialization of people throughout their life cycle. Adults learn
and change within marriage, and as anyone with children
knows, parents are influenced by their children just as their
children learn from them.
From a biological point of view, of course, the family is not
necessary to have children. Within families, however, children
are born not only as biological beings, but also as members of
society. Many important social statuses - including race,
ethnicity, religion, and social class - are ascribed at birth
through the family. This explains society's long-standing
concern that children be born of socially sanctioned marriages.
Legitimate birth, especially when parents are of similar position,
88

allows for the most orderly transmission of social standing from
parents to children and clarifies inheritance rights.
In ideal terms, the family protects and supports its members
physically, emotionally, and often financially from birth until
death. The family is usually a person's most important primary
group, and the family members generally have intense and
enduring relationships with one another. This concern for one
another's welfare engenders an important sense of self-worth
and security in each individual, as suggested by the fact that
individuals living in families tend to be healthier than those who
live alone.
However, the intense character of family ties also means that
families have the ability to undermine the individual's self-
confidence, health, and well-being. This fact has become clear
as researchers have studied patterns of family violence and,
especially, child abuse.
It is a well-known fact that marriage and family life are often
perceived differently by various family members. Females and
males are usually socialized quite differently in most cultures,
so they have different expectations and perceptions of family
life. Similarly, parents and children typically have different
perceptions of the family because of their different positions in
it. For example, children usually perceive their parents only as
their mother and father, with little understanding of them as
sexual partners. In addition, the experiences and perceptions of
all family members change over time. Two people's expectations
when they exchange their wedding vows usually change
considerably when they confront the daily realities of married
life. A change in the role of one spouse such as a wife entering
law school is likely to alter the roles of other family members.
Thus, one should point to the inadequacy of describing
marriage and the family in terms of any rigid characteristics.
So family interaction is a process of negotiation in which
people exchange socially valued resources and advantages. In
other words, people enter into relationships prepared to offer
something of themselves while expecting something in return.

89

II. Answer the following questions:
1. In what way is the family very often defined? Give your own
definition of the family.
2. What social organizations contribute to the
socialization of children?
3. What is the primary function of the family?
4. Why is it so necessary for a child to be born within the
family?
5. How does the family support its members?
6. What kind of relationships exist among the family members?
7. Why do parents and children differently perceive the family?
8. What problems arise in this respect?
9. How would you characterize family interaction?

III. Find in the text definitions of :
1) a family;
2) family interaction.

I V. Complete the following sentences:
1. The family contributes to ... .
2. The family performs several functions such as ... .
3. The primary function of the family is ... .
4. The family protects ... .
5. The family supports its members ... .
6. The family plays a leading role in ... .


V. Explain the following statements; give your own
arguments:
1. Parents are influenced by their children just as their children
learn from them.
2. Children should be born of socially sanctioned marriages.
90

3. Families have the ability to undermine the individual's self-
confidence.
4. Parents and children have different perceptions of the family.

VI. Make up an outline of the text.
VII. Speak on the text.
VIII. Write an essay on the theme AN IDEAL
FAMILY.
IX. Read the article and say what do you think of
its contents.


Your Family Tree of Life
(by Karen Springen)

Genetic predisposition doesn't have to mean predestination.
If your family history suggests you carry a dangerous gene, you
can be placed on high-alert surveillance. Men whose mothers
had family-linked breast cancer, for example, may be at risk of
colon and pancreatic cancer. Here are some guidelines to
understand your own genetic background.
First, trace your roots. To fill in the major branches of your
medical tree, draw on your family's best oral historians. Then
check their memories against medical records, autopsy reports
and death certificates. Even old family pictures can help.
Be skeptical, though. The more distant the history in general,
the less relevant it is to the current generation. And the less
reliable.
Once you've done the digging, share the information. The
updated family tree is an important document that should be
kept by multiple family members. The tree can help relatives
with planning children, for example. Knowing that family
members carry the gene for Huntington's disease (an adult-
onset, incurable neurodegenerative disease) may make a couple
decide to adopt children rather than bear them or to use a
91

donor. Even if there isn't a cure, there still might be lifestyle
decisions.
Some risks are ethnic. Six percent of some Jews carry a gene
mutation that can lead to colon cancer. One in 12 African-
Americans carries a mutation for sickle-cell anemia. And as
many as 5 percent of Caucasians carry a defect in the factor V
gene that predisposes them to develop blood clots in the leg.
Finally, lifestyle choices influence vulnerability. While you can't
change your genes, you can change your habits. If many family
members have died of arterial aging, you should consider
exercise habits, a healthier diet and taking an aspirin a day - to
keep your arteries free of clots and decrease your risk of the
small-scale strokes associated with memory loss. If you escape
one of the childhood diseases, then by the time you're 50, 80
percent of how well and how long you live is under your control.
Genetic detective work can increase that control. You don't have
to be Sherlock Holmes to figure that out.


(NEWSWEEK, 2002)

WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
The backbone of society; peer groups; mass media; to be
ascribed at birth; long-standing concern; inheritance rights; in
ideal terms; self-confidence; well-being; family violence; child
abuse; to change over time; wedding vows; in terms of; in
return.


II. Give English equivalents for:
; ; ;
; ; ; ; ;
; ; ; .


92

III. Make up your own sentences with:
To be shaped within; to contribute; to engender a sense of; to
undermine; to exchange vows; to expect something in return.


IV. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
Pay particular attention to the verb contribute and
its derivatives:
1.He has contributed an article on the subject to a weekly
periodical.
2. We hoped that the President's visit would contribute to the
establishment of friendly relations between two countries.
3. Borodin's contributions to chamber music, as to symphony,
were few in number but they are among the most
distinguished works of the later nineteenth century.
4. Psychology has contributed greatly to our knowledge of
personality.
5. Their contributions to the public fund were rather modest.
6. His greatest contribution was surely to the development of
social science.


V. Translate the following pairs of opposites:
a new generation an old generation
a well-integrated member a poorly-integrated member
long-standing concern short-standing concern
similar position different position
intense relationships weak relationships
self-confidence uncertainty
to confront the realities - to avoid the realities
advantages - disadvantages
to enter relationships - to break relationships


93

VI. Comment on the following quotations:
1. Family love is the most widespread and the most enduring
feeling, and therefore, in the sense of influencing people's
lives, it is also the most important and the most benign.
(N.Chernyshevsky)
2. is he who is happy at home. (L.Tolstoy)
3. Family life is never an endless celebration. Learn to share
not only joy, but also sorrow, grief, and misfortune.
(V.Sukhomlinsky)
4. Parents must be punished for bad children.
(M.Gorky)
5. First we teach our children, then we learn from them.
Those who are reluctant, fall behind the times.
(J.Rainis)

Text 2

I. Read the text and give its main idea:

Family: Parents and Children
(after Karen Hewitt)

The number of single children in Russia astonishes many
British visitors, especially the older ones. 'Where are the
brothers and sisters?' they ask. 'Isn't that child in danger of
being spoiled?' 'Being spoiled' is a very British concept. Not
every mother is suspicious of 'too much indulgence but it is
certainly often mentioned as a worry.
Once the children are at school, most debates are essentially
about rules and freedom. Both are necessary, but parents and
children are in constant conflict about how much freedom, how
many rules.
British parents take money seriously. Children from the age
of 5 or 6 are normally given weekly pocket money - a few pence
at first, increasing as they get older. Pocket money is often
related to responsibilities about the house.
94

Teenage children are often given a clothing allowance (they
must buy their own clothes) and budget accordingly. If they
spend too much on a smart jacket or a fashionable dress, they
will have no money for shoes. They are being taught the value
of money. Children from the age of 13 often take part-time jobs
to pay for records, electronic gadgets and so forth.
They are not of course your problem. But this is a difference
between Britain and Russia which is most often misunderstood
by young Russian citizens. Imitating the rich West does not
mean owning videos and fashionable clothes. In a market
economy basically there is no blat. There is money. Or no
money.
What about moral attitudes? How do parents in Britain teach
their children the difference between right and wrong? If you
talk to parents of all social groups you will find there is general
agreement that children should be taught to be kind, to be
honest and to be fair; and that it is wrong to be cruel, to steal or
to destroy the happiness of other people.
The other moral appeal to the British child is to be fair.
Basic justice should be done. If there are three apples and three
children, then the apples should be divided. Simple enough,
and world-wide perhaps. But many advantages are divided on
this basis.
In other western countries, different values are stressed. The
Americans like to teach their children that everyone has the
right to health, wealth, happiness, education, goods, etc. So it is
your duty to insist on your rights and not to let other people
take them away. These values are not really ours. Because most
of us get worried it seems that people aren't somehow trying to
make things more fair.
It is easy to find Americans, for example, who are absolutely
certain that they know what is right because it is the word of
God or an inalienable part of the American constitution. But the
English are hesitant, muddled, but content to live with the
muddle, trying to do the right thing but persuaded that a
different approach might be all right if it sounded fair.

95

II. Agree or disagree with the following. Give your
arguments:
1. Children should be given pocket money weekly.
2. They should be taught the value of money.
3. Children ought to be taught the difference between right and
wrong.

I I I . Enumerate what traits the British children are
taught.
I V. Say: What values are stressed by the Americans, the
British, the Russians.
V. Read the following three interviews and answer
the questions:
1. What kind of relationship do the children have with their
parents?
2. Are the parents strict?
3. According to the mother, what is it like being a parent and
what is a good parent?

Interview with 16-year-old daughter
Helen

Interviewer: How do you get on with your parents?
Helen: I think I get on with them very well, really. We don't
always see eye to eye on some things, like boyfriends - they
don't always approve of them - but on the whole they're very
understanding. If I had a personal problem, I think I could
confide in them, and if I was ever in trouble I know I could rely
on them to help me.
Interviewer: How strict are your parents?
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Helen: Well, my Dad's quite strict about staying out late at
night, but I can usually get round him. If I'm nice to him, he lets
me come home a bit later. My Mum's always telling me to tidy
up my bedroom and put things away after I use them, and I
have to do some of the housework. But if I compare them with
other parents I know, they aren't very strict.
Interviewer: And who are you most like in your family?
Helen: Oh, I think I take after my mother. Everybody says
we're both very independent and strong-willed. I like to have my
own way a lot of the time, but I'm not spoilt. I don't always get
my own way. And my parents always tell me off if I do anything
wrong.

Interview with 17-year-old son David

Interviewer: How do you get on with your parents?
David: I look up to them because I know they've worked hard
to bring us up properly.
Interviewer: How strict are your parents?
David: They can be very strict at times. I told my Dad I
wanted a motorbike, but he said it was out of question - it was
too dangerous. My mother is strict about keeping things tidy. I
can't get out of doing the washing up and things like that,
unless I'm very busy.
Interviewer: How do you get on with your sister?
David: I never agree with what she says, so we are always
arguing. We've never been very close, but I get on all right with
her. I think I'm much closer to my mother.

Interview with mother

Interviewer: What's it like being a parent?
Mother: Bringing up children is very difficult. You always
worry about them. You have to be very patient and put up with
a lot - like noise and even criticism. And you can't always get
through to them sometimes they just won't listen. But the
advantages of being a parent outweigh the disadvantages. The
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main thing is to enjoy your children while they are young
because they grow up so quickly nowadays.
Interviewer: How strict are you with your children?
Mother: I suppose I'm reasonably strict. They can't do what
they like and get away with it, and 1 tell them off when they do
something wrong.
Interviewer: And what is the secret of being a good parent?
Mother: I think you have to give them confidence and let
them know you love them. And you have to set a good example
through your own behaviour, otherwise they won't look up to
you.
Interviewer: And what do you want for your children in the
future?
Mother: I want them to be happy, and I want them to look
back on their childhood as a very happy time in their lives.

WORD STUDY
I. Match the verbs in A with the definitions i n
B:

A B
1. to get round
someone
a. to respect and admire
someone, to have a very good
opinion of someone
2. to take after
someone
b. to escape being punished for
something
3. to tell someone off
c. to think about something
that happened in the past
4. to look up to someone
d. to reprimand, to speak
severely to someone because
they have done something
wrong
5. to bring someone up
e. to persuade someone to let
you do or have something,
usually by flattering them
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6. to get out of doing
something
f. to raise a child, to look
after a child until it is adult and
try to give it particular beliefs
and attitudes
7. to get through to
someone
g. to resemble a member of
your family in appearance or
character
8. to grow up
h. to avoid having to do
something
9. to get away with
something
i. to succeed in making
someone understand the the
meaning of what one is saying
10. to look back (on
something)
j. to become adult and mature

II. What do you. think the following expressions
mean?
1. to see eye to eye (with someone) (on something)
2. to have / to get one's own way
3. to be close to someone
4. to be the black sheep of the family
5. to take someone's side
Now decide which expressions you could use in the sentences
below.

a. The problem is that her parents never stop her doing anything
that she wants to do. She's become a very spoilt child as a
result.
b. My family is very ashamed of my brother and family
members never talk about him. He was expelled from school
and has been in prison twice.
c. Whenever I had an argument with my mother or father,
I could always rely on my grandparents to support me.
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d. My father and I usually agree about most things, but
when it comes to politics we have completely different views.
e. I can talk to my sister about my problems because I know
she will understand me and share my feelings.

III. Work with your partner. Take turns asking and
answering the questions opposite. Try to use
expressions below in your answers.
bring up look back on tell off
get on with look up to take after
get away with grow up get round
have one's own way see eye to eye be close to
1. What kind of relationship do you have with the people in your
family?
2. Are you similar to anyone in your family?
3. Do you have the same opinions as other members of your
family?
4. Where did you spend your childhood?
5. Who took care of you when you were young?
6. Did you have a strict upbringing?
7. When were you reprimanded as a child / teenager?
8. Were you able to do what you wanted all the time?
9. Who did you admire and respect when you were a child /
teenager?
10.When you think about the past, what do you remember?

IV. Describe your relationship with one of the
following people:

grandparent teacher uncle/ aunt parent brother/ sister
neighbour boss cousin

100


UNIT II

I. Read and translate the text:


Whats Happening to the Family?

If you are going to marry one day think of the
possible divorce, those were exactly the words that the
mother of a family quite happy in our understanding told
her daughter. Alas, nobody can be sure to avoid the
divorce at any stage of the married life. Conditions that
destroy the family exist too long. With almost total poverty
a child can't be afforded by many. Every family having
children knows well how much you should pay for clothes,
food, creche, kindergarten and now even school. But the
financial problem is not the only one. There may be hardly
a person who has never faced the problem of living
conditions. And the heaven in a nut can't last forever, even
if you are with someone you love. A woman is so busy that
she simply has no time to communicate at any level except
domestic and she is bringing her children up over
telephone; these reasons can't but make the atmosphere
at home formal. And not all can overcome the pressure
which is growing up every year, but no matter who says
desperately: I can't stand it any longer, I want a divorce,
blaming her husband (or the wife) for all troubles, yet all
further problems will fall upon the woman's head.
Sometimes women are naive to believe that a man can't
leave the children. is fond of them. And this may be
true. Yet a man is different from a woman, he has no
biological need in seeing his child constantly. And when
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the former wife threatens: You will never see your child
again, wishing to cause repentance and fear she may
achieve quite an opposite effect.
A man can be boasting with his wonderful grown-up son
not seeing him for years without any feeling of loss, but
the former wife will call for his paternal feelings in vain
when she needs any form of help. Not every man, even
very strong and kind is capable for the daily-round deed.
Therefore it is not wise to make the man marry just to
legalize relations that caused incidental pregnancy. The
sense of duty will scarcely transform into the feeling of
love. And the man will subconsciously feel that he is
deceived. Such marriage can hardly be safe.
A child will add to the family happiness only if he is
loved and expected by both parents and not a burden for
the young family. So a woman should be very prescient
when choosing the husband and account the situation
when she may be left alone. Where shall I live?
Unfortunately many couples for years stay under the same
roof after the divorce. There are strong doubts that a man
will be generous enough to leave everything including his
flat to his wife: he often has no place to go. How to make
living? There are women - and many - who do not think of
their career after marriage supposing it their husband's
duty to support the family. In case of a divorce these
women risk to be left without means of subsistence, and
sometimes it may be too late to get a new profession.
So a woman has no right to be thoughtless about
marriage, because finally in the family she has to fulfil
most part of work over the house, to take care of children,
to earn the same money as men and in case of divorce
even worse troubles fall to her lot. They often say that
there are catastrophically many lonely women. That's
right, there are a lot of lonely women. But is it actually a
catastrophe? Perhaps women who have considered all
variants decided that of two evils to be alone is less than
together with a child without father or with her former
husband in one room?
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Has the family died then? Perhaps it will be more proper
to say that it has changed in quality though has suffered
losses in quantity. And the main reason for this is that a
woman has changed. She is not satisfied with the role of a
housekeeper. She wants to have a speciality, she does not
want to be dependent on another person. She has her own
opinion, own hobby, she is interesting. And you may meet
a lot of happy families based exclusively on mutual
interests and respect. Among these couples there are
childless as well but it does not form vacuum in the family
because each of them is self-valuable and interesting to
the other. As for the question of children - to have or not to
have - each family should decide it for itself, jointly. Then
even the thought of divorce won't arise. So whom to
marry? Only the one whose way of thinking is close to
yours, a man who is your friend, who respects a woman
and personality in you. But for this you have to be such.

II. An s we r t he f o l l o wi n g q u e s t i o n s ;
1. What are the chief problems facing the families?
2. How does a woman often bring up her children?
3. What is the difference between a man and a woman
concerning the children?
4. Do a sense of duty and a feeling of love mean too much
for a man? What do you think?
5. What expects a woman in case of a divorce?
6. Must a woman work after the marriage or not? Express
your personal opinion.
7. What must a future wife be prepared for?
8. Why do many women remain lonely throughout their
life-span?
9. How has a woman changed nowadays?
10. What is it necessary for a family to be happy? Give your
own ideas.
11. Whom does the author recommend to marry?




103

III. Discuss in the group the following problems;
1. How to make a family happy.
2. Parental love for children.
3. Divorce consequences.
4. How to overcome loneliness.
5. Solitude means loneliness.
IV. Explain what it means:
1. The heaven in a nut can't last forever.
2. The family has changed in quality though has suffered
losses in quantity.
V. Divide the text into logical parts and give a
heading to each part.
VI. Speak on the text.
WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
total poverty; to afford a child; to face a problem;
at any level; to bring up; to overcome pressure; to
cause repentance and fear; to achieve an opposite
effect; paternal feeling; to account the situation; in
case of a divorce; to be dependent on; as for.
II. Give English equivalents for:
; ; ;
; ; ; ;
; ; ; -
; ; ; ;
.
III. Find in the text synonyms for:
to ruin; to rear; to love; to tell a lie; to look after; to
regard; to be pleased; to appear.
104


IV. Combine the following phrases:
to afford for troubles
to face for paternal feelings
to blame relations
to overcome children
to achieve pressure
to call an effect
to be capable money
to legalize a problem
to earn for daily-round deeds
Use them in the sentences of your own.
V. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. There is nothing to boast of.
2. He desperately tried to earn some money but in vain.
3. She can't afford children at a given moment being left
without means of subsistence.
4. He is capable of overcoming external pressure and
consolidates himself quite easily.
5. As for him, this year he has achieved great progress in
his investigation.
6. Don't treat your children too hard, try to bring them up
with care and love.
7. He is so stubborn, it's useless to call for his paternal
feelings.
8. He suffered great losses in his life time.


105

UNIT III

Text I
I. Read and translate the text;

Stepfamilies - Dealing with Anger and
Disappoinment
It's a myth that love and harmony will come instantly
when a new stepfamily is formed. It can take years to overcome
the major challenges to creating a stable and successful
household.
The number of the people living in stepfamilies is growing in
the US. Divorce is the biggest reason. It used to be that
stepfamilies formed mostly after the death of a parent. In fact,
that's the origin of the word. 'Stepchild' is from an Anglo-Saxon
word 'steopcild' that means orphaned or bereaved child. Now
most stepfamilies are formed from divorce.
In such families it is tougher to create an atmosphere of love
and harmony. Often there are unresolved feelings between one
of the mates and a former spouse that can have an incredible
effect on the stepfamily. Also, children typically are very angry at
their parents for having divorced and often have not had an
opportunity to work that out emotionally. They project this
anger onto the new stepmother or stepfather.
Disappointment is common because people expect instant
love, particularly stepmothers. Many women assume that I love
my new husband, so I will love his children, and they will all
love me, and it's all going to happen overnight. But it can't,
106

because relationships take time to build. Instant love is one of
several myths that surround stepfamilies.
New stepfamilies must work out all sorts of differences in
values and habits. They form this new family from two different
ones that have done things their own way for many years. One
family may rise at 6 o'clock and have a big breakfast, while the
other likes to sleep later and get by on coffee and orange juice.
In one family, it may be O.K. to come to dinner in sneakers and
a T-shirt; another may require that you dress up more.
A major problem for children is loyalty conflicts created by
their parents. They wonder: If I love Mom, how about Dad? or,
If I like my new stepmother, will mother get upset?
Children also sometimes feel guilty or disloyal talking about
their former family and things that they did.
For adults, the most serious challenge surrounds the
children. Research shows that in first families, money and sex
are the biggest troublemakers. Problems with children rank
third. In stepfamilies, the No.l trouble area is children
because of discipline, because of the kids moving between two
houses, because both kids and adults have to deal with a
biological parent living outside the home, because of feelings
and fears.
When stepfamilies form, people in a sense are asked to
change their identity and to question who they are and why they
do things the way they do. That causes a lot of problems.
The problems of stepfamilies with teenagers become
compounded. The most difficult situation is with adolescents.
They are going through their own life crisis - establishing their
own identity and breaking away from their biological families -
107

and at the same time somebody's saying: in. We have to
get this family going. They have a very hard time.
Sometimes people get a legal divorce on paper, but the
emotional divorce doesn't come until much later. Sometimes
this leads to a lot of unnecessary contact like calling late at
night ostensibly about the children but in reality to have a chat
with the former spouse. For remarried people, this often causes
problems of competition with the new spouse.
How much should an adult have over Ms or her stepchild? A
lot depends on where the child is and who is providing support.
If a stepfather has financial responsibility for the child, he
should have more authority. What is important is that
stepparents don't attempt to take over as the parent or assume
the role of disciplinarian at first.
In traditional families parental roles are usually pretty clear.
In stepfamilies, rules and roles are ambiguous. A stepparent is
often at a disadvantage in disciplining a child. Stepfathers often
tend to jump in as the disciplinarians, or they are encouraged to
assume that role by the biological mother who, as a former
single parent, may have grown tired of being the enforcer. But
children often resent the stepparent who hands down discipline.
Instead, stepparents should initially approach their stepchildren
as a friend and gradually get into discipline, letting the biological
parent with custody take care of most of the disciplining. What
is very important is for adults as they form, to present a united
front on matters of discipline - as in all families. But it's a major
challenge in the stepfamily.
The children should be told about a parent's decision to
marry again long in advance, but they shouldn't be counted on
to sanction the marriage. That relationship is between the
108

adults. But a family courtship is nice and productive. It gives
the couple and the children an opportunity to get to know each
other and see potential problems. Children may also get the
chance during the courtship to begin to get over fantasies that
their parents will get back together.

II. Answer the following questions:
1. What is a major problem for children in stepfamilies?
2. What do they feel sometimes?
3. What are the biggest troublemakers in the first families?
4. What is No 1 problem in stepfamilies?
5. Does legal divorce really mean separation of the spouses?
6. Where does it lead to sometimes?
7. How is the problem of discipline solved in stepfamilies?
8. Must children take part in solving the problem of a new
marriage? What do you think?
III. Characterize relationships within:
1. traditional two-parent families;
2. single-parent families;
3. stepfamilies.
IV. A role-play: Your close friend has a stepfather who is
constantly trying to discipline her by giving orders and commands.
She doesn't like it and reacts by talking back. She is even
contemplating an idea of running away
from home.
V. Read the title of the article below. What do you
think it could be about?
VI. Skim read the article and see if your prediction
was correct. What view of the travelling way of life is
expressed? Do you agree with it?

These Children are Taught to Survive
The criticism usually levelled at New Age travelers who do not
send their children to school every day is that somehow we are
109

unfit to teach our own children. That we are depriving them of a
'proper' education and a 'normal' life.
In fact, while some of us have been made homeless or
unemployed and taken to the road as a survival tactic, many
have made a conscious and positive decision to live in this way,
not because 'the system' has failed us personally (many of us
are well-qualified) but because it is clearly misguided and is
failing so many. It would be foolish to disregard everything
taught in schools. Our children need to know how to read and
write, handle numbers, and experience music, sports, art and
craft work. But I cannot agree that all children should know
certain prescribed skills at certain ages.
Our way of education is a kind of insurance. If we accept that
adult life may involve having at least some periods with very
little money, with a lot of time on our hands, perhaps without a
secure place to live, that skills have to be adapted and developed
to compete in the job market, then our children are equipped
better than most. They may not all know what happened in
1066 by the age of eight and three-quarters, but most
understand how to light a fire, build a tarpaulin shelter, find
cheap food and clothing, saw and chop wood, handle and care
for animals and deal with other children and adults in a variety
of real situations.
Visitors unused to life on site are often struck by the
adultness of our young children. Three- and four-year-olds
mix freely with adults, pay social calls without their parents,
might get involved in feeding chickens, milking goats, mending
engines, making pastry, jewellery and wood burners. As well as
learning skills and information, they learn to accept a lot of
people and their different behaviour. The feeling of common
shared humanity, that we are all part of one family, is
important in the travelling community, and instead of striving to
conform to a norm or compete for position, children are
encouraged to accept that we are all different but all due respect
in our own way.



110

VII. Explain in English what the following phrases
mean:
1. unfit to teach
2. taken to the road
3. the system has failed us
4. compete in the job market
5. equipped better than most
6. mix freely
7. common shared community
8. striving to conform
9. compete for position
VIII. Answer the questions:
1. What are these children called?
2. Do they go to school very often?
3. What knowledge are they deprived of?
4. What skills do they acquire?
5. What do they learn to accept?
6. What is the shared common feeling within this community?
7. Is it a good thing to isolate the children in this way?
8. How does the narrator justify the existence o f this
community?


IX. Develop the following situation: You meet such a
child. What possible questions would you ask him?
Text 2
I. Read the text and state the main problems raised.
Don't Push your Kids Too Hard
( Dr . Benjamin Spock on bringing up
today's children)
Today's children are under stress. It is stressful for children
to have to cope with groups, with strangers, with people outside
the family. That has emotional effects, and, if the deprivation of
security is at all marked, it will have intellectual effects, too.
111


We know now that if there's good day care it can substitute
pretty well for parental care. But we have nowhere near the
amount of subsidized day care we need. We're harming our
children emotionally and intellectually to the degree that they're
in substandard day care.
Children raised in single-parent homes are more stressed
than other kids. It's harder to raise a child in most cases with
one parent than it is with two parents. The parents can comfort
and consult and back up each other.
Our emphasis on fierce competition and getting ahead
minimizes the importance of cooperation, helpfulness, kindness,
lovingness. These latter qualities are the things that we need
much more than competitiveness. Competition imposes strains
on children. It teaches them that winning is the important
thing. We've gone much too far in stressing winning.
I was in Japan lecturing, and they told me that the rate of
suicide among elementary schoolchildren is shockingly high
and that Japanese elementary schoolchildren commit suicide
because they are afraid that they aren't getting grades high
enough to satisfy their parents.
We can at least bring up children with a strong feeling that
they're in the world not just for their own fulfillment although
I think fulfillment is fine - but also to be useful and help others.
Children should be brought up with a strong feeling that there
are lots of problems in the neighbourhood, the nation and the
world, and that they're growing up to help solve those problems.
That emphasis on helpfulness should begin at a very early
age with things as simple as letting them help set the table.
Never say, Its easier for me to do it myself. You should
encourage children to be helpful, and not by scolding them or
forcing them but by supporting them or complimenting when
they're helpful.
In bringing up children there are specific things to avoid.
Absolutely no violence on television. Don't give war toys. These
are poisonous to children. This whole Rambo spirit is a
distressing thing.
Watching television is harmful to kids. A lot of what they see
brutalizes sexuality. Every time a child or an adult watches
brutality, it desensitizes and brutalizes them to a slight degree.
We have by far the highest crime rates in the world in such
112

areas as murders within the family, rape, wife abuse, child
abuse.
If children are brought up with tension and harshness, then
they'll do the same with their children. Everybody acquires his
attitude and behaviour toward his children by how he was
treated in his own childhood. What was done to you in
childhood, you are given permission to do. To put it more
positively, parental standards are what makes for a better
society, and poor parental standards are what makes for a
deteriorating society.


II. Answer the following questions:
1. What does the article deal with?
2. Is this problem of any importance nowadays?
3. What effects may stresses produce in children?
4. Why are the children more stressful in single-parent homes?
5. What feelings must we educate in children?
6. What is the most necessary feeling to be brought up in them?
7. What role does TV play?
8. What is spoken about parental standards?
9. What are the parents worried about nowadays?


III. Enumerate the factors that promote:
a) children's stresses;
b) correct upbringing.


IV. Do you agree with the following statements?
Give your arguments.
1. It's harder to raise a child with one parent than it is with two
parents.
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2 . The emphasis on fierce competition minimizes the
importance of cooperation.
3. The emphasis on helpfulness should begin at a very early
age.
4. War toys are poisonous for children.
5. Parental control on viewing TV is necessary.

V. Express the main idea of the text in ten
sentences.

WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
Stepfamily; household; divorce; unresolved feelings; stepfather;
stepmother; adolescent; married couples; former spouse;
authority; disciplinarian; homeless; unemployed; survival tactic;
to acquire prescribed skills; deprivation of security;
competitiveness; commit suicide; fulfillment; helpfulness;
violence on television.
II. Give English equivalents for: ;
; ;
; ; ;
; ; ;
.
III. Substantiate the following statements:
1. Stepfamilies deal with anger and disappointment.
2. It takes years to create a stable and successful household.
3. Stepfamilies must work out all sorts of differences in values
and habits.
4. Sometimes people get a legal divorce on paper.
5. The feeling of common shared humanity is of importance.
6. Parents sometimes harm their children emotionally and
intellectually.
7. Human beings should make some adjustment to stresses.



114

IV. Translate the following sentences:
1. -

.
2. ,
.
3. ,
.
4.
.
5.
, .
6. -
.
7. -
.
V. Complete the following sentences:
1. In raising children parents should take into
consideration the following factors ....
2. Parents should teach their children how to cope with
.
3. The phrase Don't push your kids too hard means ....
4. It is stressful for children to ... .
5. Violent episodes are dangerous for teenagers because .
6. Some kids commit suicide because of ... .
7. Parents are worried much about ... .
8. Children should be brought up with a strong feeling of ... .
VI. A role-play:
You come to a family psychotherapist for advice. Your son is
addicted to TV. It doesn't matter for him what to watch. You are
in despair because you can't change the things.



115

UNIT IV
I. Read and translate the text:

Family Development
Families are complex systems and need to deal with
many different progressions at once. That is, there are
biological, psychological, social, and cultural progressions.
Affectional bonds and subjective states of a strong
emotion tend to go together. Thus many of the most
intensive of all emotions arise during the formation, the
maintenance, the disruption and renewal of affectional
bonds which for that reason are sometimes called
emotional bonds. In terms of subjective experience the
formation of a bond is described as falling in love,
maintaining a bond as loving someone, and losing a
partner as grieving over someone. Similarly the threat of a
loss arouses anxiety and actual loss causes sorrow, while
both situations are likely to arouse anger. Finally the
unchallenged maintenance of a bond is experienced as a
source of security and a renewal of a bond as a source of
joy.
Stage one: marriage. Many couples believe when they
marry that it is just the two individuals who are joining
together. Both spouses, however, have grown up in
families that become interconnected through the marriage.
Both mates, although hopefully differentiated from their
family ego mass in an emotional, financial, and
functional way, carry their whole family into the rela-
tionship. Marriage is a two-generational relationship.
The new pair must establish themselves as an
identifiable unit. This requires a negotiation of many
issues, which previously were defined on an individual
level. These issues include such routine matters as eating
116

and sleeping patterns, sexual contact, and use of space
and time. The couple must decide about which traditions
and rules to retain from each family and which ones they
will develop for themselves. A renegotiation of relationships
with the family of origin has to take place in order to
accomodate to the new spouse. Some couples deal with
their parents by cutting off the relationship in a bid for
independence. The other common pattern involves a
balance between some contact and some distance, and
some closeness and some tension.
For many couples, especially wives, happiness is
highest at the beginning of the family life cycle. An
adaptive attachment for a couple in Stage 1 is the
development of close emotional ties between the spouses.
They do not have to break ties with their families of origin
but rather maintain and adjust them. A maladaptive
attachment can occur when a couple does not align
themselves together. The wife is more heavily bonded to
her family of origin than she is to her husband. The
husband is more tied to outside interests (e.g. work,
friends) than his wife.
Stage two: families with infants. This stage begins with
the birth of the first child and continues until that child is
approximately three. For some couples, the birth of the
first child is a crisis and a critical family adjustment
period.
The environment into which children are born can be
one in which there is no space for them, there is space for
them, or there is a vacuum they are brought in to fill. Both
mothers and fathers are becoming increasingly aware of
the need for emotional integration of the infant into the
family.
The couple must design and develop the new role of
father and mother. The parental role is in addition to the
marital role: it does not replace it. The couple must
117

continue to meet each other's personal adult needs as well
as meet their parental responsibilities. Sexual disinterest
and the husband's feelings of being left out are common
during this period. If the baby has a defect, there will be
more stress on the couple as they adjust their expectations
and deal with their emotional reactions.
An adaptive attachment for a family in Stage 2 is the
continued development of close marital ties and the
beginning of close parent-child bonds.
Stage three: families with preschoolers. This stage
begins approximately at the time when the eldest child
reaches age three and continues until the child starts
school. Often, the demands of dependent children are
high, financial resources are low, and parents are heavily
involved in early career development. The combination of
these factors can be stressful.
Both mothers and fathers contribute to the
preschooler's development but in different ways. The
preschooler's task during this stage is to develop initiative.
Parents can foster this as they expose the child with an
opportunity to interact with peers and variety of adults.
Children require the security and warm attachments of
both parents and the opportunity to develop a positive
sibling relationship.
Stage four: families with schoolchildren. This stage
begins when the first child is six or starts elementary
school and ends at the beginning of adolescence. Both
parents and children report this stage as quite a busy
period in their lives. It lasts for approximately six years
and is heavily influenced by outside activities. Parents can
either support or hinder their children's success at school
and with their friends.
Stage five: families with teenagers. This stage begins
when the eldest child turns 13. This period has often been
characterized as one of intense upheaval and transition.
118

These are biological, emotional, and sociocultural changes
occurring with great and ever increasing rapidity.
The family must move from the dependency
relationship previously established with a young child to
an increasingly independent relationship with the
adolescent. Growing psychological independence is
frequently not recognized due to continuing physical
dependence. Conflict often surfaces when the teenager's
independence threatens the family who count on the
teenager's dependency for their well-being. Families
frequently respond to an adolescent's request for
increasing autonomy in two ways: 1) they abruptly define
rigid rules and recreate an earlier stage of dependency or
2) they establish premature independence. This results in
premature separation when the teenager is not really
ready to be fully autonomous. The teenager may thus
return home defeated.
The teenager's frequent questioning and conflict
about values, life-styles, career plans, and so forth can
thrust into an examination of their own marital and career
issues. Parents sometimes feel they are besieged on both
sides: teenagers are asking for more freedom and
grandparents are asking for more support. All family
members continue to have their relationships within the
family, but increasingly the teenagers are more involved
with their friends than with family members.
Stage six: families as launching centres. This stage
begins with the actual departure of the first child from the
home and continues until the youngest child has left
home. Parents must adapt to the new roles of a parent and
separated adult. This involves renegotiation of emotional
and financial commitments. Each family member
continues to have outside interests and establishes new
roles appropriate to this stage.
119

Stage seven: middle-aged families. This stage begins
with the departure of the last child from the home and
ends with the retirement of one of the mates. It is a long
stage of approximately 15 years. Many studies have
indicated an increase in marital satisfaction during the
postparental stage. Some authors, however, have viewed
this phase as a lonely, sad time, especially for the woman.
The family cycle tends to repeat itself and the couple find
themselves in new roles of mother-in-law, father-in-law,
and grandparent. Many families regard the disability or
death of an elderly parent as a natural occurrence. The
parents adjust family ties and expectations to include their
child's spouse.
Stage eight: aging families. This stage begins with
retirement and lasts until the death of both spouses.
Marital relationships continue to be important. Marital
satisfaction contributes to both the morale and ongoing
activity of both older mates. This is a time for a life review
and taking care of unfinished businesses with family as
well with business and social contacts. Most elderly people
do not mind talking about death.
In recent years, there have been several changes impacting
on the traditions in family developmental life cycles.
Separation, divorce, the rise of single-parent families and
the frequency of remarriage by divorced persons have all
had an impact. Approximately 40 percent of current
marriages end in divorce. Young adults are entering first
marriages later and getting divorced sooner. Those who
divorce, remarry, and/or re-divorce, are moving through
these transitions in shorter span of years than before. For
those who divorce, one-half of those who remarry do so
within three years. Two-thirds of all women who divorce do
so before age thirty.
Because divorce may occur at any stage of the family life
cycle, it has different impact upon family functioning
120

depending upon its timing. The marital breakdown may be
sudden or it may be long and drawn out. In either case
emotional work is required to restabilize the family and
proceed on a developmental course.
II. Answer the following questions:
1. What emotional bonds tie two specific persons?
2. Marriage is a two-generational relationship, isn't it?
3. What issues are negotiated by the couple?
4. How many stages are distinguished in marriage?
5. What is the first one like?
6. How long does the second stage last?
7. What new roles must the couple design with the birth of
an infant?
8. When does the third stage begin?
9. How do relationships change during this stage?
10. How would you characterize the fourth stage of
marriage?
11. Is there a great difference between the fifth and sixth
stages?
12. How does the seventh stage end?
13. What is characteristic for the eighth stage?
14. What statistical data are given in the text?
III. Characterize all major stages of family
development. What stage do you consider to be of
primary importance in marital relationships? Give
your arguments.
IV. Enumerate possible problems that may arise in
marriage between:
a) a husband and a wife;
b) a father and a son;
c) parents and children:
d) grandparents and grandchildren.
V. Suppose you are a family psychotherapist. Ask
your client the following questions:
- how his/her parents feel about the marriage;
- which family was most in favour of the marriage;
121

- what differences he/she has noticed in the life since
the birth of the baby;
- how he/she has tried to handle these differences;
- what percent of time he/she spends taking care of the
marriage;
- what percent he/she spends taking care of children;
- to whom he/she goes for sympathy;
- how parents help him/her when he/she left home;
- when looking back over the life, what aspects he/ she
has enjoyed most;
- what has given him/her the most happiness;
- about what aspects he/she feels the most regret;
- what thing he/she wanted but did not get from the
children.
VI. Your client is a teenager. He experiences some
misunderstanding with his parents. Ask him:
- what he is troubled with;
- why he wants to be completely independent;
- if it is possible to find a compromise;
- if he has ever attempted to analyze the problem
himself;
- what is his personal attitude towards his parents;
- if the situation is so dramatic as it seems to him; and
so on.
VII. Translate the text in writing:

Why Family Rows are Good for you
(by Laura Marcus)

New research in America is finally backing up what
many people have suspected for years: that getting it all off
your chest is good for your heart. A lot of us might think
feeling good is good for our health. But scientists need
more to go on than feelings. They demand evidence. And
evidence appears to be emerging. Scientists are keeping a
close eye on the current developments.
122

According to a recent report in NEW SCIENTIST,
neurobiologists and immunologists have amassed a great
deal of research that links the brain with the function of
the immune system. They even have a new name for it:
psychoneuroimmunology. This is the study of how the
brain and immune system talk to each other. Now the
scientists believe that expressing your feelings could
actually be good for the immune system.
What happens is that different moods turn up or turn
down the activity of our immune cells. Stress at work,
insomnia, depression: they have all been found to be
detrimental to the immune system. Conversely, self-
expression seems to promote a healthy immune system.
While scientists hedge their bets, therapists and
counsellors have no doubt that expressing your feelings in
a family row can promote healthier family life. It does not
depend on how you do it and how you end it, but rows are
not necessarily destructive or harmful. A slanging match,
hurling abuse at each other, is detrimental. But a row that
clears the air and where there is closure is very beneficial
because it releases tension.
Rows must have an ending. That's very important.
Otherwise, all rows end up as history lessons: And there
was the time you did this, the time you did that. Deal
with it, sort it and end it. That old maxim about not letting
the sun go down on an argument has very good
therapeutic value.
There really is nothing like saying the most awful things
to your partner, and then being told you are still loved.
They've seen you at your worst but still care. That's the
best feeling going.
And, contrary to many parents' fears, rowing in front of
the children is not necessarily harmful. How else can
children learn that conflict exists but can be expressed
and resolved? What is potentially harmful is that they
123

might not see you making up. So if you have the row, let
them sec you being friends again.
We're often attracted to people who are different from us
because we sense they have something we're missing. But
then we try and change them into what we're already used
to because that's familiar, so it feels comfortable.
Rowing goes beyond humans. Species that bond with one
partner for a mating season, mainly birds but also some
breeds of wild dogs and monkeys, do indeed have family
rows. Disputes between partners have definitely been
witnessed, usually early on in the breeding season as the
male and female get used to one another. Some of the
aggression they show to each other could be their innate
desire to fend off intruders into the nest, so they have to
learn to curb their emotion when their partner turns up
with food for the young. Even in the animal world, the
course of true love rarely runs smoothly.
So if you find yourself in the middle of a family dispute,
bear in mind that rows are a necessary result of inevitable
conflict. Though scientists can't yet agree about this,
effective rather than destructive rows probably do make for
a happier and healthier family life.

VIII. Read the article and say what it is about:

Child Rearing Tips to Reduce Yobbishness
(by David Fletcher, Health Services
Correspondent)

Notes:
Rearing -
Yobbishness -
A toddler -
A practical checklist for parents on how to bring up their
children to minimise the chance that they will grow up into
violent adults is included in the commission's report.
124

It lays down four principles which it says should be
taught to, and observed by, anyone who works with
children of any age, especially parents. They are:
ONE: Expectations of, and demands made on children,
should reflect their maturity and development.
It says: Teaching children how to behave depends on
suiting the action to the words. You cannot teach a
toddler; not to bite by biting her (whatever you may) or
teach a five-year-old not to hit children by hitting them.
TWO: All discipline should be positive and children
should be taught pro-social values and behaviour
including non-violent conflict resolution.
It says: The more a child is made to feel good about
herself, the more she will want to be good. The more she is
humiliated, made to feel tiresome, wicked or helpless, the
less point she will see trying to please.
When children's behaviour is unacceptable, adults should
criticise the behaviour not the child. They should say:
*Your noise is giving me a headache, not You make me
ill.
THREE: Non-violence should be consistently preferred
and promoted.
It says: It is useless to tell children not to fight without
giving them alternative ways of getting what they want or
holding on to what they have.
All children should be taught to use (and to respond to)
verbal requests and protests. If children are to listen to
each other, they must be confident that adults will listen
to them.
FOUR: Adults should take responsibility for
protecting children from violence done to them, but also
for preventing violence done by them.
It says: Latchkey children are known to be at increased
risk of being victims of many kinds of violence, including
accidents and gang-assaults. They are also known to be at
increased risk of gang-membership and delinquency.
Parents should make it their business to know what their
children are watching on television or video, discuss any
violent scenes and offer non-violent equivalents wherever
possible.
125

These are legitimate arguments against censorship, but
there is none for leaving children to cope, unsupported,
with whatever material comes their way.

IX. Explain what should be done if:
1) parents want to teach pro-social values;
2) parents want to protect their children from violence;
3) parents want to prevent violence done by children;
4) parents do not want their children to be left
unsupported.

X. Enumerate the basic principles on rearing
children. Which one do you think to be the most
important?

XI. Review the article.
. Read the text and render its contents in
Russian:

TV Violence can Cause Aggression In Children
(by Christine Russell)
Violence on television can lead to aggressive behaviour
by children and teenagers who watch the programs,
according to a review of the last decade of research on this
long-debated topic.
Television and Behaviour, a new report by the
Department of Health and Human Services, concludes that
the 'consensus among scientists is that there is a 'causal
relationship' between televised violence and aggression.
After 10 years of research, the consensus among most
of the research community is that violence does lead to
126

aggressive behaviour by children and teenagers who watch
the programs, according to the carefully worded update
report.
Calling television a 'violent form of entertainment', the
new report found that the percentage of programs
containing violence has remained essentially the same over
the past decade, and during this period there also has
been more violence on children's weekend programs than
on prime-time television.
The report cautions that not all children become
aggressive, of course, emphasizing that the various studies
compare large groups rather than individual cases. But
the latest research has expanded to suggest that preschool
children as well as adolescents, and girls as well as boys
might be influenced by the televised violence.
As a window on a world with which children have little
experience television strongly shapes the social attitudes of
young viewers. There is fairly good evidence that children
accept as authentic the portrayals that they see on
television.

XIII. Answer the following questions:
1. Is there direct or indirect connection between TV
violence and children's aggression?
2. What kind of entertainment is television called according
to a report?
3. What children are more influenced by violent episodes
on TV?
4. What does television strongly shape in children?
5. How do they accept the portrayals on television?





127

XIV. Read and translate the text:

TVs Disastrous impact on Children
(by Nell Postman, Professor of
Communication)


Watching television over a long span seriously damages
children's ability to think clearly. Exposure to TV
sensationalism robs youngsters of childhood. Television is
turning out to be a disastrous influence at least as far as
we can determine at present. Television appears to be
shortening the attention span of the young as well as
eroding, to a considerable extent, their linguistic powers
and their ability to handle mathematical symbolism.
It also causes them to be increasingly impatient with
deferred gratification. Even more serious is that television
is opening up all society's secrets and taboos, thus erasing
the dividing line between childhood and adulthood and
leaving a very homogenized culture in the wake.
I call television the first curriculum because of the
amount of attention our children give to it. By now, the
basic facts are known by almost everyone: between the
ages of 6 and 18, the average child spends roughly 15,000
to 16,000 hours in front of a television set, whereas school
probably consumes no more than 13,000 hours.
Moreover, it is becoming obvious that there really is no
such thing as children's programming. Between midnight
and 2 in the morning, there are something like 750,000
children throughout America watching television every
day. There is a fantasy people have that after 10 p.m.
children are not watching television, that's nonsense.
Many parents as well as educators, also have the
mistaken belief that television is an entertainment
medium in which little of enduring value is either taught
by or learned from it. Television has a transforming power
at least equal to that of the printing press and possibly as
great as that of the alphabet itself.
128

Television is essentially a visual medium. It shows
pictures moving rapidly and in a very dynamic order. The
average length of a shot on a network-TV show is about 3
seconds, and on the commercial about 2,5 seconds.
Although human speech is heard on television it is the
picture that always contains the most important
meanings-Television can never teach what a medium like a
book can teach, and yet educators are always trying to
pretend that they can use television to promote the
cognitive habits and the intellectual discipline that print
promotes. In this respect they will always be doomed to
failure. Television is not a suitable medium for conveying
ideas, because an idea is essentially language - words and
sentences.
The code through which television communicates the
visual image - is accessible to everyone. Understanding
printed words must be learned, watching pictures does not
require any learning. As a result, TV is a medium that
becomes intelligible to children beginning at about the age
of 36 months. From this very early age on, television
continuously exerts influence.
For this reason, I think it's fair to say that TV, as a
curriculum, molds the intelligence and character of youth
far more than formal schooling. Beyond that, evidence is
accumulating that TV watching hurts academic perfor-
mance. A recent survey indicated that the more children
sit in front of the television, the worse they do on
achievement-test scores.
Television doesn't allow a person to accumulate
knowledge based on past experiences. Language itself
tends to be sequential and hierarchical and it allows
complex ideas to be built up in writing through a logical
progression. Most of all, language tends to be more
abstract, it encourages the use of imagination.
It is not true, as many insist, that watching TV is a
passive experience. Anyone who has observed children
watching television will know how foolish that statement
is. In watching TV, children have their emotions fully
engaged. It is their capacity for abstraction that is
quiescent.
129

I'm not criticizing television for that. I'm saying that's what
television does; that is the nature of the medium; that's
why the word vision is in the word television. And there
are some wonderful uses of that feature. Television, after
all, does have a valuable capacity to involve people
emotionally in its pictures. Certainly, there are instances
when television presents drama in its fullest and richest
and the most complex expression.

XV. Answer the following questions:
1. Is television a good or bad influence on the way children
learn?
2. Is television more pervasive in a child's world than
school?
3. Why is it called the first curriculum?
4. How does TV hurt a child's linguistic ability?
5. Television molds intelligence and character of youth,
doesn't it?
6. Is watching TV a passive or active experience?
7. What positive influence can TV exert on children?
XVI. Find in the article the following word-
combinations:
To damage ability; to shorten attention span; an
entertainment medium; cognitive habits; to be doomed to
failure; to convey ideas; to mold intelligence and character;
a valuable capacity.
Reproduce ideas where these word-combinations may
be used. Make up your own sentences with the same
word-combinations.


XVII. Divide the article into logical parts.

130

XVIII. Review the article.
XIX. Express your own point of view on positive and
negative aspects of television in general.
XX. Develop the following situations:

1. You are conducting an interview with an
internationally known child psychologist who is sure that
TV stereotypes are devastating to young minds.
Ask him:
- if it is possible to become addicted to TV like to drugs
or alcohol;
- what role parents must play in monitoring TV
programs;
- what influence TV exerts on developing mind;
- what shows are the most dramatic for children;
- what recommendations he gives for children;
- why violent episodes are dangerous for children.
2. TV has become an integral part of our lives. It is a
means of information, entertainment and education. You
are conducting an interview in one family.
Ask family members:
- if they watch TV regularly or occasionally;
- what programs they like particularly;
- whose commentary they find most informative and
interesting;
- if TV stopped them from reading or stimulated to read
more;
- if they watch the same programs;
- what is their attitude towards news programs.

3. You are talking with a sociologist who has conducted
a survey in order to find out how harmful TV violence is for
the children's psychic development.
Ask him:
- how many families have been polled;
131

- if there is a correlation between TV violence viewing
and troublemaking behaviour;
- what programs should be excluded from viewing;
- how violent films influence academic background;
- if cartoons with incidents of physical force are
harmful;
- what it is necessary to do within the television
industry.
4. Your friend is much interested in seeing films about
exotic animals. He is sure that TV programs about animals
teach us to love animals and protect them.
Ask him:
- what is his favourite program on animals;
- what mostly attracts him in such shows;
- how long he has been watching such programs;
- if these programs give our children a sense of love to
animals;
- what he feels when he watches shows on gradual
extinction of some rare animals;
- if these programs are a means of enlightenment and
education.

XXI. Read the article and entitle it:
When children under detention at the San Bernardino
County Probation Department in California become
violent, they are put in a small cell with one distinctive
feature it is bubble-gum pink. The children tend to
relax, stop yelling and often fall asleep within 10 minutes,
said the director of clinical services for the department.
This approach to calming maniac and psychotic
juveniles contrasts sharply with the use of brute force.
We used to have to literally sit on them, said the
clinical psychologist. Now we put them in the pink room.
It works.
132

Not all psychologists are quite so sure; many remain
skeptical. Nonetheless, officials at an estimated 1,500
hospitals and correctional institutions across the United
States have become sufficiently convinced of the pacifying
effect of bubble-gum pink to color at least one room that
shade.
Passive pink, as it is also called, is perhaps the most
dramatic example, and certainly the most controversial, of
many attempts to use light and color to affect health and
behaviour. Already, there are enough color schemes to
spark nightmares about mind control; red to increase
appetite in restaurants, ultraviolet to reduce cavities and
boost children's intelligence, and blue to swell the ratio of
female chinchilla babies to males.
In industrial societies whose members spend more and
more time in enclosed areas under artificial lights, any
effect of color and light becomes important. And with the
day nearing when man will build artificial habitats under
the seas or in outer space, totally isolated from sunlight or
totally exposed to it, an understanding of the effects of
light is becoming urgent.

XXII. Prove by the facts from the article that:
1. Pink color influences positively children's behaviour.
2. Other colors may also affect health and intelligence.
3. Effect of color and light becomes important.
XXIII. Answer the following questions:
1. What experiment was conducted at the Probation
Department in California?
2. What color gives a pacifying effect on human behaviour?
3. How does red affect human health?
4. What do you know about other color effects?
5. Is the color theory of any practical importance for
human life? What do you think?

133


XXIV. Review the article.
XXV. Read the Russian article and render its
contents in English:
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134


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(SHAPE, March 2002)
XXVI. Do you support the ideas suggested in the
article? Give your arguments.
XXVII.Look through the article that follows, choose
and read sentences on:
1. big changes in the pattern of family life;
2. parents' trust to their children.

High Teenage Delinquency Blamed on Friends and
Family Shortcomings

Boys and girls are more likely to be delinquent if they
have delinquent friends, do not regard stealing as
particularly wrong, and are not close to their fathers.
135

The discovery, which throws light on one of the most
crimeprone age groups, has been made in a survey for the
research and planning unit of the Home Office.
About a third of offenders dealt with by the criminal
justice system are under 17 years of age. The peak age for
officially recorded offending is 15 for males and 14 for
females. About 160,000 juveniles a year are found guilty
or cautioned for indictable offences. The contribution to,
and cost of crime by young teenagers when they are still
very much part of the family and still at school is
enormous.
There have been big changes in the pattern of family life
in the past 10 or 15 years with more mothers working
outside the home, more marriage breakdowns and an
increase in the numbers of single-parent families.
Young people's lives also seem to be more autonomous
than those of earlier generations, and there is ample
publicity about apparent increases in vandalism,
shoplifting, drug misuse and hooliganism. These factors
help fuel the fear that families are no longer effectively
helping to protect their children from delinquency.
They also help apportion blame for the problem of
juvenile crime, perhaps unfairly to families.
Parents seem to be trusting to their children. According
to the report, four out of five felt they could rely on their
teenage offspring to behave well when out in spare time,
though that did not mean that parents did not worry
about what the teenager might be up to. Almost half the
parents admitted to worrying.
Such worry may in fact be justified in that while most
parents thought it very unlikely that their child could get
into trouble with the police, half the boys and two-fifths of
the girls admitted to delinquent activity.
Parents, perhaps unjustifiably, also seemed reasonably
content with their teenagers' choice of friends. Only 9 per
cent disapproved of any of their current friends and about
four-fifths thought they knew most of them at least by
name.
Again, parents appeared to underestimate the risks of
delinquent involvement in that two-thirds of the teenagers
136

reported that they had friends who had committed illegal
behaviour.
In general, most parents appeared still to be exercising
authority. Few teenagers escaped being scolded on a
regular basis, but serious disputes seemed comparatively
rare.
Of parents 20 per cent had imposed a specific sanction,
such as keeping teenagers in.

XXVIII. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the greatest probability for boys and girls to be
delinquent?
2. What statistical data were found by the survey for Home
Office?
3. What is the average number of juveniles?
4. What are the basic reasons of teenage delinquency?
5. What is their parents* attitude to children's spare time
spending?
6. What is their position towards their children's friends?
7. What do you consider to be the main cause of juvenile
delinquency?
XXIX. Review the article. Add what you know of the
given problem from your own experience.

XXX. Translate the following text in writing:

The Functions of the Family

The family is sometimes described as the backbone
of society. The family is the first and most important agent
in the socialization process. The personalities of each new
generation are shaped within the family, so that, ideally,
children grow to be well-integrated and contributing
members of a larger society. In industrial societies, of
137

course, peer groups, schools, churches, and the mass
media are also important in the socialization of children.
But this remains the primary function of the family. The
family also contributes to the continuing socialization of
people throughout their life cycle. Adults learn and change
within marriage, and as anyone with children knows,
parents are influenced by their children just as their
children learn from them.
Regulation of Sexual Activity. Every culture places
some restrictions on sexual behaviour. Sexual intercourse
is a personal matter of those involved, but is the basis of
human reproduction and inheritance, it is also a matter of
considerable social importance.
All societies enforce some type of incest taboo -
cultural norms that forbid sexual relations or marriage
between certain kin. Exactly which kin are subject to the
incest taboo is culturally variable. Most Americans
consider sexual relations with a parent, grandparent,
sibling, aunt, or uncle to be both immoral and unnatural.
But such sexual relations have been condoned or even
encouraged - in some cultures. Brother-sister marriages,
for example, were common among the ancient Egyptian,
Inca, and Hawaiian nobility; and male nobles of the
Azande in eastern Africa are reported to marry their
daughters. Some societies forbid sexual relations with
cousins, while others do not; in the American society.
Catholic religious beliefs prohibit marriage between first
cousins, while Jewish religious beliefs do not. Further,
about as many states prohibit this practice as allow it.
These examples suggest the extent to which the incest
taboo is subject to cultural variation.
The significance of the incest taboo is primarily social
rather than biological. Contrary to common assumptions,
children that result from sexual activity between close
relatives rarely have mental or physical abnormalities.
Socially speaking, incest taboos serve to minimize sexual
competition within families. Incest taboos also encourage
marriage outside the family; such alliances provide
economic and political advantages to particular families,
138

as well as strengthening social ties among members of
society as a whole.
Social Placement. From a biological point of view, of
course, the family is not necessary for people to have
children. Within families, however, children are born not
only as biological beings, but also as members of society.
Many important social statuses - including race, ethnicity,
religion, and social class are ascribed at birth through
the family. This explains society's long-standing concern
that children should be born of socially sanctioned
marriages. Legitimate birth, especially when parents are of
similar position, allows for the most orderly transmission
of social standing from parents to children and clarifies
inheritance rights.
Material and Emotional Security. In ideal terms, the
family protects and supports its members physically,
emotionally, and often financially from birth until death.
The family is usually a person's most important primary
group, and family members generally have intense and
enduring relationships with one another. This concern for
one another's welfare engenders an important sense of
self-worth and security in each individual, as suggested by
the fact that individuals living in families tend to be
healthier than those who live alone.
However, the intense character of family ties also means
that families have the ability to undermine the individual's
self-confidence, health, and well-being- This fact has
become clear as researchers have studied patterns of
family violence and, especially, child abuse.






139

WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
Affectional bonds; threat of a loss; a source of security;
negotiation; accomodate to; adaptive attachment; close
emotional ties; adjustment period; marital role; to interact
with peers; sibling relationship; to support or hinder;
financial commitment; violent adults; maturity and
development; pro-social values; conflict resolution; macho
behaviour; verbal requests; latchkey children; delinquency.
II. Give English equivalents for:
; ; ;
; ;
; ; ;
; ;
; ; ; ;
; ; ; -
; .
III. Explain the meanings of the following words:
Teenager; delinquency; crimeprone age; offspring;
generation; latchkey children; rearing; maturity;
adolescent; adult.
IV. Translate into Russian:
Crime criminal crimeprone criminal justice
system - to commit a crime
Delinquent - delinquency - juvenile delinquency
Violence - violent - non-violent acts - violent episodes
- violent behaviour - to protect from violence televised
violence
Abuse - drug abuse child abuse - alcohol abuse drug-
abuser
Addiction - drug addiction drug-addict addicted to
violence


140

V. Make up sentences:

1. Family therapists are worried television shapes
the social
attitudes
2. Family therapists stress ultraviolent
boosts childrens
intelligence
3. Parents showed to protect their
children from
delinquency
4. Adults are seeking to
understand
lest their children
grow up into
violent adults
5. Social scientists report stressful
transition points
between stages
6. Researchers point out that latchkey
children are at
the increased risk
of being victims of
violence
7. Psychologists are concerned
with
light and colour
affect health and
behaviour
8. Experimenters are aware relationships
between parents
and children
9. The survey are sure that TV violence
causes aggression
in children
10. Most parents are not able young peoples
lives are more
autonomous


141

VI Choose the corresponding word-combinations out
of the list below to characterize:
a) Parental role
b) TV violence
c) Colour effect on behaviour
d) Juvenile delinquency
To protect emotionally; to lead to aggressive behaviour;
to increase appetite; to commit illegal behaviour; to
exercise positive discipline; to commit crimes; to boost
intelligence; to comprise a crimeprone age group; drug
use; to cope with problems; to accept portrayals as
authentic; to tend to relax; to get into trouble with police;
shoplifting; to respond to verbal requests; to take care of; a
violent form of entertainment; to promote a pacifying
effect; to exercise authority.
VII. Translate into English:
1.
.
2.
.
3. ,
.
4.
.
5.
.
6. ,
.
7.
.



142

UNIT V

I. Read the text and translate it:

Sociologists' Views on Marriage

What is the criterion when choosing a mate? From
many sociological surveys taken, it is unanimous that
social, national, religious or other similar considerations
have very little influence on the choice.
As for the nationality of those marrying, 14 per cent
(every seventh) of the marriages in this country are mixed
marriages, and this trend is growing.
An extensive sociological survey showed that 94 per cent
of those about to get married say that love is the only ideal
of marriage, which friendship and respect supplement.
Only three per cent of those polled mentioned financial
considerations as a possible motivation for marriage. The
overwhelming majority said there can be no happiness
where there is no emotional and intellectual attraction.
The results of a sociological survey in Moscow show that
young people are attracted most by kindness, then
sociability, openness, modesty, and finally, ability for good
house-keeping.
The figures on the age of marriage are also interesting:
young women in the under 20 group figure in 25 per cent
of the marriages; 20-23 - 61 per cent; 23-26 - 12 per cent;
and over 26 only two per cent. Young men don't seem in
such a hurry to marry: the 20 group figure is only 15 per
cent of the marriages; those in the 21-23 age group 16
per cent, 23-26 49 per cent, and over 26 - 20 per cent.
Sociological results over the past 20 years indicate that
most young people in this country do go into marriage
with understanding and a sense of responsibility, and are
eager to keep the marriage together.
According to the statistics, there are 33 divorces per
every 100 marriages in this country (compared to 60 per
143

100 in Sweden, and 44 in the United States). What is the
cause for divorce?
The prime reason for the comparatively high divorce rate
in this country is the unequal sharing of domestic
responsibilities, say many sociologists. Two factors are
relevant here: the rising educational standards, and the
greater intellectual and moral demands young women
make of their men.

II. Answer the following questions:
1. What are the criteria for the marriage?
2. Do national considerations influence the choice?
3. And what about financial considerations?
4. What are the young people attracted by?
5. What do the figures on the age of marriage show?
6. What do sociological results over the past 20 years
indicate?
7. What does the statistics show on the divorce?
8. What is the prime reason for the high divorce rate?
III. Make up disjunctive questions:
1. Social and religious considerations have little influence
on the marriage.
2. The trend of mixed marriages is growing.
3. Love is the only ideal of marriage.
4. The young people are mostly attracted by kindness.
5. Young men do not hurry to marry.
6. The divorce rate in this country is rather high.

IV. Choose the facts in the text to prove that:
1. National considerations are mostly neglected.
2. Financial considerations are seldom mentioned as a
possible motivation for marriage.
3. Young people are attracted by the best qualities people
may have.
4. Young women are more enthusiastic and active as for
the marriage is concerned.
144

5. Divorces are not a rare case in this country.
V. Divide the text into four logical parts.
VI. Speak on the main points of the text.
VII. Discuss in a group the following problems:
1. Marriage considerations.
2. Your own ideal of a mate.
3. Sharing of domestic responsibilities.
VII. Read the following article and render its
contents in Russian:

Even In the USA we May Be Socially
Backward
(by Russell Watson)

The first of my ancestors who came to North America, in
the 17
th
century, were Dutch. They settled in a colony
called New Amsterdam. Then the English took over. New
Amsterdam became New York and New Jersey, and my
ancestors had to put aside their Dutchness.
Today, even Americans who live in old New Amsterdam
no longer consider the Netherlands a mother country.
When we think of the Dutch, we picture a small, oddball
nation that permits many of the things we still regard as
unlawful: prostitution, marijuana, same-sex marriages.
Yet, without knowing it, Americans are becoming a little
more Dutch all the time - a society embroiled in rapid
change, breaking down old structures and trying out best
ways to live. The latest US Census shows that the
presumed bedrock of our society, the nuclear family -
Mom, Dad and 2.4 kids - is breaking down fast. Fewer
than 25 percent of all US households now consist of
married couples raising children, according to Census
figures. In part, that's a consequence of societal aging: a
145

growing portion of the US population is now beyond the
child-rearing stage. But it also reflects a steep decline in
the popularity of marriage, even for people who want to
have children.
About a third of all babies are now born to unmarried
women, compared with only 3.8 percent in 1950. The
number of families headed by single women has risen 25
percent since 1990, to more than 7.5 million households.
(The number of fathers raising kids on their own has
increased at an even faster rate, to just over 2 million
families). Demographers predict that more than half of the
American children born in the 1990s will spend at least
part of their childhood in a single-parent home.
Today's single mothers don't fit the old stereotype of
dark-skinned teenagers on welfare. Though many are
employed, they are still likely to be financially insecure,
but they could be any age and any race. The median age
for unmarried mothers is the late 20s, and white women
make up the fastest-growing element of the group.
Instead of getting married or staying married many
people are just living together. Unmarried cohabitation,
involving both same-sex and opposite-sex couples, rose
from 72 percent between 1990 and 2000, to 5.5 million
households. Thanks to artificial insemination and
adoption, a man in residence is no longer needed to
produce a baby.
It's easy to understand why adult Americans are acting
this way. With so many marriages ending in divorce,
formal commitment strikes many people as a bad idea.
And with so many women in the work force, fewer of them
feel compelled to economic pressure to settle for Mr.
Almost Right. It isn't clear whether all this unmarried
parenthood is good for the children involved.
Single parents generally have less time to spend with
their children than two parents. Cohabiting relationships
146

are less stable than marriages, which means that children
living in such families are more likely to grow up with a
revolving set of adults in their lives. And the offspring of
single parents are more likely to reject marriage for
themselves, perpetuating the pattern of their childhoods.
For better or worse, Americans are reinventing the family.
If the children of single-parent or cohabiting households
end up receiving less guidance and support from their
elders, family life will become a new form of Dutch treat.
You're on your own, kids.
(NEWSWEEK 2001)
IX. Explain., please, the meanings of the
following word-combinations:
a) same-sex marriages;
b) single-parent households;
c) cohabiting families.

X. Ennumerate all statistical data given in the
article. What do these figures signify?
XI . Answer the following questions:

1. What are demographers worried about?
2. Why do young people prefer live together instead of
getting married?
3. Why is sometimes a man no longer needed to produce a
baby?
4. Are cohabiting relations a good model for the offspring?
5. What expects Americans?

XII. Review the article.

147

XIII. Read the following story and tell it in your
own words. Propose the cause of the quarrel. How
would you behave in case of a quarrel?

When a Man Marries

After a flaming row Mrs Meek slammed the door and
walked out into the rain. Hearing that Mr Meek picked up
his gun, aimed it at the ceiling and fired a shot. The lady
who was still in the garden, heard it and rushed back but
found the door locked. She had left the keys at home and
realized she would not be able to get in unless she broke
the door open. She set about the work at once but it was
not so easy at all and, I daresay, she would no doubt have
to give up the attempt if her neighbours had not heard her
scream and wanted to give her a helping hand.
As the lady Struggled bravely at the door, her husband
tip-toed to the kitchen, picked up a tin of tomato juice,
and split the liquid all over his face, his sports jacket, and
the brand new tie. Having done that he looked at himself
in the mirror and, no doubt, satisfied with what he had
done, made his way to the bedroom. There he took a
paper, the Daily Mirror I believe it was, and lay down on
the bed with his shoes on. For a time he played with the
gun but then it occurred to him he had intended to read
the press. So he put the gun on the dressing table, took
the paper and set about reading. And how happy he was.
There was nothing else he could wish at that particular
moment... but what's that? The door had been broken
open and he could now hear footsteps in the hall. He put
away the newspaper, and closed his eyes trying to look as
dead as he possibly could. Presently the door was torn
open and his wife followed by a police constable ran into
the room.
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- It's all over now! - cried out the lady bursting into
tears. She had taken stock of the situation at once, and
whispered almost fainting:
Poor me! He's split the last tin of tomato juice. What
am I going to make soup with? Believe me, gentlemen, it's
the last time I've ever left the larder open!

Notes:
A flaming row
To tip-toe
A tin of tomato juice -
Almost fainting -
A larder
WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:.
Sociological survey; sociological results; marriage; to get
married; to marry; overwhelming majority; intellectual
attraction; sociability; a sense of responsibility; moral
demands.
II. Reproduce the sentences from the text with
the following word-combinations:
Social and national considerations
Mixed marriages
The only ideal of marriage
To be attracted by
The prime reason
III. Make up sentences according to the model:
Young people are attracted by kindness.
modesty

sociability
intellect
openness
house-keeping ability
149


IV. Translate the words in the brackets:
1. ( ) the nationality, 14 per cent of the
marriages are mixed marriages.
2. Love is () ideal of marriage.
3. Most young people go into marriages with () of
responsibility.
4. () the statistics, there are 33 divorces per every
100 marriages.
5. The prime () for the high divorce rate is unequal
domestic responsibilities.
6. Young men don't seem () to marry.

V. Translate the text in writing:

The Family
Sociological writing on the family has long been
dominated by two themes: universality and decline. The
theme of universality asserts that the family exists in all
human societies. For a number of compelling reasons,
people cannot live as solitary creatures, nor can human
females raise their young by themselves as mother cats do.
Hence, humans always live in groups containing adults of
both sexes as well as children. Moreover, within any
society, people form small clusters, called families,
containing males and females, adults and children.
Membership in these clusters usually is determined by
common ancestry and sexual unions.
This definition of family is vague because sociologists
and anthropologists have had much difficulty framing a
more specific definition, given the amazing variety of social
forms called families in different societies. Again and
again, more specific definitions of the family have been
found not to apply in one society or another, thus
destroying the claim that the family is universal. Yet all
societies do seem to have families.
150

The second theme in modern sociological writing on the
family is that, despite the universality of the family, in
modern societies the family is in decline. Some claim that,
thanks to modernization, the family has eroded
dangerously. Families are now shrunken and unstable,
and the modern family is increasingly unable to provide for
the well-being of its members. Indeed, recent textbooks
typically end discussions of the family with the question
Will the family survive? The answer rarely is anything
more definite than maybe.
Despite the problems of definition, a great deal of
historical, anthropological, and cross-cultural evidence
supports the universality theme. The family is a
fundamental social institution occuring in all societies,
although its particular forms differ substantially from
place to place. Even the radical Utopian communes of the
nineteenth century did not succeed in eliminating the
family as the basic unit of social relations.
The theme of decline has seemed equally well supported
by evidence. Statistics show that in all of the most
modernized nations, the divorce rate has risen rapidly.
This would seem to reflect the weakness of fundamental
family bonds today. However, to know whether the modern
family is really less able to fulfil its functions, we need to
know whether the family in traditional societies fulfilled
them better. For a long time, social scientists thought it
self-evident that the traditional family did function better,
and so they didn't bother to seek pertinent evidence.
Recently, however, much has been learned about
families in the good old days. This evidence seriously
challenges the theme of decline. Be prepared to discover
that family life in premodern times often was cruel and
spiteful to an extent that will absolutely shock you. People
often expressed happiness when their spouse died, and
were unmoved by the death of a child.
Thus, it can be argued that the family has become more
important than ever during the past century and much
better able to provide strong emotional attachments among
its members than did families in traditional societies.

151

DREAMS

UNIT VI

I. Read and translate the text:

Dreams, a Safeguard against Life's Li ttl e Trials
and Tribulations

A person sleeps away one-third his life. Dreaming alone
accounts for more than 5 years of the average lifespan.
Freud, one of the first to analyze dreams, dubbed
dreaming as the royal path to the subconscious. Dreams
reflect our desires and motivate our behaviour.
Some people claim that they do not dream at all. That's
not right. Everybody dreams. It is quite another matter if
upon waking one forgets one's dreams. This depends on
many factors, including family traditions.
Some people dream in black and white, others in
colour. Dreaming in colour is more common among
emotional people, with a flexible nervous system. Well-
balanced, calm people sometimes dream in colour too, but
pay less attention to it.
Sleep is composed of consecutive rapid and slow
phases. One dreams several times per night, but only
during a rapid phase of sleep. Dreams are so important,
that if deprived of dreams, a person can experience serious
psychic changes.
A person can be deprived of dreaming by waking at the
beginning of a rapid phase. This moment can be recorded,
heart beat becomes more frequent, irregular breathing
patterns emerge, eye movements become more rapid.
'Rapid' sleep, and consequently dreams, are crucial for
various reasons. Falling asleep is like scaling down the
152

stairs of slumber to its extremely deep stages: initially,
superficial sleep, followed by moderate sleep and then
deep sleep. If this process did not stop, the logical
progression would be the coma stage - a cerebral state
which cannot be reversed. However, a rapid phase of sleep,
whereby the brain awakens itself, ensues, bringing the
slumber a few steps higher to facilitate another drop.
Physiologically, this is absolutely vital. But this is also
psychologically crucial.
Dreaming is a vital mechanism of psychological
safeguard against difficulties of everyday life. At night, life
seems unbearable, fraught with insurmountable
difficulties, but comes morning the sun emerges inspiring
hope and resolving problems. There is a Chinese saying -
We can sneeze away all our problems in our sleep.
Nowadays there is an abundance of books on
interpreting dreams. But the same images are interpreted
in completely different ways depending on the book you
choose, much is based on mere assumption, and stretches
the imagination too far.
Books that interpret dreams are based on certain
observations, but statistically they are not verified, one
cannot generalize proceeding from the information therein.
Interpreters of dreams try to foretell a person's future
while the scientific research is to understand the essence
of an individual, to penetrate into the subconscious.
II. Answer the following questions:
1. How does Freud define dreams? Do you support his
definition?
2. What do our dreams reflect?
3. Do we remember our dreams?
4. Do we often see dreams in colour?
5. Do people dream all night long?
6. Why are dreams so important for people?
7 What does the Chinese saying state?
153

8. What do interpreters try to foretell in their books?
9. Do you think whether it is possible to predict our future
or not?
III. Complete the following sentences:
1. Dreams reflect ... .
2. Dreaming in colour is more common among ... .
3. Sleep is composed of ... .
4. Dreams are very important because ... .
5. Falling asleep is like ... .
6. Books interpreting dreams are based on ... .
IV. Not long ago people tried to study while asleep.
What is your opinion of this method?
V. Divide the text into logical parts and make up an
outline.
VI. Speak on the text in accordance with this
outline.
VII. Read the article and find the answers to the
following questions:
1. What helps the man follow the regular rhythm of sleep
and wakefulness?
2. Why do people suffer from insomnia?
3. What experiment is described in the article?
4. Do all creatures sleep?



The Mystery of Sleep
(by Graham Workman)

We may not give it a moment's thought, but most of
us will probably spend one third of our lives asleep.
But how much sleep do we really need? In Florida, a
volunteer was shut up in a special room for two weeks. He
was allowed to sleep as much as he wanted, but there
154

were no clocks in the room and the lights were always on.
In other words, the only way he could tell if it was lunch-
time, tea-time or bed-time was from what his body told
him.
The man settled down to a regular rhythm of sleep
and wakefulness. How much did he sleep? The same as
about normal. The fact that he did this shows that his
body must have an inbuilt mechanism, telling him to fall
asleep and wake up.
What then is the purpose of this biological clock?
Originally, it was probably a mechanism for survival. Sleep
was a rhythmic process developed millions of years ago as
a way of coping with life on a planet which had regular
days and nights. Sleep protected people from the predators
of the night and the inefficiencies of darkness.
All creatures sleep, but the amount they sleep varies
greatly. This is because each species has an appropriate
pattern of sleep that is suited to the world it inhabits.
An elephant has to spend most of the day finding food
and eating it, so it sleeps only 2 hours a day. Of all living
creatures only human beings get insomnia, because only
they distort the natural rhythm of sleep with everything
from anxiety to jet travel, from television to working round-
the-clock.
But if we do not get to sleep at night, will it necessarily
matter? Does it matter that night-shift workers do not get
a normal ration of sleep? How safely can we make major
decisions - perhaps life-or-death ones if we are prime
ministers or doctors - when we have missed a lot of sleep?
One exception to all this is Lesley Gamble. He claims
that following an accident 11 years ago, he never sleeps at
all.
Researchers tested him by putting him into a darkened
room with electrodes to see to what extent he was drowsy
or slept. It is almost impossible for a sleepy person to lie
155

down in a darkened room all night and not fall asleep. The
recording showed him relaxed but awake all night.
He says he thinks most of the night, reflecting on happy
events in his life which helps him to relax mentally.
How can a case like Lesley's be explained? It seems
likely that his accident damaged in some way the
operation of his biological clock and his body is no longer
getting the order to sleep.
One way to find out if sleep is necessary is to take it
away for three days and nights and see what happens,
testing all the time which functions are affected most: our
muscle co-ordination, our posture, our physical energy
and strength, and most important, our mental vigilance.
Four students agreed to take part in such an
experiment. After 36 hours without sleep they were still
doing remarkably well at some things.
Interesting games, like chess, presented few problems
for the sleep deprived. The tired brain can overcome
fatigue if it wants to. Motivation, excitement and danger all
keep us awake. The tired brain, however, is not good at
boring, repetitive tasks. When the volunteers had to
recognize short musical notes from a series of long and
short notes, they made more and more mistakes as time
passed.
After 72 hours without sleep everybody looked tired,
their balance and muscle co-ordination had deteriorated
and their mental vigilance had dropped. But basically
there was nothing wrong. Heart, lungs and muscle
strength were all fine.
In fact the body can do very well without sleep. Provided it
is given adequate relaxation and food, there are no adverse
effects on the body and its functioning. So if you miss a lot
of sleep you are still able to operate, although the risk of
making mistakes is increased.
But if the body does not need sleep, why do people feel so
awful when they are deprived of it? What arc insomniacs
actually complaining about?
156

The answer probably lies in our brains the homes of
our biological clocks. The body may not need sleep but
millions of years of evolution have programmed our brains
to sleep every night of our lives, and there is nothing we
can do about it.

VIII. Read the article again and say about:
- the purpose of the biological clock;
- the factors damaging the operation of the biological
clock;
- the factors that keep us awake.

IX. Tell us, please, i f you believe in a possibility not
to sleep at all.

X. Review the article.
.
XI. Read and translate the text:

A Good Nights Steep - an Impossible Dream?

American sleep experts are sounding an alarm over
America's sleep deficit. They say Americans are a
somnambulant nation, stumbling groggily through their
waking hours for lack of sufficient sleep. They are working
longer days - and, increasingly, nights - and they are
playing longer, too, as TV and the Internet expand the
range of round-the-clock entertainment options. By some
estimates, Americans are sleeping as much as an hour
and a half less per night than they did at the turn of the
century and the problem is likely to get worse: The 24-
hour society is here, and it's growing, says one of the
slumber scientists. Physiologically, we just cannot adapt
that well.
The health repurcussions of sleep deprivation are not
well understood, but sleep researchers point to its ranging
157

from heart problems to depression. In a famous
experiment conducted at the University of Chicago, rats
kept from sleeping died after two and a half weeks. People
are not likely to drop dead in the same way, but sleep
deprivation may cost them their life indirectly, when an
exhausted doctor prescribes the wrong dosage or a sleepy
driver weaves into someone's lane because driving while
tired is very similar to driving drunk.
What irritates sleep experts most is the fact that much
sleep deprivation is voluntary. People have regarded sleep
as a commodity that they could shortchange, says one of
them. It's been considered a mark of very hard work and
upward mobility to get very little sleep. It's macho
attitude. Slumber scientists hope that attitude will
change. They say people have learned to modify their
behaviour in terms of lowering their cholesterol and
increasing exercise. Doctors also think people need to be
educated that allowing enough time for sleep and taking
strategic naps are the most reliable ways to promote
alertness behind the wheel and on the job.
Naps would be nice, but at the moment, employers
tend to frown on them. And what about the increasing
numbers of people who work at night? Not only must they
work while their bodies' light-activated circadian rhythms
tell them to sleep, they also find it tough to get to sleep
after work. Biologists say night workers have a hard time
not paying attention to the 9-to-5 day, because of noises or
family obligations or that's the only time they can go to the
dentist.
As one may imagine, companies are springing up to
take advantage of a sleeplessness. One of the companies
makes specially designed shift-work lighting systems
intended to keep workers alert around the clock. Shift--
work's theory is that bright light, delivered in a controlled
fashion, can help adjust people's biological clocks. The
158

company president says they are using light like a
medicine. So far, such special lighting has been the
province of NASA astronauts and nuclear power plant
workers. He thinks that, in the future, such systems may
pop up in places like hospitals and 24-hour credit-card
processing centres. Other researchers are experimenting
with everything from welder's goggles (which night workers
wear during the day) to human growth hormones. And, of
course, there is always what doctors refer to as
therapeutic caffeine use, but everyone is already familiar
with that.
So, is a good night's sleep an impossible dream for
Americans? Maybe so.

XII. Answer the following questions:
1. Why do you think the text starts and ends with the
same question?
2. Why are Americans called a somnambulant nation?
3. What are the consequences of sleep deprivation?
4. What experiment was conducted at the University of
Chicago?
5. What are sleep experts irritated by?
6. What are the ways to promote alertness?
7. What problems do night workers face?
8. Is it possible to adjust people's biological clocks?
9. What are researchers experimenting with?
XIII. Are you in favour of or against:
a) TV and Internet as night entertainment options;
b) sleep deprivation as a macho attitude;
c) taking strategic naps;
d) night work;
e) shift-work lighting systems;
f) therapeutic caffeine use?
XIV. Describe:
a) your physical state after a sleepless night;
b) your idea of a good night's sleep.
159

XV. Characterize the position towards sleep
problems taken by:
a) slumber scientists;
b) doctors;
c) biologists;
d) some companies;
e) experimenters.
XVI. Divide the article into logical parts. Give a
heading to each part.
XVII. Review the article.
XVIII. A role-play: Your uncle is a night worker. Ask
him about his job and disadvantages of working at night.
XIX. Read the article and render i ts contents in
Russian:

Sweet Dreams
(by Gaynor Device)

Everyone of us dreams on and off throughout each
night, no matter how vehemently some of us may deny it.
True, we probably don't remember even a fraction of our
dreams, but laboratory tests have shown that all our
brains are busy while we are asleep. Exactly why we
dream isn't fully understood, but there's little doubt
dreams act as a kind of safety valve, helping us to sift
through our waking experiences, and to reconcile
conflicting feelings about our lives. In this way, dreams
can be of great value in understanding our problems and
in getting to know ourselves better.
The language of dreams is undeniably puzzling, and
yet it does have a logic of its own. To help you understand
your dreams it's a good idea to keep a dream journal by
your bedside so that you can capture the fleeting details
the moment you awake. Note down not just what happens
in the dream but the mood and feelings it evokes. Over the
160

months you should begin to see a pattern in your
dreaming. One thing's for sure, the more you study your
dreams, the more you will be amazed at how clever your
mind is. In dreams we become artists, dramatists and
poets, conjuring up marvellous imagery.
Sometimes the messages of our dreams simply
resolve around recognisable people, objects and events
which are out of their normal context, but surprisingly the
dream message will often involve a pun, either visual or
verbal.
Along with symbols that are special to us, there is
the amazing phenomenon of universal symbols, the idea
that we are all born knowing a shared dream language.
This arises from what Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung called
the collective unconscious. All over the world people are
dreaming in the same symbolic language every night, with
only slight differences according to culture and customs. If
you find it hard to accept, ask around your friends and
family and you'll see how many of them regularly dream of
the following:
WATER: It's our emotional life that's being focussed on
when we dream of water. A flood can indicate we are being
overwhelmed by emotion. Or the water may be stagnant
and murky, turbulent or calm, showing various feelings in
our waking lives.
JOURNEYS: Whatever the mode of transport, a
travelling dream symbolizes our journey through life. If we
dream we keep missing buses or planes we should not
panic. It means we are anxious, but that any real life
setbacks are only temporary.
FLYING: Flying can show that the dreamer suffers from
a lack of confidence and would like to feel more on tops of
things, and to rise above difficulties.
SITTING AN EXAM: When we dream we're sitting an
exam we feel ill-prepared for, it may be a sign that we fear
we're about to face a test in life we won't be able to cope
with.
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Recurring dreams can be disturbing, and dream analysts
say they indicate that we need to take another look at
events in our lives things which we thought we
understood the significance of but perhaps didn't.
Can dreams fortell the future? This is the $64,000
question. There are plenty of people who claim to have
dreamed the results of horse races, which must come in
handy. All too many people have foreseen tragedies such
as the TITANIC disaster in their dreams. I personally have
no doubt that the future can occasionally be glimpsed in
dreams.

XX. Make up disjunctive questions and respond to
them:
1. The language of dreams is puzzling.
2. To keep a dream journal by your bedside is a good idea.
3. The dream message involves a pun.
4. All of us share a dream language.
5. People are dreaming in the same symbolic language.
6. Our dreams reflect our past experiences and present
emotions.
7. Dreams indicate we need to take another look at events.
XXI. Do you remember what dreams signify? Could
you interpret a dream with a flood; a journey; flying;
being naked?
XXII. Choose the statement you think to be correct.
Give your arguments.

1. Dreams reflect a) our hidden wishes;
b) past events;
c) future.
2. Our brains a) are busy while we are asleep;
b) are at a rest;
c) make up a future chain of events.
3. Dreams act as a) a safety valve;
b) a warning;
c) a means of relaxation.
162

4. To understand a dream you must
a) study a number of books interpreting
dreams;
b) note down it into a dream journal;
c) imagine what you would like to see in
your dream.
5. The messages of our dreams revolve around
a) familiar people;
b) strangers;
c) your future friends.
6. If in your dream you are sitting an exam, it
symbolizes a) your fear;
b) your negative attitude towards this
psychological testing;
c) your failure.

III. Speak on the article in accordance with the
plan:
1. The meaning of dreams.
2. The language of dreams.
3. The messages of dreams.
4. The symbols of dreams.
5. Dream forecasts.
XXIV. Read the article and say what new
information you, have learnt.

The Meaning of Dreams (by Dr
Vernon Coleman)
Nearly half of all women admit they dream several times
a night but usually have no idea what the dreams mean.
That's a pity because your dreams can tell you a lot about
yourself. During an average night you'll drift into light
sleep and then deep sleep. You'll go through five of these
hour-long cycles. Before each new cycle for between 10
163

and 30 minutes you'll be in dreamland: an
unstructured world where nothing is impossible.
By studying your dreams you can learn a great deal
about yourself. Overweight people dream more than thin.
Women dream more than men: 45 per cent of women say
that they dream several times a night, but only 34 per cent
of men say they dream that often.
It is possible to choose what to dream about. As you fall
asleep, make sure that the last thing on your mind is the
scene or person you want to dream about. But be warned.
It is impossible to decide exactly what is going to happen.
Your plans for a night of romantic passion could easily
turn into something else.
A growing number of scientists believe that
premonitions - either when you are awake or when you are
in dreamland may be just as real as other senses. But if
you regularly have dreams about terrible things happening
to you or those you love, you are almost certainly not
dreaming about things that are going to happen but events
that you are worried about.
If you dream of TV stars, this may mean that you want
your life to be more exciting. If you felt inferior, then your
confidence probably needs a boost.
A dream about death may signify you are looking
forward to something about to happen - a new job or a
new relationship, for example.



XXV. Answer the following questions:
1. How is the dreamland characterized?
2. Who dreams more often depending on the weight?
3. Do males or females dream more often? How can you
explain it?
4. Do dreams ever predict the future?
5. What dreams can you see if you want your life to
become more exciting?
164

XXVI. Render the contents of the article in 10
sentences.

XXVII. Develop the following situations:
1. You are writing a report on dreaming. Your work
is more theoretical than practical but still you are going to
carry out a poll. What possible questions would you like to
include into your questionnaire?
But first ask a respondent:
- if he always remembers his dreams;
- if he dreams more in black and white or in colour;
- if his dreams depend on his mood on the eve;
- what dreams he sees more often;
- if he ever sees horror dreams;
- what he feels after that;
- if he believes that dreams predict our future.
2. Once among the books in the bookcase (the collection
belonged to your grandmother) you found the book Your
Dreams and What They Mean. You were puzzled and
surprised. You ask your friend to share your emotions.
Ask him:
- if he has ever read anything of the same kind;
- if he believes that a journey in a dream may signify
anxiety;
- how psychologists interpret dreams;
- who was the first to analyze dreams;
- what our dreams may reflect;
- if different people can see the same dreams.
3. On the eve of the examination your close friend saw a
dream in which he failed his exam. Now lie feels afraid and
anxious. You ask him about the state and try to support
Mm emotionally.
Ask him:
- if he feels ill-prepared for the exam or he revised all
the material completely;
- why he believes that dreams foretell a person's future;
165

- if he thinks that our dreams reflect future or past
events;
- if he doubts the idea that dreaming is simply a
psychological safeguard mechanism;
- what dream he saw on the eve of the last exam;
- what he experienced in dreaming.
4. Your friend has just attended a lecture on dreaming
given by a famous psychologist. But you didn't manage to
attend this lecture. That's why you ask your friend about it
as you are deeply concerned with the problem of the
unconscious.
Ask him:
- what sort of people dream most;
- if it is possible to choose what to dream;
- if people dream all night long;
- what people can experience if deprived of dreams;
- what books interpreting dreams are based on; if our
dreams may come true.


XXVIII.Translate the text in writing:


Freud and Dreams
According to the Freudian theory, dreams don't reveal
anything about the future. Instead they tell us something
about our present unresolved and unconscious complexes
and may lead us back to the early years of our lives, when,
according to psycho-analytic theory, the ground was being
prepared for these later defects. There are three main
hypotheses in this general theory.
The first hypothesis is that the dream is not a
meaningless jumble of images and ideas, accidentally
thrown together, but rather that the dream is a whole, and
every element in it is meaningful. This idea is a very
ancient one. For Freud it follows directly from the
166

deterministic standpoint: i.e., from the view that all mental
and physical events have causes and could be predicted if
these causes were fully known. This is a philosophical
notion with which few scientists would wish to quarrel.
Freud's argument of the meaningfulness of dreams is
directly connected with his general theory that all our acts
are meaningfully determined; a theory which embraces
mispronunciations, gestures, lapses, emotions and so
forth.
The second point that Freud makes is that dreams are
always in some sense a wish fulfillment; in other words,
they have a purpose, and this purpose is the satisfaction
of some desire or drive, usually of an unconscious
character. This is linked up with his general theory of
personality. Roughly speaking, Freud recognizes three
main parts of personality: one, which he calls the id, is a
kind of reservoir, as it were, provides the dynamic energy
for most of our activities. Opposed to it we have the so-
called super-ego, which is partly conscious and partly
unconscious and which is the repository of social morality.
Intervening between the two, and trying to resolve their
opposition, is the ego; i.e., the conscious part of our
personality.
Thirdly, Freud believes that desires and wishes, having
been repressed from consciousness because they are
unacceptable to the socialized mind of the dreamer, are
not allowed to emerge even into the dream without
disguise. A censor or super-ego watches over them and
ensures that they can only emerge into the dream in a
disguise so heavy that they are unrecognizable.
The link-up between Freud's theory of personality and
his theory of dream interpretation is a very simple one: the
forces of the id are constantly trying to gain control of the
ego and to force themselves into consciousness. During
the individual's waking life, the super-ego firmly represses
them and keeps them unconscious; during sleep, however,
the super-ego is less watchful, and consequently some of
the desires start up in the id and are allowed to escape in
167

the form of dreams. However, the super-ego may nod, but
it is not quite asleep, and consequently these wish-
fulfilling thoughts require to be heavily disguised. This
disguise is stage-managed by what Freud calls the
dreamwork. Accordingly, it is necessary to distinguish
between the manifest dream, i.e. the dream as experienced
and perhaps written down, and the latent dream, i.e. the
thoughts, wishes, and desires expressed in the dream with
their disguises removed. The task of the analyst and
interpreter on this view is to explain the manifest dream in
terms of the latent dream.


WORD STUDY

I. Give Russian equivalents for:

Dreaming; average lifespan; to reflect; to recollect;
deprived of dreams; to experience psychic changes; to
fall asleep; slumber; superficial sleep; imagination; to
foretell future; to penetrate the subconscious; a
somnambulant nation; sleep deprivation; a macho
attitude; nap; to promote alertness; circadian rhythms;
sleeplessness.


II. Give English equivalents for:

; ;
; ; ;
; ;
; ; ;
;
; ; .

168

III. Arrange the following words in the pairs of
synonyms:
Desire
Slumber
Crucial
Tribulation
Resolve
Compile
Penetrate
Foretell
Modify
Promote
Obligation
Adjust
Self-confidence
Heal
Signify
vital
enter
facilitate
self-awareness
wish
trial
predict
responsibility
treat
sleep
settle
mean
make up
change
adapt

V. Complete the following sentences. Use the words
of the above exercises.

1. A dream is a safeguard against ... .
2. When deprived of dreams people experience ... .
3. Dream interpreters try to ... .
4. Sleep experts regard sleep as ... .
5. Slumber scientists investigate ... .
6. The messages of our dreams resolve around ... .
7. Dream symbols signify ....
V. Characterize the necessity of dreaming. Use the
following word-combinations:


To reflect desires; to motivate behaviour; a vital
mechanism; psychological safeguard; to inspire a hope; to
resolve a problem; sleep deprivation; to promote alertness;
to experience psychic changes; a safety valve; to reconcile
conflicting feelings; to have a healing effect.
169

VI. Describe:
a) your most pleasant dream (use the following: amazing,
fascinating, overwhelmed by emotions, puzzling,
marvellous imagery);
b) the most unpleasant dream (use the following: feel
panic, anxiety, worry, horror, alarm, awful).
-What did you feel while asleep and when awake?

170

COMMUNICATION
UNIT VII

Text I
I. Read and translate the text.

You Can't Import Psychoanalysis
(by Aron Belkin, Chairman of the Russian
Psychoanalytical Society)

Recently the field of psychoanalysis has got a big
boost in Russia. But Russia hasn't enough trained
psychoanalysts, those who were trained under another
psychoanalyst and who were recognized as professionals
by the International Society of Psychoanalysts. There are
only a few of them.
But you cannot import psychoanalysis like any
consumer goods. It is tied to ideology, psychology, and the
society's cultural patterns. It's no accident that
psychoanalysis has yet to emerge in Islamic countries.
Psychoanalysis is unique in its versatility. Practically
everyone who works with it finds some way of modifying it.
Why did Freud's favourite disciples separate from him?
Because they began to expand his discipline in all
directions. Carl Jung took on the collective unconscious;
Alfred Adler concentrated on the striving for power; Erich
Fromm and Erik Erikson moved to sociology.
Psychoanalysis stimulates the mind. It spurs diversity.
When a person learns new things about himself, he
becomes freer, stronger. Psychoanalysis can bring benefit
to anybody and to the people around him.
Psychoanalysis may be sometimes called a therapy. In
those cases where a person senses that something isn't
quite right, but can't dig through to the heart of the matter
on his own. Consider this. A patient is suffering from high
blood pressure, is taking strong medicines, they work for a
week or so, but then the pressure is there again. We tried
171

psychoanalytical therapy, and it turns out this person has
been gifted verbally from childhood. He becomes
intoxicated on his own words. He has perfect diction, a
total command of rhetoric. He is talking all the time and
can almost never stop to listen. It's practically impossible
for him to empathize with other people. Studies have
shown that continuous talking causes the body to release
certain hormones which raise blood pressure. Such
disbalancing of hormonal equilibrium can lead to diabetes,
stomach ulcers, or in his case, high blood pressure. I had
a devil of a time teaching him to listen to other people. But
after treatment, as he himself said, at least I'm back down
to Earth.
Sometimes people come to me asking how they can
break into politics. In talking with them I can say whether
they are suited for that. That reminds me of the time I
asked one of our statesmen why he entered politics. He
said, Well how else? The country is in such a sorry state
it needs help. And he wasn't being hypocritical. But in
the course of psychoanalysis it turned out that he had
pimples in childhood. He was endlessly teased in class. At
a subconscious level, he wanted to show his peers that he
was stronger and better than they, that he was an
outstanding person. He carried this complex for many
years until finally he won election to the State Duma.
Learning the true motives for one's actions makes a person
wiser.



II. Answer the following questions:

1. Does Russia have enough trained psychoanalysts?
2. What fields of knowledge is psychoanalysis tied to?
3. Where did psychoanalysis originate?
4. What scientists were greatly interested in
psychoanalysis?
5. Why is psychoanalysis so important?
172

6. Why is it called a therapy?
7. What cases of psychoanalytical therapy are described in
the article?
8. Would you like to be a psychoanalyst? Why? Why not?
III. Give your own definition of psychoanalysis.
IV. Speak about pros and cons of psychoanalysis.
V. Express your own viewpoint of psychoanalysis (in
writing).
VI. Remember the following words and word-
combinations:
To have a boost; a psychoanalyst; training requirements;
to emerge; to expand a discipline; to stimulate the mind; to
bring benefit; to be suited for; in the course of
psychoanalysis; at a subconscious level; to feel
disillusionment.
Think of all possible situations where you can use these
words

Text 2
I. Read and translate the article:

Inveterate Sufferers

The political and economic crisis in Russia has
reopened emotional wounds that had apparently begun to
heal. This crisis affects human psychology. It is difficult to
find a person in present-day Russia without psychological
problems. Usually doctors consider a person sick if he
quickly loses his capacity for productive activity, if he tries
to shut himself off from the outside world, and if his
unsociability grows rapidly. The same applies to social
health: In a sick society, production potential shrinks and
contradictions between society and the individual deepen.
173

The doctors should appraise social disorders
correctly. For example, information received by society
produces a certain psycho-therapeutic effect. In recent
years, news reports have turned into an endless string of
catastrophes. In either case, it is an extreme which
produces a bad effect on the mind. When people are
constantly being told about great success stories that do
not exist in reality, they develop a deep skepticism, a split
personality, and so forth. On the other hand, when they
only see horrors in the papers and on television, they
develop a feeling of despair and hopelessness. Of course,
people should know the truth but neither should forget
about man's psychological limits: Perennial anxiety does
little to strengthen public health.
In previous times, the adaptive style of behavior was
encouraged. The colorless conformist was held in esteem.
Now an altogether different makeup is called for: activity,
independence, and vigor. The abrupt change in values
adversely affected many people, a large number of patients
suffering from fear and insecurity: Will I find a job? Will I
hold down my present job? Why did everything fall apart
so quickly? What will happen to my family?
Quite often new Russians visit psychoanalysts. Their
main complaints are: stress, fatigue, insomnia, and fears
which they try to drown in alcohol and sex. They are
especially worried by the illusory nature of their success. A
new Russian understands that his sudden wealth did not
result from his perseverance or talent. So this child of
fortune tries to justify his rise, painstakingly imitating
super-activity, saying that he works 20 hours a day. Such
a person often leaves his family, shuns his old friends, and
abandons his favourite pursuits in favor of those who are
accepted among the elite. New Russians sometimes try to
change their appearance, using cosmetic surgery, to lose
weight, resorting to various dubious means, and to seek
relief from all sorts of fortune tellers and psychics. All this
requires tremendous efforts from a person. As a result,
instead of attaining peace of mind, he becomes mentally
exhausted.
174

At the onset of perestroika, people accumulated a great
many problems related to pathological mental conditions.
To deal with them, they rushed to doctors; however, at the
time we did not manage to set up a normal market of
psychoanalytical services. And so our niche was taken up
by all sorts of sorcerers and healers. We know for a fact
that there is as much money in alternative psychoanalysis
as in the entire official medical service. Some 30 percent of
these specialists have certain abilities; approximately the
same proportion are ill-intentioned con artists, while the
rest are mentally sick themselves. What is to be done?
First of all, no bans should be imposed. There are some
talented people who are able to produce a favorable impact
on mental deviations, and try to give them an opportunity
to display their abilities. Persecution and the resultant
secrecy have only brought harm, and still do.
Demand breeds supply. Paganism with its
corresponding mystical mentality - is deeply ingrained in
our eastern Slav conciousness. Hence the fact that we do
not rely on our own power but place eternal faith in the
kind father-tsar while we are prone to attribute our own
haphazard ways to intrigues by our enemies and dark
forces. We have always been guided by our heart. Our
people combine the habit of abiding failure with the
inability to handle success. Meanwhile, useful practical
skills do not appear all by themselves - they need to be
formed. There is a special training course designed to form
an adequate attitude to material values.

(by Professor V.Makarov, head of the Russian Post-
Graduate Medical Academy)





175

II. Give Russian equivalents for:
Inveterate sufferers; unsociability; contradictions;
psycho-therapeutic effect; an endless string of
catastrophes; a split personality; a feeling of despair and
hopelessness; to suffer from fear and insecurity; to
abandon one's favourite pursuits; to resort to dubious
means; to seek relief; to attain peace of mind; mentally
exhausted; pathological mental conditions; all sorts of
sorcerers and healers; eternal faith; to be guided by one's
heart.
III. Choose the necessary word-combinations to
characterize the reasons by which new Russians
apply for psychoanalysis and other means of
untraditional treatment.
IV. Divide the article into logical parts and make
up an outline.
V. Speak on the article according to your outline.
VI. Do you agree with the author's description of
the present day mentality of the Russian people?
VII. What is your personal attitude towards the so-
called New Russians? Do they comprise the elite of
the country?
VIII. Do you consider sorcerers and healers talented
people? Give your arguments.
IX. Whom would you consult if it is necessary for your
physical health? For your mental health?
X. Read the article and treat its ideas:

Alternative Healers on the Rise

Thousands of magicians, sorcerers, ESP specialists and
healers want to make you happy and healthy. Experts
from the Health Ministry have noticed a new type of social
problem in Russia people who are rejecting reality. Why
176

are people relying on alternative healers, and what can
traditional medicine offer?
People with serious problems are afraid that traditional
doctors will put them away in a psychiatric hospital. This
fear is understandable and is explained by the dark
periods in the history of psychiatry.
Besides, the job of a psychotherapist or a psychoanalyst
requires that the patient get involved in his treatment.
Psychotherapists can transform a person's subconscious,
but their aim is to teach the individual how to formulate
his or her goals and tasks, and achieve them. A patient
who does not want to make his effort seeks help from an
ESP specialist, who claims to be able to solve the person's
problems for him. The results can be deplorable. A
person's psyche can become so damaged that he'll need a
psychiatrist, and not a psychotherapist, to turn him
around. Or even worse, you might not even be able to
bring the person back.
You must understand one thing - only experts have the
right to work with people's minds. You wouldn't think
about giving your car or television for repair to just
anyone. But for some reason we do this ourselves. And we
even pay money for it.
People who wind up in difficult situations usually recall
someone who they feel is responsible for the unlucky
streak. ESP practitioners, fortune tellers and magicians
respond to the expectations of a person's wayward
subconscious and find the guilty party. It's all very simple.
Why traumatize yourself by admitting your own mistakes?
It is possible to rid a person of his problems in one or
two sessions if the person has overreacted to a given
situation, or is under stress. But it's impossible to correct
the psyche of a person with perpetual problems in two
sessions. Prolonged treatment is necessary.
But in choosing ways of solving your spiritual
problems, you should ask yourself a few questions: What
do I want? Why do I need this? Who am I turning to? Can
this person offer me real help? Find out what
consequences can be. After all, you could wind up going in
the wrong direction, without even noticing it.
177


Notes:
Deplorable
To rid -

Text 3
I. Read the article and answer the following questions:
1. What problems do young people come with?
2. Why do people apply for a psychologist?
3. Why can't American psychotherapists work with the
Russians?
4. Do Carnegie's principles always work?


Famous Psychologist: Today. Everyone's
an Orphan
(by Vladimir Levi)


I have treated about 250,000 patients in my lifetime.
This means that, at least in part, I have come to
understand the problems of many people. And I have come
to realize that as diverse as they might be, they have made
very simple mistakes in life and are troubled by the same
problems - ten fingers would be more than enough to
count them all.
Regardless of what has changed over the past few years,
my younger patients are following their grandparents'
footsteps. They are not copying them deliberately, but it's
as if they're unconsciously reproducing the same musical
theme. Even young people of 14-16 years come to me with
problems that are not determined by time, place, or
today's conditions, but by human nature: life and death,
health and sickness, age crises, human relationships
love, jealousy, rivalry, violence, deceit. Human inequality is
also an eternal theme. The essence of relations between
178

children and parents has not changed for thousands of
years.
Many see the psychologist as someone who can predict
the future, explain the meaning of life, or even create such
a meaning. The causes of psychosis, neurosis, depression,
fear, dependence, and addiction remain basically the
same. Today people have a lot more leeway; they don't find
themselves in the crosshairs of a repressive government.
However, the overall sum of people's fears is still the same.
Feelings of vulnerability have grown, as has the fear of
being left without the means to survive. A person has more
freedom now, supposedly. But it's not spiritual freedom;
rather it's just lack of restraint. Before, even it was an
illusion, a person knew where to seek out justice. Now
everyone is a lone orphan and can only count on himself.
The result is mass disillusionment. Not only the danger of
spiritual devastation has become evident, but the
psychological and physical destruction of the youth -
drugs. Every day mums and dads call me: Something is
going on with my daughter - with my son. Soon it
becomes clear: drugs.
Some people can be helped. It's like with smoking: about
20 percent quit on their own before becoming addicted.
The rest can quit the poison only if they have the desire
and get qualified help. Alas, this is rarely possible. The
spiritual vacuum results in greater numbers of the
psychologically disturbed. Back in the seventies the great
geneticist Vladimir Efroimson sounded the alarm: The
gene of oligophrenia is attacking. And today not only one
gene, but a whole number of harmful genetic factors arc
working towards the debilitation of the population.
In America I worked with our immigrants and some
Americans. An amazing revelation: American
psychotherapists can't work with our people, but we can
work with theirs. Our psychologists and doctors, having
studied their language and culture, can switch over to
their system, but they can't switch over to ours. It is no
coincidence that the demand has fallen for the enormous
number of translated publications on applied psychology.
179

Speaking about Dale Carnegie, I should say that he
grasped some commonplace psychological factors. But
when a person is in a conflict, Carnegie's principles don't
work. The main problems are the same here as they are
there. But the approaches to them, as well as the social
and psychological patterns, are different.
I am for the kind of psychology that can provide for
healthy morals as electricity gave the world light. But so
far we are living with bonfires and candles.


II. Agree or disagree with the following:
1. People have always been troubled by the same problems.
2. Psychological consciousness is difficult to change.
3. Human problems are determined by time and social
conditions.
4. The essence of relations between cliildren and parents
has greatly changed.
5. A good psychologist can predict the future and explain
the meaning of life.
6. Feelings of vulnerability have grown along with fear.
7. A person has more spiritual freedom now.
8. Drugs lead to psychological and physical destruction.
9. A personal wish is quite enough to get rid of drug
addiction.
10.American psychotherapists can't work with the
Russian clients.



180

III. Explain the following statements:
1. Young people are following their grandparents' foot-
steps.
2. Today people have a lot more leeway.
3. Now everyone is a lone orphan.
4. Drug abuse is a complete devastation.
5. Carnegie's principles don't work when a person is in a
conflict.

IV. Review the article.
V. Speak on:
1. Youth psychological problems.
2. A psychologist's work.
3. Conditions providing healthy morals.

Text 4
I. Read and translate the text.

Fear of Living
(by Anna Kovalenko)

Escapism, the desire to avoid contact with other people,
down to subjecting oneself to complete isolation, is not
rare. Doctors have known about it for a long time, but it
was only in the past few years that it was identified as a
disease called sociophobia, and serious studies of this
phenomenon were carried out.
When lecturing, the great scientist Kliment Timiryazev
always made a point of having lecture synopses with him,
even though he never looked at them. Under no
circumstances would he start a lecture without the notes.
On one occasion, he left them at home and when he
realized it, he kept the audience waiting until the driver he
had sent for the papers delivered them.
181

What was this, mere eccentricity, or a disease? Today,
doctors find such behavioural patterns worth studying,
since quite often they turn out to be symptoms of a
disease.
Great Britain's Prof. Stewart A.Montgomery said at a
recent international conference in Moscow, where he
represented the World Psychiatric Association, that
sociophobia had been overlooked by doctors, including
Russian ones, for too long.
Social fear is not easy to detect, mainly because it is not
a fear of something tangible like loneliness, or losing one's
job. Its symptoms resemble mere shyness. Prof.
Montgomery believes that people tend to develop the first
symptoms of sociophobia early on in life, when they are
still in school, and this impairs their academic
performance. These children always choose a desk in the
back row, not because they want to play pranks, but
because they want to attract as little attention as possible.
The progression of this pathological condition is also
difficult to detect in shy older adolescents who don't drink
or take drugs. And the longer it is left untreated, the worse
the condition gets. As children, they tend to develop
complexes, and when older, sociophobics will usually
choose a profession that doesn't involve public contact,
and will voluntarily deprive themselves of careers. They
feel uncomfortable and awkward around people. Anatoly
Smulevich, head of the department of borderline
conditions at the Centre for Mental Health, uses a graphic
description to characterize the disease - tears that are
invisible to the world.
These quiet introverts rarely go to see doctors, and
rarely do doctors pay much attention to them either.
Meanwhile, the condition continues to worsen. Fearing
criticism, negative comments, derogatory words and mean
looks from other people, sociophobics begin to panic. They
begin by fussing with their clothes and their hair, and
looking around all the time. This gives way to a constant
fear of disaster, for instance when talking to one's boss,
182

reading a lecture and even when meeting with friends.
This is typical behaviour for sociophobics. A teacher at a
Moscow institute always felt terrified before an audience.
This neurosis would cause him to jump on a train after the
lecture and travel to any other city (for some reason it was
usually Vologda), just to unwind. The following day he
would return to Moscow in a relatively normal state.
Prof. Montgomery maintains that five to six percent of the
population suffers from sociophobia. This constant fear of
social contact is often accompanied by many other
symptoms like heart palpitations, tense muscles, dryness
of the mouth, headaches and other unpleasant feelings.
The symptoms are deeply rooted and the essence of a
social introvert. Such people have trouble asserting their
opinions and standing up for their rights, which is why
they are often looked upon as undesirable workers. Their
pathological shyness prevents them from evaluating their
abilities positively, and causes them to be constantly self-
absorbed in their own thoughts and to agonize over the
most trivial matters.
Considering that 95 percent of such diseases tend to
develop before the age of 20, treatment should be started
as early as possible. Prof. Montgomery believes that if
therapy is not started on time, five to seven years later
sociophobics begin resorting to alcohol and drugs to cope
with their problems. This gives rise to a special stratum of
people who have a unique relationship with society. They
are lonely and are usually poorly educated, they
experience money problems and bounce from job to job. At
times they contemplate suicide.
But even if the condition is left untreated for a long
time, therapy often helps a person restore contact with
society. And although remedial treatment for sociophobics
may be expensive, treating alcoholics costs the state even
more, as does financing the unemployed. Igor Sergeyev,
head of the department of Psychiatry at the Russian State
Medical University, believes that diagnosis and treatment
183

of such diseases should be provided free of charge at
special polyclinics.
Although scientists have already developed medication
for this disease, it's still too early to talk about any results.
In Great Britain, for instance, only 25 percent of all
sociophobics are receiving help, and in Canada, only 15
percent are undergoing treatment.
Russia's Health Minister Tatyana Dmitriyeva calls
sociophobia one of the most widespread psychological
disorders. According to various data, in Russia, up to 16
percent of citizens suffer from tliis disease, and two-thirds
of these people also suffer from other psychological
disorders.
A special office has been opened at the Moscow City
Psycho-Neurological Centre where sociophobics can now
go for help.

II. Answer the following questions:
1. Why is the article headlined as fear of living?
2. What is meant by escapism?
3. Is it a disease or a phenomenon?
4. What are the major symptoms of sociophobia?
5. Is social fear easily detected?
6. What kind of profession do sociophobics prefer to
choose?
7. How do they feel around people?
8. Are sociophobics introverted or extroverted?
9. Do they easily begin to panic? Under what
circumstances?
10. How does their pathological shyness interfere with
social contacts?
11. How is it possible to treat this condition?
12. Where can sociophobics apply for help?



184

III. Complete the following sentences:
1. The desire to avoid contact with other people is called

2. Sociophobia symptoms resemble ....
3. A.Smulevich characterized this disease as ... .
4. Sociophobics as children tend to develop ... .
5. Their fear impairs academic ... .
6. Constant fear of social contact is accompanied by such
physiological symptoms as ... .
7. Very often sociophobics resort to ... to cope with the
problems.
8. They are lonely and experience ... .
9. Therapy often helps a person restore ....
10. Diagnosis and treatment of such diseases should be
provided free ....
IV. Give statistical data enumerated in the article.
V. Describe episodes illustrating typical cases of
sociophobia.
VI. Suggest possible situations in which sociophobics
experience either shyness or fear.
VII. Characterize escapism as:
a) a psychological disorder;
b) a social phenomenon.
VIII. Review the article.
IX. Think of all possible situations in which you have
ever experienced panic, fear or uncertainty and shyness.
X. If you had a chance to interview a sociophobic,
what questions would you ask him? (about his
academic performance, a choice of profession, social
contacts, friends, close relationships and so on)

185


WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
To modify psychoanalysis; the unconscious; at a
subconscious level; orphan; personal impressions; human
inequality; addiction; vulnerability; means to survive;
spiritual freedom; lack of restraint; devastation; physical
destruction; revelation; healthy morals.
II. Give English equivalents for:
; ; ;
; ; ;
; ;
; ;
; ;
;
.
III. Use the above word-combinations in describing:
a) psychoanalysis;
b) sociophobic behaviour;
c) consequences of sociophobia.

Texts
I. Read and translate the text:

Put Pleasure In your Life
(by Laura Miller)

How frequently do you allow yourself totally carefee
moments? Little time-outs and simple pleasures?
We race around frantically, making quick cameo
appearances at supermarkets, day-care centres and the
dry cleaners. We fantasize about curling up in bed with a
186

good novel and a cup of tea on a cold Saturday afternoon
but, invariably, feel compelled to wax the car or run a
couple of kilometres. Although we believe we're better off
for having made those sacrifices - healthier, more
productive, better disciplined that's not necessarily the
case.
In fact, the very opposite may be true. Truly healthy
people, it seems, indulge in the occasional decadent
dessert without guilt. They shamelessly grab an afternoon
nap, spend 15 minutes idly patting the cat, toss an old
blanket on the lawn, lie back and watch the clouds race
across the sky.
Dr David Sobel, a specialist in preventive medicine, and
Robert Ornstein, a psychologist and brain researcher,
espouse a theory that a little of what you fancy does you
good.
Studies seem to indicate that overall happiness is not
dictated so much by the peaks and valleys of your life as
by the total amount of time you spend in a positive mood,
Dr Sobel says. And that to us means the small pleasures.
The researchers got the idea when they began noticing
that the healthiest people they knew were not those who
spent a lot of time managing their health.
We began to realize, Robert says, that we didn't know
anybody we thought was healthy who had an extremely
healthy diet and monitored their exercise. Instead, they
were people who were actively engaged in their lives. They
live with optimism and gusto, Robert says. They are
passionate about hobbies, travel and family life.

How pleasure works
Scientists are still exploring exactly what makes our
bodies acknowledge and feel pleasures. It's all in the brain,
it seems. Human beings have pleasure centres, located in
the brain in an area known as the limbic system, which
can be stimulated naturally through pleasing sights,
sounds, smells, tastes and thoughts. Precisely how those
centres are tapped in what scientists are trying to discover.
187

Some researchers think pleasure releases endorphins,
opiate-like substances in the brain that make us feel
better. Says Dr Sobel: We don't really know. Our
understanding of this mechanism is very crude. It's in its
infancy.
Back to nature
What we do know is that living in the modem world
often means being cut off from the natural one - and that's
not good. Our biology and psychology evolved over five
million years and during the majority of that evolution we
were very closely linked to the natural environment, Dr
Sobel says. Just because we have modernised our
environment doesn't mean we can dismiss our age-old tie
to nature
It's the natural things - the warm sun, lush fields -that
can make life seem better. We brighten considerably with a
sunny day, even if it's experienced on a lunch break in the
middle of a crowded city.
A whiff of happiness. The two scientists believe smell is
perhaps the most under-appreciated of the senses.
Scientist Jonathan Pevsner is trying to determine how the
smell of, say, a rose travels from the nose to the pleasure
centres of the brain.
When you smell something it often triggers a memory
or an emotion because the sense of smell is most directly
connected to the limbic system, where pleasure and
emotion and memory are centred, whereas the other
senses have a more direct route to get the same place, Dr
Pevsner says.
Have a chocolate. There's nothing quite like a sinful
indulgence. But, then, who's to say it's sinful? Chocolate,
for example, has some beneficial qualities: it protects tooth
enamel and one of its ingredients, cocoa butter, lowers
cholesterol levels. Alcohol has its benefits, too. People who
have one or two drinks a day are less prone to heart attack
or blocked arteries.
The expectations game. Consider the woman who has
everything a big house with a pool, money, a good job
188

and a supportive husband yet acts as though a storm
cloud is perched over her head.
According to David Sobel and Robert Ornstein, it's all in
the expectations. When we depend on the big, splashy
highs - money, falling in love - to make us feel good, it's
easy to forget about the little things that truly make us
happy.

II. Answer the following questions. Give your
arguments.

1. Is overall happiness possible?
2. Do you support the idea that healthy people are those
actively engaged in their lives?
3. How closely are we linked to the natural environment?
4. What do you do to preserve an emotional balance?
5. How much do you depend on simple pleasures?
III. Find in the text information on how pleasure
works and give its idea in simple terms.
IV. Give as many facts as possible concerning:
a) Dr David Sobel and his research;
b) Robert Ornstein and his investigation.
V. Enumerate what things may bring pleasure and
happiness for human beings. And what about you in
particular?
VI. Remember the following words and word-
combinations:
To allow carefree moments; to indulge in occasional
pleasures; to espouse a theory; to be actively engaged in;
to be closely linked to the natural environment; to make
time for a special treat.

VII.Review the article. Use the above phrases.


189

Text 6
I. Read the text and say what problem it deals
with:

What to Do

If your relationship isn't working, but you love him too
much to live, here is Dr Dan Kiley's guide to change things
for the better.
Although it's often overused, the recommendation, You
need to improve your communication is still the most
important one for a troubled relationship.
Most men recognize the need for improved communication
while considering it to be in woman's responsibility. They
believe that if they are good providers, relationships will
take care of themselves. It does little good to lecture these
men about the conjoint nature of improved
communication. They have to be shown.
Basic communication script
I'm not a big fan of giving anyone the exact words to use
during a confrontation. But you might face a situation in
which you need a few words to get you started in the right
direction. Here is the basic script:
When you say... I think (feel)... I wish you would....
When responding to your partner's opinion, say: When
you say that, I think (feel)... I do (don't) agree with you,
because....
The basic communication script is limited, but when
you are attempting to overcome poor communication
habits, you need an elementary method that ensures both
of you are operating within the same system. Once you
understand the basics, it will feel natural to say: I feel bad
because we're not talking as we used to. Can't we work on
that?


190

Five ways to communicate
Appointment: If you and your partner arc barely able to
wave as you scurry past each other, I suggest you make an
appointment to talk to each other.
The appointment should be given the same degree of
significance as a regular work appointment. Agree on a
time, place and topics. Be prepared to move the
conversation away from specific problems and into a
discussion of your estrangement. But always keep the
conversation as objective as possible.
Avoid places where you can meet friends. And permit no
interruptions. If it's uncomfortable at first, use notes to
guide your discussion.
Bibliotherapy: This procedure is designed for couples
who are in mild stress. For each partner, it entails reading
a section of a mutually enjoyable book and then
discussing the contents and individual reactions. You can
each read the same biography and then compare
reactions, or read a relationship-enrichment book and talk
about what parts of it apply to you.
Reading aloud: This technique is similar to
bibliotherapy except that you read aloud to each other. In
most cases you will have to begin the reading aloud with
the hope your partner will eventually follow suit. If he
doesn't, that's okay. You can still accomplish one goal: he
will hear you speak with a kind, upbeat voice, a voice free
from problems or complaints.
You can start by reading an interesting section from a
magazine or a newspaper. If that's successful, you might
read a few pages from a book each night.
Active listening: This technique helps you demonstrate
what you would like your partner to do when you are
talking.
The next time he begins to speak, drop what you are
doing and listen. Do not speak any of your own thoughts
or interpret what you hear. Ask for repetition by saying,
Please say that another way, or, Say it again; I think I
missed something.
Obviously, active listening won't last long if he says:
Please pass the sugar. It works best if he's explaining a
191

problem he had at work or stating his opinion about a
recent event.
After several minutes, feed back what you've heard by
summarizing his points. Then ask him if your summary is
accurate.
To encourage him to listen to you, don't be afraid to say: I
just want you to listen to me for a few moments. Could you
please put the newspaper down? Your active listening will
increase the chances that he will ask you about yourself,
and you will get to express your opinions without fear of
contradiction or, worst of all, being ignored.
Many couples have found that active listening can spark
spontaneity and increase the satisfaction of a
conversation. The more you can control extraneous
interruptions, the greater the success of active listening.
If active listening is successful, you will begin to feel a
deep sense of tranquility during the middle and later
stages of the process. This peace comes from two sources:
your brain, which enjoys having the auditory channels
stimulated without the static created by arguing or
needing to think and respond with new information; and
your mind, which relaxes when you immerse yourself in
another's agenda. Active listening gives your ego defences
a welcome rest.
Passive questioning: Begin this technique by saying: Id
like to ask you some questions. Is that okay? Even his yes
is a connection, however small. Ask him about the
particulars of whatever he's talking about.
If you can't be sincere in this questioning, don't do it.
Avoid sarcasm or questions that mask a confrontation
(Don't you think you were wrong?). Also, avoid any
question that stimulates disagreement or argument, and
do not push the conversation in a particular direction.
Passive questioning should be used only after both
partners have contained any anger that might be present.
You need a clear head in order to weigh evidence, sort
through alternatives and project probabilities.
192

Other approaches to passive questioning include
looking at the bright side (I know it sounds strange, but is
there a good side to your problem?); looking at the reason
for defences (Are you hurt about something?); and trying
to help (What can I do for you?).

II. Answer the following questions:
1. Does the article deal with marital relationships or social
communication?
2. Who is more responsible for good communication within
the family: men or women?
3. What does basic communication script provide?
4. How many ways for communicating are suggested?
5. What for is appointment necessary?
6. How does bibliotherapy operate?
7. What goal may be achieved by reading aloud?
8. What does the technique of active listening help
demonstrate?
9. What do you feel if active listening is successful?
10.How is it better to begin asking questions?
III. Complete the following sentences:
1. Most men recognize the need for improved commu-
nication to be ... .
2. The first communication technique is to make ... .
3. You should keep the conversation as ... .
4. Bibliotherapy is designed for couples who ... .
5. Reading aloud is similar to bibliotherapy except that .
6. Many couples found that active listening can spark ...
7. If it is successful you feel ... .
8. Active listening gives you ... .
9. In questioning you should avoid ... .
193

IV. Agree or disagree with the following:
1. If your relationship is troubled, it is the male
responsibility to improve it.
2. It's quite possible to overcome poor communication
habits.
3. The appointment should be given a certain degree of
significance.
4. You always use notes to guide your discussion.
5. Bibliotherapy gives little chance for communication.
6. In reading aloud no problems or complaints arise.
7. Active listening gives your ego defences a welcome rest.
8. Active listening is a useless technique as it disrupts
feedback.
9. You should avoid questions that stimulate disagreement
or argument.

V. Reproduce sentences from the text where the
following expressions are used:
to improve communication
to face a situation
to overcome poor communication habits
to make an appointment
to accomplish a goal
to encourage to listen
to express opinions
to stimulate argument
to weigh evidence

VI. Divide the article into logical parts and make
up an outline in writing.

VII. Review the article.



194


VIII. Develop the following situations:
1. If your relationship is not stable, what techniques
would you use to improve it?
2. You are going to face a situation directly, what would
you start with?
3. What techniques would you offer to overcome poor
communication habits?
4. You are a family therapist. What recommendations
would you give your client to encourage his partner to
listen to the problems of concern?
IX.
Are you Afraid to Talk?

This is a quiz that will indicate your degree of
apprehension in speaking to your partner.
Rate each statement on a five-point scale: 1- strongly
disagree; 2 - disagree; 3 - not sure; 4 - agree; 5 -strongly
agree.
My thoughts become confused and jumbled when I am
discussing issues that are important to my partner.
I usually try to work out problems myself instead of
talking them over with my partner.
Even in casual conversations with my partner, I feel
that I must guard what I say.
I am hesitant to get into casual conversation with my
partner.
I am uncomfortable getting into an intimate con-
versation with my partner.
If your total score is less than nine, your apprehension in
speaking to your partner is low. If it is more than 17, your
apprehension is high.
Whatever your score, if you think your apprehension is too
high, follow the suggestions in the article What to Do.
They will help you as well as your partner.
Remember, a happy relationship is the result of hard
work, not luck.

195


Text 7
I. Read and translate the text:


Loneliness May Create Serious Health Risks


Millions of Americans suffer from depression, anxiety
and fatigue that are linked to loneliness, says a leading
authority who tells how to cope with feelings of being
alone.
Q-: Mr. Young, how widespread is the problem of
loneliness?
A.: In one nationwide study, 22 percent of Americans said
they felt lonely and remote from other people. In another
poll, taken by Psychology Today, loneliness was the most
frequent problem mentioned. Thirty-eight percent of
female and 43 percent of male readers said they often felt
lonely.
Q.: What is the difference between normal feelings of
loneliness and a real loneliness problem?
A.: There are two ways to distinguish between normal
and problem loneliness. One is by severity. Do your
feelings of loneliness interfere with your ability to get
enjoyment out of life? The other factor is length of time.
Loneliness becomes a chronic problem if it lasts two or
more years. Some people have a lifetime pattern of feeling
lonely.
Q.: Is loneliness increasing in the United States?
A.: People who live alone tend to say that they are lonely
more frequently than people living with others. Since
surveys repeatedly show that an increasing number of
Americans live alone, we can infer that the frequency of
loneliness is increasing.
Q.: Who is at greatest risk for loneliness?
196

A.: Studies of different population groups show that
teenagers and young adults have the highest degree of
loneliness. One study found that over half of the people in
this age group are lonely. One reason is because they are
in a process of transition - separating from the parents.
They're no longer feeling as close to their parents as they
did when they were children, and they may not yet have
developed very close, satisfying friendships with their
peers. Some adolescents just have trouble making friends.
Q.: What are the major consequences of loneliness?
A.: We know that severe loneliness can lead to a variety
of problems. One recent study showed that among
divorced men, the death rate due to heart disease was
twice the rate for married men. This suggests that living
alone and feeling lonely may actually create serious heart
risks. There are also psychological consequences. People
who are chronically lonely are often less productive in their
work lives. They feel that life is less satisfying and are
prone to psychiatric disorders such as depression and
anxiety. The majority of depressed patients I studied also
reported feeling lonely.
Q.: When is a person so lonely that treatment is
needed?
A.: Having feelings of severe loneliness for more than two
years indicates that you're not just having a temporary
adjustment to a new situation. There may be a serious
psychological problem. Severe loneliness is often
accompanied by depression. The symptoms of depression
frequently include a persistent sad mood, low appetite,
fatigue, low sex drive, withdrawal from people and sleep
difficulties.
Q.: What is the best therapy for loneliness?
A.: This is a new area of research. In a therapy I've
developed, the approach is to help people look at what
they're doing that keeps them from feeling close to other
people. One persistent problem for people who suffer
loneliness is low self-esteem. The person is afraid to
approach new people because he or she anticipates
rejection before it's even happened. In other instances,
lonely people may find someone, but then they keep a
197

distance by not revealing much about themselves out of
fear that once the other person knows them well, they'll be
rejected.
Q.: How successful is therapy? How long does it take?
A.: This treatment for loneliness is an adaptation of a
technique called cognitive-behaviour therapy that we know
is successful against many forms of depression. Length of
treatment depends on the severity of the problem. For
those trying to adjust to a new situation -someone who's
recently divorced, for example therapy may consist of
once-a-week sessions over four to six months. For people
who have experienced loneliness since childhood,
treatment can take a year or more.
Q.: How can a person prevent loneliness?
A.: The first thing is to learn how to be alone without
feeling something is wrong. Many people avoid being alone
at any cost. They're afraid they won't be able to handle it
or that there's stigma in not being with someone. You can
train yourself to enjoy being alone. It's healthy to do things
on your own, part of the time. Most important, you have to
develop a circle of friends. Participate in activities
sports, cultural events, social gatherings because that's
how you meet people. Don't wait for other people to make
the first move. Be aggressive in seeking out friendships
and keeping them. For some people, pets and television
may ease some of the loneliness, but they can also keep a
person turned inward and interfere with developing new
friendships.

II. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1. Being alone at times is absolutely necessary to
everybody.
2. We are sometimes afraid of having time to think.
3. We get tired of meeting too many people.
4. Communicating with people is an art to be learned.
5. Reading is quite necessary for you.
6. You seldom visit your friends being fond of solitude.
198

7. Watching television influences human psychology.
8. In solitude new ideas come to us.
9. Reading is more useful than watching television.
10. Loneliness may result in depression and anxiety.
11. Being the only child in the family gives you more
moments of solitude.

III. Make up a dialogue to develop the situation:
You are the only child in the family but you do not
regret about it as you enjoy certain benefits. Ask you
friend how he spends his spare time and moments of
solitude.
IV. Develop the following situations:
1. You are a psychologist. A client comes to you for
advice as he sometimes experiences loneliness. You ask
him some questions in order to find out whether he is a
sociable person.
Ask your client:
if he is fond of being with others;
if he prefers to travel alone;
what his reaction is when he is invited to the party;
if he has got a lot of friends;
if his friends can be substituted by music or films;
if he would mind visiting a psychological training group.
2. You are writing a scientific work on solitude. You
have a chance to consult a professor of psychology.
Ask him:
why solitude is necessary for a developing mind;
why solitude is the force of creation;
whom solitude is especially necessary for;
how it is possible to use solitude at utmost;
- if self-analysis always brings knowledge of oneself.



199

V. Translate the text in writing:

Loneliness

We humans are paradoxical creatures. We say we
want life to be a certain way, but aren't willing to do what
we must to make it so. We long for connection and
intimacy but demand degrees of independence and
privacy.
On the one hand, we are communal creatures. We
live in a web of interdependence with one another. Few of
us are truly self-sufficient. We need partners and
housemates. We need family and friends. We live in
communities and share workloads. Most of us even dream
of a soul-mate of some sort to whom we can unburden
ourselves in times of stress, and with whom we can share
ordinariness in times of calm. We are by nature
storytellers who must recount our days and our lives in
order to make sense of them. For this we need listeners,
but listeners who are genuinely interested in us as people.
On the other hand, we are also solitary figures,
physically independent of one another and ultimately and
finally alone with our thoughts. There is so much that goes
on inside each one of us, so much that we could never
communicate to another even if we wanted to do so. We
are not alone in wanting to preserve a little of mystery, to
keep a few secrets to ourselves. We all have parts of
ourselves we would prefer to keep private.
At some level we are unknowable to others, solitary
figures. The sum of our essential selves will never be
shared or communicated, only parts of the whole.
The most intimate dimensions of our beings need
solitude and the safety of privacy. The most social
dimensions of our beings need sharing and contact and
even love. It is a difficult balancing act. Loneliness is the
result of balancing too far into privacy and independence.
Loss of self and identity results from overbalancing into
connection. Both possibilities can be frightening. There are
200

some who see the ache of loneliness simply as the price of
emotional safety.
It is easy to look at loneliness as something inflicted
upon us by a cruel and unfeeling world. If we are alone
and lonely, it is easy to fall into the self-pitying feeling that
we have been mistreated by the universe, that it is our fate
to never meet someone with whom we can bond. But that
empty and frustrating feeling may be the fault of our need
for solitude and protection working overtime.
Loneliness is at least partly a function of past hurts and
slights. Every person experiences pain or betrayal.
Whether it was an abusive parent, a lover who hurt us
badly or a friend who betrayed us, we have all experienced
these battering rejections and destruction of trust. No one
likes being hurt. So we learn wariness and caution. We
become a little more careful about our friendships each
time we get zinged. Even those of us who seem to form one
bad relationship after another build a gradually hardening
shell until one day this intimacy stuff loses its attraction.
For a while we are fine on our own, maybe even feel free,
until the demons find us.
But when loneliness becomes a constant companion, it
is calling us to look deeper inside, calling us to work on
tearing down the walls that isolate us, whether self-built or
outwardly imposed. In order to be loved, we must find
ways to love. In order to find engagement, we must find
ways to engage. The first step is to go inside our walls,
inside ourselves and tend to our soul work. If we do this
the soul warms and grows until it expands through and
beyond our suffocating walls of loneliness. Then we can
start building the bridge towards others.

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Text 8
I. Read and translate the text:

Confident Conversation
(by Dr Lillian Glass)

A great conversationalist is someone who connects
with people and makes them feel important.
Usually starting a conversation means coming with an
opening line or 'ice-breaker. The best kind of icebreaker is
one that is positive after all, the last thing people want
to hear from a stranger is how noisy the party is, how
awful the food is, or how badly the party-goers are
dressed.
A compliment is always a great icebreaker. It will
usually be appreciated if you feel like saying to someone:
You look great in that dress. People appreciate it when
their taste is noticed.
Any news event is a good icebreaker. The weather is
another great opener. Many a relationship has begun with:
Wonderful weather we're having.
This is an obvious overture to a conversation, and how
the other person picks up on it is a good indication of
whether they are interested in having a conversation with
you or whether it would be in your best interest to find
someone more receptive to talk to. If you think the above
two suggestions are tired old cliches, remember that a
conversation always has to start somewhere.
If you pitch in with something that isn't a nice, general,
easy subject, your partner may feel intimidated.
Other turns-off include being too nosy or too invasive.
Nobody wants to be pressed for the gory details, no matter
how interesting it may seem to the other person.
Talk about something you've just read in a magazine, an
interesting fact you've heard, something about your pet, or
even a joke you've heard.
202

Once you've got a conversation going, the best way to
keep it going is by asking the other person questions that
don't require just a 'yes' or 'no' answer, or questions that
show genuine interest on your part as you hear what they
have to say.
Ask questions without becoming too intrusive. Choose
the kind that will draw a person out who, what, when,
where and why questions. Once you hit on something you
find interesting, keep asking questions in order to get the
other person to elaborate on the topic as much as
possible. Good conversationalists elaborate on the
experiences they have had.
Description is the best form of communication, because
it keeps people's interest up and stimulates them. Use
words to create images and paint pictures. Being a good
observer and reactor means being attentive and sensitive
to the other person's cues, in both their facial and body
language.
Look for eye contact cues. If the other person is
constantly looking away, he may be interested in
something or someone else, in which case you can say:
You seem preoccupied. Take his cue and wind up the
conversation and leave. Paying attention to a person's
visual cues can tell as much as or even more than what
they say verbally.
If you want to make a good impression on people and
maintain a good relationship, you need to give others
respect and enable them to feel important when they are
around you. Being a good communicator requires having a
good memory and remembering things about the other
person.
If your memory is particularly bad you could always
make notes. This works well with business associates and
clients. Keep the notes in the file and look through them
before calling up the person and when you know you're
going to see him.
Often, if you have an approachable manner, people will
respond to you and be attracted to you like a magnet.
Approachability involves your body posture, gestures and
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facial expression. If your posture is too stiff, you will
communicate uptightness, while too loose a posture can
communicate sloppiness and carelessness. A hunched-
over back communicates a lack of confidence and self-
respect. By simply straightening your shoulders and
holding your head up, you can improve people's
impressions on you.
All too often when someone is concentrating intensely or
thinking about something, their face will show an
expression that doesn't reflect who they are or what they
are thinking about. So if you are in the presence of others
you need to be mindful of your facial expression at all
times.


II. Answer the following questions:
1. Who is considered to be a good conversationalist?
2. What does an icebreaker mean?
3. What is the best kind of icebreaker?
4. What do people appreciate much?
5. What other remarks are good icebreakers?
6. What topics should be avoided in a conversation?
7. What should you talk about?
8. What kind of questions are you recommended to ask?
9. Why is description the best form of communication?
10. What does being a good communicator require?
11. What does approachability involve?

III. Explain what you should do:
a) to maintain solid relationships;
b) to exercise your memory;
c) to control your behaviour while conversing.

IV. Review this part of the article.
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V. Read the second part and render its contents in
Russian:

Ending a Conversation
If you've started a conversation with another person
and you're having difficulty in ending it, there are subtle
signals you can send to the other person that will end the
conversation without hurting the other person's feelings.
Breaking eye contact is a good way of signalling to the
other person that you are ready to end the conversation.
Assuming that you have maintained good eye contact
throughout the conversation, looking off in another
direction is a discreet signal that the conversation is about
to end. Another way to signal that a conversation is
coming to an end is to use transition words like Well or
At any rate, or even statements like It was really nice
talking to you.
You may then want to recap all that was said. To recap,
look at the other person and state key points that have
been made - theirs and yours - and express your
appreciation for their point of view. Then you can add: I've
already enjoyed talking to you. I hope we'll have another
chat soon.
Whatever you do, don't lie to the other person. If you
are not interested in talking to them again, don't mention
the possibility of a future meeting just to be polite. That is
hypocritical. Instead, you may finish by saying, Nice
meeting you, and then leave.
Finally, be sure to give the other person a good, firm
handshake. The final impression you make can be just as
important as the initial impression you made.
VI. What about your personal performance in a
conversation? Does it coincide with the author's
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suggestion? Do you think his advice is of positive
character?
VII. Read the following tips for maintaining a good
conversation and take them into account:
Be aware of your own body and facial language, which
means making good facial contact when you speak and not
invading the other person's space.
Don't gossip. When you start gossiping, you run the
risk of offending the person you are talking to because of
their possible relationship to the person being discussed.
Cultivate a wide range of topics. Keep up with current
events by reading newspapers and magazines. When you
are talking to someone you do not know very well, it is
probably best to stay away from politics and religion or
anything that is controversial.
Have a sense of humour. Everyone enjoys a humorous
story or joke, but take care. Even though sexist and racist
humour often gets a laugh or a chuckle, it's not worth the
effect that the jokes may have. People may be offended and
may think less of you.
Don't interrupt.
Be enthusiastic. Your enthusiasm allows the other
person to feel that you are interested in what they are
saying.
Be flexible in your point of view. You can certainly
express your own views, but in a way that is not hostile.

WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
Conversationalist; social gathering; to break the ice; to feel
intimidated; to show genuine interest; to elaborate on the
topic; to be attentive and sensitive; eye contact cues; to
seem preoccupied; to make a good impression on; to
maintain a relationship; communicator; approach-ability;
lack of confidence and self-respect; subtle signals; to
cultivate a range of topics; sense of humour; to be
offended.
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II. Give all suitable word-combinations associated
with a good conversation.
III. Try to explain in the English language what the
following words and word-combinations mean:
Communicator; icebreaker; gory details; facial and
body language; to brand images; approachability; to hurt
someone's feelings; to be enthusiastic.
IV. Describe the basic guidelines of a conversation
with:
a) a stranger at a social gathering;
b) a boss at work;
c) a person you would like to produce a good impression
on;
d) a business associate.
V. Develop the following situation:
You have just come from the party where you had to
communicate with a very intrusive man. You feel
disappointed and frustrated as you pinned great hopes
on this gathering in the way of developing business
contacts. You express your complaints and displeasure
to your parents.


Text 9
I. Read and translate the text:

Is Good Conversation a Declining Art?

Many people unwittingly bore, irritate or mislead others.
Why and what can be done to have more memorable
conversations is explained in this interview by a leading
authority on talk.
Q.: Professor Goodman, is the art of conversation
waning in America?
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A.: I would agree that there never was a golden age of
conversation in the U.S. Even in the days before radio and
television, good conversation probably was not all that
common. Despite the visions we have of colonial times
when people supposedly sat around parlors exchanging
ideas, my guess is that most people then were just too
busy surviving to have much time for free-flowing talk.
Social rules in past times also restricted what men and
women said to each other, and children really were seen
not heard. When parents did talk to children, it was
usually a matter of the adult commanding, advising or
admonishing. That's not conversation. At any rate, we
don't know for sure what conversation was like back then
because there was no voice recording.
In many ways, conversation should be of higher quality
today because the range of experience is broader and
because we can hear others converse on television, radio
and in the movies.
Q.: How does conversation today differ from what might
have taken place years ago in the United States?
A.: Take young people. If a young couple beginning their
courtship at the turn of the century could by magic listen
in on the conversation of a similar couple today, they
would be horrified. They would be stunned at the
openness toward talking about such private matters as
sex, religion and money.
Women are no longer feel compelled to wait for a long
pause before they express their ideas, although they still
tend to be less dominant in conversation than men.
Children are also far more outspoken.
In contrast, people in decades past were more restricted
in what they talked about. Their world was smaller, and
they tended to stick to subjects that were more familiar to
them. This was before the age of specialization, and people
were on more equal footing when they talked to each
other.
Q.: In your opinion, just what makes for a good
conversation?
A.: A true conversation is like a sports event: its
outcome is usually in doubt, not in terms of winning or
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losing, but in the sense that we don't know where it is
headed.
Q.: Is the fact that parents and children are not on
equal footing in conversation a reason for a generation
gap?
A.: It's part of it. A lot of parents say to their teenagers,
Let's have a conversation. But the kids aren't interested
because they know their parents often want only to
interrogate or advise. They know that they don't have
equal power. Yet those same kids will talk on the phone for
hours with their peers.
Q.: Besides closed questions, what are some of the other
talk tools that are overused?
A.: A common one is giving quick advice when hearing
another's complaint or problem. You don't have the time to
really address those problems, so you rely on some quick
motto: Well, it'll all work out in the end or Keep your
chin up. Americans can't seem to have long conversations
about personal matters without wanting to come to some
instant solution much like the radio psychologists or
the advice columnists. There's a tendency to go for the
quick fix.
Q.: What skills are necessary to have a good
conversation?
A.: You need to know how to gather information, how to
guide someone, how to give and get attention and how to
demonstrate understanding - especially empathic
understanding. You also need to know how to make
explanations about people and things and how to disclose
personal information about yourself in an appropriate way.
Q.: Why are so many people deficient in talk skills?
A.: For one thing, our education system has failed
almost completely to teach these skills. We teach writing -
grammar, English composition - and we teach public
speaking, but we don't teach the pleasures and pitfalls of
face-to-face communication. This is ironic because we talk
to each other or engage in public speaking.
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Q.: How is our society damaged by people's
shortcomings in developing communication skills?
A.: It keeps people from making and keeping friends who
can form a personal support network that's vital to mental
health. It really is possible to teach people techniques for
exchanging help with family, friends and support groups.
Inadequate talk skills also play a big part in the high
divorce rate. Many couples simply don't talk to each other
well enough. One of the big problems is the husband's
inability or unwillingness to disclose as much as the
woman - particularly, when it comes to revealing feelings.
As for women, many allow themselves to be dominated
in conversation too much. For example, men interrupt
women more than they interrupt other men. That can lead
to bad feelings that build up over the years. Married
couples also overlook the importance of providing
entertaining talk to each other. In time, they can become
bored and drift apart.

II. Give synonymous phrases for:

Waning art of conversation; restricting social rules; adult
admonishing; to be stunned; to be outspoken; to stick to
subjects; pleasures and pitfalls; to reveal feelings; to
provide entertaining talk; to drift apart.

III. Answer the following questions:
1. Has there ever been a golden age of conversation in the
US?
2. How did social rules interfere with male and female
communication?
3. How did parents use to talk to their children?
4. Why is it difficult to restore conversation of the past
times?
5. Why is it of higher quality today?
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6. Do the young people talk today as freely as did at the
turn of the century?
7. Who is more dominant in conversation now: men or
women?
8. What does a true conversation resemble?
9. Do you agree that poor conversation is one of the
reasons of generation gap?
10. Do people eagerly listen to other people's complaints or
problems?
11. What advice do they hurry to offer?
12. What skills are important for conducting a good
conversation?
13. Is it necessary to teach people these techniques?
IV. Explain, please, what we mean by:
a) a golden age of conversation;
b) free-flowing talk;
c) equal footing in conversation;
d) face-to-face communication;
e) communication skills.
V. Compare conversation of today with that of past
times as far as men, women, young men and children
are concerned.
VI. Speak on:
a) the factors promoting high quality of conversation;
b) reasons for a generation gap:
c) empathic communication;
d) communication skills;
e) outcomes of couples misunderstanding.
VII. Express your opinion of the following
statements:
1. Women tend to be less dominant in conversation than
men.
2. A true conversation is like a sports event.
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3. Young people are more prone to talk on the phone with
their peers than with their parents.
4. Inadequate talk skills play a big part in the high divorce
rate.
VIII. Review the text.
IX. Write an essay on the theme Ideal Face-to-Face
Communication.


Text 10


I. Read and translate the text:

You Just Don't understand

Why can't men and women understand each other? Who
talks more, men or women? Is there a difference in the way
men talk to other men and the way women talk to other
women? What do men and women each want from their
conversations?
Deborah Tannen, a professor of linguistics at
Georgetown University, provides some startling answers to
these questions in her best selling book YOU JUST DON'T
UNDERSTAND: WOMEN AND MEN IN CONVERSATION.
Tannen analyzed numerous recordings and video tapes
of everyday conversations of children, teenagers and
adults to study how people interact and how they use
conversation to satisfy their needs. Her research led her to
the conclusion that American boys and girls grow up in
what are essentially different cultures, so talk between
women and men is cross-cultural communication.
Citing her research, and that of other specialists
sociologists, anthropologists, and psychologists, she
states:
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Even if they grow up in the same neighborhood, on the
same block, or in the same house, girls and boys grow up
in different worlds of words. Others talk to them differently
and expect and accept different ways of talking from them.
Most important, children learn how to talk, how to have
conversations, not only from their parents but from their
peers.
Researchers have documented that boys and girls
spend most of their time playing with other children of the
same sex and that the way that boys and girls talk to their
friends is very different. Boys tend to play outside and
prefer games involving large groups which have leaders
and systems of rules to determine the winners and the
losers. In their play, boys are primarily concerned about
establishing and maintaining their status in the hierarchy
of the group. Status is achieved by giving orders and
getting others to follow them. Their talk is centered on
giving commands, boasting about what they can do, or
arguing about who can do something best.
The world of little girls presents a stark contrast. Girls
tend to play indoors in small groups. They spend much of
their time sitting and talking, sharing secrets to maintain
their closeness. Girls play games where they take turns
and winning and losing is not very important. Whereas
independence and freedom are important to boys,
intimacy and connection are the goals of girls'
conversation.
These attitudes and conversational priorities carry over
into the lives of adult men and women. For men, life is a
contest, a struggle to preserve independence and avoid
failure. In a man's world, conversations are negotiations
in which people try to achieve and maintain the upper
hand if they can, and protect themselves from others
attempts to put them down and push them around.
For women, on the other hand, life is a community, a
struggle to preserve intimacy and avoid isolation. In a
woman's world, conversations are negotiations for
closeness in which people try to seek and give
confirmation and support, to reach consensus. They try to
protect themselves from others' attempts to push them
away.
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The differences in the conversations and the body
language show that females and males sometimes look like
they came from different planets. The girls and women sit
close together, face each other directly, and look into each
others' eyes when they talk. They take turns talking about
each others' problems and about the people they know and
make supportive statements.
The boys and men, on the other hand, tend to have
more open body positions and have very little eye contact.
They show their caring for each other by teasing and
joking. For men and boys, offering sympathy puts the
other in a one-down position, so when they talk about
their problems, they reassure each other by offering quick
advice.
Men and women view public and private speech
differently. Many men are more comfortable with public
speech where they defend their positions and exchange
information. In public situations, men speak more than
women. When they come home, however, men want to
relax and read the newspaper. Men are more interested in
knowing about the news than they are in discussing what
is happening to other people.
This is very frustrating to their wives, who are eager to
talk about the details of other people's lives their
friends, family members, and business associates. For
women, the purpose of conversation is interaction. But for
men, the purpose of conversation is to impart information.
They do not like small talk.
The fact that women are more comfortable with private
talk than they are with public talk puts them at a
disadvantage in the public arena. Women are not
accustomed to fighting for a chance to speak during the
meeting. Because women are used to waiting for their turn
to speak, they are frequently ignored by men who expect
that if they have something to say, they will speak up.
214

Because women are generally good listeners, asking
questions and making supportive comments, they may
find that men are lecturing them, instead of asking them
what they think, as another woman would do.
This may help explain why there are so few women who
hold public office. In order to run for office, a woman has
to be able to campaign like a man and employ many of the
conversation strategies used by men. In so doing, however,
she appears to be unwomanly, and may therefore not be
trusted.
Tannen concludes that it is important to understand
the differences in the conversational styles of men and
women so that we can better interpret the messages that
are being communicated. Understanding each others'
styles of speaking as women and men is the first step to
understanding each other as individuals.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. What was the aim of Deborah Tannen's research?
2. Who were the subjects of her research?
3. What research material did she use?
4. Why does she say that men and women look like they
came from different planets?
5. How do girls achieve status in their play group?
6. How do the boys play with each other?
7. How do men and women view life?
8. How do they behave in conversation with each other?
9. What is their body language like?
10. How do men react to each other's problems?
11. What docs a woman expect when she tells another
woman about a problem?
12. Why are there few women holding public offices?
13. What is it necessary to know for good communication?
215


III. Could you characterize body language
andconversational styles of men and women in the
process of communication?
IV. Do you agree with all statements suggested by
Tannen? What do you think of that?

V. Read the article and express your opinion of its
contents:


To Tell the Truth, you're a Liar!
(by Harvey Kirk)
Nobody likes being called a liar, but the truth is we
all tell lies. One expert estimates that the average person
tells more than 1000 lies a year, while another claims
some adults tell as many as 200 a day - or 73,000 a year.
Women lie more than men. However, women's lies fall
mostly into the 'white' category: reassuring a friend about
her choice of outfit or covering a situation of potential
embarrassment.
It comes as no surprise that politicians are the biggest
liars in the world, making promises they know they can't
keep. They are followed by salesmen - particularly the
used-car variety - and actors seeking publicity. Even
doctors sometimes lie to sick patients about their
condition.
Of all professional people, scientists, architects and
engineers lie the least. After all, their statements can easily
be checked by other experts in the same field.
But don't worry, says Dr Robert Goldstein, a professor
of psychiatry who led a team of researchers to find these
facts. He believes you can still be a nice person and a liar
216

at the same time, because most of the lies told by the
average person are harmless, white lies.
For example, a man might tell his wife or girlfriend,
Sweetheart, you look great, when in reality she doesn't
look so good. These sorts of lies are constructive. They can
cheer people up if they feel a bit low, says Dr Goldstein.
One of Dr Goldstein's colleagues Dr Gerald Jellison
recently put a team of researchers onto the subject of
lying. They found that adults tell about 200 a day.
These lies are excuses, alibis, explanations and apologies
we fabricate on the spot almost automatically, says Dr
Jellison.
His researchers found that women tell about four
white lies every 15 minutes, compared to men's three.
They also found, like Dr Goldstein, that women were better
at lying; their lies were more convincing than those told by
men. Women were also better at detecting lies.
When a person lies, a lot of physiological changes bike
place. It is based on these changes that lie-detector
machines, or specially adapted polygraphs operate. An
unnaturally cool customer can outwit a lie detector, but
the machine will not record a lie if one has not been
uttered.
Few of us can rely on technology to detect a falsehood,
but the study of body language can be almost as accurate.
If you think somebody is deceiving, here's what to look for:
Fidgeting: Liars often touch their faces and the backs of
their necks.
Hesitation: This applies in both the physical and vocal
sense. If your question stops somebody dead in their
tracks, beware! It takes longer to think up a lie than to tell
the truth.
Smiling: If somebody starts smiling more than usual, be on
your guard. Beware also when a normal smiler cuts back
on the smiles. Both could indicate lying.
217

Coughing: Together with sneezing, this is often used as a
stalling technique. Both sometimes indicate that the lie is
choking the person telling it.
Eyes: A person who is lying won't look you in the eye as
much as someone telling the truth. So be wary of anybody
who avoids eye contact.
The shrug: Be suspicious if somebody shrugs for no
apparent reason when they are telling you something. This
could indicate they are trying to deceive you.
Distance: Liars sometimes back away from you, if only
slightly, when they are trying to deceive you.
Voice: The pitch of the voice may be higher when
somebody is lying. Some liars also repeat themselves.
Disruption in the speech pattern, such as stammering or a
sudden pitch in the voice itself, also indicates lying.
Head nodding: This means the liar is betraying then his
doubts and his insincerity.
You can also tell people are lying by the things they say.
Liars use evasive words and phrases that often mean the
opposite to what they are saying. For example, if somebody
says, It depends, this is often a way of saying no without
having to face the consequences directly.
If somebody says, That's interesting, they mean just the
opposite. The person to whom you are talking is actually
bored with the conversation and wishes you would either
stop talking or change the subject.
Here are more examples of what they actually mean:
Let's get together some time. Without a specific
agreement, this is an insincere invitation that shows a
desire to get away, to end the conversation.
We'll see this is another way of saying no and is
often used by parents.
Don't worry, everything will be all right this really
means the listener is fed-up hearing about your problems
but wants to appear concerned.
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And there's the classic: I wouldn't lie to you. If somebody
says this to you, they certainly would lie and are probably
just about to.
VI. Give Russian equivalents for:
It comes as no surprise; to seek publicity; to detect a
falsehood; fidgeting; hesitation; a stalling technique; to
avoid eye contact; stammering; to betray doubts; to face
consequences; head nodding; an insincere invitation; to be
fed-up.
VII. Give English equivalents for:
; ; ; ;
; ; ; ;
; ; ;
; .
VIII. Explain the following words and word-
combinations:
White lies; publicity; a lie-detector machine; evasive
phrases; for no apparent reason; fidgeting.
IX. Answer the following questions:
1. What statistical data are given at the beginning of the
article?
2. Who lies more: men or women?
3. Who are the biggest liars in the world?
4. Who follows them?
5. What professional people lie the least?
6. What lies do people tell most often?
7. Could you give examples of white lies?
8. How often do adults lie a day?
9. Who is better at lying: males or females?
10. What are the non-verbal signals of lying?
11. What phrases do liars use?
X. Could you recollect an episode from your
personal experience when:
a)you couldn't help lying;
b)you were punished for lying by your parents;
219

c) your best friend deceived you and you experienced
emotional wounds.
XI. Say what evasive phrases you most often use
when:
a) you are bored in a conversation;
b) you have to leave;
c) you would like to end the conversation as soon as
possible.

Text 11
I. Read and translate the text:

Suicide Today
Before when people wanted to commit suicide, they
would throw themselves under a car. Nowadays Russian
businessmen have found a new method - they take out or
damage the brakes of their car, sit behind the wheel, and
take off.
Why are there so many suicides for no apparent
reason? Chemists are searching for answers to this
question. Post mortem examinations reveal that more than
95 percent of those who take their own life have certain
changes in their brain chemistry. It is also known that in
the few weeks before their deaths, more than half of
suicide victims visit their doctor. Usually, the doctor can't
find anything wrong, and so the patient is sent home.
In the opinion of Vladimir Skavysh, a specialist at the
Suicide Center, there is a predisposition to suicide in some
people. However, this does not mean that there is a
suicide gene, because the problem is psychological rather
than biological. There are many cases where suicide
becomes hereditary. However, this is presumably a case of
inheriting the principle of behavior in a critical situation.
In other words, at present science cannot give us an
220

unequivocal answer to the question of whether a suicide
gene exists.
It is well known that in certain circumstances the risk
of suicide increases sharply. People are more at risk if one
of their parents had killed themselves; if their parents are
divorced; if their parents fight like cat and dog; if they are
impulsive and cannot control their actions. The highest
risk category consists of introverts, that is people who,
after some kind of misfortune, direct their rage at
themselves rather than lash out at those around them.
Extroverts deal with their emotions by preferring to simply
smash someone in the face rather than indulge in
protracted contemplation of human malice and therefore
hardly ever commit suicide.
A quarter of all successful suicide victims are mentally
ill, another quarter are completely healthy, and the rest
are on the border-line - neither ill nor healthy, but inclined
to neuroses and tragic perception of reality.
There are many different reasons why some people commit
suicide. The real reason may be difficult to establish, even
when the victim has left a note. Often the notes describe
completely different reasons, or things which really have
only a slight or no connection at all with their decision to
die. Some decide to kill themselves without really knowing
why perhaps because insomnia suggested the idea of
suicide or it may have rained too hard or too long.
According to Alekper Tagi-Zade, manager of the
Samaritans - a charitable association for the prevention of
suicides - the profile of a typical potential suicide is
something like this: a woman between 35 and 40, with a
university degree, and in the overwhelming majority of
cases unmarried and without a boyfriend. Failure in one's
personal life very often leads to thoughts of suicide, and
neither men nor women are strong enough to acknowledge
that this is the cause of their depression, so they prefer to
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attribute everything to unpleasantness at work, money
worries, health anxieties, or social problems.
Only one in seven or eight attempted suicides is
successful. Women attempt to commit suicide much more
frequently than men. However, men are four times more
likely to actually commit suicide than women. The most
frequent method is an overdose, but fatalities from this
method are few.
The most reliable suicide method is by hanging. Ten
years ago an elderly American woman carried out what
became known as the 'suicide of the century'. She
attached a long rope to the balcony of her skyscraper with
a noose so that one end reached the ground and the other
end would tighten up in flight, she took a fatal dose of
sleeping tablets, stood on the edge of the balcony, and shot
herself in the head with a revolver. In this way an ordinary
American pensioner contrived to kill herself in four
different ways.
Specialists often cite this case as evidence that those
who make unsuccessful attempts really do not intend to
die. Any suicide victim whose decision is irrevocable
makes very careful preparations. In such cases there are
no overdoses with long-expired pills, weak ropes or
defective bullets.
Does one have the right to take one's own life? To whom
does human life belong? To the person, his nearest and
dearest, the state of God? In some countries - Canada,
Denmark, Chile - suicide attempts are punishable by law.
But history has known periods when suicide was a cult. In
ancient Rome patricians preferred to depart from their life
early rather than become a burden to their relatives in
their declining years. In Japan, the highest form of valour
and revenge was hari-kiri.
In Russia it was always thought that only sick people
killed themselves. In 1716, the future Tsar Peter wrote in
the Poteshny Regiment Rules and Regulations: If someone
kills themselves, then an executioner should drag their
body through the streets, then take it away to an
inaccessible place and bury it.
222

In recent years the suicide rate in Russia has gone up.
Personal loneliness has been added to social loneliness,
the fear of losing one's job, one's home, the ground under
one's feet. In Russia, in 1998, there were 45 suicides per
100,000 which is a terribly high figure by world standards.
In England the figure today is nine per 100,000 and in
pre-revolutionary Russia the 'norm' was three per 100,000.
The WHO has acknowledged that today in Russia suicide
is a slowly unfolding crisis.
When someone starts talking about killing himself and
tells his closest friends about it, they should not let him
out of their sight for a moment, and keep in constant
touch with him. At such times human contact is more
important than even before. Doctors advise those who
want to cope with delusions on their own that they should
buy a ticket for a long train journey, and unburden their
soul to the first person who comes along, it will take a
great load off their minds.

II. Answer the following questions:
1. What attempts do chemists make to find out apparent
reasons of suicides?
2. Is there a predisposition to suicide?
3. Who is at a more risk of committing suicide?
4. What does the highest risk category consist of?
5. How do extroverts deal with their emotions?
6. What arc the most possible reasons of suicide?
7. What is the profile of a typical potential suicide?
8. Who commits suicide more frequently: men or women?
9. Has suicide ever been a cult?
10. Why has the suicide rate in Russia gone up?
223

Text 12
I. Read the text and give its general idea:

Depression In College Students


Depression is widespread among college students. As
many as 78 percent of college students suffer some
symptoms of depression. Forty-six percent of the students
have intense enough depression to make some
professional help appropriate. At least twice the rate of
suicides occur among college students each year as among
nonstudents of similar age.
Why are these students, a more competent and
advantaged group than the general population, such easy
prey to depression? There are many possible reasons.
Many students are living away from home for the first
time. They must cope with situations that require new
kinds of adaptive behaviors. In addition, because colleges
bring together the most talented and achieving students
from many high schools, staying at the top is much
harder, and competition is fierce. Many students who have
always been near the top of their classes can't face the
prospect of a less outstanding position. Often students
aren't sure what career they want to follow. They may
spend time feeling guilty about the money their parents
are spending on their education and feel an obligation to
be successful even when they have no clear idea of what to
do with their lives. At first, they may have few people to
whom they can turn for comfort or reassurance. Their old
friends are back home, and the effort required to make
new friends may cause some anxiety. Severe loneliness
and feelings of isolation result.
Self-destruction is also a serious problem among
college students. The suicide rate for the college
population is 50 percent higher than for the general
population. Each year 100,000 college students threaten
224

suicide and some 1,000 actually kill themselves. This
problem is found not only in the United States, but in
European countries, India, and Japan as well. During a
nine-year period, twenty-three students enrolled at the
University of California at Berkeley committed suicide.
Compared to their nonsuicidal classmates, these students
appeared to be moody, drove themselves harder, and were
depressed frequently. Their depression often took the form
of extreme agitation. Most of them gave recurrent warnings
of their suicidal intent. The major precipitating factors
seemed to be worry about schoolwork, concerns about
health, and difficulties in their relationships with others.
Most of the students who feel depressed do not seek
professional help either within the college or from outside
sources. They try to handle the problem by working
harder, by talking to friends, or by dropping out. Colleges
have tried to cope with these problems in a variety of ways.
Perhaps one effective way to reduce this problem is to
make students aware that what they are experiencing is
not unique. The majority of students have the same
discomforts. This might help them decide more
intelligently how to deal with depression and where to seek
help. Rather than attributing academic difficulties to
intellectual deficiencies, the student might be made aware
that emotional stress and depression may cause sadness
and less motivated behavior, which also might interfere
with academic performance.


II. Answer the following questions:
1. How many percent of college students suffer depression?
2. What are the possible reasons of such a situation?
3. Are these reasons social or psychological?
4. Self-destruction is also a serious problem, isn't it?
5. What data are given concerning a suicide rate among
college students?
225

6. What countries are mentioned in connection with it?
7. How did these suicidal victims behave on the eve?
8. What were the major precipitating factors of their
depression?
9. How do depressed students very often try to cope with
their problems?
10. What is the effective way to reduce the problem of
depression?
III. Choose the right variant:
a) At least thrice the rate of suicides occur among college
students as among nonstudents.
b) At least twice the rate of suicides occur among college
students as among nonstudents.
c) At least four times the rate of suicides occur among
college students as among nonstudents.

WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
To commit suicide; for no apparent reason;
predisposition; hereditary; to inherit the principle of
behavior; to be at a risk of; to deal with emotions;
protracted contemplation; to be on the border-line; to be
inclined to; a charitable association; overwhelming
majority; to cope with delusions.
II. Make up all possible word-combinations with the
word suicide:
To commit; a predisposition to; an attempt; a center;
gene; a risk of; a victim; prevention of; a thought of; a
reliable method; a century; n rate; to threaten.
I I I . Give English equivalents for:
; -
; ;
; ; ;
; ; -
; ; ;
226

; ;
.

IV. Give synonyms for:
Inherited; to deal with; to be prone to; to attempt
suicide; to take place; a victim of depression; to demand;
to feel responsibility; overwhelming factors; to relieve a
problem; to search for.
V. What word-combinations may be used to
characterize:
1. Suicide causes.
2. People at a high risk of committing suicides.
3. Suicide victims.
4. Depression as a psychic state.
5. Severe loneliness.
6. Effective ways to reduce depression.


Text 13
I. Read the text and try to explain why it is called in
this way:


Hypnosis
Useful In Medicine, Dangerous In Court

The use of hypnosis is spreading. The technique has
been accepted by the American Medical Association, the
American Psychiatric Association and the American
Psychological Association. In addition to many
encouraging clinical reports, there is now a growing body
of research which helps to clarify the nature of hypnosis
and supports its use in a variety of areas.
227

We know that hypnosis has many useful applications in
medicine, such as in the treatment of pain. It can lower an
individual's level of arousal, and it helps in the treatment
of stress. It is effective in the treatment of some forms of
asthma and in certain skin disorders. It can even help
modify the response of the body's immune system.
Hypnosis is also used in psychiatry in a variety of ways: in
the context of psychodynamic therapy, to uncover feelings
and memories; in the context of behavioral approaches, to
facilitate imagery.
The medical uses of hypnosis are not controversial:
what is controversial is the use of hypnosis in questioning
suspects and witnesses to solve crimes.
If hypnosis is used to create pseudo memories, it can be
extremely dangerous in the courtroom. If you use hypnosis
to convince a jury that an innocent man is guilty, it can
lead to a terrible miscarriage of justice.
Many of the effects of hypnosis wear off rapidly. Typical
posthypnotic suggestions do not tend to persist over long
periods, but hypnosis can permanently distort memory if
the hypnotized subject comes to believe that he has
remembered something that had not actually occurred.
Like any therapeutic techniques, hypnosis has certain
risks. Used in competent hands for appropriate reasons,
hypnosis is very effective.
Hypnosis is a state or condition where the subject
focuses his mind on the suggestions of the hypnotist so
that he is able to experience distortions of memory or
perception. For the time being, the subject suspends
disbelief and lowers his critical judgment. A good way to
think of it is that your mind becomes so focused that you
really get into fantasy. You become so absorbed in what
you are thinking that you begin to experience it as reality.
Dramatic results have been achieved in the relief of
asthma and some other allergies. This is because hypnosis
can at times modify the body's immune system and block
some of the allergic reaction. Hypnosis can be quite
effective in arresting intractable hiccups and treating some
228

forms of severe insomnia. One of the more interesting uses
is in the treatment of certain kinds of warts and some skin
disorders.
Hypnosis is very effective in the control of pain.
Children with leukemia, for example, must undergo a
painful procedure to obtain bone-marrow specimens to
assess their condition. With hypnosis you can relieve the
anxiety associated with the anticipation of pain and help
these children to tolerate this procedure relatively
comfortably.
Hypnosis is not very effective in treating disorders of
self-control. It won't make you do something that you can
do voluntarily if you put your mind to it - but that you
really don't want to do for a variety of conscious and
subconscious reasons.
In getting people to stop smoking, the success rate with
hypnosis has not been dramatic. It's more a help in
controlling the discomfort associated with quitting rather
than in quitting itself. For people trying to lose weight,
hypnosis is only moderately and occasionally effective. For
control of drugs and alcohol, hypnosis is virtually useless.
In most cases of alcohol and drug abuse, there are
complex psychological reasons that prevent the mind from
responding to hypnotic suggestions for self-control.
Finally, hypnosis has very little use in the major
psychoses. It is rarely, if ever, the treatment of choice for
severe depressions, mania or schizophrenia.

229


II. Translate into Russian the second part of the
text starting from the paragraph the beginning of
which sounds like that: Hypnosis is a state or
condition...
III. Give Russian equivalents for:
Technique; a growing body of research; a variety of
areas; to uncover feelings and memories; psychodynamic
therapy; suspect; anticipation of pain; to tolerate a painful
procedure; to respond to hypnotic suggestions.
IV. Give English equivalents for:
; ; -
; ; ; ;
;
; ; .
V. Translate into Russian:
Hypnosis; hypnotic session; hypnotic suggestion;
posthypnotic suggestion; hypnotized subject; hypnotist.
VI. Make up sentences. Choose the correct ending.
1. Hypnosis is useful
in ...
a) controlling discomfort
b) reducing anxiety
2.Hypnosis is effective
in ...
c)producing suggestions
3.Hypnosis is
controversial in ...
d) modifying the response of the body's
immune system
4.The use of hypnosis
is doubtful in ...
e) treating insomnia
f)overcoming addictions
g)the treatment of pain and skin
disorders
h) competent hands for
appropriate reasons
230

i) questioning suspects and
witnesses
j)creating pseudomemories
k) facilitating imagery
l) solving crimes
m) treating psychoses
n) relieving allergic reactions
o) convincing a jury to take a
decision
p) tolerating a painful procedure
q) lowering one's critical
judgment
r) treating self-control
s) losing weight

VII. Make up a list of positive and negative effects
of hypnosis.
VIII. Answer the following questions:
1. What associations have accepted the technique of
hypnosis?
2. What useful applications has hypnosis in medicine?
3. How is it used in psychiatry?
4. What use of hypnosis is controversial?
5. Why can hypnosis be dangerous?
6. Do typical posthypnotic suggestions persist over long or
short periods?
7. Can hypnosis distort memory in any way?
8. Is hypnosis a risky procedure?
9. There is a definition of hypnosis in the article. What is
it? Do you agree with it?
10. What happens to the hypnotized subject?
11. Where is hypnosis very effective?
12. Is it possible to relieve pain under hypnosis?
13. Can hypnosis help overcome smoking and drug
addictions?
14. Can hypnosis help overcome alcohol abuse?
231

IX. Agree or disagree with the following:
1. Hypnosis has many useful applications.
2. But it is not effective in relieving pain.
3. Hypnosis can cause actual physical and mental harm.
4. With hypnosis we may stimulate human creative
abilities.
5. Animals can be easily hypnotized.
6. Hypnosis used in psychiatry has dramatic effects.
7. Hypnosis is a phenomenon of wonders.
X. Review the article. Add some facts from your
personal experience.
XI. Read the article and find answers to the
following questions:
1. What does hypnosis mean?
2. What did experiments staged by V.Raikov show?
3. Bo the aroused abilities disappear after hypnosis?
4. How does hypnosis help in curing people?
5. What diseases can hypnosis heal?

Healing under Hypnosis

Hypnosis means sleep in Greek. Maybe that's why the
prevailing opinion is that it is a passive state in which a
person's will is paralyzed. In real life, however, hypnosis is
a special state of the human's psychic activities and of the
nervous system. Experiments staged by Vladimir Raikov, a
well-known psychotherapist, showed that abilities which
the subjects hadn't even suspected they have before may
be aroused in them in a hypnotic state.
For example, under hypnosis, a first-year student at a
conservatoire performed piano pieces with the skill of a
first-class master. Others subjected to the test started
playing chess about two categories of skill higher. The
important thing is that the aroused abilities do not
disappear after hypnosis. If the people were doing
drawings under hypnosis, then after 15 to 20 sessions
232

their drawings could well be displayed at professional
exhibitions.
Hypnosis helps in curing people of illness. It is
suggested to the patient that he is healthy. The patient
trains for about a month to learn how to arouse this
feeling of health in himself. The feeling of health becomes a
habit, which, in its turn, mobilizes the organism to combat
the disease.
Hypnosis can heal hypertension, angina pectoris,
cardiac diseases, ulcers at early stages, and many
neuroses.

Notes:
Angina pectoris -
Ulcer -

XII. Make up disjunctive questions:
1. Hypnosis means sleep in Greek.
2. It is a special state of human psychic activities.
3. It helps in curing people of illness.
4. The feeling of health becomes a habit.
5. Hypnosis can heal many neuroses.
III. Speak on:
1. Vladimir Raikov.
2. Experiments under hypnosis.
3. Useful effects of hypnosis.
XIV. Express your opinion of the article.
XV. A role-play: Imagine you are a hypnotist. Your
subject is easily hypnotized. He has come to you as he is
afraid of the operation to be made next week. Ask him
some questions about pleasant past experinces and try to
relieve his fear.

233


Text 14
I. Read and translate the text:

Taste and Smell Lessen with Age

The senses of taste and smell are inextricably
connected, and both can have a profound effect on
appetite. In elderly persons, the neurological functions
that govern these senses decrease with age as a result of
age-related neuron loss, and the elderly lose the intensity
of taste and smell that they possessed when younger. This
can lead to a concominant decline in appetite, which may
lead to nutritional problems, reported the American
researchers.
The scientists used an olefactometer to compare the
abilities of college students and elderly people to detect
and discriminate odors. The groups were matched as
much as possible for background and socio-economic
level, both of which can be important factors in familiarity
with tastes and smells.
College students are able to detect an odor at much
lower concentrations than are elderly people. This change
in threshold affects eating not only because odor itself can
stimulate appetite, but also because some people notice a
bitter taste in foods that they are unable to smell. The
scientists report that a significantly greater percentage of
elderly persons complained of a bitter flavor in foods that
tasted normal to younger subjects. For the elderly, this
may mean that foods they once enjoyed no longer taste
good.
A decreased sense of smell among elderly persons held
true not only for food, but for less pleasant odors as well.
The researchers tested their subjects with urinelike odors,
234

and found that aged subjects had even more difficulty
detecting those odors than they did detecting the food
smells. They believe that this may account for the
tolerance in the elderly of the sometimes malodorous
atmosphere of nursing homes and hospitals. Many
younger persons say that they can't stand to work there
because of the smell, although older residents seem
unbothered.
The scientists also found that elderly persons lose the
ability to discriminate between unlike tastes, as well as to
identify familiar ones. They prepared foods to make them
identical in consistency, then tested them on blindfolded
subjects. For elderly persons, things began to taste the
same. The person might be able to detect a taste, but not
be able to tell what it is. For example, only 55 percent of
the elderly subjects recognized the taste of apple, while 61
percent of the college students identified it correctly. Many
elderly persons prefer fruit flavors, however, because the
ability to taste these flavors often lingers longer.
The explanation for this decline in sensory ability may
lie in the fact that tastes are coded across neurons. For
example, there is a difference in the codes for salty tastes
and for bitter tastes. With age we drop neurons, and so
with age there is less difference between the two patterns.
If a person needed a total neural mass of, say ten, to
detect taste, he may need a larger mass to discriminate
between tastes.

II. Give Russian equivalents for:
To have a profound effect; elderly people; a
concomitant decline; threshold; nursing home; a greater
percentage; blindfolded subjects; fruit flavours; sensory
ability; bitter tastes; a total neural mass.
. Answer the following questions:
1. Why do the neurological functions decrease in elderly
persons?
2. Where can it lead to?
3. What experiment was made to discriminate odors?
235

4. What did the elderly people complain about?
5. What other ability do elderly people lose?
6. What flavours do they prefer?
7. How may it be explained?
8. What is the conclusion drawn by the researchers?
IV. Enumerate basic physiological changes
occurring in the organism with aging.
V. Divide the article into logical parts and make up
a plan for a review.
VI. Review the article.
VII. How old are you now? Have your tastes and smell
changed since your childhood? What factors
influence your appetite? Are they psychological or
social in nature?
VIII. Make up a list of questions you would like to ask
an elderly man concerning his tastes, if you are given
such a task.
IX. Read the item and say what scent has been
identified as being relaxing:

A Relaxing New Scent

Feeling a bit tense lately? Maybe your sales report is
three days overdue. Or perhaps your sports car is in the
auto shop for an estimate. Or maybe your unemployed
brother-in-law is coming to stay. Well, you need something
to help you relax. How about a nice whiff of apple spice
fragrance?
OK, maybe that's not quite what you had in mind as a
relaxant. But researchers of Yale University say that
sniffing fragrances is an ideal way to relieve stress. In
studies on the effect of odors on human emotion,
researchers tested 200 people by inducing hassie factors.
Test subjects had to do complex arithmetic problems in
their head and finish partial sentences that had
236

embarrassing or emotion-laden meanings. During the
testing the researchers took physiological measurements
of anxiety, such as blood pressure. Then they introduced
different odors into the test subject's environment and
studied the physiological changes.
So far one particular fragrance, apple spice, has shown
a significant anxiety-reducing effect. The researchers
received a patent on it, but has no immediate plans to
market the scent; they want to give it further study. Still,
the potential market for an anxiety-relieving odor seems
promising.
X. What scent reduces your sense of anxiety?



237

EMOTIONS and STRESS

UNIT VIII
Text I
I. Read and translate the text:

Emotions

An emotion is generally a response of a person to a
situation in which he finds himself. A situation which is
out of the ordinary one for an individual is likely to result
in emotional activity. This emotional activity is generally
random and disorganized. It is accompanied by feelings of
pleasantness or unpleasantness and universally
associated with marked changes in the chemistry of the
body.
We know an emotion is not an independent element
which comes or goes at will. It is initiated by certain
perceptions and accompanies the activities which are
stimulated by the situation. We all know how much easier
it is to work long hours on something we enjoy and how
surprised we are to discover that we are suddenly fatigued
after such activity. On the other hand, it is exceedingly
difficult to work at something we dislike and find ourselves
restless settling down to work at something with conscious
effort and intent.
Most of our emotions are learned. We are born with a
capacity for emotions and physiological structure capable
of handling emotionally charged situations, but emotional
behaviour as a reaction to particular objects or events is
learned. A young child in such a situation as that of
frustration may respond by an emotional storm. As he gets
older he learns to inhibit the purely emotional response
and to exhibit voluntarily controlled behaviour. As he
learns to do this, emotional behaviour becomes less
common and less intense. Uninhibited emotional
238

responses amongst human adults are normally rare, and
when an individual does exhibit outbreaks of rage, panic
etc., these are recognised as pathological. They are one of
the symptoms of regression or a going back to infantile
modes of behaviour.
Throughout the life people may experience different
kinds of emotions. The most characteristic for human
beings are the so-called altruistic emotions. They may be
of two types, i.e. sympathetic and disinterested emotions.
We may experience the emotion of fear when we hear a
scream of a frightened person or anger, when we hear a
friend's voice raised angrily towards some person. The
emotion called out in this way is called a sympathetic
emotion. Similarly, we may feel anger at an insulting
speech about another person which he has not himself
heard. The emotion called out in this way on behalf of
another person is called a disinterested emotion. The
altruistic emotions are of obvious importance in social
behaviour.

II. Answer the following questions:
1. In what way may an emotion be defined?
2. What is an emotional activity accompanied by?
3. What is an emotion initiated by?
4. Are our emotions learned or inborn?
5. What is a child's reaction to a situation characterized
by?
6. Is it easy or difficult for a grown-up person to inhibit
an emotional response?
7. What altruistic emotions do you know?
8. What is a sympathetic emotion called?
9. What is a disinterested emotion called?
III. Ask your groupmate:
1. whether he agrees or disagrees with the definition of
the emotion given in the text;
2. what emotions he experiences when he is fatigued;
3. what he feels when he has not finished his work but
a deadline is coming;
239

4. if he often experiences altruistic emotions;
5. if he likes to express his emotions and feelings openly;
6. whether he can inhibit his emotional responses quite
easily;
7. if he used to respond to a frustrated situation in his
childhood by an emotional storm.
IV. What is your reaction to be in the following
situations:
(a) You see the threatening gestures towards some
person.
(b) You see another person on the point of being run
down by a bus which he has not seen.
(c) You watch a child playing on the road unconscious of
the danger.
(d) You learn of the death of your friend's father.
(e) You learn that your neighbour has been run down
by a bus.
V. Characterize in short an emotionally-charged
situation. Give examples.
VI. Make up an outline of the text Emotions.
VII. Speak on the text according to your plan. Give
additional information if you like.
VIII. Look through the text and say what problem
this text deals with.

Fatigue
Several factors cause fatigue, but in general, they come
down to two main causes: lack of fuel or food, and the
excessive accumulation of by-products of activity. Muscle
activity uses up stores of glycogen or sugar. It also must
have oxygen, for a muscle deprived of it will soon cease to
contract. Lactic acid and carborn dioxide are the chief by-
products of muscle activity, but there are also toxins from
240

other sources which may help produce fatigue. Some of
these toxins may come from bodily infections and some
may be absorbed from breathing or from the digestive
process. But in addition to these factors, there are certain
causes of fatigue which are more or less obscure. Some of
these are less physiological than psychological, such as
lack of interest in what you are doing. When you do
something that bores you, you tire easily; if you are
interested in your work, you forget the amount of energy
you put into it. You also tire more quickly when you are
walking, for in walking, each leg rests half of the time.
(C.P.HICKMAN from Health for College
Students)
Notes:
lack - ;
to cease - to stop;
to contract ;
lactic acid - ;
obscure ;
to bore .

IX. Read the text and be ready to answer the
following questions:
1. What are the two main causes of fatigue?
2. Are there any psychological causes of fatigue?
3. What additional information is given in the text?
X. Give the general idea of the text.
XI. Explain:
what circumstances influence your productivity in work;
under what conditions you are fatigued more quickly;
what emotions you experience when you are doing the
work you dislike;
what emotions you experience when you are solving
some interesting problem;
why you do not like being disturbed by somebody while
you are working.
241

Text 2

I. Read and translate the text:


Classification of Emotions


The list of feelings and reactions we include under the
term emotion is almost infinite. A few that come to mind
readily are: fear, anger, rage, horror, terror, agony, anxiety,
jealousy, shame, embarrassment, disgust, grief, boredom
and dejection. These tend to be negative emotions, but
positive ones can be added: love, joy, amusement, elation,
ecstasy, pleasure, and happiness. It is quite clear that the
list could be extended indefinitely, depending on one's
introspective skill and vocabulary range.
At birth there are just a few basic emotional reactions
that develop and combine in different ways, through
learning and maturation, to cover the full spectrum of
emotional experience as we know it at adults. The
behaviourist, John Watson postulated three basic
emotions in children - fear, rage, and love.
Robert Plutchik has proposed a theory of emotional
mixture. He assumes that there are eight basic emotional
reactions - anticipation, anger, joy, acceptance, surprise,
fear, sorrow, and disgust. According to him, each primary
emotional reaction can vary in intensity producing
different shades of emotional experience. For instance,
such basic reaction like fear can vary in intensity from
timidity, through apprehension, fear and panic, up to
terror. So we may have annoyance, anger, and rage as well
as calmness, serenity, pleasure, happiness, joy and
ecstasy.
Other psychologists took a more descriptive approach to
the classification of emotions. This approach involves the
isolation of one or more basic dimensions along which
emotional reactions can be placed. Three main dimensions
242

were described by various authors: intensity,
pleasantness-unpleasantness, and approach-avoidance.
The intensity dimension is the one most psychologists
agree upon. It was also called a level of arousal or
activation. And Elizabeth Duffy suggested that the term
emotion be replaced by arousal or energy mobilization.
Emotions at the same level of intensity may be pleasant
or unpleasant. Among the more aroused emotions appear
joy, astonishment, hopefulness, and ecstasy on the
pleasant side and disgust, fear, rage and terror on the
unpleasant one. Among the less aroused emotions there
are the pleasantness of material feeling and the
unpleasantness of grief.



II. Answer the following questions:
1. Into what types are emotions differentiated?
2. How do basic emotional reactions develop?
3. What basic emotions did John Watson postulate?
4. What theory did Robert Plutchik propose?
5. How can each primary reaction vary?
6. What does the descriptive approach involve?
7. What are three main dimensions of emotions?
8. How are emotions differentiated at the same level of
intensity?
9. What theory do you think to be the most influential?
Give your arguments.


243


III. Explain:
what you understand by positive emotions;
what you mean by negative emotions;
the essence of John Watson's theory;
the importance of Robert Plutchik's theory.
IV Say, if you please:
what emotions you experience more often: positive or
negative;
what circumstances give rise to your positive emotions
and negative ones accordingly.
V. Describe to your friend the most pleasant
situation you have ever found yourself in.
VI. Think of the unpleasant situation you have been
a witness of.
VII. Give the general idea of the text Classification
of Emotions.
VIII. Read the text and give its contents in Russian:

Emotions and Heart
was so upset, I thought he'd have a heart attack.
That expression is seldom meant literally, but a group of
Boston heart specialists and psychiatrists report in the
JOURNAL of the AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION that
there does seem to be a connection between emotions and
heart. In a study of 117 people who had been hospitalized
for life threatening disturbances in heart rhythm, and in
most cases had suffered cardiac arrest, the doctors found
that 25 had experienced cute emotional disturbances,
during 24 hours.
Situations that seemed to bring on attack included
arguments, marital breakups, and the death of someone
close. In 17 cases, the precipitating emotion was
244

apparently anger; in others, depression, fear, grief,
extreme agitation and tension played a role. The
researchers think these upsets may interfere with the
nervous system's regulation of heart rhythm and, they
add, doctors should study not only the physical conditions
of patients' hearts, but also their lives and emotions.

Notes:
upset - ;
disturbance ;
marital breakups - .
IX. Read the text once more and answer:
1. What observation did Boston specialists make?
2. What were the reasons of the heart attacks?
3. What is the task of the doctors in this respect?

X. Speak on the research made by Boston
specialists.


Text 3
I. Read and translate the text:

Emotional Motives

Emotions are powerful reactions that have motivating
effects on behaviour. Emotions are physiological and
psychological responses that influence perception,
learning, and performance. Unfortunately, there is no
basic definition of emotions. For example, some people
take the position that emotion is an entirely different
process from motivation. Others say that emotions are
simply one class of motives. Some define emotion
subjectively - in terms of feelings experienced by the
individual. Others see emotions as bodily changes. Most of
these people have emphasized the reaction as the main
245

component in emotion, but others concentrate on the
perception of the situation that arouses the emotion or the
effects of the emotion on ordinary behaviour.
The first person to seriously challenge the classical
position was William James, the famous Harvard
psychologist. In 1884, he wrote that conscious experience
follows the bodily reactions, which are more or less
automatic reactions to stimuli in the environment. The
most important part of the bodily reaction is in internal
visceral organs - the heart, stomach, blood vessels and so
on.
Since a Danish scientist, Carl Lange, put forth a similar
theory at about the same time, the basic notion has come
to be known as the James-Lange theory of emotions.
Walter Cannon, one of the chief critics of the James-
Lange theory proposed an alternative explanation of
emotion and bodily change. This is the thalamic theory,
which was also suggested by P. Bard and has become
known as the Cannon-Bard theory. According to this
theory, incoming sensory impulses pass through the
thalamus, which is at the base of the brain near the
hypothalamus. During the transit in the thalamus, the
incoming message receives an emotional quale.
Ordinarily, the cortex inhibits this emotional reaction in
the thalamus but, if it does not, then emotion is released.
This consists of a simultaneous discharge of the thalamus
upwards the cortex which constitutes the conscious
emotional experience - and downwards to the body -which
produces the visceral and muscular expression.
The most sensible hypothesis has been put forth by
Magda Arnold. First of all, she says that most of the
emphasis has been on emotion, expression, action. She
suggests the following sequence of an emotional reaction:
1. Perception the neutral reception of external
stimuli.
2. Appraisal a judgement of the stimuli as good and
beneficial or bad and harmful.
3. Emotion - a left tendency towards stimuli.
246

4. Expression - physiological changes organized towards
approach or withdrawal.
5. Action - approach or withdrawal may occur if another
emotion does not interfere.
An important feature of Arnold's theory is that emotion
is defined in a motivational sense.


II. Answer the following questions:
1. In what way do psychologists define emotions?
2. What definition do you think is the most significant in
the psychological thought?
3. How did William James treat emotions?
4. Why is this theory called the James-Lange theory?
5. What theory did Walter Cannon propose?
6. Why is it called the Cannon-Bard theory?
7. What theory was put forth by Magda Arnold?
8. Where does the importance of her theory lie?

III. Choose the facts to prove that:
1. There is no general agreement on the definition of
emotions.
2. William James was the first to seriously challenge the
classical position.
3. There was another explanation of emotion and bodily
change.
4. Magda Arnold put forth the most sensible hypothesis.
IV. Ask your friend to explain you:
the core of the W. James' theory;
the essence of the Cannon-Bard theory;
the significance of M. Arnold's theory.


247

V. Speak on the text. Give additional information if
you please.
VI. Read the article and comment on it:

Anxiety Gene Turns out a Bit of Worry
(by Charles Arthur, Science Editor)

Recently the scientists in the US and Germany have
announced they found an anxiety gene - which played a
part in determining how anxious people were, according to
psychological tests measuring a trait called harm
avoidance.
But now another team of scientists, based in Jerusalem,
say that direct measurement of 120 people with and
without that gene showed no correlation between their
anxiety levels and the gene's presence.
So is it worrying that the anxiety gene appears to have
disappeared? According to one author of the latest study,
it may only mean that the gene affects anxiety in some
groups but not in others; and one of the authors of the
original study suggested that the latest project would not
have detected the effect anyway.
Difference in genetic backgrounds and environment
could mean the gene influences the anxiety trait differently
in some groups.
The gene itself lies on chromosome 17 and plays a role
in a brain communication system that takes the
neurotransmitter serotonin - the pleasure chemical -back
into brain cells. The gene itself comes in two forms, short
and long, so it seemed logical the short version would
lead to less available serotonin - and so more readily to a
state of anxiety.


VII. Do you think these findings seem to be truthful
or somehow a bit conroversial? Express your point of
view.
248

VIII. Read the text and explain why fathers smile less
than mothers:

Translating the Smile
Stettner, a psychologist at Wayne State University in
Detroit, says smiling is a complicated and important form
of self-expression, and he believes that improved
knowledge of it could have practical implications.
Besides, it feels good, Stettner said at a symposium on
his favourite subject at a meeting of the International
Primatological Society.
It's like discovering a language system, he said. Ive
become ensnared in working out the vocabulary of
smiling. Stettner told the symposium that there are many
different kinds of smile 1,814,400, by his estimate.
That could be off by several hundred thousand, he
added, not with a straight face.
He turned serious when explaining some of the practical
applications of his work. A lot of people are interested in
smiles. People who study a foreign language, for example,
ought to know what different smiles signify in different
cultures. You learn a language but you don't learn the
nonverbal language.
Most of what is known about smiling comes from studies
of infants and their parents. Sidney Perloe of Haverford
College in Pensylvania tried to determine why fathers tend
to smile less at the antics of babies than mothers do.
It had been thought that fathers had less reason than
mothers to develop rapport with infants because fathers
play a smaller role in nurturing the infant. But Perloe
found that males are less likely to smile simply because
they are more aware that they are being watched by other
adults and may fear that smiling at babies might be
unbecoming.
Notes:
to ensnare ;
rapport .

249

IX. Read the text again and choose the information
on:
1. Stettner's research.
2. Sidney's studies.
X. Do you believe in the results of their
investigation? Give your arguments.
XI. Develop the following situation:
You have just come from the symposium of the
International Primatological Society. What would you like
to tell your colleagues about?


Text 4

I. Read and translate the text:


Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is communication using the
body or cultural symbols other than spoken words.
Nonverbal communication is largely based on the use of
the body to convey information to others, as suggested by
the common phrase body language. Facial expressions are
crucial to nonverbal communication. Smiling, for example,
is a symbol of pleasure, although we distinguish between
the casual, lighthearted smile, a smile of embarrassment,
and the full, unrestrained smile we often associate with
the cat who ate the canary. Other facial expressions are
used to convey an almost limitless range of human
emotions, including anger, confusion, disgust, pain,
indifference, sadness, and seriousness of purpose.
Eye contact is another widely used means of nonverbal
communication. In general, eye contact is an invitation to
250

further social interaction. An individual across the room
catches our eye, for instance, and a conversation begins.
Avoiding the eyes of another, in contrast, discourages
communication. Our hands speak for us too. Hand
gestures commonly used within our culture can convey,
among other things, an insult, a request for a ride, an
invitation to have someone join us, or a demand that
others stop in their tracks. Gestures of this kind are
commonly used to supplement spoken words. Pointing in a
menacing way at someone, for example, gives greater
emphasis to a word of warning, as a shrug of the
shoulders adds an air of indifference to the phrase I don't
know, and rapidly waving the arms lends urgency to the
single word Hurry!
Like all symbols, nonverbal communication is largely
culture-specific. A smile indicates pleasure the world over,
but many gestures that are significant within North
American culture mean nothing or something very
different - to members of other cultures. Indeed, a gesture
indicating praise in North America may convey a powerful
insult to those who read the performance according to a
different set of rules.
The examples of nonverbal communication presented so
far are elements of a deliberate performance. Nonverbal
communication is often difficult to control, however.
Sometimes, in fact, verbal communication (information we
give) is contradicted by nonverbal cues (information we
give off). Listening to her teenage son's explanation for
returning home at a late hour, for instance, a mother
begins to doubt his words because he is unable to hold eye
contact. In this manner, nonverbal communication may
provide clues to verbal deception.
II. Answer the following questions:
1. How would you define nonverbal communication?
2. What is the other term for nonverbal communication?
3. What does smiling signify?
4. What emotions do facial expressions convey?
5. What are the means of conveying nonverbal
communication?
251

6. Why do we say that nonverbal communication is
culture-specific?
7. Is it easy or difficult to control nonverbal
communication?
8. Give examples of nonverbal communication.

III. Make up disjunctive questions of the following
sentences:
1. Nonverbal communication is based on the use of the
body to convey information.
2. Facial expressions are crucial to nonverbal
communication.
3. Eye contact is a widely used means of body language.
4. Hand gestures are also eloquent in communicating with
people.
5. Hand gestures supplement spoken words.
6. Body language is largely culture-specific.
7. Nonverbal communication is often difficult to control.

IV. Prove the following statements by the facts from
the text:
1. Facial expressions are crucial to nonverbal
communication.
2. Nonverbal communication is greatly based on the
culture we live in.
V. Speak on the text.
VI. Think of all possible situations where nonverbal
communication plays a greater part than spoken
words.
VII. Look through the text, find and read sentences
on:
the most common indicators of approval and
disapproval;
universal nonverbal signals.


252

What Body Language Can Tell you That
Words Cannot

The most successful lawyers, teachers, and salespeople,
among others, have one thing in common: A capacity to
understand nonverbal signals and use them
advantageously. It is important for people to understand
body language - that is, communication by means of
movements and gestures.
For example, the most successful lawyers are those who
look at a jury and a judge and pick up little cues that tip
off what people are thinking. An observant lawyer may
notice that the judge is compressing his lips into a thin
line as the lawyer is speaking. That is a common sign
people use when they disagree. Such signals are used
constantly, even though people generally don't realize they
are communicating through their movements, posture and
mannerisms.
Nonverbal language is likely to reveal a person's true
feelings, which may be contrary to what is usually being
spoken. There are some common indicators of approval
and disapproval. For example, when people show rapport
with each other, they face each other squarely, they lean
slightly toward each other, and there is more eye contact.
If they disagree, they unconsciously turn their bodies away
from each other. Such forms are unmistakable signs of
body language.
There are some universal nonverbal signals. One is an
automatic raising of the eyebrows that a person does when
he or she meets someone else. It is a natural and universal
form of greeting. Another obvious cue is known as the
hand behind head, which signals uncertainty or stress.
About 125 nonverbal signals of the type have been
catalogued as recognizable.
Mannerisms we get are almost entirely inborn.
Nonverbal behaviour occurs naturally, without being
taught, and even shows up in newborn infants and in
lower animals. It is firmly grounded in evolutionary
development. It's something that Mother Nature provides
to help us get along with each other.
253

Nonverbal communication is also what we call culture-
free; it applies worldwide. People can go anywhere and
understand these signals, even if they don't know the
spoken language.
Notes:
to tip off - ;
a Judge - .

VIII. Read the text again and be ready to answer
the following questions:
1. What does body communication mean?
2. What is a common sign people use when they disagree?
3. What does nonverbal language reveal?
4. What gesture signals uncertainty or stress?
5. How many nonverbal signals exist?
6. Are mannerisms inborn or learned?
7. What is the other name for nonverbal communication?
IX. Give the main idea of the text.


TEXT 5
I. Read and translate the text:


The Functions of Nonverbal
Communication in Marriage


In the marital situation, as in most others, it is
impossible to not communicate - communication can
254

continue to occur, either nonverbally, or through the
situation, long after the last word has been spoken. Many
people acknowledging the importance of nonverbal
communication limit its scope to body language facial
expression and gestures in particular - and thus fail to
realize that communication is going on whenever we are in
the presence of somebody else.
Effective marital communication demands that the
communicator gets across to the spouse the message that
he or she intends. When they talk to each other how they
say what they say will be more important than what they
say - the posture, the facial expression, the tone of voice,
the volume, and any sighs, grunts, etc., which may
accompany the words all may have a powerful effect on
how those words are interpreted and the response which
will follow them.
When a husband comes home from work and sits
silently with hunched shoulders, a wife may interpret this
behaviour as indicating that he is angry with because she
has somehow displeased him - how, she doesn't know. On
the other hand, if he is upset about something that
happened at work, how can she know that unless he tells
her. While some would say that he has failed to
communicate, a message has been communicated to his
wife. But the intent of the communication and the impact
that it has on the spouse are quite different.
Misunderstanding has occurred, and the potential for
argument is great. Communication continues to occur in
situations like this whether the interactants realize it or
not.
Nonverbal communication, then, could be defined as
that part of a message, which is not words, but which may
accompany words or occur separately from words -and
includes facial expressions, gestures, posture, spacing,
tone of voice, pitch, volume, speed of talking, etc.
Argyle discusses some functions of nonverbal
communication. Conveying interpersonal attitudes,
particularly towards other interactants, and the topic
under discussion is an important function of nonverbal
communication. It is important also to realize that
255

nonverbal communication is ambiguous, and thus is
capable of being misinterpreted. For example, a frown on
the face of a spouse may mean that he is annoyed, or may
indicate that he has a headache. To assume that he is
annoyed, without checking out, may only lead to more
misunderstanding and unnecessary argument. There is
considerable evidence that where the verbal and the
nonverbal components conflict, much more weight is given
to the nonverbal part, despite its ambiguity.
The expression of emotion is also mentioned by Argyle
as a function of nonverbal communication. How a person
feels at a particular time is likely to be conveyed
nonverbally - whether he/she is feeling happy or sad,
depressed or confused, excited or disgusted. Such
emotions may be expressed voluntarily and deliberately, as
when a person feels sad and doesn't care who knows it, or
may be leaked as when a person is secretly pleased
about a situation and would prefer that noone realized
that, but his pleasure still shows.



II. Answer the following questions:
1. Is it possible not to communicate in the marital
situation?
2. What does effective marital communication demand?
3. What are the important components of communication?
4. How can nonverbal communication be defined?
5. What are the functions of nonverbal communication?
6. Why do we say that nonverbal communication is
ambiguous? Give examples.






256

III. Contradict the following statements (Start with
Quite on the contrary)?
1. It is possible not to communicate in the
marital situation.
2. Nonverbal communication does not promote
misunderstanding.
3. There is no ambiguity in nonverbal
communication at all.
IV. Divide the text into logical parts and make up
an outline of the text.
V. Speak on the text according to your plan.
VI. Give the key points of Argyle's theory.
VII. Do you think the following situations to be
ambiguous or not?
1. A husband is sitting behind his newspaper and
responding to his wife with grunts.
2. A wife walks out on a discussion with her husband and
goes wandering in the garden.
3. A husband is trying to convey his wife that he sees her
as an equal in the relationship, and wants her to have
an equal say in the decision-making, but she doesn't
seem to believe him.



Text 6
I. Read and translate the text:


Nonverbal Behavior
People from different cultures attach a wide variety of
meanings to the same specific non-verbal behavior:
looking another person in the eye, laughing in a certain
257

way, touching a person on the head, holding up two
fingers, and so forth. Many misunderstandings between
culturally different people arise simply because a non-
verbal signal of some kind was misinterpreted. One of the
best ways to keep such misinterpretations to a minimum
is to remember that it is rare for people to act deliberately
disrespectful or insulting towards others, especially
towards strangers or visitors. This rule applies to the
people of the U.S. just as it does to almost all other
peoples of the world. Therefore, if you have the feeling that
an American has slighted or insulted you through a
certain behavior, or through the absence of an expected
behavior, you probably have made the common mistake of
interpreting acceptable U.S. behavior according to the
standards and expectations of your own home culture.
Non-verbal behavior involves innumerable complex and
subtle sounds of the voice and movements of the body.
In general, people in the U.S. do not touch each other
frequently. What is particularly lacking is the freedom to
come into lengthy and frequent bodily contact with other
people of the same sex. Women are freer about touching
each other than are men; nevertheless, one rarely sees
women walking arm-in-arm, as is common in some other
cultures. American men touch each other only
infrequently and very briefly; lengthy touching between
men is viewed as a sign of homosexuality, and therefore is
avoided. As suggested earlier, lengthy and frequent
touching between men and women is normal, but the
implication is that sexual attraction or romantic
involvement exists between the two.
Americans are most likely to come into direct bodily
contact with each other when greeting or taking leave. Men
shake hands at such times; men who are good friends and
who have been (or expect to be) separated for a long time
may give each other a brief hug. Men never kiss each
other. In general, the same rules apply to women greeting
or separating from other women, although they are free to
kiss each other lightly on one or both cheeks (or to touch
cheek-to-cheek and kiss the air) if this is common in their
social circle. The traditional pattern for a man and woman
258

is that they shake hands only if the woman takes the
initiative by offering her hand. In recent decades, however,
the rules for men and women in some social circles have
broadened to include men's taking the initiative in hand-
shaking; a light kiss on the cheek between friends or
relatives also is becoming increasingly common. Men and
women may hug each other, even in the absence of
romantic attachment, under the same conditions
mentioned above for men.
When in conversation with one another, Americans
generally stand about half a meter apart and look each
other in the eye frequently but not constantly. The
distance that is maintained between people in
conversation can vary; for example, a larger distance is
likely to be maintained between people who have a clear
superior-subordinate relationship, while a lesser distance
is common between peers who are good friends.
You should be aware that, under most circumstances,
people in the U.S. instantly are made to feel very
uncomfortable by others who stand very close to them. A
common exception occurs on public transportation
vehicles during the crowded rush hours, but in these
cases the people who are very close to one another are
careful to completely ignore each other.
Americans also feel very uncomfortable when dealing
with others who look constantly into their eyes; on the
other hand, they feel suspicious about others who never
look into their eyes. In general, the rules for eye contact
seem to be these: When you are listening, you should look
into the speaker's eyes (or at least at his or her face) fairly
constantly, with an occasional glance away. When you are
speaking, you are freer to let your eyes wander as you talk,
but you should look at the eyes of the listener from time to
time to receive acknowledgement that he or she is listening
and understands the points you are making.
Some visitors to the U.S. are shocked, insulted, or
perplexed by certain common non-verbal behaviors of
Americans. Here are a few facts for you to keep in mind:
(1) Americans have no taboo of any kind associated with
the left hand; they are as likely to touch you or to hand
you objects with the left hand as with the right hand. (2)
259

Americans have no negative association with the soles of
the feet or bottom of the shoes; they do not feel it
necessary to prevent others from seeing these areas. (3) A
common way to greet small children in the U.S. is to pat
them on the top of the head. (4) People in the U.S. often
point with their index finger and wave it around as they
make important points in conversation. (5) One beckons to
another person to come closer by holding the hand with
the palm and fingers up, not down. (6) Americans show
respect and deference for another person by looking him or
her in the face, not by looking down. (7) Informal, relaxed
postures are commonly assumed by U.S. people when they
are standing or sitting, even when they are conversing with
others; lack of formal posture is not a sign of inattention or
disrespect. (8) Americans are uncomfortable with silence;
they expect to talk rather constantly when in the presence
of others. (9) The doors of rooms usually are left open
unless there is a specific reason to close them. (10)
Punctuality is important to many U.S. people; they become
quite annoyed if forced to wait more than 15 minutes
beyond the scheduled time for appointments. (11) People
who see each other on a daily basis do not shake hands
every time they encounter one another; they may not even
greet each other on every encounter after the first one each
day. (12) Smokers do not necessarily offer cigarettes to
others whenever they light up. (13) When Americans offer
food or drink, they expect the other person to say yes at
once if the food is desired; they do not expect polite
refusals first.


260


II. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the way to reduce misunderstandings between
culturally different people?
2. Why do Americans avoid touching each other while
communicating?
3. Do men shake their hands when greeting?
4. How do women behave in this situation?
5. Do Americans observe a distance when in conversation?
6. What are the rules for eye contact?
7. Which is the common way to greet children?
8. How do Americans show respect for another person?
9. What postures are assumed in conversing?
10.What is the most necessary quality to be valued by
Americans?


III. Find in the text the facts to characterize the
following ideas:
1. American women are freer about touching each other.
2. The rules for people in some social circles have
broadened.
3. The distance between people in conversation can vary.
4. Non-verbal behaviour among Americans has some
definite peculiarities.
IV. There are 13 facts for a stranger to keep in
mind. Which ones do you think to be the most
significant? Give your arguments.
V. Speak on:
1. Male non-verbal behaviour in the American society.
2. Female non-verbal behaviour.



261

VI. Develop the following situations:
1. Your son is going to the appointment with an American
businessman. What advice would you give him
concerning his behaviour in the course of a talk?
2. You have just come from the USA. You were greatly
perplexed by Americans' manners. You discuss their
non-verbal signals with your friends.
VII. Translate the following text in writing:
The truth, however, is that with our human body lan-
guage we are all creatures of habit. Unless we are drunk,
drugged or temporarily insane, we stick to a remarkably
fixed set of personal body actions that are as typical of
each of us as our fingerprints. Whether we are smiling,
shaking a fist, wiping our nose or putting on our shoes, we
nearly always perform the movements in the same way
every time. It takes an immense amount of effort for a
great actor to adopt a body language that is entirely alien
to his own. Most of us never try. And we would be hopeless
at it if we did. For each of us, our body language is like a
signature.
So what exactly are the elements of this visual language
of the body? The most extraordinary thing we do, as
animals, is so familiar that we take it completely for
granted: walking. Unlike any other mammal, we walk
about all day long on our hind legs. Some other species
may hop along on their hind legs and a few, like bears and
gibbons, occasionally rear up and waddle clumsily forward
but we are the only true mammalian bipedal walkers.
Amazingly, specialists are still arguing over why we took
this strange, vertical step during the course of our
evolution. One idea comes from watching our closest living
relatives, the chimpanzees. If they find themselves faced
with the unusual task of having to carry too much food,
they are forced to adopt a clumsy, vertical posture. When
our ancient human ancestors first turned to hunting as a
way of life, they must have faced the tricky problem of how
to carry home the bacon. On all fours this would have
been almost impossible and, to start with, the kill was
probably consumed on the spot. But if the meat was to be
262

brought back to the safety of the home base, where it
could be shared with the rest of the group, then carrying
must have become a regular human chore.
In a similar way, female food-gathering could have been
improved by the simple invention of a container a
primitive bag or basket of some sort which would have
permitted the collecting and carrying home of large
numbers of vegetable foods, such as berries, nuts, fruits
and roots.
A second idea sees the act of carrying as a later
development. Our ancestors, it is argued, originally took to
standing upright as a way of seeing over long grasses and
peering into the distance. This would have given them a
considerable advantage when searching for prey or
keeping a look-out for predators. Or it could have been
used merely to satisfy their curiosity.

(From D. Morris The Human Animal;
BBC Books, 1994).


Text 7
I. Read and translate the text:


Ways to Control Stress and Make It
Work for You


People often think of stress as something external that
intrudes into life. Actually, stress is an interaction between
a life situation requiring readjustment and the person's
ability to cope. It is the way people react to events rather
than the events themselves, that causes stress. Everyone
is familiar with those life-readjustment scales you see in
magazines that rank events by degree of stress. The worst
is death of a spouse, followed by divorce, sickness, taking
out a mortgage and so on. The relation between stressful
events and reaction to such events is complex. Epictetus
263

said centuries ago that we are not disturbed by things, but
by our opinions about things.
Some people experience a large objective amount of life
stress and handle it well, while others don't. A person can
look at a difficult situation as a half-empty glass or a half-
full glass. Or in the Chinese word, crisis is composed of
two characters - one means danger and the other
opportunity. That's a good way to look at potentially
stressful situations.
Suzanne Kobasa, a researcher at the University of
Chicago, talks about three characteristics of a stress-
hardy personality - challenge, commitment and control.
Stress-hardy people view a potentially difficult event as
something challenging rather than something to be feared.
Fear may be at the basis of all kinds of stress. When the
mind perceives fear, a coordinated system of events takes
place that has been termed the fight-or-flight response.
Quite often, however, people perceive danger where
there is none. They are not reacting to the reality of a
situation as much as to associations they carry around
internally based on past experience. They worry about
what the future will bring, how long will I live, how will I
pay the bills. Such fears produce a chronic fight-or-flight
response. Constant arousal of the nervous system can also
contribute to heart disease and other diseases.
But there are some active ways to relieve stress that
stress-prone people can take into consideration. One way
is through meditation and relaxation training, evoking
what Dr. Herbert Benson has called the relaxation
response. Physiologically, it's the polar extreme of the
fight-or-flight response.
Roughly 70 per cent of the physical problems that bring
people to their doctor have to do with stress and lifestyle.
By evoking the relaxation response people can participate
in their own well-being, and in some cases reduce medical
problems such as high blood pressure, headache and
other conditions that are caused by or worsened by stress.
It also gives people a sense of control and has been found
to be very useful in reducing anxiety.
264

II. Answer the following questions:
1. How is stress defined?
2. What are its causes?
3. Is the relation between stressful events and reaction to
such events simple or complex?
4. What is a good way to look at a difficult situation?
5. What characteristics does Kobasa give in accordance
with a stress-hardy personality?
6. What is at the basis of all kinds of stress?
7. What do people worry about?
8. What can such fears produce?
9. What are the ways of overcoming stress?

III. Explain, please:

what Epictetus meant by saying we are not disturbed
by things, but by our opinions about things;
crisis is composed of two characters - one means
danger and the other opportunity;
fears produce a fight-or-flight response;
the meaning of the relaxation response.

IV. Say whether you often experience stress, and if
so, in what situation?
V. Give your own recommendations to control stress.
VI. Say as much as you can on:
1. Suzanne Kobasa's research.
2. Stress-hardy and stress-prone people.
3. The ways to control stress.

265


VII. Read the text and render it:


Firms Urged to Recognize Stress Factor
Stress-related illness is a management rather than a
medical problem, doctors claimed at a conference in
London. The conference of Stress and the City was told
that 60 per cent of absence through work was caused by
stress-related illness. On the average 100 million working
days a year are lost because people cannot face going to
work. Stress levels may become even more higher as
employees will have to adapt to extensive changes and the
new problems of high technology virtually overnight.
It has been mentioned at the conference that nearly two
thirds of the firms regard stress as the main health issue
affecting their employees. The poll, conducted among
senior managers also disclosed that the middle managers
from 30 to 50 are believed to be more vulnerable to stress
than senior managers. But although firms are increasingly
worried about the effects of stress, few are doing anything
constructive about it, very few employed occupational
physicians specializing in emotional factors.
Stress manifested itself in drinking problems or heart
disease and faces three fundamental occupational
dilemmas. Firstly, when an employee is overloaded or
underloaded at work, where there is too much or too little
responsibility. Secondly, when someone's role is
ambiguous or unclear. Thirdly, people are under stress
when they have to compete with others in the same
organization for the resources necessary to achieve their
objectives. All these problems create the gap between a
person's abilities, training, aptitude, on the one hand, and
the demand made on him, on the other. People need help
when they move from one job to another. Change often
makes people feel worried, distressed or uncomfortable.
266

Notes:
employee ;
overnight - ;
to be vulnerable to - ;
poll - .


VIII. Read the text and give its general idea:


Stress Control


People wonder whether it is possible to influence stress
situations and to control them. Before answering this
question it is necessary to decide which sort of stress
requires control. Hans Selye, a Canadian scientist who
invented the term stress, offered a differentiation between
distress and eustress. The first is harmful for human
health. The second is a good companion in any productive
activity and presents no danger. It is closely linked with
efforts to overcome difficulties, to solve routine and
professional problems. Distress begins as a result of
refusing to try and solve difficult situations in life. Distress
must be controlled.
Outside factors or information which cause stress are
divided into physical and psychic. The first, with the
exception of gravitational and climatic fluctuations or
injuries, rarely lead to distress. Distress is mainly caused
by conflicts between the requirements and wishes of a
person and the possibility of meeting or fulfilling them.
Normally they are associated with outward obstacles or the
resistance and counteractions of other people. Moreover,
they are more frequently associated with the fact that the
requirements of a person run counter to the requirements
of other people, and the person in question fails to find a
compromising solution within his or her internal conflict.
This happens, for example, when we can attain a goal only
267

on the condition that it leads, it would seem to us, to a
loss of self-respect or respect of our environment.
In most cases distress originates due to a lack of
communication culture and inadequate perception. If not,
then due to the inability to understand the desires and
wishes of other people and coordinate them with our own.
There is no doubt that the best preventive treatment of
psychic and emotional stress is correct upbringing and
higher standards of communication culture. This is a
difficult task which takes a long time. It does not exclude
more concrete efforts aimed at increasing individual
resistance to stress by those who are already in need of it.
Until recently, various means of reducing emotional
tension were used in the struggle against stress. These
means include medical preparations (tranquilizers) and
numerous forms of relaxation, from self-suggestion to self-
regulation techniques used by Yoga. Correct regime and
diet are also important.
The reduction of emotional tension which has caused
distress does not lead to adaptation. It only can, at the
most, help develop a more sensible view of the situation
that has given rise to the stress. However, if there is no
other cure, there will be no real stress control and the
adaptation is temporary. As a rule, as soon as a patient
stops taking medicine and gives up self-suggestion, the
unpleasant sensations return. It is clear why: in the early
stages of the struggle against stress, the patient tried to
solve his problems rationally by himself, with a cool
head, but lost this ability precisely because he was unable
to cope with the situation. Calm achieved with the help of
tranquilizers and relaxation just brings him back to the
stage he has already passed.
Radically solving the problems demands more than a
cool head. It calls for changing the strategy of solving the
problem, of revaluating all the values, of developing a
fundamentally new approach to the concrete situation, life
in general, and oneself as an individual. None of the
above-mentioned methods can help achieve such a state.
Only such an ability can guarantee a resistance to stress
in the future.
268

In order to understand what such an approach implies
we have to go back to the conditions that created
insoluble conflicts.
The refusal to find a solution and the condition of
distress arise when and where a person fails to see a way
out of an impasse, fails to find a means of solving conflicts
within himself or contradictions with external conditions.
However, objectively situations are rarely really insoluble.
In the majority of cases they are qualified like this from a
subjective point of view. Even when events in one's life
seem fatal, the person in question still has a chance to
reconsider his attitude to these events, and minimize their
significance. Such a reassessment of the situation, helped
by different methods of psychotherapy, amounts to the
ability to see new aspects of the situation, and to
understand what a relatively modest place the conflict
occupies in the infinitely rich world of human emotions
and relations. In this understanding a great role is played
by warmhearted human relations and human concern,
and one of the chief tasks of psychotherapeutists is to
form such relations with their patients and between the
patients and people surrounding them - at home and at
work, and at the beginning among patients themselves. In
Russia, and in other countries, group psychotherapy
occupies an increasing place. In its process patients are
brought together by reciprocal sympathies and common
worries.
To develop a broad, unbiassed and flexible attitude to
problems, contacts with art and literature are
indispensable. The greatest works of literature reflect the
world and life in all their aspects. People who have read
about them are already protected in a way from a narrow
and unproductive approach to events. This is why art as a
cure is regarded as one of the most promising methods of
preventing and removing stress.
An active position in life, active perception of art,
developing taste, personal participation in everything that
contributes to broadening horizons and increasing
physical and intellectual abilities - all this is a prerequisite
for stress resistance and for effective individual efforts in
shifting distress to eustress, unless the first has assumed
269

an absolute character. In the latter case medical aid is
necessary. The task of medicine is to achieve control over
stress and to turn it from a force of destruction into a
creative force.

Vadim ROTENBERG. D. Sc.
(Medicine), Vyacheslav
ALEXANDROV, Cand. Sc.
(Medicine).


IX. Find the answers to the following questions:
1. Who has invented the term stress?
2. What two kinds of stress does he distinguish?
3. Where does their differentiation lie?
4. What stress may be controlled?
5. In what way are outside factors of stress divided?
6. What factors lead to distress?
7. When does stress originate in most cases?
8. What is the best preventive treatment of psychic and
emotional stress?
9. What means of reducing emotional tension were used?
10.Does the reduction of emotional tension lead to
adaption?
11.What docs radically solving the problems call for?
12.What is one of the chief tasks of psychotherapeutists?
13.What recommendations to resist to stress are given?

X. Complete the following sentences:
1. There are two types of stresses ... .
2. Distress begins as ... .
3. Factors causing stress are divided into ... .
4. Distress is mainly caused by ... .
270

5. In most cases it originates due to ... .
6. Struggle against stress includes ... .
7. The most promising method of preventing stress is ....
8. Prerequisite for stress resistance is ... .
XI. What do you think whether:
1. there are insoluble situations;
2. the best preventive treatment of emotional stress is
correct upbringing;
3. proper communication culture is a means of
reducing stress;
4. it is possible to solve professional problems under
stress;
5. you can easily resolve conflicts;
6. self-suggestion is a good technique for overcoming
stresses;
7. there is a chance to guarantee a resistance to stress
in future.
II. Review the article; use the questions as a plan.
III. Prepare a report on the theme "How to Cope
with a Stressful Situations.
XIV. Say as much as you can on Hans Selye.
XV. Look at the picture and comment on:



FOREHEAD.
Frowning stresses face muscles and often causes
wrinkles.
271

FOREHEA
D
JAM ----------


Cure: Train yourself to stop. Relax by raising brows and
holding the tension for five seconds. Relax. Frown hard,
then hold for five seconds. Smooth out brow. Rest eyelids
together. Focus on all tension leaving your forehead.
JAM.
Jam tension can make you grind your teeth when you're
asleep.
Cure: Gently open your mouth wide. Exhale while
slowly closing it. Lightly massage the points where your
jam hinges on to the head. Repeat 10 times. Place fist
beneath chin. Open mouth against light pressure. Repeat
12 times.
LUNGS.
Anxiety makes you breathe unevenly, leading to stress
and panic attacks.
Cure: Start by gently pressing your stomach to expel air.
Breathe slowly and deeply, pulling air into lungs using the
whole of your diaphragm. Place one hand on your stomach
and feel it move as you breathe.
HANDS.
Palms can get sweaty and cold.
MIND
EYES
NECK
+
SHOULDER
S
WRISTS
STOMAC
H
272

Cure: Sit quietly and concentrate on one of your hands
becoming warmer (the right hand if you are right-handed).
Imagine holding it in front of a fire as it gets hotter. This
will relax you by bringing warm blood from deep inside
your body back to the skin's surface.
BLADDER.
Dehydration is a frequent cause of mental and physical
stress, especially in air-conditioned offices.
Cure: Try to keep your urine as pale as possible by
drinking eight glasses of water a day (unless you have
medical advice to the contrary). Avoid diuretics like tea,
coffee and alcohol which will increase dehydration and
make you go to the loo more often.
MIND.
Worrying will stop you from concentrating.
Cure: Sit or lie down. Close your eyes. Take five deep
slow breaths. Feel the tension flowing from your body.
Imagine yourself on a desert island. Smell the flowers. See
the tranquil blue ocean. If any worries come to mind, write
them on the sand and watch the tide washing them away.
EYES.
Close work, especially on computer screens, stresses
eyes and their muscles.
Cure: Try to take regular breaks and refocus your eyes
on distant views. Rub hands briskly together. Place lightly
over your eyes and forehead and feel the heat from your
palms ease away all tension.
NECK+SHOULDERS.
Hunched posture when seated can lead to aching
muscles and tension headaches.
Cure: Always try to keep shoulders relaxed. Use cues such
as a ringing phone or a red traffic light to focus on any
tension here. Roll your shoulders with an exaggerated
rowing action, three times clockwise, then three times
anticlockwise. Finally, shrug hard three times in a row.
WRISTS.
Caused by computer work or repetitive actions.
Cure: Stretch each hand in turn, wrist uppermost, hand
open. Bend back towards forearm. Rotate clockwise as far
as possible, but don't twist your arm. Make a sudden fist,
273

then relax all muscles in your hand. Rotate hand back to
starting point. Repeat three times and do the same with
left hand.
STOMACH.
Stress can churn up your tummy and make you lose
your appetite or binge on comfort food.
Cure: Eat something when you feel stressed, but swap
chocolate bars and sugary buns for fruit, nuts or cheese.
This will help trigger the body's natural relaxation
response.
FEET.
This is a focus of stress and tension for people whose
job involves standing or walking around.
Cure: Take off your shoes. Sit down and place your right
ankle over your left knee. Holding your foot in one hand,
rub the sole applying firm pressure. Repeat with the left
foot.



XVI. Translate the text in writing:



The Language of the Body

One of the best locations to study the body language is
a politicall rally. Each speaker has already worked out his
verbal message, usually a string of highly predictable
platitudes calculated to gain him applause. But while he is
mouthing his utterances, his hands are busy too. He will
not be aware precisely what they are doing, merely that
they are beating time to his statements and helping to
underline them. If we ignore his words and focus
exclusively on his hands, it soon becomes clear that he
employs some major hand signals.
If he is making a powerful point, he will clench his fist,
as if about to punch an invisible opponent. If he is trying
274

to chop down a rival proposal, he switches instead to the
hand-chop gesture, cutting down through the air as
forcibly as possible with a flattened hand, its hard edge
pointing down. With this action he transforms his hand
into a symbolic axe.
For those who wish to appear forceful, but not too
violent, there is a slightly milder hand gesture - the semi-
clenched fist. With the thumb uppermost, on top of the
bent forefinger, this half-fist is jerked in the air to
emphasize point after point in the speaker's words. It is
almost as if he is serving an invisible writ on his audience.
This gesture is favoured by politicians.
In a more dominant mood, the speaker introduces the
palm-down hand posture, usually with a few slight
downward movements. In this he is symbolically calming
down his audience, as if it were composed entirely of
unruly children. If he is less sure of himself, he uses the
opposite hand signal, with the palm up. This is a gesture
of the beggar, reaching out his hand for help. This
particular gesture is universal and can even be seen in
wild chimpanzees when begging for food from companions.
If the speaker wishes his audience to embrace his ideas,
he offers them a hint of an embrace in his hand gestures.
He reaches out both hands, with his palms facing one
another, as if trying to hug his audience at a distance.
This is a favourite gesture of good communicators, who
know the value of making their audience feel intimate with
those on the platform.
Finally there is one more special forefinger gesture
much loved by the more aggressive politicians, that is a
prodding forefinger, aimed straight towards the audience,
as if stabbing them into submission.
There are, of course, many other gesticulations
employed during speech-making. Because both the
speaker and the audience are primarily focussed on the
words being spoken, none of these gestures is deliberately
made or deliberately read. They form a sub-text which
carries with it a mood communication system that imparts
far more information than any of those present may
275

realize. They will transmit to the audience either a feeling
that the speaker is not to be trusted or that he means
what he says. If his verbal message is false or exaggerated,
his gestures will give him away. They will make a bad fit
with his words and leave the audience uncomfortable,
without knowing quite why. If they match well with the
spoken words, the listeners will unconsciously sense that
harmony and will respond more positively.



WORD STUDY


I. Give Russian equivalents for:

To dislike; to handle emotionally charged situations; to
put forth a theory; to be aware of; to signify; to convey
information; to realize; to acknowledge; to intend; to have
an effect on; to indicate; to fail; to occur; to leak; to prefer;
to insult; to involve; to touch; to apply the rules to; to keep
in mind; to evoke.

II. Give English equivalents for:
; ; ; ;
; ; ;
; ; ; ; -
; ; ; -
; ; ; -
.




276

III. Make up a list of pleasant and unpleasant
emotions. Choose them from the words below:
Fear; anger; amusement; anticipation; annoyance;
astonishment; grief; horror; anxiety; happiness; calmness;
disgust; jealousy; elation; surprise; timidity; serenity;
embarrassment; boredom; apprehension; sorrow.
Give examples of those emotions that may comprize an
emotional mixture.

VI. Derive adjectives from the following nouns:
Anger; jealousy; happiness; calmness; tension;
hopefulness; anxiety; sorrow; emotion; ambiguity;
confusion; excitement; stress; uncertainty.

V. Explain in English the meanings of the following
word-combinations:
Emotional activity; emotional storm; outbreaks of rage;
to show rapport; marital situation; interpersonal attitudes;
to have an impact on; to provide a complete overview; to
receive acknowledgement; fight-or-flight response; to be
vulnerable.
VI. Arrange the following words in pairs of
synonyms:
sorrow anger
horror marital break-up
surprise distressed
rage grief
calmness sign
indicator relaxation
message reaction
divorce terror
response serenity
relief astonishment
worried signal
VII. Arrange the following words in pairs of
antonyms:
pleasantness amuse
277

restless disapproval
inhibit displease
bore unpleasantness
dejection approach
acceptance misunderstanding
avoidance restful
approval disrespect
reveal exhibit
understanding canceal
respect serenity
please withdrawal

VIII. Make up word-combinations and translate
them into Russian:

Conscious effort / experience / activity / performance;
body language / reaction / movement / posture; to cope
with feelings / emotions / stress / situation; to show
sympathy / support / respect / true feelings / rapport; to
receive approval / disapproval / acknowledgement /
emotional quale; to feel suspicious / uncomfortable /
anxious / vulnerable.

IX. Substitute the following word-combinations by
those close in their meanings. Choose them from the
list below:
To have an effect on; to control stress; stress-hardy
personality; to produce stress; to relieve stress; stress
level; to feel worried; to inhibit an emotional response; to
be conscious of; to put forth a theory; to convey
information; body language; inborn responses.
Stress-prone personality; degree of stress; to be aware
of; nonverbal language; to have an impact on; to release
stress; to feel distressed; to put forward a theory; innate
reactions; to handle stress; to reduce stress; to suppress
an emotional reaction; to pass information.
278


X. Make up a list of word-combinations to
characterize:
altruistic emotions;
sympathetic emotions;
disinterested emotions;
nonverbal communication;
stress experience;
relaxation training.
XI. What would you feel if...:
a) you failed your driving test;
b) you passed your exam after two re-examinations;
c) you lost your purse;
d) you won the first prize;
e) you quarrelled with your parents;
f) you heard bad news.

XII. Make up your own sentences with the following
words and word-combinations:
To exhibit controlled behaviour; to bore; to handle a
situation; to face smth or smb; to fail; to keep in mind; to
experience stress; to feel dejected; to put forth an idea; to
displease smb.
XIII. Fill in the blanks with the words below:
1. The chief aim of Wundt and his students was to discover
the ingredients of ......
2. Individuals try to adapt to the conditions of their social
3. Subjects used an extraordinary different... to problem.
4. New and more efficient techniques for investigating
...... people are being developed.
5. Children who have good relations with parents and
siblings ... more readily to other children.
6. The rate of ... and the degree of motivation are seen to be
closely related.
7. The experimenters have found that... makes subjects
take longer to react.
279

8. In the early months infants appear to experience little
beyond delight and ... .
9. James ......... another scientist, Walter Cannon, to begin
research under laboratory conditions in order to find out
the nature of psychological changes that accompany
emotion.
10. Any activity can bring ... it depends on the
individual and his attitude to the occasion.
(Stress-prone; pleasure; conscious experience; anxiety;
environment; to have an impact on; learning; approach; to
adjust; distress).
XIV. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Psychotherapy is directed towards the aim of relieving
the chronic emotional state, either by a process or re-
education in which the patient learns to re-evaluate the
situations in which he finds himself.
2. By means of the psycho-analytic method proposed by S.
Freud people become aware of the causes which produce
the anxious attitude.
3. Control of the emotional responses, and in particular,
handling stressful situations, becomes easier as one
trains to realize objectively his experiences.
4. Voluntary control is of importance in our adjustment to
social environment and we should learn to cope with
manifestations of negative emotions.
5. Our emotions can be conveyed either in terms of spoken
words or body language, that is, by means of hand
gestures, facial expression, eye contact and so on.
6. One of the best locations to study hand gestures is a
political rally. Each speaker has already worked out his
verbal messages calculated to produce approval on pan
of the public.
7. The more you travel the globe making observations of
the language of the human body, the more optimistic
you become. Everyone talks about the differences that
280

exist between nations and cultures and societies but, by
contrast, there are so many similarities, so many shared
emotions and common moods.
8. Smiling is perhaps our most important facial expression;
by using the happy mouth as a greeting we can convey
instant friendliness.
9. In partnerships and marriages, those who can't adapt,
who think compromise is a dirty word, who are
convinced that a person is either good or bad; right or
wrong, have a slim chance of success.
10. American psychologists Gottman and Krokoff found
that in the marital situation those spouses who could
give each other positive strokes and who supported
and appreciated each other's talents and qualities, were
more likely to survive.
XV. Comment on the quotation:
A world-renowned zoologist and psychologist Desmond
Morris said, Human beings are animals. We are
sometimes monsters, sometimes magnificent, but always
animals. We may prefer to think of ourselves as fallen
angels, but in reality we are risen apes.
XVI. Translate the following sentences into
English:
1. On
.
2.
, ,
.
3. ,
,
.
4. ,
-
, -
.
281

5.
, 4- :
, ( ),
.
6. , ,
, ,
, .
7. -
.
8.
,
.
9. -
-
.
10. ,
.
XVII. Agree or disagree with the following
recommendations:

Phillip Hodson's ingredients for a
happy, balanced relationship.

1. Being able to say sorry - the next day.
2. Being able to wait for the other person to say sorry - the
next day.
3. Having similar interests and quirks and complementary
vices and virtues.
4. Wanting the other's good opinion.
5. Enjoying mutual silence/time off.
6. Giving each other permission to say the unpopular or
voice anxieties.
7. Giving verbal encouragement, always.
8. Reading the other's moods.
9. Taking a second place often enough.
10. Being given first place often enough.
11. Learning each other's skills so each of you can be the
other's back-up.
282

12. Sorting out money issues from day one.
13. Making all criticism constructive (I'd prefer this,
instead of You never do that.).
14. Touching - especially if the relationship is going
through a difficult patch.
15. Planning and having fun.
16. Being open-minded and adaptable to change and new
ideas at the same rate.
17. Dragging a problem out by the teeth when necessary,
in order to move it along.
18. Respecting the other's family, within reasonable limits.
19. Forgiving.
20. Learning how to enjoy domestic life. (We all end up in
an armchair eventually.)



XVIII. Do the following tests and check your scores:
How much do you worry?
Each one is followed by two possible responses: agree or
disagree. Read each statement carefully and decide which
response best describes how you feel. Then put a tick over
the corresponding box. Respond to every statement and, if
you aren't sure which response is more accurate, choose
the one you feel is most appropriate. Don't read the
scoring explanation before answering, and don't spend too
long deciding. It's important that you answer each
question as honestly as possible.


1.I will never lose my close friends. Agree A Disagree

2. I am unattractive to many of the opposite sex. Agree A
Disagree
283

3. I never appear stupid to others. Agree A
Disagree
4. My future job prospects are not secure.
Agree A Disagree
5. My work is up to date. Agree A
Disagree
6. This country is in serious trouble. Agree A
Disagree
7. I open bills immediately. Agree A Disagree
8. I might be a lot less healthy than I realise.
Agree A Disagree
9. The future will be better than the past.
Agree A Disagree
10. Something terrible could be about to happen. Agree A
Disagree
11. I shower and dress as quickly as my friends. Agree A
Disagree
12. I dislike touching people who are ill.
Agree Disagree
13. I quickly forget my mistakes at work. Agree A
Disagree
14. I detest visiting hospitals. Agree A
Disagree
15. After locking a door, I do not return to check it.
Agree Disagree
16. While on holiday I worry a lot about home.
Agree Disagree
17. Human frailty is forgivable.
Agree A Disagree
18. I do it myself if 1 want it done well. Agree A
Disagree
284

19. I prefer eating out to staying in. Agree A Disagree

20. I very rarely, if ever, use public toilets. Agree A
Disagree

Find out how you scored

Work out your score by adding up the numbers of As and
Bs you have ticked.
16 or more Bs: high.
You are scoring high on worrying. This means that,
while you worry about the same sort of things as everyone
else, you tend to worry for much longer. You are convinced
that you are unable to do much to change your fate, while
also dreading what it might hold. One way of tackling
anxiety is to investigate what you can do to resolve the
problem. And remember that chronic worry might be a
worse fate than your current fears.
10 to 15 Bs: average.
You aren't quite as worried as higher scorers, but your
tendency to judge yourself, your concern over time and
your perfectionism all combine for a stressful way of life. In
fact, your performance at all things would improve if you
worried less although you believe that if you stop
worrying, you won't do as well. It's true you might be able
to avoid problems by anticipating them, but only if your
concerns are realistic. Unrealistic worries are those which
none of your friends or family understands or shares.
6 to 10 Bs: low.
You are fairly free from worry and are not preoccupied
with your health in the same way as chronic worriers. But
there are still days when you are apprehensive about
finances and, perhaps, wider subjects like politics and
current affairs. One aspect of your tendency to worry is
that you frequently avoid the opportunity to take control of
your life, and so you worry about how things will turn out.
0 to 5 Bs: very low.
285

You are scoring low on worrying, which means you are a
lot less anxious than higher scores about health, money,
relationships, jobs and family. While this means your life
is more relaxed, the downside is that you are often
unprepared for the worst. Worrying about something
allows us to anticipate and prepare for an otherwise
unforeseen problem. For those who do not worry enough,
life is more full of unpleasant surprises.
Are you a self-saboteur?

Each of the statements below is followed by two
responses: agree or disagree. Read each statement
carefully, decide which response best describes how you
feel, then tick the corresponding box. Please respond to
every statement. If you are not completely sure which
response is more accurate, tick the one which you feel is
most appropriate. Do not read the scoring explanation
before filling out the questionnaire. Do not spend too long
on each statement. It is important that you answer each
question as honestly as possible.
1.I hate being busy all day A
2. On balance, I fail more
than I succeed
A
3. I especially like unremitting
pampering
A
4. I do not draw attention to
my good work
A
5. Lots of fun is good for you A
6. What I do is better than
what I am
A
7. I usually prefer being alone to
company
A
8. I often feel trapped A
9. Problems are almost never my
fault
A
10. I am very self-sufficient A


286

To find your score, add up the total number of Bs you
have ticked. Ignore the number of As.
Seven Bs or more. A high score on self-defeating:
although you are humbly persevering, you also self-
sabotage. You enjoy looking after others and are
uncomfortable if someone is looking after you. You blame
yourself when things go wrong in your work or in
relationships, as you are self-sacrificing, self-deprecating
and outwardly pleasing but inwardly defiant and angry.
You need to learn respect for yourself by focusing on your
positive qualities.
Between 5 and 7 Bs. You don't self-sabotage quite as
much as higher scorers, and so you feel deeply hurt if
others try to take advantage of you. Nevertheless, endless
worry over what others think about you ensures that you
regularly cave in to their demands instead of putting own
interests first. You are suspicious of those who go out of
their way to help, and prefer to do things yourself rather
than seek assistance. You have to learn that your
masochism is a self defeating way of loving - it is the
weapon of the weak. You need to become more comfortable
with praise and to learn that not all compliments are
phoney.
Between 3 and 5 Bs. You are more confident than the
typical self-saboteur and you believe you do some things
better than anyone else - but you will stifle anger with
superiors, who tend to bring out the groveller in you when
you're in their presence, so you do have some masochistic
streaks. You can be a help-rejecting complainer
sometimes. You occasionally believe you are loved for what
you do rather than what you are.
Two Bs or under. You think suffering is usually
needless and should be avoided but a dislike of personal
sacrifices may hold your career or relationships back. You
don't really enjoy looking after others, although you can do
it temporarily. You may prefer making people squirm:
there's an element of sadism here. You are unlikely to
make the mistake of most self-handicappers - loving
someone who gives no love in return- You may even find
you do the reverse: form a relationship with a saboteur.

287

EXPRESSING YOUR FEELINGS


Read the following and take it into account:

Which of your feelings do you let other people know
about? Which do you keep to yourself?
Sometimes it's a good thing to say what you feel. At
other times it's better to keep quiet about your feelings.
Sometimes it's hard to know exactly what it is you do feel.
At other times feelings are so strong they seem to
overwhelm you. How often do you express what you feel?
The stereotype of the English is that they are cold,
reserved and unemotional. Compared with the extravagant
French or the explosive Italians the English are an uptight
lot. If they do feel anything they're not likely to let you
know. It's a caricature but it has some truth in it.
We grow up in a culture which tells us that it's good to
control our feelings. We learn that it's best to restrain our
warmth, our tears, our anger. We learn that it's better to
be rational. But is it? What happens to feelings you don't
express? Many people argue that they don't just disappear.
They continue to exist under the surface and affect the
way you feel and behave.
Anger that you don't express to others can become
anger that you turn against yourself. Fears that you don't
talk about may make you timid in all things. You may put
on a brave front but inside you're fearful and anxious.
Hurts and disappointments that you've never cried over
may make you protect yourself hard against any possible
new hurt and become overcautious about getting close to
others.


288

Would you try to answer all the questions asked in
this short text?
How is the stereotype of the English presented in
the text?
Do the following test.

The following quiz looks at some feelings that are
common to us all and some of the different ways that
people react to them.
Reactions can range from expressing the feeling
spontaneously and directly to finding some way of denying
that it exists at all. Choose the answer that is most often
typical of you.
1. Anger
When you feel angry, which of the following reactions
would be most typical of you?
A. Raising your voice or shouting at the person you're
angry with.
B. Explaining quietly why you're angry.
C. Trying not to be angry (perhaps because you think it's
wrong or unfair).
D. Telling yourself you've not really got anything to be
angry about.
2. Feeling sad or upset
When you feel sad or upset, which of the following
reactions would be most typical of you?
A. Crying about it to someone else.
B. Talking to a friend about what's upset you.
C. Going away and crying on your own.
D. Telling yourself you don't really feel upset or sad or
that you don't really have anything to feel upset or
sad about.
3. Feeling frightened or worried
When you feel frightened or worried, which of the
following reactions would be most typical of you?
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A. Trembling, shaking or crying as you tell someone how
you feel.
B. Talking to a friend about the things that are
frightening or worrying you.
C. Going away on your own and crying about it or feeling
bad.
D. Telling yourself you don't really feel frightened or
worried or that you don't really have anything to feel
frightened or worried about.
4. Feeling embarrassed or ashamed
When you feel embarrassed or ashamed, which of the
following reactions would be most typical of you?
A. Laughing in embarrassment as you try to explain
to someone why you feel embarrassed or ashamed.
B. Telling a friend later about how you felt embarrassed
or why you felt so ashamed.
C. Swallowing hard and wishing the floor would open so
that you could disappear from sight.
D.Pretending you're not in the least embarrassed or
ashamed and putting an arrogant or cocky face on it.
5. Feeling happy
When you are feeling happy, which of the following
reactions would be most typical of you?
A. Laughing and smiling, telling someone how you feel.
B. Analysing to yourself or others the reasons why you're
happy.
C. Going around with an inner glow.
D. Telling yourself this can't last, it's not really true or
it's not right to be happy when others aren't.
6. Feeling disgust or dislike
When you feel disgust or dislike, which of the following
reactions would be most typical of you?
A. Screwing up your face, grimacing as you say what
you feel.
B. Telling your friend how much you dislike or feel
disgust about something or someone.
C. Controlling your disgust or dislike.
D. Pretending that nothing's happened, ignoring the
things or people that make you feel this way.

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7. Feeling warmth or affection for others
When you feel warmth or affection for others, which of the
following reactions would be most typical of you?
A. Touching, holding, embracing, kissing other people.
B. Talking to a friend about the way you feel.
C. Deciding not to express how you feel, perhaps
because you're afraid you might get hurt.
D. Telling yourself it's sloppy and sentimental to feel like
this about people and pushing the feelings away.


Do you express your feelings directly?
The a statements show ways in which feelings can be
expressed directly. You feel something and show it.
Do you talk about your feelings?
The b statements show ways in which feelings can be
partially expressed by talking about them. Talking about
your feelings can help you get clear about what you feel.
You can get support. You may start to build up the
confidence to express feelings more directly.
Do you keep your feelings to yourself?
The statements are about trying to control your
feelings. Sometimes you may feel it's best to keep quiet
about what you feel. You may not want to make yourself
vulnerable before others. Or you may decide that
expressing your feelings would be destructive to someone
else. If you always keep your feelings to yourself, however,
you may find that they start to come out in other ways.
Do you deny your feelings?
The d statements are about ways of denying your
feelings altogether. You may think they're not nice. Or you
may be frightened of their strength. Again, these denied
feelings may emerge in other ways.


291

Look through the following list of feeling words
count how many you regularly use.
PLEASANT UNPLEASANT
Amazed Afraid
Amused Angry
Astonished Anxious
Calm Bored
Confident Broken-hearted
Contented Depressed
Cool Disappointed
Delighted Distressed
Enjoyment Frightened
Enthusiastic Frustrated
Excited Furious
Fascinated Guilty
Friendly Hate
Grateful Helpless
Happy Hurt
Hopeful Impatient
Interested Jealous
Loving Lonely
Optimism Mean
Peaceful Miserable
Pleasant Sad
Proud Sorry
Quiet Surprised
Satisfied Terrified
Sensitive Tired
Surprised Troubled
Tender Uncomfortable
Thankful Unhappy
Touched Upset
Warm Worried




292

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

UNIT IX


Text I

I. Read and translate the text:

Personality and Consumer Behaviour


The word personality comes from the Latin term
persona, which means actor's face mask. In a sense,
one's personality is the 'mask' worn as a person moves
from situation to situation during a lifetime. Over the years
many different definitions of personality have been
proposed by psychologists. One of the best from the
consumer researcher's point of view states that
Personality is the distinctive patterns of behaviour,
including thoughts and emotions, that characterize each
individual's adaptation to the situations of his or her life.
At a general level, the concept of personality has a
number of characteristics. First, to be called a personality,
a person's behaviour should show some degree of
consistency - that is, the behaviours must show a
consistency that distinguishes them from a person's
random responses to different stimuli. Personality
characteristics are relatively stable across time rather than
short-term in nature.
Second, the behaviours should distinguish the person
from others. Thus, in the definition of personality just
presented, the phrase distinctive patterns of behavior
connotes the idea that a personality characteristic cannot
be shared by all consumers.
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A third characteristic of personality is that it interacts
with the situation. One type of situation is the social
context in which purchases occur. Researchers have found
that consumers are differently depending upon whether or
not other people are observing their purchase behaviour.
This situational variable may interact with a personality
characteristic that distinguishes people on their tendency
to conform to social pressures when making purchases. A
scale, called the ATSCI (attention to social comparison
interaction), has been developed to measure this
disposition to conform to others.
In most circumstances people go shopping with plans to
make certain purchases. Could the social situation
interact with the tendency to conform to others so as to
impact the extent that the consumer fails to make the
intended purchases? One can predict that a person who
has a low tendency to conform will tend to make her
desired purchases whether or not she shops alone or with
a group. In contrast, a person with a high tendency to
conform will make many more changes in purchase plans
when shopping with a group than when shopping alone.
A fourth aspect of the study of personality is that it
cannot be expected to accurately predict an individual's
behaviour on one specific occasion from a single measure
of personality. Personality characteristics are not rigidly
connected to specific types of behaviour. Thus one cannot
predict how many cans of peas a person will buy or the
type of furniture a person will own by looking at specific
personality characteristics. The choice of a particular
brand depends upon the interaction of personality, the
situation, and the product. Within each of these
categories, a variety of interacting forces may operate.
Thus the consumer may be under time pressure, may be
buying a gift to be given at a social occasion, or may be in
a lousy mood. At the same time, the person may be very
low in dogmatism (when people reveal rigid and inflexible
behaviour) but also very high in self-confidence.
The study indicates that behaviour must be measured
on multiple occasions to assess personality-behaviour
relationships.
294


II. Characteristics of personality:
1. Behaviour shows consistency.
2. Behaviours distinguish one person from another.
3. Behaviours interact with the situation.
4. Single measures of personality cannot predict specific
behaviours, such as which brand of car a consumer will
purchase.

For consumer researchers four distinct approaches to
personality have had an impact on developing managerial
strategy. They are psychoanalytic theory, trait theory,
social-psychological theory , and self-concept theories.

III. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the origin of the word personality?
2. What is the definition of personality?
3. Can everyone be called a personality?
4. What characteristics permit a person to be called a
personality?
5. How does a social situation influence the consumer's
choice?
6. What is the difference between a person with a low
tendency to conform and with a high tendency to
conform?
7. What does the choice of a particular brand depend on in
the long run?
8. What are the approaches to personality that consumer
researchers apply to?
IV. Ask your partner:
1. whether he agrees or disagrees with the definition of
personality given in the text;
2. if he could say something to add details;
3. how people differ when making purchases;
4. what scale has been developed to measure the
disposition to conform to others;
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5. whether it is possible or impossible to predict accurately
an individual's behaviour;
6. what main characteristics of personality are presented
in the text.

V. Divide the text into logical parts. Make up an
outline of the text.
VI. Speak on the major aspects of the problem
raised.
VII.Read the text and say whether you support or reject
Freud's theory:


The Structure of the Personality

According to Freud, the personality results from the
clash of three forces - the id, ego, and superego. Present at
birth, the id represents the physiological drives that propel
a person to action. These drives are completely
unconscious and form a chaotic cauldron of seething
excitations. The id requires instant gratification of its
instincts. As such, it operates on the pleasure principle.
That is, the id functions to move a person to obtain
positive feelings and emotions.
The ego begins to develop as the child grows. The
function of the ego is to curb the appetites of the id and
help the person to function effectively in the world. As
Freud stated, the ego stands for reason and good sense
while the id stands for untamed passions. Freud viewed
the ego as operating on the reality principle. The reality
principle helps the person to be practical and to avoid the
extremes of behaviour to which the id and superego can
push an individual.
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The superego can be understood as the conscience or
voice within of a person that echoes the morals and
values of parents and society. Only a small portion of it is
available to the conscious mind. It is formed during middle
childhood through the process of identification, according
to Freud. The superego actively opposes and clashes with
the id, and one role of the ego is to resolve these conflicts.
The focus on the conflict between the id and superego is
what classifies the psychoanalytic view of personality as a
conflict theory.
VIII. Summarize the contents of the text.

WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
to show some degree of consistency; to share a
personality characteristic; to conform to social
pressures; to measure a disposition; to be under time
pressure; to be apt to; to assess relationships; to have
an impact on; to curb appetites; to avoid the extremes of
behaviour.
Use the above word-combinations in the sentences of
your own.
II. Give English equivalents for:
; ; -
; ; ;
; ;
; ; ;
; .
III. Give as many word-combinations with the word
personality as possible.
IV. Find in the texts synonyms for:
To offer; adjustment; to differentiate; to affect; to foretell;
option; setting; self-assurance; to estimate; to be
conscious of; people; to receive.

297

VII. Suggest prepositions used after the following
verbs:
To adapt... the situation; to depend ... observation; to
interact ... a personality; to conform ... social pressures; to
be connected ... specific types of behaviour; to be ... time
pressure; to contribute ... low correlations; to have an
impact ... development; to be aware ... the driving forces.

VI. Insert the above word-combinations into the
following sentences:
l. When conducting psychotherapy, psychologists
understand that their clients' statements ... specific
types of behaviour.
2. In the unfamiliar setting it is rather difficult to ... the
situation.
3. Social environment and family patterns of behaviour
have ... development of a child.
4. When you ... time pressure and the deadline is
approaching you feel anxiety.
5. The theoretical conclusions ... very much ... observation.
6. How to ... a personality is a science to be learnt.
7. You should take into consideration the driving forces
and ... of them all the time.
8. Taboos are necessary in our lives to ... social pressures.
VII. Develop the following situations:
1. What present would you choose for your friend's
birthday when you are under time pressure?
2. How would you act if on coming home you found out the
defect on the purchased item?
3. What do you feel when being at the shop you are
offerred an assistance in choosing any thing by the
shopgirl?

298

Text 2
I. Read and translate the text:


Psychoanalytic Theory

Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality
has had a major impact on our understanding of our
human makeup. Freud argued that the human personality
results from a dynamic struggle between inner
physiological drives (such as hunger, sex, and aggression)
and social pressures to follow laws, rules, and moral
codes. Furthermore, Freud proposed that individuals are
aware of only a small portion of the forces that drive their
behaviour. From his perspective, humans have a
conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind. This idea
that much of what propels humans to action is a part of
the unconscious mind and not available for scrutiny
revolutionized the perception of the human personality.
Psychoanalytic thought had a major impact on
marketing in the 1950s. Advertising firms hired
psychoanalysts to help develop promotional themes and
packaging to appeal to the unconscious minds of
consumers. Psychoanalytic theory emphasized the use of
dreams, of fantasy, and of symbols to identify the
unconscious motives behind a person's actions. Marketers
hoped that they could turn the tables and use symbols
and flights of fantasy to propel people to buy products.
As noted, Freud's theory stresses the importance of
fantasy to the human psyche. Advertisers frequently
attempt to move consumers to fantasize about using the
product or the consequences of using the product. A
number of symbols exist in psychoanalytic theory that
could be used by marketers.
The psychoanalytic approach to personality has had the
greatest impact on consumer behaviour through the
research methods developed by Sigmund Freud and his
299

followers. They developed projective techniques to assist
psychologists in identifying the unconscious motives that
spur people to action. Examples of the projective
techniques include word association tasks, sentence
completion tasks, and thematic apperception tests (TATs).
(TATs are ambiguous drawings about which people are
asked to write stories.) Freud's major therapeutic tool was
to have people lie on a couch and relax both physically
and psychologically. The therapist helped them to bring
down their defenses to understand more of their
unconscious motivations. Later, psychologists began to
bring people together for group therapy. These two
approaches have been translated by marketers into the
use of depth interviews and focus groups. Depth
interviews are long, probing, one-on-one interviews
undertaken to identify hidden reasons for purchasing
products and services. Focus groups employ long sessions
in which five to ten consumers are encouraged to talk
freely about their feelings and thoughts concerning a
product or service.

II. Answer the following questions:
1. What struggle takes place inside the human
personality?
2. In what way has their mind been characterized?
3. What for did advertising firms hire psychologists?
4. What does psychoanalytic theory make use of in this
respect?
5. What techniques were developed for this purpose?
6. What are these projective techniques?
7. What therapeutic tool did Freud use?
8. What approaches are applied in group therapy?

III. Complete the following sentences:
1. The human personality results from ...
2. Psychoanalytic theory has a major impact on ...
3. Psychoanalytic theory emphasized the use of ...
4. The projective techniques include ...
300

5. The major therapeutic tool was to ...
6. Marketers use interviews of two kinds ...
IV. What is your personal opinion of the projective
techniques suggested by Freud? Are they useful and
productive or useless? Give your arguments.
V. Give the general idea of the text.

VI. Explain what is understood by:
1. human makeup;
2. physiological drives;
3. social pressures;
4. moral codes;
5. projective techniques;
6. thematic apperception tests;
7. depth interviews;
8. focus groups.
WORD STUDY

I. Give Russian equivalents for:
Physiological drives; social pressures; conscious mind;
pleasure principle; reason and good sense; untamed
passions; extremes of behaviour; conscience; morals and
values; unconscious motives; human psyche; advertisers;
marketers; approach; research methods; projective
techniques; ambiguous drawings; therapeutic tool; depth
interviews.

II. Give English equivalents for:

; ;
; ;
; ; -
; ;
; ; .
301


I I I . Find in the text antonyms for:

To be unconscious of; to suppress; displeasure; to get
rid of; to approach; to dismiss; to sell; insignificance; to
experience tension; surface reasons; to discourage.

IV. Translate the Russian phrases in the brackets:

Psychoanalytic theory had an impact on: (
; ; ; ;
).
V. Make up your own sentences with the expression
to have an impact on.
VI. Could you say what social factors have a major
impact on your living standards?
VII. A role-play: You are a sociologist. You would like to
understand what has a major impact on the customer's
choice. What possible questions you could ask. The first
one is made up for you: What do you rely on a price or a
quality?


Text 3

1. Read and translate the text:
Trait Theory

The trait theory approach to personality attempts to
classify people according to their dominant characteristics
or traits. A trait is any characteristic in which one person
differs from another in a relatively permanent and
consistent way. Trait theories attempt to describe people in
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terms of their predispositions on a series of adjectives. As
such, a person's personality would be described in terms
of a particular combination of traits. One of the problems
of trait theories is the huge number of traits that can be
used to describe people.
Here is a list of traits that could be used to describe a
person:
Personality Traits Identified by Cattel
1. Reserved versus outgoing
2. Dull versus bright
3. Unstable versus stable
4. Docile versus aggressive
5. Serious versus happy-go-lucky
6. Expedient versus conscientious
7. Shy versus uninhibited
8. Tough-minded versus tender-minded
9. Trusting versus suspicious
10. Practical versus imaginative
11. Unpretentious versus polished
12. Self-assured versus self-reproaching
13. Conservative versus experimenting
14. Group-dependent versus self-sufficient
15. Undisciplined versus controlled
16. Relaxed versus tense
The early studies had selected trait inventories used by
psychologists for purposes that had nothing to do with
buying behaviour. In addition, researchers using a trait
approach needed to recognize the importance of
situational factors and assess the validity and reliability of
their measures.
A recent study used a trait approach to study coupon
proneness and value consciousness. The authors proposed
that the tendency of consumers to redeem coupons is
based in part on their view of coupons and in part on their
value consciousness. Value consciousness was defined as
the amount of concern the consumer has for the need-
satisfying properties of the product in relation to the price
paid for the product. In contrast, coupon proneness deals
with the tendency of a consumer to buy because the
303

purchase offer includes a coupon, which such people view
almost as an end in itself.
The trait approach to personality can be highly
valuable for market researchers, if used properly.
II. Answer the following questions:
1. What does the trait theory approach suggest?
2. How is a trait defined?
3. What do trait theories attempt to describe?
4. What do you think of Cattel's 16 traits?
5. How is a trait approach used in analyzing buying
behaviour?
6. How was value consciousness characterized?
7. What does coupon proneness deal with?
I I I . Complete the following sentences:
1. The trait theory classifies people ... .
2. A trait is defined as ... .
3. One of the problems of trait theories is ... .
4. Cattel's trait inventory consists of ... .
5. A recent study used a trait approach to ... .
6. Value consciousness was defined as ... .
7. Coupon proneness deals with ... .
IV. If you were a market researcher, what traits
from Cattel's inventory would you take into account
first of all?
V. Agree or disagree:
1. I always buy the brand I like very much.
2. I am not very much concerned about prices.
3. I generally shop around for lower prices on products.
4. I compare the prices of different brands.
5. The quality of the item is the only thing that matters.
6. I enjoy using coupons.
7. I rely greatly on advertising while buying anything.
VI. Characterize your experience while shopping.
Do you feel trusting towards a shop-assistant or
suspicious? Relaxed or tense? Shy or uninhibited?
Reserved or outgoing?
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WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:
Trait; predisposition; inventory; coupon proneness;
value consciousness; reliability; to redeem; amount of
concern; need-satisfying properties; in relation to; if used
properly.
II. Give English equivalents for:
; ; ;
; ; ;
; ;
; ; ; .
III. Make up your own sentences with the following
expressions:
To have nothing to do with; to recognize the importance
of; to view as an end; to deal with; to be highly valuable.


Text 4

I. Read and translate the text:

Social-Psychological and Cognitive Personality
Theories


Early personality theorists, such as psychoanalysts,
tended to view personality as resulting from biological
factors. Somewhat later, researchers began to view
personality as resulting from the social nature of people
and/or from the way they processed information.
Social-Psychological Personality Theory. From a social-
psychological personality theory perspective, personality
describes the consistent patterns of behaviour that people
show with regard to social situations. A number of these
theories have been used by marketers to help explain
305

buyer behaviour. For example, the personality concept of
dogmatism is socially and psychologically based. The
construct of dogmatism relates principally to the rigidity
with which people approach the social environment. Other
social-psychological personality theories used by
marketers include gender schema theory, consumer
anxiety, consumer ethnocentrism, and the compliance,
aggression, detachment model.
Cognitive Personality Theories. Psychologists have also
developed cognitive personality theories, which focus on
identifying individual differences in how consumers
process and react to information. For example, researchers
have attempted to assess consumer cognitive complexity.
The goal is to measure the structural complexity of the
organizing schemas used by different groups of consumers
to code and store information in memory. Another
approach involves investigating the extent to which
different people engage in verbal versus information
processing. A third cognitively oriented personality variable
is called the need for cognition, a scale that assesses
difference in the extent that people enjoy thinking and
engaging in cognitive work. The need for cognition is
particularly relevant to understanding the persuasion
process.


II. Answer the following questions:
1. How did psychoanalysts try to view personality?
2. What other attempts were made by the researchers?
3. How is personality viewed from a social-psychological
theory?
4. What social-psychological theories were used by
marketers?
5. What do cognitive personality theories focus on?
6. Could you give an example of such a theory?
7. What other approaches were used in accordance with a
cognitive personality theory?


306

III. Prove by the facts from the text that:
1. There were many attempts to view personality.
2. The personality concept of dogmatism is socially and
psychologically interpreted.
3. Cognitive personality theories were of different aspects.
IV. Characterize in brief approaches to view
personality from a social-psychological theory and
cognitive personality theory. Can you state pros and
cons of each of them?
V. Read out A Scale to Measure the Attention to
Social Comparison Information worked out on the
basis of the social-psychological theory, and say how
you view your own behaviour in this respect:
1. It is my feeling that if everyone else in a group is
behaving in a certain manner, this must be the proper
way to behave.
2. I actively avoid wearing clothes that are not in style.
3. At parties I usually try to behave in a manner that
makes me fit in.
4. When I am uncertain how to act in a social situation, I
look to the behaviour of others for cues.
5. I try to pay attention to the reactions of others to my
behaviour in order to avoid being out of place.
6. I find that I tend to pick up slang expressions from
others and use them as part of my own vocabulary.
7. I tend to pay attention to what others are wearing.
8. The lightest look of disapproval in the eyes of a person
with whom I am interacting is enough to make me
change my approach.
9. It's important for me to fit into the group I'm with.
10. My behaviour often depends on how I feel others wish
me to behave.
11. If I am the least bit uncertain as to how to act in a
social situation, I look to the behaviour of others for
cues.
12. I usually keep up with clothing style changes by
watching what others wear.
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13. When in a social situation, I tend not to follow the
crowd, but instead behave in a manner that suits my
particular mood at the time.


VI . Would you suggest any other behaviour stereo-
types in a social situation?
VI I . Read out A Cognition Scale developed on the
basis of a cognitive personality theory and say about
your place in this scale:
1. I really enjoy a task that involves coming up with new
solutions to problems.
2. I would prefer a task that is intellectual, difficult, and
important to one that is somewhat important but does
not require much thought.
3. I prefer just to let things happen rather than try to
understand why they turned out that way.
4. The notion of thinking abstractly is not appealing to me.
5. I find it especially satisfying to complete an important
task that required a lot of thinking and mental effort.
6. I like tasks that require little thought once I've learned
them.
7. I prefer to think about small, daily projects to long-term
ones.
8. I don't like to have the responsibilities of handling a
situation that requires a lot of thinking.
9. I feel relief rather than satisfaction after completing a
task that required a lot of mental effort.
10. I think best when those around me are very intelligent.
11. I prefer my life to be filled with puzzles that I must
solve.
12. I would prefer complex to simple problems.
13. Simply knowing the answer rather than understanding
the reasons for the answer to a problem is fine with me.

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VIII. Could you suggest your own ideas concerning
the above statements?
IX. Translate the text below i n writing:


Is There an Ethical Personality
Characteristic?


A psychologist named Lawrence Kohlberg developed a
scale that measures people's level of cognitive moral
development. He argued that advanced moral behaviour
requires people to have the ability to employ logical
reasoning. Kohlberg identified six stages through which
people may progress in their moral reasoning. In the early
stages people respond to moral rules based upon whether
or not they will be punished for breaking them. In the
middle stages people follow societally accepted standards,
such as the golden rule. Such people act to maintain
order within a society and to contribute to the society. At
the highest levels of moral development, people follow
rules of behaviour that uphold societal and individual
rights regardless of what majority opinion may indicate.
They identify universal ethical principles that may
supersede those upheld by a society.
Recently, researchers surveyed marketing professionals
to assess their level of cognitive moral development. In
addition, they sought to identify variables that may be
associated with higher levels of moral development. The
results revealed that those with higher moral development
levels tended to be female, to have more years of schooling,
and to possess more socially responsible attitudes. Thus
they tended to believe that corporations and managers
have social responsibilities that go beyond merely
maximizing the profit for a firm.
An interesting issue for researchers involves inves-
tigating the cognitive moral development of consumers. A
key question concerns whether those consumers with
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higher levels of cognitive moral development act more
ethically in their exchange relations with firms.
WORD STUDY
I. Give Russian equivalents for:

Consistent patterns of behaviour; with regard to;
compliance; cognitive; to code and store information;
information processing; to engage in cognitive work;
persuasion process.

II. Translate the following words and their
derivatives:

A process - to process - processing
Cognize - cognition - cognizing
Engage - to be engaged - engagement
Think - thinker - thinking - thought
Persuade - persuasion
Store storage

III. Translate the following sentences:
1. In compliance with new techniques personality theorists
work out various scales for characterizing consumer
behaviuor.
2. They try to find out in their clients consistent ways of
behaving depending on the situation under the similar
conditions.
3. The force of persuasion creates wonders with regard to
consumer behaviour.
4. Only new technological innovations persuaded him to
participate in this joint venture.
5. The self-concept is defined as the totality of a person's
thoughts and feelings with reference to himself or herself
as the object.
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6. The personality of consumers is generally assessed
through questions that focus on identifying consumer
traits and attitudes.
7. Persuasion is a process in which communication is
delivered to change beliefs and attitudes in a desired
manner.
8. Information processing is the process through which
consumers receive stimulation, transform it into
meaningful information, store the information in memory
for later use, and retrieve it for decision making.

Text 5
I. Read and translate the text:

Attitudes Towards the Advertisement

To persuade consumers to purchase their brands, firms
employ various forms of advertising. Researchers have
found that consumers develop attitudes towards
advertisements, just as they do towards the brand. In
turn, these attitudes toward ads may influence attitudes
toward the brand. An attitude toward the ad is a
consumer's general liking or disliking for a particular
advertising stimulus during a particular advertising
exposure.
Attitudes toward advertisements can result from a
number of factors including the content and imagery
vividness of the ad, the mood of the consumer, and the
consumer's emotions elicited by the advertisement.
Evidence indicates that these factors can influence
attitude toward the brand under both high- and low-
involvement conditions, whether or not the consumer is
familiar with the brand.
A number of researchers have investigated the
relationships between attitude toward the ad, emotions,
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the degree of ad imagery, attitude toward the brand, and
brand cognitions (i.e., product-attribute beliefs). The
following statements summarize some of the major
findings of the research.
1. The formation of attitudes toward the ad can
influence attitudes toward the brand.
2. Emotions elicited by the ad (e.g., positive and
negative effect as well as feelings of dominance and
arousal) may influence the attitude toward the ad.
3. The content of the advertisement may influence the
emotions felt by the consumer.
4. The visual and verbal components of an ad may
independently influence the attitude toward the
advertisement, the formation of product-attitude beliefs,
and time spent viewing the ad.
5. The degree of ad imagery influences feelings and
emotions.
6. Attitude toward the ad can influence brand
cognitions as well as attitude toward the brand.
Researchers have also found that ads containing high
levels of imagery more strongly impact attitudes toward
the ad. The term imagery refers to the extent to which an
ad causes consumers to imagine their use of the product
and to connect the ad to their own feelings and beliefs. Ads
that employ concrete words, vivid verbal or pictorial
images, instructions for consumers to imagine the use of
the brand, and high levels of plausibility have been found
to strongly impact consumers attitude toward the ad.
Therefore a firm should attempt to create ads that have
positive emotional and factual qualities in order to reduce
zipping and zapping while TV viewing.
The work on the effects of the attitude toward the ad
nicely meshes with the experiential perspective on
consumer behaviour. This research shows the importance
of feelings and emotions in influencing how attitudes
toward the brand are changed. Indeed, research indicates
that attitude change may be moderated by the emotions
and feelings created by advertising as well as by how the
advertising influences consumers' product-attribute
beliefs.
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Of course, the work on the attitudes toward the ad has
major importance for advertisers, who must be concerned
with both the pictorial and verbal content of
advertisements and how they influence the formation of
product-attribute beliefs and the creation of feelings and
emotions. In fact, a new term has been developed for
advertisements that effectively influence the feelings and
emotions of consumers; they are called transformational
ads. Such ads transform the experience of using a product
or service by attaching feelings and emotions to its use.

II. Give Russian equivalents for:
To purchase a brand; to employ advertising; to develop
attitudes; liking or disliking; advertising exposure; imagery
vividness; to elicit emotions; a level of plausibility; to
reduce zipping and zapping; pictorial and verbal content;
experiencial perspective.
III. Reproduce situations where the following word-
combinations may be used:
To influence attitudes; to create positive effects; to cause
arousal; to view negatively; to be moderated by.
IV. Give as many word-combinations as possible
with the following verbs:

To reduce; to influence; to persuade; to develop; to elicit; to
indicate; to investigate; to imagine; to create.
Use the words below:
Attitudes; advertisement; liking and disliking; evidence;
relationships; conditions; feelings and emotions;
customers; TV viewers; techniques; perspectives; mood;
factors; statements: research.

V. Give definitions of :
a) an attitude toward the ad:
b) transformational ads.

313

VI. Answer the following questions:
1. What forms of advertising may various firms employ?
2. What are they based on in their attempts to advertise the
brand?
3. What do they take into consideration?
4. What kinds of relationships do they investigate?
5. What are the major findings of the research?
6. Are they constructive for constant practical usage?
7. What is understood by the term imagery?
8. What do advertisements employ?

VI I . Describe two advertisements that create your
positive attitude.
VI I I . Describe two advertisements that produce your
negative attitude.
IX. Do your attitudes toward the ads influence your
perception of the products? Your purchasing
motives?
X. Written tasks:
1. Write an essay on the topic A Role of Advertising in
Human Life.
2. Imagine you are to advertise some brand. How would you
do it?
XI. Develop the following situations:
1. You are a deputy of the State Duma.
Ask your colleagues:
- what they think about the impact of advertisement on
people;
- if advertisement is really necessary;
- if advertisement should be broadcast only on certain
channels;
- what kind of advertisement should be banned;
- how they personally react to advertisement,
interrupting an interesting programme too often;
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- if they are in favour of or against advertising. Tell the
colleagues about your attitude to advertising.
2. You want to advertise your products.
Ask the advertiser:
- where they dispose their advertisement;
- how much a billboard advertising costs;
- in what way your products can be advertised:
- if it will be appealing;
- when you can strike a deal;
- if they use graphics in advertising.
Express your ideas concerning a good advertisement.
3. You are polling people in the street.
Ask the respondents:
- what is their attitude to advertisement;
- what advertisement they like most on TV;
- what attracts them in advertising;
- if there is any ad which irritates them;
- if they would like to forbid advertisement;
- if they don't mind being shot in an advertisement. Tell
them about the purpose of this survey. Decide whose
answers will be published.
4. You want to know everything about advertisement.
Ask your friend-advertising agent:
- what a good advertisement means;
- where it can be put;
- how to persuade a customer to use your services;
- if their service is expensive;
- if he enjoys his work;
- how much time he spends at his work;
if he ever works at odd hours;
- where lie got special education in advertising. Express
your opinion concerning a good advertisement.
Decide if you want to become an advertising agent.


315

PSYCHOTHERAPY

UNIT X
Text I

I. Read the text and render its contents in
Russian:

What Is Positive Psychotherapy?

The situation of the ill - and not only of the mentally ill -
is in many ways like that of a person who for a long time
has been standing on only one leg. After some time the
muscles become cramped and the burdened leg begins to
hurt. He is hardly able to retain his balance. Not only the
leg hurts: the whole musculature, unaccustomed to this
posture, begins to cramp up. The pain becomes
unbearable, and the person cries for help.
In this situation, various helpers approach him.
While he remains standing on the one leg, one helper
begins to massage the burdened and cramped leg. Another
takes hold of the neck and gives it a Swedish massage,
following all the rules of that art. A third helper sees that
the person seems about to lose his balance, and offers him
his arm as a support. From among the onlookers comes
the suggestion that the person should perhaps take hold
of both hands, so that standing may no longer be so hard
for him. A wise old man remarks that ho should think
about how well off he is, compared with people who have
no legs at all. One swears to him that he should imagine
himself to be a feather, and that the more intensely he
concentrates on that, the more his pain will abate. An
enlightened old man adds this well-meant advice: Time
will tell. Finally, an observer goes up to the sufferer and
asks him, Why are you standing on one leg? Straighten
out the other one and stand on it. You do have a second
leg, you know.

316

II. Look through the text and find English
equivalents for:
; ;
; ; ;
; ; .
III. Read and translate the following words:

helper; onlooker; enlightened man; observer; sufferer. In
what situations are these words used?

IV. Read the following passage and explain the goal
of positive psychotherapy:

Precisely This Is Positive Psychotherapy

The situation in psychotherapy today requires the
development of methods which are both economical and
effective. The point here is not just to add to the already
vast multitude of theories, methods, concepts, and
procedures; rather, it is a question of a fundamental
broadening. While many of the existing psychotherapeutic
procedures take as their starting point the disturbances
and illnesses, prophylactic preventive medicine and
psychotherapy require another approach, which starts
with a person's developmental possibilities and capacities
instead of the disturbances. If these capacities are
inhibited, neglected, or one-sidedly structured in their
development, there arise, either hidden or openly,
predispositions to conflict.

V. Check your knowledge of the following words:

to require; multitude; procedure; approach; capacity;
disturbance; to inhibit; predisposition.

VI. Answer the following questions:
1. Why is psychotherapy so necessary today?
2. What methods does psychotherapy require?
317

3. What is a starting point of psychotherapeutic
procedures?
3. What is another approach of certain necessity today?

Text 2

I. Read and translate the text:

The No Diagnosis Principle

Traditional psychotherapy derives its view of man from
psychopathology. Thus, the object of its investigation is
illnesses. The goal of a treatment is to remove these
illnesses, just as in surgery a sick organ is excised. To that
extent, psychotherapy follows a venerable tradition. The
psychotherapist is primarily occupied with depressions,
attention-getting behavior, and psychosomatic diseases
such as asthma, headaches, cardiac pain, stomach
trouble, and abdominal pains.
At first, this is justified! Very rarely does a patient seek
out a therapist just because he would like to have his good
health confirmed; rather, he does so because functions
and organs are disturbed and he would like to have these
disturbances eliminated. From this practical starting
point, medicine developed the no diagnosis principle,
according to which everything which is not sick is healthy,
and vice versa.
In following this principle, psychotherapy employs a
cognitive model which was already present in Oriental and
Greek philosophy. I am referring to the negative principle.
It consists in defining a concept by saying what it is not;
one describes negative attributes, denies their presence,
and assumes the positive. This method of proceeding has a
story behind it. It is said that Socrates asked a famous
poet to speak about beauty. To the astonishment of his
listeners, however, the poet spoke not about beauty but
rather about its opposite, ugliness. When Socrates
inquired why he praised beauty in that way, without
318

speaking of it, the poet replied: I have described what is
ugly. That which is not ugly is beautiful.
In the Ten Commandments of the Old Testament this
principle is also found: thou shalt not steal, thou shalt not
cover thy neighbor's wife, thou shalt not kill, etc. Even
everyday descriptions and demands hold to the negative
procedure. It is seldom said what and how one should act.
More frequently, one hears what one should not do.
The scientific method of psychoanalysis was initially
based on the same principle. S. Freud formulated it in this
way: Only when one studies the pathological does one
learn to understand the normal.
In saying this, Freud is part of a long tradition. For
example, the philosopher Lichtenberg had stated: One
first acquires the feeling of health through sickness. Not
until we have had contact with that which should not be
or that which does not seem very desirable to us do we
come to recognize the desired object and learn to treasure
it. This attitude tacitly implies that one must first suffer
injury before one becomes wise: suffer a heart attack
before one takes care of one's health, go through a divorce
before one clearly perceives the value of marriage, or suffer
disturbances of experience and behavior before one pays
attention to oneself and one's own wants and needs.
In this way, the human personality is grasped via the
roundabout way of knowledge of disturbances. One seeks
to define the conflict-free person through expressions such
as relative capacity for resistance to regression, relative
freedom from repression, and reduced tendency to
ambivalence. In consequence, not the patient but the
illness is treated. The conception of illness covers the
patient like a cloud; the therapist perceives only the
illness. The patient himself soon learns: My only claim on
the therapist is through my illness. As a result the
disturbance stands out even more starkly before his eyes.
The pathological diagnosis arrived at is like blinders
which are supposed to hinder the perception of anything
more than the disturbed domain. In this way, the
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therapeutic possibilities are diminished.

II. Translate the following combinations one +
verb:

one should act; one hears; one studies; one learns to
understand; one acquires; one perceives; one pays
attention to; one seeks to define;
Find them in the text and see whether your translation
was correct. Make up your own sentences with similar
models.

III. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What is the object of the investigation in
psychotherapy?
2. What is the psychotherapist occupied with?
3. What does the no diagnosis principle mean?
4. What model does psychotherapy employ?
5. What is the scientific method of psychoanalysis
based on?
6. How can one define the conflict-free person?

IV. Explain:

1. The role of the psychotherapist.
2. The meaning of the no diagnosis principle.
3. The notion of the conflict-free person.

V. Read out the following statement and treat its
sense:

Positive Psychotherapy is concerned with this question:
it attempts to avoid the classic misunderstanding which
sees in the patient only a bearer of symptoms, and by
contrast, to achieve a comprehensive representation.


320

VI. Develop the following situations:

1. You lost your job. You experience depression and
anxiety. At last you make up your mind to consult a
psychotherapist. What's influenced your decision-making?
2. You have recently become divorced. You feel lonely
and neglected. You take a decision to apply for a
psychoanalyst. Why?
3. Your close friend suffers from mental disturbance.
You recommend him to consult a psychotherapist. Try to
persuade him to do it as fast as possible.
4. Psychotherapy has some historical grounds. What
are they?


Text 3

I. Read the text and answer the following questions:

1. What can you tell about a universal character of
Positive Psychotherapy?
2. What are the two basic questions in Positive
Psychotherapy?
3. Why is Positive Psychology more a practice than a
theory?



Aims of Positive Psychotherapy



Positive Psychotherapy is a new form of psychotherapy
which pursues several fundamental aims.
Positive Psychotherapy has a universal character. It
doesn't just look into individual, accidental aspects of how
conflicts arise, but rather seeks, as far as possible, to
understand the patient in a comprehensive way. In so
321

doing, the most important thing is to counteract
theoretical prejudice through which the therapist merely
reencounters in the patient that which he, through his
theory, has invested in him. In pursuit of this aim Positive
Psychotherapy employs a multitude of procedures,
techniques, and methodological aids in accordance with
the manifold forms of appearance of disturbance and the
uniqueness of each patient. The concepts of Positive
Psychotherapy especially the actual capacities as
descriptive categories of human behavior and experience,
are neither class nor culture specific. They present a basis
for communication, with the help of which language
barriers can be overcome. Positive Psychotherapy is
therefore not just psychotherapy for the middle class;
rather it is also appropriate to the problems and
difficulties of patients from the lower class, who for the
most part have long been excluded from psychotherapy. It
provides the therapist with the possibility of making
himself understood to the laborer, while the patient, for his
part, can have the feeling that the therapist understands
his problems. Thus, Positive Psychotherapy has been able
to make a contribution to the furthering of equality of
opportunity, at least in psychotherapy.
In that Positive Psychotherapy deals with elementary
human capacities, it is in a position to speak to people of
all languages and social strata, and to cope effectively with
transcultural problems. This approach presupposes an
answer to the two basic questions:
How are people different?
What do all people have in common?
Therapeutically, Positive Psychotherapy offers an
efficacious five-stage short therapy which stresses
activation of the patient's indwelling therapeutic
capacities. In other words, the patient is not only the
sufferer of his illness, but also is employed as a therapist
himself.
The concept of Positive Psychotherapy suggests that
psychiatry and the care of mentally ill patients (which is in
322

very bad shape) should be restructured so that psychiatric
hospitals, which in part function only as custodial
institutions, would be transformed into counseling places,
therapy centers, and day clinics, in which the patient's
relatives would be prepared for their therapeutic functions
and the patients themselves for cooperation with them.
Positive Psychotherapy, which rests upon differentiation
analysis, does not seek to provide everything with a
positive prognosis, but rather presupposes a
differentiation of the critical behavior: it allows relatively
conflict-free or positive behavioral components to be
separated from the symptom itself, this providing the
patient and his milieu with a basis for dealing better with
his problems.
Positive Psychotherapy does not see itself as just one
theory among many. The essential difficulty of many
patients is less a question of inadequate motivation to seek
out a psychotherapy that of uncertainty about which
psychotherapist is competent to deal with which kind of
disturbance. This question can only be answered on the
basis of a more comprehensive system which can bring
together the multitude of existing psychotherapeutic
orientations and assign them weights in accordance with
their strong points. We present such a system in Positive
Psychotherapy, which is not only a psychotherapeutic
method but also a metatheory.
In its origin and nature, Positive Psychotherapy is more
practice than theory. I am mainly trying to understand the
patient in his subjective and objective need, without losing
sight of his uniqueness. Positive Psychotherapy meets this
intention, in that it does not swear by one individual
technique but rather calls upon a multitude of different
psychotherapeutic techniques (e. g., individual treatment,
group therapy, family therapy, relaxation methods,
learning-theoretical approaches, psychoanalytical
procedures). It is not the patient who must adapt to a
methodology he happens to be presented with, but vice
versa: the methodology is selected in accordance with the
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changing psychotherapeutic needs of the patient. This
flexibility permits the handling of all psychological and, in
a broader sense, psychosomatic illnesses and
disturbances.

II. Look through the text and find in the text
sentences with word-combinations that are given
below. Translate these sentences:

to pursue an aim; to employ techniques; to overcome a
barrier; to make a contribution to; to cope with problems;
to rest upon analysis; to handle disturbances.

III. Find in the text the paragraph concerning a
question of inadequate motivation to seek out a
psychotherapist and translate it in writing.

IV. Make up a plan to the text.

V. Characterize the basic aims of psychotherapy.

Use your plan.

VI. Explain what is meant by:
1. Individual treatment.
2. Group therapy.
3. Family therapy.
4. Relaxation methods.
5. Psychoanalytical procedures.

VII. Role-play:

1. You are a family therapist. A young couple comes to
you with their marital problems. Listen to them and give
suitable advice to cope with the situation.
2. You are an industrial psychologist- You would like to
organize a special relaxation room. Try to persuade the
manager of its significance for his employees.
324


Text 4


I. Read the first paragraph of the text and retell
the fable in your own way:


Shadows on the Sundial

In the East, a king once wanted to please his subjects.
Since they did not know what a clock was, he brought
back a sundial from one of his trips. His gift changed the
lives of the people in the kingdom. They began to
differentiate parts of the day and to divide up their time.
Becoming more prompt, orderly, reliable, and industrious,
they produced great wealth and a high standard of living.
When the king died, his subjects wondered how they could
pay tribute to his achievements. Because the sundial
symbolized the king's generosity and was the cause of
their success, they decided to build around it a splendid
temple with a golden dome. But when the temple was
finished and the dome soared above the sundial, the rays
of the sun no longer reached the dial. The shadow, which
had told the time for the citizens, had disappeared; the
common point of orientation, the sundial, was covered.
One citizen was no longer punctual, another no longer
reliable, a third no longer industrious. Each went his own
way. The kingdom collapsed.

II. Read and translate the rest of the text:

The fable about the sun, the sundial, and the darkened
ostentatious palace can very well be applied to the child
rearing situation and psychotherapy. Every person has at
his disposal a large number of capacities with his
environment. In terms of developmental psychology, this
takes shape in the following way. Parents, as initially the
325

most important people in the environment, and also the
other reference persons in the child rearing situation, can
either support or inhibit a child's capacities which, at the
beginning of its life, are weak, tender, undeveloped, and
plastic; and precisely the latter often occurs, as in our
fable. In order to make of the child a man in his own
image, the educator emphasizes certain socially desired
attributes. In many cases these attributes are rendered
highly stylized and carried to perfect one-sidedness. To be
sure, some of the child's capacities are developed and
differentiated, and often even overstressed; however, other
capacities are suppressed and overshadowed, just like the
marvelous sundial in the splendid temple.
To varying degrees, we are all confronted with conflicts
and problems. There exists, therefore, a need for new
approaches and methods which are effective as well as
practicable. While many of the existing psychotherapeutic
procedures take the disturbances and illnesses as their
starting point, prophylactic and preventive medicine and
psychotherapy require a different method of proceeding,
starting from the person's developmental possibilities and
capacities instead of the disturbances. If these capacities
are inhibited, neglected, or only one-sidedly developed,
predispositions to conflict arise, whether hidden or open:
From childhood on I have been drilled toward
achievement I even enjoy my profession, but I have no
relationship to other people. I can't make much headway
with my children either. For me, free time is a torment-..
(42-year-old attorney with depression)

Conclusion: Suppressed and one-sidedly unfolded
capacities are possible sources of conflicts and
disturbances in the psychological and interpersonal areas.
They may manifest themselves in anxiety, aggression,
conspicuous behavior, depression, and that which is called
psychosomatic disturbance. Since the conflicts arise in the
course of a person's development in the confrontation with
his environment, they are not a necessary and
326

unavoidable fate, but rather present themselves as
problems and tasks which we seek to resolve. With this, an
essential difference becomes clear: traditional psychiatry
and psychotherapy take as their point of departure
disturbances, conflicts, and illnesses. Accordingly, the goal
of treatment is set: to heal illnesses and eliminate
disturbances. The fact is overlooked that it is not
disturbances which are primary, but rather capacities,
which are indirectly or directly affected by these
disturbances.

III. Give Russian equivalents for:

child rearing; at one's disposal; in terms of; to inhibit
capacities; socially desired attributes; to be confronted
with; a starting point; suppressed capacities; the goal of
treatment; to heal illnesses.

IV. Explain the essence of the following words:

rearing; maturation; a capacity; predisposition;
environment; image; an educator; disturbance.

V. Answer the following questions:

1. How can the fable above be applied to the child
rearing situation?
2. What is the starting point of the child's
psychotherapy?
3. What is the source of conflicts and disturbances?
4. When do these conflicts arise?
5. What is the goal of treatment?
VI. Ask your partner:
1. how the child's capacities are differentiated;
2. what problems he was confronted with in his
childhood;
3. what is called psychosomatic disturbance;
4. in what way he understands traditional psychiatry.
327


VII. Make up your own sentences with:

to be confronted with; to overlook the fact; to have at
one's disposal; to seek to resolve; to be affected by.

VIII. Make up the summary of the text.

Text 5

I. Read the text and find the answers to the following
questions:
1. What are the basic questions concerning the theory
of positive psychotherapy?
2. What is the foundation of human development?
3. Can the environment influence human capacities?
4. What helps us to see inadequate differentiation of
behaviour?

Theory of Positive Psychotherapy

(1) In view of the varied kinds of upbringing, the
differing economic conditions, the multitude of life
histories, the individuality of each person, and the
specificity of each person's needs, in view of all these
factors, is it possible to establish any rules whatsoever for
rearing and psychotherapy? There are also an immense
number of interests, communities, nations, races, and
people in this world, who differ in customs, tastes,
temperaments, and normal conceptions, as do the
thoughts, views, and opinions of individual human beings.
Is it not then the case that an education and a reeducation
(psychotherapy) which seek validity for all must be a task
which is too difficult for anyone? On the other hand, the
multitude of societal and individual circumstances is
fodder for social conflict of unheard-of dimensions. This
brings us to the basic questions:
1. What do all people have in common?
328

2. How are all people different?
(2) Man is, at his birth, no tabula rasa, but rather, to
stick with this image, an as yet illegible or unread paper.
His capacities - the foundation of human development -
require maturation and the beneficial help of the
environment. However, the concept of the capacities has
its own problematic. So long as they are not manifested in
achievement, one does not notice them - just as one
doesn't see a black ant sitting on a black stone on a dark
night. It does, however, exist, and it may crawl into one's
field of vision at any moment, when the appropriate
conditions have been created. Every person possesses
such capacities. Whether or not they take shape in the
course of development depends on the conducive or
inhibitive conditions of the body, of the environment, and
of the times. In relation to the drives, capacities are more
plastic and more strongly subjected to the resonance of
the environment. In this sense, the conventional societal
form of order reflects the human capacity to create order
in one way or another. Without the capacity for
orderliness, order is inconceivable.
(3) When we take as our point of departure the study of
interpersonal conflict, observe the value standards for the
judgment of self and others, investigate the criteria of
rearing and psychotherapy, and research the conditions
which lead to the known psychological and psychosomatic
disturbances, we see behind these disturbances - to a
certain degree as deep structure - inadequate
differentiation with regard to the patterns of behavior of
oneself and others. In the portrayal of psychological and
psychosomatic disturbances, this is described through
expression like overdemanding, overworking, or
burdening. The saying that behind disturbances lay
burdens does not, however, specify the nature of this
burdening. For the most part we tend to see only
professional overloading. Actually, however, there exists a
whole spectrum of attitudes and behavior patterns which
have become conflict potentials, thus foreordaining
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psychological and psychosomatic disturbance. These
attitudinal and behavior patterns may be described using
an inventory of psychosocial norms, which are
distinguished by the fact that they produce effects equally
as developmental dimensions and as conflict potentials.
(4) The norms in question are: punctuality, cleanliness,
orderliness, obedience, courtesy, honesty, faithfulness,
justice, diligence/achievement, thrift, reliability, precision,
and conscientiousness, as well as love, modeling, patience,
time, contact, sexuality, trust, confidence, hope, faith,
doubt, certitude, and unity. We call these modes of
behavior actual capacities.

II. Translate paragraph (3) in writing.

III. Make up an outline of the text.

IV. Look through paragraph (4) and copy out
those modes of behaviour that you consider to
be of primary importance for you. Give your
arguments.

V. Make up a list of actual capacities which are
necessary in:

1. the professional field;
2. making stable and lasting friendships;
3. the family relations.

VI. Give a short summary of the text.

Text 6

I. Read and translate the text:

Actual Capacities

Contents-wise, the psychologically real norms may be
330

divided into two basic categories, which we call secondary
and primary capacities.
The secondary capacities are an expression of the
capacity to know, and rest upon the transmission of
knowledge. In them are mirrored the achievement norms
of the individual's social group. They include punctuality,
cleanliness, orderliness, obedience, courtesy, honesty,
faithfulness, justice, diligence/achievement, thrift,
reliability, precision, and conscientiousness.
In everyday descriptions and evaluations, and in
partners judgments of one another, the secondary
capacities play a decisive role. He who finds another
person to be nice and likeable bases his attitude on these
capacities: is decent and orderly, one can rely upon
him.. Or, on the other hand, one makes a deprecating
judgment: I don't like him, because he's slovenly,
unpunctual, unjust, discourteous, and miserly, and shows
too little effort.
The pronounced affective response in cases of
disturbance of the secondary capacities can only be
understood in the light of emotional ties. These are
expressed in the primary capacities.
The primary capacities concern the capacity to love.
They have to do with the predominantly emotional domain,
and develop, just as the secondary capacities, mainly in
interpersonal relationships, in which the relation to
reference persons, especially the mother and father, plays
an important role. The primary capacities encompass
categories like love (emotionality), modeling, patience,
time, contact, sexuality, trust, confidence, hope, faith,
doubt, certitude, and unity.
We call them primary capacities not because they are
more important than the secondary ones. Rather, the
expression primary is meant to remind us that these
capacities concern the emotional domain, which is close to
the self. They constitute the foundation upon which the
secondary capacities rest:
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In terms of contents, the primary capacities are oriented
toward experiences which one has had with regard to the
secondary capacities.

The Inventory of Secondary and Primary
Capacities (Actual Capacities)

Secondary Capacities Primary Capacities
Punctuality Love (emotionality)
Cleanliness Modeling
Orderliness Patience
Obedience Time
Courtesy Contact
Honesty/candor Sexuality
Faithfulness Trust
Justice Confidence
Diligence/achievement Hope
Thrift Faith/religion
Reliability Doubt
Precision Certitude
Conscientiousness Unity

Some of the expressions are, in conventional language,
rarely included among the capacities in the narrower
sense: modeling, doubt, certitude, and unity. They are in
part psychological processes within which specific
capacities are manifested, and they appear in part as the
results of these processes. As such typical manifestations,
they can be included in the group of capacities. These
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capacities are not pure, isolated factors; rather, they are
inwardly closely interrelated.
The actual capacities are socialization norms which are
developed and learned in the course of one's lifetime. In
the process they acquire their individual significance,
which, like a corona of meaning, surrounds the
conventional understanding of the actual capacities.
Although, for example, everybody knows what orderliness
is, in the last analysis everyone's understanding of this
expression differs in relation to varied nuances and in
different situations: pedantic or romantic orderliness. On
the other hand, structural commonalities are found again
and again, especially with regard to the psychological
significance. Courtesy, for example, can be understood
as inhibition of aggression and suppression of one's own
wishes to the benefit of the wishes of others. In this way it
becomes the social instrument with which the affect and
recognition of others are to be assured and friendly looks
are to be gotten. Honesty, on the other hand, functions in
this sense as accomplishment of one's own wishes, toward
which one adopts an honest stance.
The psychological significance of the actual capacities is
modified throughout a person's life history, each acquiring
a specific meaning. While for one reference person
diligence/achievement is especially significant, another
holds orderliness, punctuality, courtesy, honesty, thrift,
etc. to be especially important. The actual capacities are,
however, not just psychological dimensions which are
restricted to the individual. Rather, they affect both the
psychosomatic and the social domains. From a social-
psychological point of view, they are the rules of the game
of a society, as well as the rules of the game of
interpersonal relations.
The approach presented led to the idea of questioning
patients concerning their disposition to conflict with
regard to the actual capacities. For example, in cases of
depression we ask not only about the depressive
symptomatology or about key conflicts defined as such a
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priori, but rather about the corresponding conflict-laden
behavioral domains. For example, we focus first not on the
anxiety, but rather on a series of conditions which have
the effect of releasing anxiety. Let us assume that a patient
always develops anxieties when she has to wait for her
husband in the evening. In such as a case, the anxiety is
centered in the psychosocial norm punctuality. Is it not
then clear that precisely this domain should be dealt with?
Conclusion: The actual capacities represent the content
relations of psychodynamic reactions and of
psychotherapeutic modelling. In this sense, differentiation
analysis is not restricted to general findings, such as an
authoritarian parental home, strong parental ties, tyranny,
deification, and a tough, tender, or double-bind type of
rearing. It speaks not only of self-worth conflicts, feelings
of inferiority, phobias, depressions, or a largely undefined
superego. Rather, it analyses the concrete contents (actual
capacities) of inner psychological and interpersonal
processes.

II. Answer the following questions:
1. What basic categories may the psychologically real
norms be divided into?
2. What capacities play a decisive role, primary or
secondary?
3. What are the basic differences between the primary
and secondary capacities?
4. How is the psychological significance of the actual
capacities modified?

III. Complete the following sentences:
1. By the secondary capacities we understand...
2. The primary capacities have to do with...

334


3. In terms of contents the primary capacities are
oriented toward...
4. The actual capacities are developed and learned in...
5. The actual capacities affect...
6. From a social-psychological point of view, they are
the rules of...

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IV. Look through the text and be ready to
characterize:

1. The secondary capacities and their decisive role in
the human life.
2. The primary capacities.
3. The development of the actual capacities in the
course of one's lifetime.
4. The psychological significance of the actual
capacities.

V. Look at the Inventory of Secondary and Primary
Capacities and choose the most suitable ones to be
implied in the following situations:

1. I don't trust my husband any more, because he is
always untrustworthy, he's not punctual...
2. I am depressed. I have anxieties and can't get to
sleep all night. I'm sick of life itself...
3. When I think about my boss's unfairness, I start to
shiver and feel nervous...
4. When I hear that an arithmetic assignment has
been given at school, I feel nervous until my daughter
brings her grade home.
5. I don't like my husband. He doesn't wash himself
properly and he leaves everything lying about.

VI. In what way would you treat the following
statement:
It is on the basis of the primary capacities that the
secondary capacities experience their emotional
resonance.

VII. Look at the picture illustrating Actual
cities and comment on it.


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Text 7

I. Read the text and render its contents in Russian:

Is the Inventory of the Actual Capacities
Complete?

Just as a seed possesses a multitude of capacities which
are unfolded through the influence of the environment,
e.g., the earth, the rain, the gardener, etc., man too
develops his capacities in close connection with his
environment. Underlying the concept of Positive
Psychotherapy is the conception that every person has two
basic capacities, the capacity to know and the capacity to
love (emotionality). These two basic capacities stand as
comprehensive categories behind the primary and
secondary capacities. They are, however, not just formally
higher levels of abstraction of the actual capacities; rather,
they represent the totality of human capacities in an as yet
undifferentiated stage, even as the flame is hidden within
the candle and the rays of light are potentially present in
the lamp.
In the course of the lifetime of the individual, the basic
capacities differentiate into the configurations of the actual
capacities, which we then observe as personal and
unmistakable attributes. In spite of successful
differentiation into actual capacities, we have an
inestimable mass of developmental possibilities which are
latent in the basic capacities.
The actual capacities depend on the historical, social,
and individual circumstances. The capacities to know and
to love, on the other hand, belong to the essence of every
man. This means no less than that man is essentially
good. This is true independently of the race a person
belongs to, whether he is black, yellow, red, or white;
independently of the social class to which, because of
economic conditions, he belongs; and independently of the
psychological type into which he is classified, whether he
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is intelligent, extroverted, introverted, schizothymic,
cyclothymic, or culpable. Not only the healthy have basic
capacities, but also the ill, whose physical, psychological,
and spiritual functions are disturbed. This is true even of
the mentally and emotionally ill, whose personalities are
severely limited. Their situation is similar to that of
sufferers of aphasic speech disturbances, who are well
able to understand a language and to think verbally, but
whose necessary organic functions are disturbed, and who
are therefore unable to outwardly realize their speech
potential. Autistic persons, who renounce nearly all social
contact and live in seclusion within themselves, possess
the capacity to love and to know, just as do the catatonic,
transfixed, and expressionless schipzophrenic and the so-
called heartless psychopath.


The basic capacities and their conditions (or
development

II. Read the text again and give it the other
heading.
III. Give some examples of:
1. historical consequences determining the actual
capacities;
2. social consequences related to the actual capacities;
3. individual consequences linked with the actual
capacities.


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IV. Explain in your own way the following notions:
1. the capacity to know;
2. the capacity to love;
3. personal attributes;
4. an extraverted type;
5. an introverted type;
6. an autistic person.

V. Look at the diagram and describe it.

VI. Speak on the following:


1. Every person has two basic capacities.
2. The actual capacities depend on historical, social
and individual consequences.

Text 8

I. Look through the item and explain:

1. why we find someone repulsive;
2. why we probably dislike a person;
3. why some people seem impolite to us;
4. why the level of civilization has nothing to do with
the essence of man.


Disturbances Have Nothing to Do with the
Basic Capacities

There are no bad people. If we nt stand someone, it
may be due to the fact that he has a different skin color,
different facial expressions, and certain physical
characteristics which we do not wish to accept. If we find
someone repulsive, keep our distance from him, and get
angry about him, it may be because he holds a different
opinion, is not polite enough to us, keeps us waiting, is
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untrustworthy, and makes behavioral demands on us
which are inconvenient and unwonted. If we do not like a
person, the reason may be that he once disappointed us,
others have had bad experiences with him, and we no
longer trust him. However, we cannot hate the hateful
person because he is hateful, nor the discourteous person
because he is discourteous, nor the unreliable person
because of his unreliability. Many people who are hateful
in our eyes seem beautiful in the eyes of others.
Many people who seem impolite to us have simply not
yet learned the kind of politeness which we insist upon; or
we can't understand their particular kind of courtesy.
Many who have lost our confidence earn our trust in other
areas and at another time. The level of civilization attained
also has nothing to do with the essence of man. Our
ancestors didn't wear clothing, used their hands instead of
silverware, had never seen a bathroom, and attended
neither school nor universities, yet they were human
beings, and, in spite of all the historical differences, of
equal worth, just like those people of our day who are at a
different level of development and abide by different
norms. Even we have, for example, only recently learned
cleanliness and punctuality, which we now defend,
together with the susceptibility to conflict that they bring
in their wake.


II. Translate in writing:

By reason of various circumstances, whether physical
injury or impinging environmental circumstances, many
people cannot find suitable access to their capacities.
There certainly may be cases in which the organic
functions which enable the basic capacities to find
expression are so blocked that in spite of the most
painstaking treatment the difficulty cannot be removed. It
is, however, neither logical nor permissible to conclude
from the disturbance of organic functions and the
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seemingly hopeless prognosis that the capacities to love
and to know are completely missing. The hopelessness is a
function not only of the disturbance, but also of
historically conditioned remedies which are available. A
decision in the sense of a diagnostic judgment therefore
often requires the courage on the part of the therapist to
come down off the podium of objectivity and to admit: I
can't help him yet, instead of saying, He can't be
helped.
With this, we leave behind the sphere of the directly
observable and enter the sphere of constructs, which,
while not themselves observable, are nevertheless
accessible. When we see the light of an incandescent lamp,
we see only that, and not its cause, the electric current. To
this we have access only via its effects.

III. Answer:

1. Why is the therapist sometimes helpless?
2. What are the circumstances under which he
becomes helpless?

IV. Read the conclusion and give the definition of
the capacities in the new light:

Conclusion: In this sense, we understand the capacities
to know and to love as psychological dispositions which
are possessed by every human being, without exception,
and which require actualization and differentiation. All
other capacities can be derived from these two basic
capacities or understood as expressions of various
combinations of basic capacities, and applied in any
number of life situations. The two basic capacities are
functionally interrelated. The appropriate development of
one capacity supports and facilitates the development of
the other.
Every person has at his disposal basic capacities which,
open up to him a broad range of possibilities. In
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accordance with the conditions of his body, of his
environment, and of the time in which he lives, these basic
capacities are differentiated and lead to an unmistakable
structure of essential traits.

V. Make up sentences with the following word-
combinations:

to keep one's distance from;
to get angry about;
to trust no longer;
to lose confidence;
to have nothing to do with.

VI. What feelings do unreliable people evoke in you?
And what about impolite people (unpleasant,
dishonest)? Give your arguments. Use word-
combinations of exercise 5 to develop your idea.

Text 9

I. Read and render the contents in Russian:
Basic Capacities in the Literature

The principle of the capacities is found in the literature
in many forms. All the concepts of the human sciences
contain, directly or indirectly, fundamental dimensions or
basic capacities, from which behavior or perception can be
derived. In some lines of thought these are the drives, in
others the ability to learn, and in still others emotional
dimensions such as the endothymic base. In each case,
the nature and the evaluation of the respective basic
capacities correspond to the underlying view of man.
S. Freud, who sees the sexual and aggressive drives as
the predominant basic capacities, formulates his view of
man in the following way: The development of man to date
seems to me to require no other explication than that
related to the animals.
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In hindsight, it seems strange that in the history of
psychology, the reflexologist Pavlov puts forward a similar
view of man: After everything that I have presented in the
previous lessons, it is hardly possible to dispute the fact
that the quite general bases of higher nervous activity are
the same in the higher animals and in man.
These conclusions are not just the value-neutral
conclusions or the detached opinions of scientists. They
are based, strictly speaking, not on facts, but rather on a
view of man originating in the mechanistic era. The
question of whether the same regularities hold for men as
for animals has rather less theoretical and philosophical
than eminently practical significance. Here, the question is
raised as to what man is to be regarded as; how,
consequently, he can and must be treated; and which
developmental possibilities are granted or denied him. The
view of man thus has profound consequences for rearing,
for relations with human beings in general, for
interpersonal relations, and for psychotherapy.
Both basic capacities of Positive Psychotherapy can be
inferred from human behavior, largely comprehensible in
terms of the actual capacities. Here, observable behavior
functions as an indicator of universal dispositions or
essential traits .
W. Stern speaks here of lasting potential causalities,
which, in their actualization and differentiation, have need
of convergence with the world. D. C. Jordan and D. .
Streets state that knowing and loving are the two basic
capacities. From the blending and differentiation of these
two capacities all human potentialities are derived. With
their pedagogic conception as a point of departure, they
associate the following developmental categories with the
two basic powers of knowing arid loving: psychomotor
development, perceptual development, cognitive
development, affective and emotional development, moral
development, development of volition, development of
creativity and of aesthetic sensitivity, spiritual
development, and language development. Based on these
343

discriminations, the authors formulate a comprehensive
pedagogic program, the Anisa Model.

II. Whose formulation of basic capacities do you
consider to be the most significant?

III. Read the paragraph below and give it a
heading:


Conclusion: Classical psychology had already employed
the fundamental distinction between cognition, involving
perception and thinking, and emotion, involving feelings
and affective resonance. Together with behavior, cognition
and emotion are held by social psychology to be the
essential aspects of attitudes. In the history of psychology,
this trichotomy is found again in the triad: thinking,
feeling, and willing. A number of theories, while not
differentiating between the capacities to know and to love,
employ a concept which is in many ways similar to that of
the basic capacity. A. P. Weil speaks in this sense of an
original psychological nucleus, Charlotte Buhler of a
spiritual nucleus which is present from birth on. H. Ey
differentiates, in a way analogous to the relationship
between basic and actual capacities, between the
trajectory of the personality and the superficial field of
consciousness; however, he does not employ these
expressions in a general sense, restricting them instead to
pathological disturbances. Similarly, Weitbracht sees the
substratum as one of the factors which conditions
neuroses. In his theory, S. Freud reverts to a basic
dualism, one component of which he locates in the
dynamic domain of the personality, the other being seen in
the obligations confronting the individual and in societal
demands. He differentiates between the pleasure principle
and the reality principle. When E. H. Erikson speaks of a
gradation of basic virtues and conceives of them as
inward strength or active quality, these virtues, as
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certain kinds of human energy, stand, content-wise, closer
to the actual capacities than to the basic capacities in our
sense.

IV. Ask your friend 10 questions on the text.

V. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. The sexual and aggressive drives are the
predominant basic capacities.
2. The general bases of higher nervous activity are the
same in higher animals and in man.
3. Knowing and loving are the two basic capacities.
4. Cognition and emotion are the essential aspects of
attitudes.

VI. Speak on:

1. S. Freud's treatment of basic capacities.
2. The Anisa Model.
3. The triad: thinking, feeling, and willing.

Text 10

I. Read the item and answer the questions:
1. What does every human being seek to discover?
2. What is the capacity to know linked to?

What Is the Capacity to Know?

The capacity to know means the ability to learn and to
teach. Every human being seeks to discover the
relationships in reality. He asks why an apple falls to the
ground, why a tree grows, why the sun shines, why a car
goes, why there exist sickness and suffering. He takes an
interest in who he really is, where he comes from, and
where he will go. These are not only the questions of
philosophy, but also questions that reflect a basic human
345

need. The nature of man, to ask such questions and to
seek the answers to them, is the expression of the capacity
to know. Educationally, it is built upon the transmission of
knowledge.
The capacity to know branches out into the mutually
complementary capacities to learn and to teach, i.e., the
capacities to have experiences and to impart them. The
disparity between learning and teaching produces a
special source of conflicts: if we want to operate a
complicated technical apparatus, we must first learn how
it works. If we want to pass this tool on to another person,
we have a duty to instruct him, to teach him. If we don't
do that, we shouldn't be surprised if he destroys the
expensive instrument through misuse. The disparity
between learning and teaching leads to a tension which is
widespread in child rearing, marriage, and relations
between generations. Out of the capacity to know develop
the secondary capacities, such as punctuality, orderliness,
cleanliness, courtesy, honesty, and thrift.

II. Make up a list of capacities to learn and those to
teach.

II. Read the text below and make up a summary:

Modes of the Capacity to Know

Let us ask ourselves which modes are available for the
development of the capacity to know. We distinguish four
modes of knowing. They are latent in every person as
capacities, the kind and degree of unfolding of which is
conditioned by the environment:
1. The senses
2. Reason
3. Tradition
4. Intuition

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The functioning of all four modes is more or less
codetermined by the unconscious.




Model functions in the development of the four
modes of the capacity to know

Carried over to the partnership situation: many of our
partners, and certainly all patients, are at least as
sensitive as every old feudalistic ruler. Our partners can
repay our honesty with withdrawal of love, vengeance
(justice), or in such a way that we regret ever having
honestly and frankly expressed our opinion. The myths are
available as a help: they hit home to the degree one wants
them and at oneself. They are especially relevant in that
they address a mode of knowledge which for adults, and
often for children, is unrecognized and only just manages
to stay alive: intuition. In modern industrial society
intuition is seen as unimportant and, to the degree that it
is recognized at all, is subordinated to reason. It is just
this capacity which the stories address. They promote that
playful, unforced imagination and fantasy which is not
directly controlled by reality, but rather through the
fantasy reality of the story. With intuition a capacity is
stimulated which in many people leads a shadow
existence; in addition an entry is made into fantasy, over
which many patients have lost control.

IV. Do you agree with the list of four modes of
knowing? Give your arguments-
347

V. Characterize each mode of knowing separately.
VI. Read the conclusion drawn and express your
opinion:

Conclusion: Mythological stories can serve as a
therapeutic vehicle to reflect problematic attitudes and
areas of behavior, to stimulate associations, and to
provoke a conversation about conflict areas which
otherwise remain closed to verbalization. The stories are
pedagogic aids in psychotherapy, and sometimes even for
the therapist himself.

VII.Write an essay on Psychotherapy and its Basic
Tools.
VIII. Read the text and speak on importance of
psychotherapy in human life:


Psychotherapy covers the psychological treatment of a
wide range of mental and physical illnesses by a number
of different methods, each developed in terms of its own
theoretical framework. Such treatment is carried out with
individual patients or clients, with groups of patients and
with children as well as adults. Methods vary from a long
series of intimate discussions extending over two or three
years, to only one or two intense interviews. Group
treatment may consist of acting out problems or the
encouragement of expression of inhibited emotions within
the therapeutic group.
Psychotherapy, as well as the use of hypnosis with
psychotherapy, is most appropriately regarded as a post-
qualification specialization for members of one of the
primary professional groups such as medical practitioners,
applied psychologists or social workers. Such people are
more likely to interact in the development of psychological
problems and to have a sufficient range of professional
experience and skills to judge when a potential client
might be more appropriately helped by other methods.
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IX. Read about some relatively new occupations in
the field of psychology and say what profession of
those mentioned in the text appeals to you more:

Counselling psychologists aim to help people improve
their sense of well-being, alleviate their distress, resolve
their crises and increase their ability to solve problems
and make decisions for themselves. They do this through
the application of psychological theories, research and
techniques to help individuals and groups deal with some
of the inevitable difficulties of normal life. Counselling
psychologists work with individuals, couples, families and
groups. They work in diverse settings: some work
privately, some in primary health care, others in
counselling organizations and academic settings, whilst
others are employed within business organizations.
Educational psychologists tackle the problems
encountered by young people in education, which may
involve learning difficulties and social and emotional
problems. Their work normally takes place in schools,
colleges, nurseries, and special units, and involves
working closely with teachers and parents.
Most of the time is spent in assessing children's
progress, their academic and emotional needs and
providing help and advice. Reports have to be written
about children for allocation of special educational places
or as part of court proceedings. Increasingly, educational
psychologists work with teachers to improve the school
environment.
Forensic psychologists deal with the application of
psychology within the judicial and penal systems. They are
concerned with the training and treatment of prisoners,
carrying out clinical interviews and behavioural and
psychometric tests. Increasingly, they also help prison
officers, deal with inmates and with assessing prison
governors with management issues, stress and hostage
situations. Prison psychologists are employed through out
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the prison service, including youth custody centers,
remand centers and adult prisons.
Health psychologists work in a relatively new field of
applied psychology. They are represented in a number of
settings, such hospitals, academic health research units,
health authorities and university departments.
Psychological principles are used to promote changes in
people's attitudes, behaviour and thinking about health.
Health psychologists also work with other professionals,
advising in areas such as patient communication,
assessing and evaluating services to patients and how
people's beliefs may affect treatment.
Occupational psychology is concerned with the world
of work and training, and as such can have many guises.
It may be labelled organizational psychology, ergonomics
(human factors, engineering applications of psychology),
applied psychology, industrial psychology, personnel ma-
nagement, time management or management consultancy.
Occupational psychologists are involved with issues
such as the selection and training of staff. Psychometric
tests, communication, the working environment and
effective management. Major changes brought about by
technology, privatisation and recession have led to an
increasing demand for their services.
Occupational psychologists often work for large
companies (in both the private and public sectors), in
government and public services, in management training
centres and for private consultancies. They usually work
alongside other professionals such as managers, trade
union representatives, training officers and specialist staff
from the firm or industry concerned.
Research psychologists work in universities,
government agencies or private companies. Their work
varies enormously: in universities it may be pure research
which aims simply at a better understanding of human
behaviour, while research psychologists working in
commercial organizations may be researching topics of
direct relevance to their employers.
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WHATS YOUR OPINION?

This quiz is designed to test your social attitudes. Work
through it with a partner. For each statement mark ++ if
you strongly agree, + if you tend to agree, 0 if you have no
particular opinion, - if you tend to disagree and - - if you
strongly disagree.
1. People should not be able to obtain a better
education or better medical care for their families by
paying for them.
2. Blood sports, like fox-hunting, should be made
illegal.
3. Homosexuality should never be treated as a crime.
4. All young men and women should undergo a period
of military training, even in peacetime.
5. Capital punishment is a deterrent to would-be
murderers.
6. Soft drugs like marijuana should be made legal.
7. People who live in a welfare state tend to lose all
sense of initiative.
8. There is nothing wrong with people living together
before they are married.
9. In certain circumstances, censorship of the press,
literature, films, etc. is justifiable.

10. Trade unions are a hindrance to industrial progress.
11. A person should be entitled to take his or her own
life without society interfering, if he or she wishes to do so.
12. Royalty and nobility are incompatible with
democracy.
13. It is unfair that some people inherit vast incomes
while other people have to work for a living.
14. Most strikes are the result of bad management.
15. It is normal that the police should tap telephones
when investigating a crime.
16. Young people with beards and long hair are
unpleasant to look at.
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17. Human nature being what it is, war is unavoidable.
18. There is nothing wrong with fare-dodging on a bus
or train if you can get away with it.
19. All kinds of discrimination against coloured races,
Jews, etc., should be illegal and severely punished.
20. Men are not created equal. Therefore social
inequality is inevitable.
21. Public execution is a good measure as a tradition in
some cultures.
22. You are in favour of death penalty.
23. There is nothing wrong in having a baby out of
wedlock.
24. You support the idea of cohabiting families.
25. Social Welfare Agencies must take care of old people.
26. Taboos are necessary in our lives.
27. You should apply for a psychoanalyst in solving
personal problems.
28. You believe in existence of life on other planets.

A note: fare-dodging means avoiding the payment of the
fare.


352

SOCIOLOGY


UNIT I


I. Read and translate the text: Sociology


The name sociology was first suggested in the 1830s by
the French philosopher Auguste Comte, but for many
years it remained only a suggestion. Comte urged others to
study sociology.
It was not until late in the 19th century that we can
identify people who called themselves sociologists and
whose work contributed to the development of the field.
Among these were Herbert Spencer in England who
published the first of his three-volume Principles of
Sociology in 1876 and Ferdinand Tonnies in Germany. A
decade later, Emile Durkheim published Suicide.
The first sociologists studied moral statistics. Their work
proved so popular that it led to the rapid expansion of
census questions. However, sociology as an academic
speciality was imported from Germany. The progressive
uncovering of social causes of individual behaviour in
response to the questions raised by moral statistics -
produced the field called sociology.
Sociology is one of the related fields known as the social
sciences. They share the same subject matter: human
behaviour. But sociology is the study of social relations,
and its primary subject matter is the group, not the
individual.
There is a close connection between sociology and other
disciplines such as psychology, economy, anthropology,
criminology, political science, and history. But sociologists
differ from psychologists because they are not concerned
exclusively with the individual, they are interested in what
goes on between people. They differ from economists by
353

being less interested in commercial exchanges; they are
interested in the exchange of intangibles such as love and
affection. Sociologists differ from anthropologists primarily
because the latter specialize in the study of preliterate and
primitive human groups, while sociologists are interested
in modern industrial societies. Criminologists specialize in
illegal behaviour, while sociologists are concerned with the
whole range of human behaviour. Similarly, political
scientists focus on political organization and activity, while
sociologists survey all social organizations. Finally,
sociologists share with historians an interest in the past
but are equally interested in the present and the future.
Sociology is a broader discipline than the other social
sciences. In a sense, the purpose of sociologists is, in
general, to find the connections that unite various social
sciences into a comprehensive, integrated science of
society.
Sociology consists of two major fields of knowledge:
micro sociology and macro sociology. Micro sociologists
study the patterns and processes of face-to-face
interaction between humans. Macro sociologists attempt to
explain the fundamental patterns and processes of large-
scale social relations. They concentrate on larger groups,
even on whole societies.
Sociologists attempt to use research to discover if
certain statements about social life are correct. The basic
tools of their research are tests, questionnaires, interviews,
surveys, and public opinion polls.


II. Answer the following questions:

1. Who was the first to suggest the name sociology?
2. Who were the first sociologists?
3. What were they mainly interested in?
4. What country was sociology as an academic
discipline imported from?
5. What is the subject matter of sociology?
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6. What other disciplines is sociology closely connected
with ?
7. What differs sociology from psychology and
anthropology?
8. What is the goal of sociologists?
9. What fields of knowledge does sociology consist of?
10. What are the basic tools of sociological research?

III. Explain the difference concerning the subject
matter between:
a) sociology and economy;
b) sociology and criminology;
c) sociology and history.

IV. Prove by the facts that:
1. Sociology is a social science.
2. Sociology is a broader discipline than the other
social sciences.
3. Sociology is made up of micro sociology and macro
sociology.

V. Speak on:
1. The origin of sociology.
2. Its subject matter.
3. Differences and similarities of sociology and other
social sciences.
4. Major fields of sociology.
5. Basic sociological research methods.

VI. Discuss in the group the following:
1. What do you think: sociology is a field of the arts or
the sciences?
2. Can there be a civilization without the social
sciences? Will it be a rational and healthy society?
3. Your parents don't want you to study sociology. How
would you persuade them that this is your real vocation?


355

VII.Read the text and say what part of the text
characterizes the guiding principles of sociology.

Sociology, as a science, takes its point of departure from
the materialist world outlook in its application to the
solution of social problems. In this application sociology
demonstrates its scientific character as it employs some
guiding principles in the understanding of social affairs.
They are:
1) The society in its development is regulated by
objective laws discovered by science.
2) Views and institutions, political, ideological and
cultural developments arise on the basis of the
development of the material life of society.
3) Ideas and institutions, which thus arise on the basis
of conditions of material life play an active role in the
development of material life.
So, sociology studies regularities in social processes,
connections between social events, which are independent
of our consciousness and will, social relations and social
institutions. Sociology is concerned, as well, with
circumstances which give rise to the formation of aims and
intentions in people's minds. Different people have
different aims. This does not mean that individual
psychologies differ, but it expresses the fact that people
find themselves in different circumstances, with different
interests arising from those circumstances.

VIII. Answer: What are the sociologists
concerned with? Use the words in brackets.

The sociologists are concerned with (social institutions,
social relations, social groups, group classification, group
properties, group types).

IX. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. He was greatly concerned with the latest sociological
research.
356

2. In their conversation they concerned a great number
of vital problems.
3. His main concern was sociology.
4. They talked much concerning the main points of his
report.
5. She was concerned with the problem of social
relations at the high level of the society's development.

357

UNIT II

I. Read and translate the text:

Social Barometer
A great part of sociological research consists of
quantitative experimenting. The system of techniques used
for that purpose is that of statistical methods. These
methods are necessary to examine the data, analyse them
and draw certain conclusions. The results of the
sociological survey are published then.
Sociological research is usually conducted by a working
group under the supervision of the leading sociologists of
the ll-Russian Centre for the Study of Public Opinion.
The public opinion poll is a criterion of the current social
life within the society. It is the so-called social barometer
of the country. In fact our fast-moving life makes it
necessary to analyse things. So it is useful to examine the
results of sociological surveys.
The public opinion poll is carried out nationwide or in
some definite regions, cities, establishments. It may be
verbal in the form of an interview. But more often the
opinion poll is conducted by means of tests or
questionnaires. The questionnaires contain some items to
be chosen by the subjects. In other cases the
questionnaires present a set of questions to be answered
by the respondents in their individual way. The polled may
express their own opinions verbally or in writing. The
assessments may be optimistic, pessimistic, dramatic,
positive, negative. They expose and reassess our ideals
and values.
The polls are very popular nowadays throughout the
country. In general, they are directed to assess current
social and political situation, political figures, the most
important events, economic perspectives, our losses and
gains and so on. All data are given in percentages.

II. Answer the following questions:
358

1. What methods are the basic tools in every
sociological research?
2. Who conducts sociological research?
3. What is considered to be a social barometer?
4. Where is the public opinion poll carried out?
5. In what form may it be conducted?
6. What are the questionnaires like?
7. How do the polled express their opinions?
8. What do assessments expose?
9. What is the aim of the polls?
10. How are all data given?

III. Ask your groupmate:
- why the statistical methods are used for the
sociological survey;
- under whose supervision sociological research is
conducted;
- why it is useful to conduct a public opinion poll;
- by what means the poll is carried out;
- who the respondents are;
- if the polls are popular in this country.

IV. Find in the text the facts to prove that:
1. Statistical methods are a useful tool in sociological
research.
2. Public opinion poll is a social barometer.
3. It is carried out in different forms.
4. The respondents may react differently.

V. Divide the text into four logical parts.
VI. Speak on the main points of the text.
VII.Discuss in the group the following problems:
1. Opinion polls are useful and necessary.
2. They reflect the true picture of the situation.
3. You would like to carry out such a poll.
4. You would like to act as a respondent.


359

VII. Try to make up your own questionnaire and
offer it to your groupmates.
VIII. Look through the fresh newspapers and
find there some information on the latest polls. Be
ready to comment on it.

WORD STUDY

I. Memorize the following words and word-
combinations:
Sociological research the polled
Sociological survey respondent
Public opinion to assess
Public opinion poll to reassess
To conduct a poll assessment
To carry out a poll
II. Use them in your description of some
sociological survey.
III. Fill in the blanks with the necessary words:
To conduct, conclusions, to examine, poll, to assess,
assessments
1. Statistical methods are used to analyse the data and
draw ... .
2. The opinion ... is carried out nationwide.
3. Leading sociologists ... a poll all over the country.
4. The polls are directed to ... social and political
situation.
5. The respondents give their ... verbally and in writing.
6. Sociologists carefully ... the obtained data.

IV. Complete the following sentences:
1. The public opinion poll is a criterion of ... .
2. It is the so-called ... .
3. The poll is carried out .
4. It may be verbal in the form of ... .
5. The opinion poll is conducted by means of ... .
6. The polls are directed to ... .
7. The poll data are given in ... .
360

UNIT III


I. Read and translate the text:

The Origins of Sociology

Sociology is one the youngest academic disciplines - far
younger than history, physics, or economics, for example.
It was only about one hundred and fifty years ago that
many new ideas about society began coming together to
form a systematic discipline that studies society. Auguste
Comte, a French social thinker, gave the discipline its
name in 1838; he is widely regarded as the father of
sociology.
People have had a deep interest in society since the
beginning of human history, but the sociological
perspective is a recent development, as is the scientific
approach to knowledge on which sociological research is
based.
Science and the Development of Sociology. The nature of
society was an issue of major importance in the writings of
brilliant thinkers of the ancient world, including the Greek
philosophers Plato (427-347 . C.) and Aristotle (384-322
. C). Similarly, during the medieval era in Europe -
between about 1100 and 1700 - theologians such as St.
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274 ) were deeply concerned with
social life. Yet, as Emile Durkheim noted toward the end of
the last century such social thinkers used a perspective
somewhat different from that of sociology.
In other words, prior to the birth of sociology,
philosophers and theologians were primarily concerned
with imagining the ideal society as a standard to guide
social life. They were less interested in understanding
society as it was. Pioneering sociologists such as Auguste
Comte and Emile Durkheim reversed these priorities.
Although they were certainly concerned with philosophical
and moral questions about how human society could be
361

improved, their major goal was to understand how society
actually operates.
The key to distinguishing between understanding what
society ought to be and what society is lies in the
development of a scientific approach to knowing. During
the medieval period in Europe, people's view of humanity
was heavily shaped by religion. Society was widely held to
be an expression of God's will - at least insofar as human
beings, under the guidance of the church, were capable of
fulfilling a divine plan. Gradually, however, science - based
on identifying facts through systematic observation was
growing in importance. Through the efforts of early
scientists such as the Polish astronomer Copernicus
(1473-1543), the Italian astronomer and physicist Galileo
(15641642), and the English physicist and
mathematician Sir Isaac Newton (16421727) a scientific
understanding of the natural world emerged. More than a
century after Newton, sociology was established as the
scientific approach to the study of society.
Reflecting on the origins of scientific sociology, Auguste
Comte (1851-1854) suggested that organized efforts to
understand the world tend to become increasingly
scientific as they move through three stages of
development. Comte's law of the three stages includes
approaches he described as theological, metaphysical, and
scientific. In the study of society, the earliest, theological
stage is based on understanding society as a reflection of
supernatural forces such as the will of God. The belief in a
divine plan for human society dominated the ancient world
and most of the feudal period of European history.
During the final centuries of the feudal era in Europe,
the theological approach to society gradually gave way to
what Comte termed the metaphysical stage, in which
abstract forces (such as nature) were believed to confer
basic characteristics on society. A metaphysical approach
to understanding society is found in the writings of the
English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), who
suggested that society was a reflection of an innately
362

selfish human nature. Notice that both the theological and
the metaphysical approaches did not focus attention on
society itself, but on other factors social thinkers believed
shaped society God's will in the theological view and
human nature in the metaphysical.
The last few centuries have seen the dawning of what
Comte characterized as the final, scientific stage in the
humanity's long quest to understand society. Comte
believed that a scientific approach focuses attention
directly on society instead of external forces that, in earlier
eras, were believed to be the cause of social patterns. The
scientific approach is based on the assertion that society,
like the physical world, operates according to its own
internal forces and patterns. To Comte the goal was
nothing less than a gradual understanding of all the laws
of social life. This approach is often called positivism,
which may be defined as the assertion that science, rather
than any other type of human understanding, is the path
to knowledge.
As sociology became established as an academic
discipline in the United States at the beginning of this
century, early sociologists such as Lester Ward (1841-
1913) were strongly influenced by Comte's ideas. Today as
well, many sociologists share Comte's belief that science is
a crucial element of sociology. But other sociologists do not
agree that science can be applied to the social world in the
same way it is applied to the physical world. These
sociologists point out that the causes of human behaviour
are often more complex than the causes of events in the
natural world. In other words, human beings are more
than physical objects; they are creatures with considerable
imagination and spontaneity whose behaviour can never
be fully explained in terms of any scientific laws of
society.




363

II. Answer the following questions:

1. Who is regarded a father of sociology?
2. What scholars were deeply concerned with social
life?
3. What hindered the development of science?
4. What is the essence of Comte's law?
5. What is the basis of theological stage?
6. What is the essence of metaphysical stage?
7. Where is this approach mainly found?
8- What is the scientific approach based on?
9. How may positivism be defined?
10. When did sociology become established as an
academic discipline?
11. Is there complete agreement among sociologists on
treating science?
12. Whose viewpoint would you support?

III. Complete the following sentences:

1. Auguste Comte is widely regarded as ... .
2. Prior to the birth of sociology, philosophers and
theologians were primarily concerned with ... .
3. The major goal of the pioneering sociologists Comte
and Durkheim was to ... .
4. In the medieval period people's view of humanity was
shaped by ... .
5. Scientific understanding of the natural world is
connected with such names as ... .
6. Comte's law of the three stages includes ... .
7. Theological stage is based on ... .
8. At the metaphysical stage abstract forces were
believed to ... .
9. Scientific approach focuses attention on ... .
10. Today many sociologists share Comte's belief that...



364

IV. Divide the text into logical parts and make up
an outline of the text.

V. Speak on:
1) Auguste Comte as the father of sociology.
2) His law of the three stages of development.
3) Further development of sociology.

VI. Read the text and entitle it:

Auguste Comte was born in southern France, grew up
in a conservative family in the wake of the French
Revolution, and spent most of the life in Paris. The
dramatic social changes that were taking place around
him stimulated his interest in society. From the Greek and
Latin words meaning the study of society, he derived the
word sociology.
The foundation of Comte's work was an attempt to apply
scientific methods to the study of society and to the
practical task of social reform. In his own lifetime,
scientific thinking was becoming more sophisticated and
influential than ever before, increasing human knowledge
about the physical world. Why not, Comte reasoned, apply
the same scientific methods to understanding the social
world? In Comte's view, sociology should attempt to
determine the laws that govern human social behaviour, in
much the same way that natural laws govern the operation
of the physical world. Comte's sociological study was
concerned with what he called social statics how society
maintains itself as a cohesive system of many interrelated
parts and social dynamics how society changes in an
orderly way according to specific social laws.
Few sociologists today would agree that society operates
according to absolute and invariable laws; yet most
sociologists accept the idea that the study should be
concerned with both social stability and social change.
Most sociologists also agree that sociology should be
based, as much as possible, on scientific methods.
365


VII. Read the text once more and find the answers
to the following questions:

1. What does the word sociology mean?
2. What was the foundation of Comte's work?
3. What was his sociological study concerned with?
4. What should sociology be based on?
VIII. Summarize the contents of the text in 6
sentences.

WORD STUDY

I. Find in the text The Origins of Sociology English
equivalents for:
; ;
; ; ;
; ; ; ;
; ; ;
; ; ;
; .

II. Find in the text synonyms for:

sources, for instance, to comprise, to call, to be
considered as, latest, to be founded on, question, main,
significance, works, in the same way, middle age, to be
interested in, before, pattern, of course, chief objective,
really, people, thanks to the efforts, to appear, to offer, to
involve, reason, purpose, to determine, road, also.

III. Find in the text sentences with the word-
combinations - to be concerned with, to be
interested in, to be influenced by and translate
them into Russian.

IV. Make up your own sentences with:

366


to be concerned with
to be interested in
to be influenced by

V. Answer the following questions:
1. What are you mainly interested in?
2. What are you deeply concerned with in your
sociological research?
3. What is your friend greatly interested in?
4. What sociological ideas are you influenced by?

VI. Ask your partner similar questions in order to
ascertain his interests and ideas.

VII.Look through the text on A. Comte and say what
he was particularly concerned with.

VIII. Complete the following sentences:

1. The Greek philosophers and theologians were deeply
concerned with ... .
2. Emile Durkheim was greatly interested in ... .
3. Pioneering sociologists were much influenced by ... .
4. Natural scientists of the medieval era were greatly
influenced by ... .
5. Thomas Hobbes was particularly concerned with ... .
6. Modern sociologists are deeply interested in ... .

367

UNIT IV


I. Read and translate the text:


Sociological Theory

The discipline of sociology involves more than a
distinctive point of view. The sociological perspective
illuminates new facts in countless familiar situations; but
linking specific observations together in a meaningful way
involves another element of the discipline, theory. In the
simplest terms, a theory is an explanation of the
relationship between two or more specific facts. To
illustrate the use of theory in sociology, recall Emile
Durkheim's study of suicide. Durkheim attempted to
explain why some categories of people (males, Protestants,
the wealthy, and the unmarried) have higher suicide rates
that do others (females, Catholics, the poor, and the
married). To do so, he linked one set of facts - suicide rates
to another set of facts the level of social integration
characteristic of these various categories of people.
Through systematic comparisons, Durkheim was able to
develop a theory of suicide, namely, that people with low
social integration are more prone to take their own lives.
To provide another illustration, how might we explain
the sociological observation that college science courses in
the United States typically contain more men than
women? One theoretical approach would suggest that the
sciences are more attractive to males than to females;
perhaps males simply have a greater innate interest in
science. Another possibility is that American society
encourages males to develop an interest in science while
simultaneously discouraging this interest in females. A
third theoretical approach might suggest that the
educational system has some formal or informal policy
that limits the enrollment of women in science courses.
368

As this example suggests, there may be more than one
theoretical explanation for any particular issue. Therefore,
the ability to link facts together into a meaningful theory
does not in itself mean that theory is correct. In order to
evaluate contrasting theories, sociologists make use of
various methods of scientific research.
As sociologists use these scientific methods to gather
more and more information, they are able to confirm some
theories while rejecting or modifying others. In the early
decades of this century, several sociologists interested in
the rapid growth of cities developed theories that linked
city living to distinctive patterns of human behaviour such
as pronounced impersonality and even mental illness.
However, research completed during subsequent decades
has found that living in a large city does not necessarily
result in social isolation, nor does it diminish mental
health. Within any discipline therefore, theory is never
static, because sociologists are continually carrying out
research, sociological theory is always being refined.

II. Answer the following questions:
1. What is meant by theory?
2. What did E. Durkheim base his research on?
3. What is the essence of his suicide theory?
4. What sociological observation was made among
college science students?
5. What do sociologists make use of to evaluate
contrasting theories?
6. Is a theory static or changeable within any
discipline?
7. Do you agree with the point that men are more
prone to science study?

III. Agree or disagree with the following:
1. The sociological perspective illuminates new facts in
unfamiliar situations.
2. A theory is the explanation of the relationship
between two or more specific facts.
369

3. It is possible to develop a rational theory through
systematic observations and comparisons.
4. The ability to link facts together into a meaningful
theory means that the theory is correct.
5. To evaluate contrasting theories sociologists make
use of various methods of research.
6. Within any discipline theory is never static.

V. Divide the text into logical parts and make up
a plan of the text.

VI. Speak on the text.

VII. Contradict the following statements:

1. People with low social integration are less prone to
suicides.
2. Sciences are more attractive to males than to
females.
3. Living in a large city results in social isolation.

VII.Translate the text in writing:

Social Change and the Development of
Sociology

The gradual development of scientific thought in Europe
was one important foundation of sociology. But something
more was involved: revolutionary change in European
society itself. The increasing importance of science is but
one dimension of the modernization of Europe. Social
change, of course, is continuous but European societies
experienced particularly rapid transformations during the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In the midst of
intense social change that often reached crisis proportions,
people were less likely to take society for granted. Indeed,
as the social ground shook under their feet, they focused
more and more on society, which stimulated the
370

emergence of the sociological perspective.
Three dimensions of social change occurred in that era,
each truly revolutionary in its own right. First, various
technological innovations in eighteenth-century Europe led
to the appearance of factories, initially in England. This
new way of producing material goods soon gave rise to an
industrial economy. Second, factories located within cities
drew millions of people from the countryside, where
agriculture had been the traditional livelihood. As a result,
the growth of industry was accompanied by the explosive
growth of cities. Third, the development of the economy
and the growth of cities were linked to changes in political
ideas.
While sociology is thus European in its origins, the new
discipline did not take hold everywhere in Europe during
the nineteenth century. On the contrary, the development
of sociology was stimulated by most in precisely those
societies that had experienced the greatest social changes
during the preceding centuries. In France, Germany, and
England - where social transformations had been truly
revolutionary - sociology was flowering by the end of the
nineteenth century. Conversely, in societies touched less
by these momentous events including Portugal, Spain,
Italy and Eastern Europe - there was little development of
sociological awareness.
Many of the crucial ideas within the discipline of
sociology also owed their development to rapid social
change, largely because many, if not most, early
sociologists found the drastic social changes deeply
disturbing. Auguste Comte, a social conservative, feared
that people were being overpowered by change and were
losing the support of traditional social institutions,
including the family and religion, as well as the local
community. Strongly disagreeing with modernists, who
claimed that society was simply an expression of
individual self-interest Comte believed that traditional
social bonds were basic units of society.
In sum, the birth of sociology, its scientific method of
371

study, and its emphasis on social patterns rather than on
the individual are all related to the historical changes.

WORD STUDY

I. Find in the text Sociological Theory English
equivalents for:

; ; ;
; ; ;
; ; ;
; ; .

II. Find in the text antonyms for:

indefinite, unfamiliar, meaningless, complex, to forget,
similar, to be unable, repulsive, learned, to discourage,
wrong, to accept a theory, late, slow, personality, to start.

III. Fill in the blanks with the words given below in
the brackets:
1. People ... greatly .society since the
beginning of human history.
2. Systematic studies of the society carried out by the
social thinkers . .. .. appearing a new science -
sociology.
3. They are planning . .. .. . on the basis of a
new scientific approach.
4. The scholars ... primarily . .... the investigation of
the sociological perspective.
5. Early sociologists ... strongly . . ... Comte's ideas.
6. The scholars ... constant . . his ways of
interpreting
and analyzing new phenomena.
7. They always .... scientific methods of investigation
in any particular observation.
8. He . . . take part in the discussion concerning
the operation of social laws within the society.
372

(to be influenced by, to encourage, to be interested in, to
be concerned with, to make use of, to give rise to, to be
prone to, to carry out research).

VI. Read and translate the following sentences
taking into account different meanings of the
word experience:

1. He experienced great hardships in the life, but in
spite of that he continued his work in the field of
sociological research.
2. They considered him to be a very experienced
scholar as far the sociological perspective was concerned.
3. His experience was great and he readily encouraged
such innovative strivings.
4. They experienced_true feelings of friendship to each
other and this devotion lasted all their life.
5. The situation was out of being ordinary and he
understood her experiences quite well.
6. Recent decades of our century experienced
tremendous transformations in all spheres of the life.
7. He described the situation in such a way as if he
experienced it himself.
8. His experience in this field was quite evident and
nobody doubted it.

V. Role-play.

You are being asked to make a report at the coming
conference. You are prone to refuse, because you have
never participated in such meetings. That is your first
experience and you hesitate. But your friend is more
optimistic and assures you there is nothing to be afraid of.
Use in your dialogue the following word-combinations:
to be interested in, to encourage, to carry out research, to
make use of, to give rise to.

373

UNIT V

I. Read the text and answer the following questions:
1. Who gave the definition of a theoretical paradigm?
2. How do sociologists understand the image of
society?
3. Can we say that sociological theory is utter chaos?

Theoretical Paradigms

In attempting to develop theories about human society,
sociologists face a wide range of choices. What issues
should they choose to study? What facts should they link
together to form theories? Question such as this is not
answered in a haphazard fashion; rather, theory building
is guided by a general framework that sociologists call a
theoretical paradigm. Following the ideas of George Ritzer
(1983) a theoretical paradigm is a fundamental image of
society that suggests what Questions should be asked and
how answers produced by research should be interpreted.
Although all sociologists make use of one general
perspective, they do not all base their work on the same
image of society. Some sociologists emphasize the fact that
societies often remain remarkably stable over time; others
focus on social change. Similarly, while some direct
attention to ways in which people are united through their
common membership in a single society, others emphasize
how society divides people according to sex, race, or social
class. Moreover, while some sociologists define their goal
as explaining the operation of society as it exists, others
attempt to encourage what they consider to be desirable
social change. Finally, while some sociologists attempt to
address the operation of society as a whole, others find the
most interesting questions in the patterns of individual
interaction within specific situations.
In short all sociologists do not agree about what the
most interesting or useful questions are. Even when they
do agree on the questions, they often disagree on the
374

answers. This does not mean, however, that sociological
theory is utter chaos, because sociologists tend to organize
their work by using one or more of three major theoretical
paradigms.

II. Be ready to speak on:
1) The structural-functional paradigm.
2) The social-conflict paradigm.
3) The symbolic-interaction paradigm.

III. You have just heard three reports. What paper
do you think to be the best one? Give your arguments.
Use the following:
I'd like to say that...
First of all, I want to say that...
I think it's important to consider the question of ...
What I think is ...
I'm convinced that ...
That's an interesting point of view but ...
I'd like to support the point of view about...

IV. Read and translate the text:

The Methods of Sociological Research

Four research methods are widely employed in
sociological investigation. A method is a strategy for
carrying out research in a systematic way - comparable to
a blueprint used in building or a recipe in cooking. The
four methods discussed here are all expressions of the
logic of science. They differ, however, in the specific ways
in which observations are made and in the kinds of
questions they help us answer. No method is in an
absolute sense better or worse than any other; each has
characteristic strengths and weaknesses so that any
method is particularly suited for certain kinds of research.
Experiments. The logic of science is clearly expressed in
the experiment a method that seeks to specify a cause-
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and-effect relationship among variables. Experimental
research, in other words, is explanatory in character,
attempting to show what factors in the social world cause
change to occur in other factors. Experiments are typically
based on the text of a specific hypothesis a theoretical
statement of a relationship between independent and
dependent variables. The goal of an experiment is to find
out whether or not the hypothesis is supported by
empirical evidence. Thus an experiment involves three
steps: (1) the dependent variable is measured; (2) the
dependent variable is exposed to the effects of the
independent variable; (3) the dependent variable is
measured again to see what (if any) change has taken
place.


Survey Research

A survey is a method of contacting individuals in order
to obtain responses to a series of items or questions; it is
the most widely used of all research methods in sociology.
Surveys are particularly useful when we are seeking
answers to specific questions, especially when what we
want to know cannot be observed directly, such as the
political preferences and religious beliefs of individuals,
patterns of sexual attraction, or the private lives of married
couples. Because surveys typically involve the number of
different variables, they (like experiments) are appropriate
for conducting explanatory research, in which we attempt
to specify the relationship among several variables,
seeking correlations or even causal links among them.
Surveys are also commonly used in descriptive research,
in which a sociologist attempts to describe some category
of people with regard to one or more variables of interest.




376

Questionnaires and Interviews

Selecting the subjects who will be contacted is only the
first step in carrying out a survey. Also required is a
specific way to ask questions and record answers. Two
commonly used techniques are questionnaires and
interviews.
A questionnaire is a series of questions or items to
which all subjects are asked to respond. In most cases, the
respondent is provided with possible responses to each
item, so that the process of answering only involves
selecting the best response (the format is similar to
multiple-choice examination questions). Analyzing the
results of the survey is easy because the possible
responses have been limited by the researcher. A
questionnaire that provides a set of responses to the
subject has a closed-ended format.
In some cases, however, a researcher might want to let a
subject respond in an entirely free way. In an open-ended
format the subjects are able to express their responses
however they wish, which allows subtle shades of opinion
to come through. Of course, the researcher later has to
make sense out of what can be a bewildering array of
answers.
How to present the questions to subjects is a major
decision for every study that uses a questionnaire. Most
often, a questionnaire is mailed to respondents who are
asked to complete the form and then return it to the
researcher, usually also by mail. This technique is called a
self-administered survey. When subjects respond to such
questionnaires, no researcher is present, of course; so the
questionnaire must be prepared in an attractive way, with
clear instructions and questions that are easy to
understand. In self-administered surveys, it is especially
important to pretest the questionnaire with a small group
of people before sending it to all subjects in the study. The
small investment of time and money involved can help
prevent the costly problem of finding out too late - that
377

instructions or questions were not clear to respondents.
Researchers may also use the interview (sometimes
called an interview-survey), which is a questionnaire
administered personally to the subject by the researcher.
Interviews are especially useful if the items have an open-
ended format because the researcher can ask follow-up
questions, both to probe a bit more deeply and to clarify
the subject's responses. The researcher must be careful
not to influence a subject's responses, however; sometimes
even raising an eyebrow as someone begins to answer a
question can be enough to change a response. The
advantage of an interview is that a subject is more likely to
complete a questionnaire in the presence of a researcher.
One disadvantage is that tracking people down is often a
difficult job, and more than one attempt may be necessary.
Another is that if all subjects do not live in the same area,
the costs of conducting research in this way can become
extremely high.


V. Enumerate all methods of sociological research.
What method do you consider to be the most
productive?
Give your reasons.

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. What is defined by a method?
2. What kind of method is an experiment?
3. What are experiments based on?
4. How would you define a hypothesis?
5. What is the goal of an experiment?
6. What steps does an experiment involve?
7. Where is it better to conduct an experiment?
8. In what way would you characterize a survey?
9. What research may be conducted by means of a
survey?
10. What is a questionnaire?
378

11. What kinds of questionnaires may there be?
12. What is the difference between these two types?
13. How may a questionnaire be presented?
14. What is meant by a self-administered survey?
15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of an
interview?

VII.Characterize each method of sociological
research.

VIII. Make up a questionnaire on the topic Who
is the leading personality in the country?

IX. Conduct an interview with:
1) One of the leading sociologists.
2) A criminal who killed a man in the heat of rage.
3) A researcher from the All- Russia Public Opinion Poll
Centre.


WORD STUDY

I. Find in the text English equivalents for:
; ;
; ;
; ; ; ;
; ;
; ; ; ;
.

II. Arrange the following words into the pairs of
synonyms:

research to carry out
method especially
to conduct typically
to vary to select
definite technique
379

particularly certain
cause to take place
to occur effect
generally investigation
aim to differ
result reason
to choose goal
important significant


III. Translate the following sentences into Russian
with:
in relation to
with regard to
with respect to

1. He treated this phenomenon in relation to the
extreme environmental conditions.
2. They decided to change the experimental procedure
with regard to the new circumstances.
3. They examined the given problem with respect to a
new approach.
4. He didn't know anything at all in relation to her
point of view.
5. He was very attentive with regard to her position.
6. With respect to his theory of cognition the issue was
of certain interest.
7. He was quite right in relation to his treatment of
their methods of inquiry.
8. They investigated human attitudes with regard to
nonverbal communication.
9. The problem arose only with respect to his way of
observation.
10. She made an interesting report in relation to the new
data.
IV. Make up sentences with:
To carry out -
a research
380

an experiment
a public opinion poll
an investigation
a survey
an inquiry

V. Develop the following situations:
1. One day you were preparing for an experiment with
a group of subjects- But suddenly you find out that your
questionnaires disappeared. What is your reaction? In
what way would you conduct an inquiry?
2. You are asked to carry out a public opinion poll.
What would you start with?
3. What would you recommend to the beginners in
carrying out an interview?

381

UNIT VI

I. Read and translate the text:

The Structure of Social Interaction

Because society is an organized system, it is not
surprising that social interaction is patterned. Society is,
after all, built on countless interactions among individual
human beings, and human beings have the capacity to act
with almost infinite variety. In the absence of social
patterns, people would indeed find social life confusing.
Culture provides guidelines for human behaviour in the
form of values and norms.
To illustrate, consider the familiar setting of an
American college classroom. Entering the classroom,
students could do almost anything - begin to sing or throw
a football around the room-but, guided by the social
norms that apply to that setting, they routinely take their
seats, perhaps talking quietly among themselves, and
await the arrival of the professor. Even though professors
are defined as being in charge of the class, they too are
bound by cultural norms, so they begin to teach from a
position at the front of the room while facing the class.
Certainly, the behaviour of each student and teacher is
partly unique; yet social behaviour in one American
classroom is remarkably like that in any other. In spite of
personal differences, individuals who enter the classroom
behave like professors or students. This fact is clearly
evident to people who return, after many years, to a school
they once attended. The school is now filled with
unfamiliar faces, but the social patterns remain much the
same. In other words, even though different people come
and go from this setting, the social structure of classroom
behaviour persists over time. In the same way, although
every family is composed of different individuals, the
behaviour of mothers, fathers, brothers, and sisters
is also largely patterned according to cultural norms.
382


Social Structure and Individuality


The assertion that human behaviour is socially
patterned often provokes some initial resistance. Few
human beings readily admit to being part of any kind of
system, especially those who live in a culture that prizes
individual autonomy. Americans, for instance, tend to
emphasize individual responsibility for behaviour and
highlight the unique elements of their personalities.
Behaving in patterned ways, however, does not threaten
our individuality. On the contrary, individuality is
encouraged by social structure.
First, and more generally, our humanity involves much
more than physical existence. The great potential of
human beings develops only thorough interaction with
others. Within social life, distinct personalities emerge as
people blend their unique qualities with the values and
norms of the large culture from freely expressing ourselvs.
The social world can be disorienting, even frightening, to
people who do not know the behaviour guidelines. Without
this knowledge, people feel too uncomfortable to express
their unique personalities with confidence.
To illustrate, you may recall going alone to a party given
by people you did not know well. Entering such a setting
and not knowing quite what to expect is likely to
cause some anxiety. At such times you generally feel self-
conscious, try to make a favorable impression, and look to
others for clues about what sort of behaviour is expected
of you. Once you understand the behavioral standards
that apply to the setting, you are likely to feel comfortable
enough to act like yourself.
Of course, social structure also places some constraints
on human behaviour. By guiding behaviour within
culturally approved bounds, established social patterns
discourage behaviour that is culturally defined as
unconventional. Traditional values and norms in the
383

United States and Canada, for example, still reflect the
expectation that males will be masculine (physically
strong, self-assertive, and rational) and the females will be
feminine (physically weak, self-effacing, and emotional).
The structure of society exerts pressure on individuals to
fit into one or the other of these categories, ignoring the
fact that most people have both masculine and feminine
qualities. In this and many other ways, social structure
can limit any individual's freedom to think and act in ways
that may be personally preferred. In addition, the failure to
conform to established social patterns may lead to being
defined by others as deviant.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. Why do we say that social interaction is patterned?
2. What does culture provide?
3. So, according to what is our behaviour patterned?
4. What may this assertion provoke?
5. Does behaving in patterned ways threaten our
individuality in any way?
6. Through what does the potential of human beings
develop?
7. In what case do people feel uncomfortable?
8. What do you feel in an unfamiliar situation?
9. What does social structure place on human
behaviour?
10. What is understood by unconventional behaviour?
11. What pressure does the structure of society exert on
individuals?
12. What can social structure limit?


III. Prove the following statements:

1. Social interaction is patterned.
2. Culture provides guidelines for human behaviour.
3. The human behaviour is patterned according to
384

cultural norms.
4. Behaving in patterned ways does not threaten our
individuality.
5. A great potential of human beings develops through
interaction.


IV. State the general idea of each paragraph of the
text.

V. Express your opinion of the text. Use the
following words for the characteristic:

important - inconclusive
essential trivial
well-presented - muddle
interesting - dull
valid - inaccurate, wrong ( conclusions )

VI. Summarize the contents of the text in 10
sentences.

VII.Translate the text in writing without a
dictionary:

Summary


1. Sociology is more than a perspective; it is also a form
of investigation that uses the logic of science to learn
about the social world.
2. The logic of science is an important foundation of all
sociological research and, more broadly, a valuable means
of evaluating information we encounter every day.
3. There are three basic requirements of sociological
investigation: (1) being aware of the larger social world; (2)
using the sociological perspective; and (3) being curious
and asking questions about society.
385

4. There are many different ways of knowing, including
personal experience, faith, acceptance of information
provided by experts, and social agreement. Scientific
knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and as such,
may contradict to our common sense.
5. The logic of science makes use of concepts and
variables. Concepts are abstract ideas that represent
elements of society; concepts that vary in value are called
variables. Measurement is the process of determining the
value of a variable in any specific case. Sound
measurement has the qualities of reliability and validity.
6. The logic of science seeks to specify the relationship
among variables. Ideally, researchers seek relationships of
cause and effect in which one factor (the independent
variable) is shown to cause change in another factor (the
dependent variable). In many cases, however, sociological
investigation can only demonstrate that two variables vary
together - a relationship called correlation.
7. The logic of science demands objectivity on the part
of a researcher. While issues chosen for investigation may
reflect personal interests, personal values and biases must
be suspended in conducting the research.
8. The logic of science was developed primarily through
studying the natural world. Although science can be used
to study social behaviour, it has important limitations for
doing so.
9. Curiosity and imagination, necessary for all
successful research, spring from the human mind and not
from the logic of science. Moreover, all human reality is
based on patterns of meaning. The process of
interpretation is therefore part of all sociological
investigation.
10. All sociological research has ethical implications.

386

Word study
I. Find in the text The structure of social
interaction English equivalents for:
; ; ;
; ; ; ; ;
; ; ();
; ; ; ;
.
II. Arrange the following words into the pairs of
antonyms:
Disorganized Limited
Chaos Familiar
Infinite Quietly
In the presence Difference
Lose Emerge
Unfamiliar Organized
Leave In the absence
Finish Enter
Noisily Arrival
Departure In other words
Ordinary Uncomfortable
Similarity System
In the same way Find
Seldom Begin
Disappear Unique
Comfortable Often
Strong Weak

III. Make up sentences choosing an appropriate variant
from the second column:

l.The scientist was guided by ...
2.The room was filled with ...
3.His theory is built on ...
387

4.Human behaviour is defined by ...
5.Social interaction is patterned ...
6.His activity is encouraged by ...
7.He is in charge of ...
1) Cultural values and norms.
2) The working team.
3) The latest scientific discoveries.
4) The Sociology Research Institute.
5) Unfamiliar faces.
6) Empirical investigation.
7) As society is an organized system.

IV. Make up dialogues according to the following
situations:
1) An odd person comes to you. He says you were
friends years ago. You have never met him before and you
suspect his motives.
2) Your friend is acting very strangely. You feel he has a secret
worry. Find out what is wrong with him.
3) Ask your friend to prove that the quality of personality is not
inborn. It is a social phenomenon. Ask him whether we can
predict a man's behaviour in a certain situation and what
measurements of personality exist, what they are called.
4) You are an introvert by nature, you are unable to overcome
uncertainty in taking decisions and often experience troubles in
life. You are asked to organize a conference, but you are afraid
to accept such an offer. Your friend tries to persuade you to
agree.
Note: The following word-combinations may be helpful:
To be concerned with, to be interested in, to be guided by, to be
encouraged by, to be in charge of, to be filled with, to be prone
to, to make use of.

388

UNIT VII


I. Look through the text and find the definitions of:
1. Role; 2. Role set; 3. Role strain; 4. Role conflict.

II. Read and translate the text;

Role
A second major component of social interaction is_role.
which refers to patterns of behaviour corresponding to a
particular status. Ralph Linton described a role as the
dynamic expression of a status. A student has a role that
involves patterned interaction with professors and other
students, and responding to academic demands made by
the college. As Linton explained, while individuals occupy
a status, they perform a role. Cultural norms suggest how
a person who holds a particular status ought to act, which
is often called a role expectation. However, real culture
only approximates ideal culture; therefore, actual role
performance usually varies from role expectation.
Like status, a role is relational by directing social
behaviour toward some other person. The role that
corresponds to the status of parent, for example, is ideally
defined in terms of responsibilities toward a child.
Correspondingly, the role of son or daughter is ideally
defined in terms of obligations toward a parent. There are
countless other examples of roles paired in this way: the
behaviour of wives and husbands is performed in;; relation
to each other, as is the behaviour of physicians and
patients, and of professors and students.
Because individuals occupy many statuses at one time -
a status set - they perform multiple roles. Yet a person has
even more roles than statuses because any one status
involves performing several roles in relation to various
other people. Robert Merton (1968) introduced the term
389

role set to identify a number of roles attached to a single
status.


Figure 1. Status Set and Role Set

Figure 1 illustrates the status set and corresponding
role sets of one individual. Four statuses are presented,
each linked to a different role set. First this woman
occupies the status of wife. Corresponding to this status
is a role set that includes her behaviour towards her
husband (the conjugal role) and her responsibilities in
maintaining the household (the domestic role). Second,
she also holds the status of mother. Part of this role set
is the care of children (the maternal role) and her
activities in various organizations (the civic role). Third,
as a teacher, she interacts with students (the teaching
role) and other professors (the colleague role). Fourth, as
a researcher, she gathers (the laboratory role) that is the
basis for her publications (the author role). Figure 1 is, of
course, only a partial listing of this individual's status set
390

and role sets; a person generally occupies dozens of
statuses at one time, each linked to a role set.

Strain and Conflict


The several roles that are linked to any particular status
are not always easily integrated, so an individual can feel
pulled in several directions at once. Role strain is defined
as incompatibility among the roles corresponding to a
single status. When several roles linked to a single status
make competing demands a person may not always be
able to live up to social expectations. A parent, for
example, may have difficulty with simultaneous
responsibilities to discipline a child and to be the child's
trusted confidant.
In addition, roles attached to different statuses often
demand incompatible patterns of behaviour. The concept
of role conflict refers to incompatibility among the roles
corresponding to two or more statuses. Single parents
often experience role conflict in their attempt to be both
parents and bread winners - each status demands
considerable time and energy. Consequently, the
individual may find that both roles cannot be fully
performed simultaneously.


III. Answer the following questions:

l.When do the individuals perform roles?
2.What is called a role expectation?
.r role performance and role expectation the same or
different notions?
4.Does a person have more roles or statuses?
5.What is the difference between role strain and role
conflict?


391



IV. Make up disjunctive questions:
1. A role is described as the dynamic expression of a
status.
2. Actual role performance usually varies from role
expectation.
3. Individuals occupy many statuses at one time.
4. People perform multiple roles.
5. A person has more roles than statuses.
6. Roles attached to different statuses often demand
incompatible patterns of behaviour.

V. Explain:
1. the difference between role and status;
2. the cause of role strain;
3. the reason of role conflict.

VI. Summarize the contents of the text in 10
sentences.
VII. Identify a number of roles played by:
1) your parents;
2) your close friend;
3) your neighbour;
4) you personally.

VIII. Read the text and give its general idea in
Russian:

Dramaturgical Analysis:
The Presentation of Self

Dramaturgical analysis is the analysis of social
interaction as if it were a theatrical performance. This
approach to the study of social interaction is closely
associated with the work of Erving Goffman (1922-1980).
Goffman agreed that people socially construct reality, but
emphasized that in doing so, they make use of various
392

elements of social structure. Thus, like a director carefully
scrutinizing actors on a stage, Goffman sought to identify
social structures that are used over and over again.
Dramaturgical analysis provides a fresh look at two now
familiar concepts. A status is very much like a part in a
play, and a role can be compared to a script that supplies
dialogue and action to each of the characters. Roles are
performed in countless settings that are like a stage in a
theatre, and are observed by various audiences. The heart
of Goffman's analysis is the process he called the
presentation of self, which means the ways in which
individuals, in various settings, attempt to create specific
impressions in the minds of others. This process is also
called impression management, and contains a number of
common elements.


IX. Answer the questions:

1. What problem does the text deal with?
2. What kind of analysis is dramaturgical analysis?
3. What does the presentation of self mean?
4. What is the other name for it?


X. Play these roles, please:
1. You are the young mother and leader of the Ecology
Committee. You want your children to grow up in a clean,
traffic-free environment. You are trying to explain your
position to a social worker who has come for the
permission of a new traffic route in your residential area.
2. You are a sociologist. You are interviewing a married
couple that decided to take a child from a foundling home.
Find out about their background, and what they can offer
a child. Find out why they want to adopt him, and if they
are aware of the problems that may arise. Remember, this
is a difficult situation for all involved, so your questions
should be less direct and more tactful than usual.
393

3. You are interviewing a newly-married couple. Try to
find out tactfully about their likes and dislikes. Give them
some advice if necessary.

WORD STUDY

I. Find in the texts English equivalents for:
; ; ;
; ; ;
; ; ;
; ; .

II. Read and translate the following words and
their derivatives:

interact - interaction - interactant - interacting
correspond correspondence corresponding
correspondingly
respond - response - respondent
perform performance
expect - expectation - expectancy
relate relation relational relative relatively
introduce - introduction - introductory
incompatible - incompatibility
analyze - analysis - analyst

III. Read and translate the following sentences:

1. The problem must be explained in terms of
dialectical materialism.
2. By means of this definition lie managed to explicate
the issue.
3. They pointed to the drawbacks of his theory by
means of a new hypothesis.
4. In ..terms of his viewpoint the scholar solved this
complicated problem.
5. He analyzed the phenomenon of creativity in terms
of the new approach.
394

6. By means of his analysis they made a correct
conclusion.
7. In terms of his interpretation the issue was properly
examined.

IV. Make up questions and ask your friend on:
What is ... associated with? What are ... associated
with?

V. Complete the following sentences:
1. Single parents experience role conflict in ...
2. I experienced hardships while ... .
3. He experiences true feelings toward ... .
4. Recent years experienced great transformations in ...
.
5. I experience joy when ... .
6. They experience troubles in ... .

VI. Answer:
l. What do you experience when you receive a letter from
your girl - (boy-) friend?
2. if you are telling a lie?
3. when you cannot get tickets for a concert?
4. when your friend deceives you?
5. if you fail at an examination?
6 when you meet your favourite actor
(actress )?




395

UNIT VIII

I. Read the text and do exercises that follow it:

Kinds of Groups

We have already found out that sociology, as one of its
main objects, studies social institutions and social
relations, social bodies and social groups. Sociologists
were early concerned with the problem of classifying
groups as well. They have proposed many different
classificatory schemes for the specific groups. They make
up their classifications on the basis of selecting a few
properties and define 'types' of groups on the principle
whether these properties are present or absent.
Among the properties most often employed are size
(number of members), amount of physical interaction
among members, degree of intimacy, level of solidarity,
focus of control of group activities and tendency of
members to react on one another as individual persons.
On the basis of these properties the following kinds of
groups have been identified: formal - informal, primary -
secondary, small - large, autonomous - dependent,
temporary permanent.
Sometimes sociologists make up their classifications of
the groups according to their objectives or social settings.
These are such groups as work groups, therapy groups,
social groups, committees, clubs, gangs, teams, religious
groups, and the like.

II. Answer the following questions:
1. What does sociology study as one of its main
objects?
2. What were sociologists early concerned with?
3. They have proposed many different classificatory
schemes, haven't they?
4. What is the basis of their classification?
5. What properties are most often employed?
396

6. What kinds of groups are identified on the basis of
these properties?
7. What other principle do sociologists employ in their
classifications?
8. Give examples of formal groups, informal groups,
primary groups, secondary groups.

III. Agree or disagree with the following:
Use: You are right.
Sorry, but you are wrong.

1. One of the main objects of the sociologists is to
study social bodies and social groups.
2. Sociologists have begun classifying groups quite
recently.
3. They make up their group classifications on the
basis of a few properties.
4. But sociologists failed to identify these groups.
5. Sometimes they classify groups according to their
objectives and social settings.
6. There is no clear-cut difference between primary and
secondary groups.
7. Work groups are formal groups.

IV. Find the facts to prove that:
1. Sociologists have proposed many different
classificatory schemes of the groups.
2. They have managed to identify some properties for
their classifications.
3. They have identified different groups.
4. There are some groups according to their objectives
or social settings.

V. Divide the text into three logical parts.

VI. Characterize in brief:
1. Properties of the groups.
2. Group classifications.
397


VII. Discuss in the group the following problems:

1. Formal - informal groups.
2. Your own group as a secondary group.

VIII. Read the text and say what is meant by
cohesiveness.

The Nature of Group Cohesiveness

The term 'group cohesiveness is widely discussed by
sociologists. Although different sociologists attribute
different properties to the term, most agree that group
cohesiveness is the degree to which the members of a
group desire to remain in the group. Thus, the members of
a highly cohesive group, in contrast to the group with a
low level of cohesiveness, are more interested in their
membership, in group objectives and activities.
Cohesiveness increases the significance of membership for
those who belong to the group.
Cohesiveness, as sociologists state, develops a general
group atmosphere that determines members reaction to
the group as a whole. Some groups are business-like,
impersonal and efficient. Others are warm, relaxed and
friendly. And still others are full of tension. These
differences between groups are the subject of constant
sociological research.

IX. Answer: Do you think of your group as cohesive?
Give your reasons.

X. Find in the text synonyms for:

To discover; chief; to be interested in; also; to offer; to
choose; on the foundation; to use; to isolate; purpose;
environment.

398

XI. Answer: What are the sociologists concerned
with? Use the words in brackets.

The sociologists are concerned with (social institutions,
social relations, social groups, group classification, group
properties, group types).

XII. Make up your own sentences with the
following word-combinations:

To be concerned with
On the basis of
To employ something
According to
To react on something
And the like
Ask your groupmates to translate them.

XIII. Translate the following sentences into
Russian:

1. He was greatly concerned with the latest sociological
research.
2. In their conversation they concerned a great number
of vital problems.
3. His main concern was sociology.
4. They talked much concerning the main points of his
report.
5. She was concerned with the problem of social
relations at the high level of the society's development.

XIV. Read and translate the text:


Primary and Secondary Groups

Several times a day, one person greets another with a
smile and a simple phrase such as Hi! How are you? Of
399

course, an honest reply may be actually expected, but not
often. Usually the other person responds with a well-
scripted Fine, and how are you? In most cases, providing
a complete account of how one really is doing would lead
the other person to make a hasty and awkward exit.
The extent of personal concern for others in social
interaction was used by Charles Horton Cooley to draw a
distinction between two general types of social groups. The
primary group is a social group in which interaction is
both personal and enduring. Within primary groups,
people have personal and lasting ties Cooley designated as
primary relationships. The members of primary groups
share broad dimensions of their lives, generally come to
know a great deal about one another, and display genuine
concern for another's welfare. The family is perhaps the
most important primary group within any society.
Cooley used the term primary because social groups of
this kind are among the first groups we experience in life
and are important in shaping our personal attitudes and
behaviour. They are also of major importance in shaping
our social identity, which is reflected in the fact that the
members of any primary group typically think of
themselves as we.
The strength of primary relationships gives individuals a
considerable sense of comfort and security, which is
clearly evident in personal performances. Within the
familiar social environment of family or friends, people
tend to feel they can be themselves and not worry about
being continually evaluated by others. At the office, for
example, people are usually self-conscious about their
clothing and behaviour; at home, they feel free to dress
and act more or less as they wish.
Members of primary groups certainly provide many
personal benefits to one another, including financial as
well as emotional support. But people generally perceive
the primary group as an end in itself rather than as a
means to other ends. Thus, for example, we expect a
family member or close friend to help us without pay when
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we move into a new apartment. At the same time, primary
group members usually do expect that such help will be
mutual. A person who consistently helps a friend who
never returns the favour is likely to feel used and question
the depth of the friendship.
A contrasting type of social group is the secondary
group: a social group in which interaction is impersonal
and transitory. Within a secondary group, which usually
contains more people than a primary group, individuals
share situational ties that are called secondary
relationships. For example, individuals who work together
in an office, enroll in the same college course, or belong to
a particular political organization usually constitute a
secondary group.
The opposite of the characteristics that describe primary
groups apply to secondary groups. Secondary
relationships involve little personal knowledge and weak
emotional ties. They vary in duration, but are usually
short-term, beginning and ending without particular
significance. True, people may work in an office for
decades with the same co-workers, but a more typical
example of secondary relationships is students in a college
course who never see one another after the semester ends.
Since secondary groups are limited to a single specific
activity or interest, their members have little chance to
develop a deep concern for one another's overall welfare.
Secondary groups are less significant than primary groups
for personal identity. Although people in a secondary
group sometimes think of themselves in terms of we, the
boundary that distinguishes members from nonmembers
is usually far less clear than it is in primary groups.
Secondary groups are important mostly as a means of
achieving certain specific ends. If relationships within
primary groups have a personal orientation, those within
secondary groups have a goal orientation. This does not
mean that secondary relationships are always formal and
unemotional. On the contrary, social interaction with
fellow students, co-workers, and business contacts can be
401

quite enjoyable. But personal pleasure is not what
prompts the formation of secondary groups in the first
place. In short, while members of a primary group have
personal importance on the basis of who they are,
members of secondary groups have significance on the
basis of what they can do for us.
Individuals in primary groups are likely to be sensitive
to patterns of social exchange - how benefits received by
one member compare to those received by another -
although such considerations are not of crucial
importance. Within secondary groups, however, exchange
is very important. In business transactions, for example,
the people involved are keenly aware of what they receive
for what they offer. Likewise, the secondary relationships
that often characterize neighbours are based on the
expectation that any neighbourly favour will be
reciprocated in the future.
The goal orientation of secondary groups diverts the
focus of social interaction from personal matters to
mutually beneficial cooperation. With the wish to
maximize these benefits, members of secondary groups are
likely to craft their performances carefully, and usually
expect others to do the same. Therefore, the secondary
relationship is one in which the question How are you?
may be politely asked without really wanting an answer.

XV. Answer the following questions:

1. What groups do sociologists distinguish?
2. Who was the first to speak on the importance of
such distinction?
3. What group is called primary?
4. What is the most important primary group for a
child?
5. What groups influence the child's social
development?
6. How are secondary groups organized?
7. Give examples of such groups.
402

8. What group plays an important part in the formation
of personality?
9. What does the child receive within the circle of his
family and his playmates?
10. What else does he learn there?

XVI. Contradict the following statements. Start
your sentence with: Quite on the contrary...

1. Primary groups are organized according to special
interests of one kind or another.
2. For a young child the school group constitutes the
most important group.
3. Secondary groups depend on face to face
association.
4. Secondary groups are more characterized with
intimate co-operation than primary groups.
5. It is the secondary group that plays the main part in
the early formation of personality.
6. Within the secondary group the child receives the
direct training as a member of society.

XVII. Ask your friend:
who drew a distinction between social groups;
what he understands by a primary group;
what group the family presents;
why the primary groups are of major importance in
our lives;
what the strength of primary relationships gives
individuals;
what a secondary group is characterized by;
what ties individuals share within the secondary
group;
what groups are less significant - primary or
secondary;
in what respect group social exchange is more
important.

403

VIII. Find in the text the facts to prove that:

1. The family constitutes the most important primary
group for a child.
2. Membership in a primary group is an important
feature of a child's life.
3. Membership in a secondary group is an important
feature of an adult life.

XIX. Divide the text into logical parts and give
a heading to each part.

XX. Find a leading sentence in each paragraph
of the text.
XXI. Comment on the table:

Primary Groups and Secondary Groups
Primary group Secondary group
Quality of
relationships
Personal
orientation
Goal orientation
Duration of
relationships
Usually long-
term
Variable; often
short-term
Breadth of
relationships
Broad; usually
involving
many
activities
Narrow; usually
involving few
activities
Subjective
perception of
relationships
As an end in
itself
As a means to an
end
Typical example Families; close
friendships
Co-workers; political
organizations

XXII. Give examples of primary and secondary
groups.

XXIII. Characterize in brief:
404

I. Primary groups.
II. Secondary groups.

XXIV. Read the text and say what new information
is contained in it:

Networks

The term social network designates social ties that link
people without the intensity of social interaction and
common identity of a social group. A social network
resembles a social group in that it joins people in social
relationships; it differs from a social group because it is
not the basis for consistent social interaction and
generates little sense of common identity or belonging.
Social networks also have no clear boundaries, but expand
outward from the individual like a vast web.
Social ties within some networks may be relatively
primary, as among people who attended college together
and have since maintained their friendships by mail and
telephone. More commonly, network ties are extremely
secondary relationships that involve little personal
knowledge. A social network may also contain people we
know of or who know of us - but with whom we interact
infrequently, if at all. As one woman with a reputation as a
community organizer explains, I get calls at home,
someone says, Are you Roseann Navarro? Somebody told
to call you. I have this problem For this reason, Mark
Granovetter has described social networks as clusters of
weak ties.
Even though social ties within networks may not be
strong, these relationships represent a valuable resource
that can be used to personal advantage. Perhaps the most
common example of the power of networks involves finding
a job. Albert Einstein, for example, sought employment for
a year after completing his schooling, and only succeeded
when the father of one of his classmates put him in touch
with the director of an office who was able to provide a job.
405

Thus, even in the case of a person with extraordinary
ability, who you know may still be just as important as
what you know.
Nan Lin and her associates produced evidence of the
extent of such network based opportunities. Conducting
a survey of 399 men in an urban area of the United States,
Lin found that almost 60 percent had used social networks
in finding a job; this approach was much more common
that any other. But although social networks may be
widespread, Lin found that they do not provide equal
advantages to everyone. In her study networks afforded
the greatest advantages to men whose fathers held
important occupational positions. This reflects the fact
that networks tend to contain people with similar social
characteristics and social rank, thereby helping to
perpetuate patterns of social inequality.

XXV. Answer the questions:
1. What does the term social network designate?
2. What are the differences and similarities between a
social network and a social group?
3. Are social ties within networks strong or weak?

XXVI. Give examples when:
1) social ties within networks are primary;
2) social ties are secondary;
3) social ties are weak.

WORD STUDY

I. Find in the text Primary and Secondary Groups
English equivalents for:

; ;
; ; ;
; ; ; ;
; ;
; .
406


II. Make up word-combinations and translate
them into Russian:

To display - genuine concern
sympathy
self-consciousness
To share - troubles
concern
work
duties
To shape - personal attitudes
social identity
personality
world outlook
knowledge
To be aware of - reality
social respect
relationships
cultural norms
mutually beneficial cooperation


III. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

1. Such considerations are not of crucial importance.
2. Personal concern in social interaction is of certain
value in drawing a distinction between primary and
secondary groups.
3. The family is of major significance in shaping
personal attitudes and behaviour.
4. The problem of interpersonal relationships is of great
interest for the social thinkers.
5. Secondary relationships are of definite importance in
the study of social groups of people.
6. Human activity in social community is of deep
concern for the sociologists.

407

IV. Make up your own sentences with to be of
importance, to be of value and ask your partner to
translate them.

V. Answer the following questions:
1. What is of great concern for the sociologists in the
study of primary groups?
2. What is of chief significance for you in your subject
of investigation?
8. What is of major interest for the sociologists dealing
with the public opinion poll?

VI. Role-play:
1) You have just come back from the international
conference devoted to some problems of social interaction.
You think this conference was of great importance. You
give your reasons to your friend who is also deeply
concerned with the given problem.
2) You see an advertisement in a newspaper which is of
deep concern for you. Phone up and find out more about
the flat to rent. If the flat sounds suitable, arrange to go
round and see it.



408

UNIT IX

I. Read and translate the text:

Group Dynamics

Sociologists describe the operation of social groups as
group dynamics. As members of social groups, people are
likely to interact according to a number of distinctive
patterns.
Group Leadership
Social groups vary in the extent to which they designate
one or more members as leaders, with responsibility to
direct the activities of all members. Some friendship
groups grant no one the clear status of leader, while others
do. Within families, parents generally share leadership
responsibilities, although husband and wife sometimes
disagree about who is really in charge. In many secondary
groups, such as a business office, leadership is likely to
involve an established status with clearly defined roles.

There are several different ways in which a person may
become recognized as the leader of a social group. In the
family, traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on
the parents, though more often on the male as head of the
household if two spouses are present. In other cases, such
as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually
emerge as leaders, although there is no formal process of
selection. In larger secondary groups, leaders are usually
formally chosen through election or recruitment.

Although leaders are often thought to be people with
unusual personal ability, decades of research have failed
to produce consistent evidence that there is any category
of natural leaders. It seems that there is no set of
personal qualities that all leaders have in common; rather,
virtually any person may be recognized as a leader
depending on the particular needs of the group.
409

Furthermore, although we commonly think of social
groups as having a single leader, research suggests that
there are typically two different leaderships that are held
by different individuals. Instrumental leadership is
leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks by a
social group. Group members look at instrumental leaders
to get things done. Expressive leadership, on the other
hand, is leadership that emphasizes the collective well-
being of a social group's members. Expressive leaders are
less concerned with the overall goals of the group than
providing emotional support to group members and
attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them.
Group members expect expressive leaders to maintain
stable relationships within the group and provide support
to individual members.
The Importance of Group Size
Being the first person to arrive at a party affords the
opportunity to observe a fascinating process in group
dynamics. When fewer than about six people interact in
one setting, a single conversation is usually maintained by
everyone. But with the addition of more people, the
discussion typically divides into two or more
conversations. This example is a simple way of showing
that size has important effects on the operation of social
groups.
The basis for this dynamic lies in the mathematical
connection between the number of people in a social group
and the number of relationships among them as shown in
Figure 3. Two people are joined in a single relationship;
adding a third person results in three relationships, a
fourth person yields six. As additional people are added
one at a time - according to what mathematicians call an
arithmetic increase the number of relationships increases
very rapidly - in what is called a geometric increase. By the
time six people have joined one conversation, there are
fifteen different relationships among them, which explains
why the conversation usually divides by this point.
410




Figure 3. Group Size and Relationships


Social groups with more than three members tend to be
more stable because the lack of interest on the part of one
or even several members does not directly threaten the
group's existence. Furthermore, larger social groups tend
to develop more formal social structure with a variety of
statuses and roles - which stabilize their operation.
However, larger social groups inevitably lack the increase
of personal relationships that are possible in the smallest
groups.
Is there an ideal size for a social group? The answer, of
course, depends on the group's purpose.


411

II. Find in the text the definitions of:
A) group dynamics;
B) instrumental leadership;
C) expressive leadership;
D) an arithmetic increase;
E) a geometric increase.
III. Answer the following questions:

1. How do social groups vary?
2. What are the ways by which a person may be
recognized as a leader?
3. Is there a category of people who might be
considered as natural leaders?
4. What is the difference between instrumental and
expressive leaders?
5. What do large social groups tend to develop?
6. What group do you think is regarded to be an ideal
one?
IV. Comment on the illustration in Figure 3.

V. Characterize in brief:

1) The core of group dynamics.
2) An ideal social group.
3) The importance of group size.
VI. Choose the qualities you think to be necessary
for an ideal leader:

emotional, aggressive, active, brave, clever, strong,
intuitive, tall, handsome, good with money, mechanically-
minded, tender.
You may expand the list. But give reasons of your
choice.
VII.Read the text and state its general idea:

Ingroups and utgroups

By the time children are in the early grades of school,
412

much of their activity takes place within social groups.
They eagerly join some groups, but avoid - or are excluded
from others. Based on sex as a master status, for
example, girls and boys often form distinct play groups
with patterns of behaviour culturally defined as feminine
and masculine.
On the basis of sex, employment, family ties, personal
tastes, or some other category, people often identify others
positively with one social group while opposing other
groups. Across the United States, for example, many high
school students wear jackets with the name of their school
on the back and place school decals on their car windows
to symbolize their membership in the school as a social
group. Students who attend another school may be the
subject of derision simply because they are members of a
competing group.
This illustrates the general process of forming ingroups
and outgroups. An ingroup is a social group with which
people identify and toward which they feel a sense of
loyalty. An ingroup exists in relation to an outgroup, which
is a social group with which people do not identify and
toward which they feel a sense of competition or
opposition. Defining social groups this way is
commonplace. A sports team is an ingroup to its members
and an outgroup to members of other teams. The
Democrats in a certain community may see themselves as
an ingroup in relation to Republicans. In a broader sense,
Americans share some sense of being an ingroup in
relation to Russian citizens or other nationalities. All
ingroups and outgroups are created by the process of
believing that we hove valued characteristics that they
do not.
This process serves to sharpen the boundaries among
social groups, giving people a clearer sense of their
location in a world of many social groups. It also heightens
awareness of the distinctive characteristics of various
social groups, though not always in an accurate way.
Research has shown, however, that the members of
413

ingroups hold unrealistically positive views of themselves
and unfairly negative views of various outgroups.
Ethnocentrism, for example, is the result of overvaluing
one's own way of life, while simultaneously devaluing other
cultures as outgroups.

VIII. Read the text again and note the
difference between ingroups and outgroups.

IX. Prepare a report Group Dynamics and Society.

414

UNIT X

I. Read and translate the text:

Deviance

What is Deviance?
The concept of deviance is defined as violation of
cultural norms of a group or all of society. Since cultural
norms affect such a wide range of human activities, the
concept of deviance is correspondingly broad. The most
obvious and familiar type of deviance is crime the
violation of cultural norms that have been formally
enacted into criminal law. Criminal deviance is itself quite
variable in content, from minor offenses such as traffic
violations to serious crimes such as homicide and rape.
Closely related to crime is juvenile delinquency - the
violation of legal standards fry children or adolescents.
Deviance is not limited to crime, however. It includes
many other types of nonconformity, from the mild to the
extreme, such as left-handedness, boastfulness, and
Mohawk hairstyles, as well as pacifism, homosexuality,
and mental illness. Industrial societies contain a wide
range of subcultures that display distinctive attitudes,
appearance, and behaviour. Consequently, to those who
conform to society's dominant cultural standards, artists,
homeless people, and members of various ethnic
minorities may seem deviant. In addition, the poor - whose
lack of financial resources makes conforming to many
conventional middleclass patterns of life difficulty are
also subject to definition as deviant. Physical traits, too,
may be the basis of deviance, as members of racial
minorities in America know well. Men with many highly
visible tatoos on their body may be seen as deviant, as are
women with any tatoo at all. Even being unusually tall or
short, or grossly fat or exceedingly thin, may be the basis
of deviance. Physical disabilities are yet another reason for
being seen by others as deviant.
415

Deviance, therefore, is based on any dimension of
difference that is considered to be significant and provokes
a negative reaction that serves to make the deviant person
an outsider. In addition to the experience of social
isolation, deviance is subject to social control, by which
others attempt to bring deviant people back into line, like
deviance itself, social control can take many forms.
Socialization is a complex process of social control in
which family, peer groups, and the mass media attempt to
influence our attitudes and behaviour. A more formal type
of social control is the criminal justice system - the formal
process by which society reacts to alleged violations of the
law through the use of police, courts, and punishment.
Social control does not have to take the form of a negative
response to conformity. Praise from parents, high grades
at school, laudatory mention in newspapers and other
mass media, and positive recognition from officials in the
local community are all forms of social control that serve
to encourage conformity to conventional patterns of
thought and behaviour.


II. Make up 10 questions to the text.


III. Divide the text into logical parts and give a
heading to each part.


IV. Give the leading sentence in each paragraph.


V. Speak on:
1. The concept of deviance.
2. The main causes of deviance.
3. The social control system.


416

VI. Read the text and treat its contents in Russian:

Biological Explanations of Deviance

Human behaviour was understood - or more correctly,
misunderstood - during the nineteenth century as an
expression of biological instincts. Along with other
patterns of human behaviour, criminality was explained
on biological grounds.
Lombroso: early research
In 1876, Caesare Lombroso (1835-1909), an Italian
physician who worked in prisons, developed a biological
theory of criminality. Lombroso described criminals as
having distinctive physical characteristics - low foreheads,
prominent jaws and cheekbones, protruding ears,
hairiness, and unusually long arms - that resemble
human beings' apelike ancestors. In other words, he
viewed criminals as evolutionary throwbacks to lower
forms of life.
Because of their biologically based inadequacy,
Lombroso reasoned, such individuals would think and act
in a primitive manner likely to run afoul of society's laws.
Although toward the end of his career Lombroso
acknowledged that social factors play a part in criminality,
his early claim that some people are literally-born
criminals was widely influential in an era in which
biological explanations of human behaviour were popular.
Lombroso's findings were based on seriously flawed
research methods. He failed to see that the physical
characteristics he found in prison and linked to criminality
also existed in the population as a whole. Early in the
twentieth century, the British psychiatrist Charles Buck-
man Goring (1870-1919), who also worked in prisons,
published the results of a comparison of thousands of
convicts and noncriminals. There was a great deal of
physical variation within both groups, but Goring's
research showed there were no significant physical
differences between the criminal and noncriminal
417

categories of the kind suggested by Lombroso.
Delinquency and body structure
After Lombroso's theory of born criminality was
disproved, others continued to search for biological
explanations of criminality. William Sheldon (1949)
advanced the idea of body structure in terms of three
general types: ectomorphs, who were tall, thin, and
fragile; endomorphs, who were short, and fat; and
mesomorphs, who were muscular and athletic. Sheldon
noted that no one conforms exactly to any of these pure
types. Rather, he thought the average person shows some
combination of body types, although one type usually
predominates. After comparing hundreds of young men -
half of whom were known to have been engaged in criminal
activity and half of whom, were believed to be noncriminal
Sheldon reported an apparent association between
criminality and the mesomorphic body type. In other
words, he found a link between criminality and a
muscular, athletic body structure. Like Lombroso,
however, Sheldon was criticized for basing his work on
samples that were not representative of the entire
population.
Further, more carefully designed research based on
these basic body types was conducted by Sheldon and
Eleanor Glueck (1950). The Gluecks also concluded that
there is a link between criminality and a mesomorphic
body structure, although they did not claim that physical
characteristics are a direct cause of criminality. Rather,
they concluded that the mesomorphic body type is
associated with personal characteristics - such as
insensitivity to frustration - that seem likely to promote
criminality. The Gluecks also noted the importance of
social environment in explaining criminality; they found
that young men with mesomorphic builds were typically
raised with little affection and understanding from family
members.
Although these findings indicate that there may be an
association between body type and criminality, they do not
418

establish any causal connection between the two. Indeed,
the association may very well have a social explanation.
Young men with muscular builds have the ability to be the
bullies on the block, which some of them may become.

VII.Speak on:

a) Lombroso's theory of criminality
b) Goring's research
c) Sheldon's types of criminals
d) d) the Gluecks' findings.

VIII. Translate the text in writing:

Deviance Is a Product of Society?

We tend to believe that deviance is a result of an
individual's free choice on personal failings. But, as our
discussion of culture, social structure, and socialization
showed, all social behaviour deviance as well as
conformity - is rooted in society. This is evident in three
ways.
1. Deviance exists only in relation to cultural norms.
No thought or action is inherently deviant. Rather, it
becomes so only in relation to the norms of a particular
culture or subculture. Norms vary considerably from one
culture to another, so that conceptions of deviance vary as
well. In the traditional village communities of Sicily, for
example, cultural norms support the use of physical
violence to avenge an insult to the honour in one's family.
In this case, not to avenge an insult would be defined as
deviant. Within American society, however, cultural norms
do not support the use of violence in this way. Therefore,
what is honourable in Sicily is likely to result in arrest and
prosecution in the United States.
As cultural norms change over time, so do conceptions
of deviance. In the 1920s, American cultural norms linked
women's lives to the home, so that a woman who wanted
419

to become a corporate executive, for instance, would
certainly have been considered deviant. Today, however,
there is far greater support for allowing women the
opportunity to pursue a career outside of the home.
Consequently, career women are no longer defined as
deviant.
2. People become deviant as others define them
that way.
We all violate cultural norms, and even commit crimes,
from time to time. For example, most of us have at some
point walked around talking to ourselves, taken something
that belonged to someone else, or driven another person's
automobile without permission. Simply doing any of these
things, however, is not sufficient to be defined as mentally
ill or criminal. Whether or not a person is defined as
deviant depends on the perception and definition of the
situation by others - a process that is quite variable. To a
large extent, of course, being defined as deviant depends
not only on norm violation, but also on being caught by
others. Even then, however, the activity in question may
be perceived in different ways. For example, a male
celebrity can dress like a woman on stage to the praise of
adoring fans, while elsewhere another man doing the same
thing might well provoke a quite negative response.
Whether or not a person is defined as deviant, therefore,
depends on the variable process of social definition.
3. Both cultural norms and defining someone as
deviant are related to patterns of social power.
Cultural norms especially laws are likely to protect
the interests of the most powerful people in a society. For
example, closing a factory permanently is within the legal
rights of a factory owner, even though doing so may put
thousands of people out of work. At the same time, a less
powerful person who commits vandalism that closes a
factory for a single day is likely to be defined as criminal.
Powerless people may be defined as deviant for exactly the
same behaviour that powerful people engage in with
impunity. For example, a homeless person who stands on
420

a street corner and denounces the city government may be
arrested for disturbing place. On the other hand, a
candidate trying to unseat the mayor during an election
campaign can do the same thing while receiving extensive
police protection.
In sum, while commonly understood as a quality of
individuals, deviance is inseparable from the operation of
society.


421

UNIT XI

I. Read and translate the text:


Brain Drain: a Natural Phenomenon?


Nowadays we are hearing less and less about how
detrimental brain drain is to Russia. Have we, like the rest
of the world, begun to see it as something natural?
The consolation is that these days, leaving the country
does not necessarily mean saying good-bye forever. Indeed,
in recent years, for every scientist who emigrates for good,
there are four who are working on a contract basis. Their
lifestyle is like a watchman's job - one shift returns, and
another leaves. They usually receive temporary grants, and
travel from country to country.
Often they simply go because they can't continue their
research at a contemporary level in Russia, due to the lack
of equipment, reactants, or the fact that they just can't get
the information they need. In the meantime, the level of
this internal scientific emigration is at least twice as high
as its external counterpart.
According to the official emigration statistics, most of
our emigre scientists and pedagogical workers ended up in
Germany, although those who emigrate to Germany
usually end up changing their professions. So, in fact,
three quarters of the people who actively work in the field
of fundamental sciences are currently employed in the
United States and Canada. Others go to Israel and
Australia, while recently they've also started heading out
to Latin American countries like Panama, Columbia and
Mexico. There are also more exotic destinations like
Trinidad, Namibia and Jamaica. They comprise the
Russian scientific diaspora.
The term diaspora, or dispersal, has historically been
used to characterize people who are drawn to one another
422

across a distance. The ethnic-Russian scientific diaspora,
which is scattered throughout the entire world, was able to
become glued together very quickly with the help of
computer communication systems.
First the Russian scientists had mailing lists; now they
also have Web sites. One of the most popular mailing lists
is the INFO-RUSS project, which links over 1,200
subscribers. This form of correspondence is open to
everybody. According to recent calculations, approximately
14,000-18,000 scientists from Russia have been working
abroad in the field of fundamental sciences.
Lately, the processes of intellectual migration have
become more stable and have taken on more civilized
forms. Today, the West is buying out Russian young
programmers. Fourth-year students studying at faculties
of computational mathematics and cybernetics can now
receive stipends from foreign organizations. There are
representatives of firms recruiting students to work abroad
standing by at the famous technical schools.
A big-name professor may choose the specific
universities he would like to work in, but his students are
willing to take any job, even one that has nothing to do
with major science. They are being hired to create virtual
casinos, and to develop banking services and new
telecommunication technologies.
But science schools can't exist without students. And
Russia needs to hang on for about another 10 years, until
it gets some fresh blood. The only people to count on are
the kids who are currently in third and fourth grades.


II. Answer the following questions:
1. What problem is the article devoted to?
2. Is brain drain a natural phenomenon? What do you
think?
3. Why do Russian scientists leave their Motherland?
4. Do all of them leave forever?
5. What countries do they go to?
423

6. What does the term diaspora mean?
7. How do the Russian scientists contact each other?
8. How many scientists from Russia are working
abroad?
9. What specialists are of high demand abroad?
10. What expects Russia in future?

III. Choose the facts from the article to
characterize:
1. The problem of emigration as it is.
2. The Russian scientific diaspora.
3. The INFO-RUSS project.
4. Work perspectives for young specialists abroad.

IV. Express your personal opinion of brain drain
problem. Is it as dismal as it seems to be?

V. Translate the following word-combinations into
Russian:

Detrimental brain drain; the rest of the world; to
emigrate for good; temporary grants; scientific diaspora;
exotic destinations; the process of intellectual migration; to
create new communication technologies; some fresh blood.

VI. Reproduce situations in which these word-
combinations may be used.

VII.How would you treat the statement: The level of
internal scientific emigration is at least twice as
high as its external counterpart?

VIII. What do you think why the author
compares the lifestyle of emigre scientists with a
watchman's job? Give your arguments.

IX. Review the article.
X. Develop the following situation:
424


Your close friend, a graduate of the Faculty of
Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, is leaving
Russia for Germany. What possible questions can you ask
him, being much surprised with his decision?

XI. Read the article and say why it is headlined in
this way.

Burnout and How to Recover from it
(After Donna Cobble)

Q.: I am approaching the mid-point of my career and I
am experiencing extreme dissatisfaction with the career I
began so eagerly twenty years ago. I am in a consistent
state of frustration, and those things about my work which
once gave me such pleasure no longer seem to matter. A
good friend has suggested that I am experiencing career
burnout. Could this be the case, and if so, what can I do?
A.: Much is being said about burnout; often in jest, and
employees sometimes don't realize that burnout is very
real and has distinct warning signals.
There are three major symptoms of burnout, and it is
important to understand that individuals are frequently
unable to identify these symptoms themselves, hence
requiring the guidance of a trusted family member or
friend to point them out.
Physical exhaustion - There is a general feeling of
tiredness for no apparent reason. Soon fatigue, nausea,
muscle tension, stomach pains, and headaches will
appear, and eventually there will be changes in eating and
sleeping habits accompanied by a constant low energy
level.
Emotional exhaustion This is expressed through
feelings of frustration, hopelessness, helplessness,
depression, sadness, and apathy about work with those
feelings of apathy spilling over into other activities and
relationships.
425

Mental exhaustion - A dissatisfaction with
themselves, their jobs, and life in general, while feeling
inadequate, incompetent, or inferior. During this phase,
individuals become convinced something is wrong with
them since the work that once provided so much pleasure
has become boring and stale.
Career burnout occurs over a period of time and cannot
be instantly cured. However, there are some steps an
employee can take to move in the right direction.
Understand your personal workstyle and ways of
reacting to stress, and of identifying work and behaviour
patterns that no longer work for you.
Reassess your values, goals, and priorities, making
certain the career goals you set early on are still realistic
and appropriate in today's workplace.
Maintain a lifestyle which demonstrates a healthy
balance between work, home, family, leisure, friends,
spiritual, etc.
Cultivate a social support system which includes
close friends from all areas of your life.
If you think you may be experiencing burnout,
understand that it is possible to come out of it happier,
healthier, and stronger.

XII. Answer the following questions:
1. Is the problem raised in the article social or
psychological?
2. Can burnout be a reason for emigrating to another
country?
3. What are the first symptoms of this phenomenon?
4. What is physical exhaustion characterized by?
5. How is emotional exhaustion expressed?
6. What are individuals dissatisfied with experiencing
mental exhaustion?
7. Does career burnout have any social consequences?
8. What should be done to overcome this situation of
self-imbalance?

426

XIII. Make up a list of word-combinations that
may characterize the state of burnout and ways to
cope with it.
XIV. Use these word-combinations in your
review of the article.

XV. Answer: Have you ever experienced a similar
state in your life? Could you possibly describe your
sensations? What did you undertake to relieve the
situation?

XVI. Make up a questionnaire on the problem of
career burnout. What format would you choose for
this questionnaire?

XVII. Read the text and render its contents in
Russian:


Looks: Appearance Counts with Many
Managers
(by Sherry Buchanan)


There is something downright undemocratic about
judging managers' abilities on the colour of their eyes, the
size of their lips, the shape of their noses or the amount of
their body fat. Yet looks matter a lot more in hiring and
promotions than employers will admit to others, or even to
themselves.
Airlines and police forces have long had height and/ or
weight requirements for their staff, arguing that being
physically fit and strong - not too fat or too small - is in
the interest of the public's safety. In some cases, unhappy
employees are challenging the arbitrary rules, which have
been used by the airlines to recruit only good-looking
women; in other cases, employers are trying to be fairer to
avoid lawsuits. Scotland Yard requires its male employees
427

to be at least 5 feet 8 inches (1.73 meters) tall and female
employees to be at least 5 feet 4 inches. The Yard decided
to accept shorter women a few years ago to conform with
Britain's equal-opportunity rules.
Air France still requires its female cabin crew to be
between 1.58 meters and 1.78 meters, and men to be
between 1.70 meters and 1.92 meters. They must also
have a harmonious silhouette. And British Airways
grounds any member of its cabin crew pilots excluded -
if they are 20 per cent over the average weight for their
height.
Being short or overweight may affect people's careers in
other industries in more subtle ways.
Being too small or overweight is only one way that looks
can have an impact on someone's career. Academic
research at Edinburgh University, New York University
and Utah State University shows that the better-looking a
person is, the more positive qualities they are thought to
have and the more positive impact that has in a career.
There is some evidence, however, that women who are
too attractive unless they are television commentators
or have other high-visibility jobs do not rank well as
managers. There is enough research now to conclude that
attractive women who aspire to managerial positions do
not fare as well as women who may be less attractive.
Some French employers and recruiters decide whether a
manager is right for the job based upon looks. In some
cases, morphopsychologists - a term coined by a French
neuropsychiatrist in 1935 - attempt to determine
personality traits according to a job applicant's face, eyes,
mouth, nose, ears and hands.
Unfortunately, morphopsychology has become a
criterion for recruitment in some countries. When it is
used as the sole criterion, it is a catastrophe.
Some people hire you because of the colour of your tie;
why not the shape of your ears? said Frederique Rollet, a
psychotherapist in Paris who is the author of several
books on morphopsychology.
428


XVIII. According to the text above, are the following
statements true or false?

1. Good-looking people are often more successful than
others.
2. British Airways does not allow its pilots to work if
they are 20 per cent overweight.
3. Attractive women have problems reaching
managerial positions.
4. Morphopsychology is sometimes used as the only
criterion when selecting candidates.
5. Employers' attitudes to unfair recruitment
practices have not changed.

XIX. Discuss in the group.
1. Do you think a certain type of appearance is
necessary for some jobs? Explain why.
2. In your opinion, is morphopsychology a useful
recruitment technique?
3. How are employment practices monitored in your
country? Give examples.

XX. If you were a manager, would you employ;
a) a woman with pink hair;
b) a man with a beard;
c) unattractive people;
d) a heavy smoker;
e) an overweight person.

XXI. Speak on:
a) requirements to be employed for airlines and police
forces;
b) female chances for managerial positions;
c) morphopsychology,



429

XXII. You are a manager. What application form
would you offer for a candidate to fill in?

. Make up a questionnaire for employment
practice. Do you consider suck a questionnaire to be a
useful recruitment technique?

XXIV. Translate the text in writing:


Female Status Attainment

When the Canadian sociologists analyzed their data on
female status attainment, they also found some surprising
results. First of all, native-born Canadian women with full-
time jobs come from higher-status family backgrounds
than do their male counterparts. On the average, their
fathers have nearly a year more education and hold
higher-status occupations. Second, the average native-
born Canadian working woman has a higher-status
occupation than do similar males.
Finally, the correlations between women's occupational
prestige and their fathers education and occupational
prestige are much lower than for men. Moreover, these
same findings have turned up in American studies; it has
now become standard practice to include women in status
attainment research. How can these patterns be
explained?
First of all, women are less likely than men to hold full-
time jobs and are especially unlikely to work the lower
their job qualifications. For many married women,
especially those with young children, low-paying jobs offer
no real economic benefits; the costs of working (including
child care) are about equal to the wages paid. In
consequence, low-paying, low-status jobs are
disproportionally held by males. This fact accounts for
women having jobs of higher average prestige. But women
are also underrepresented in the highest-prestige jobs.
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As a result their occupational prestige is limited to a
narrower range than that of men, which reduces
correlations with background variables. That the average
working woman's father has more education and a better
job than does the father of the average employed male can
be understood in the same terms. More qualified women
come from more privileged homes; the daughters of the
least-educated and lowest-status fathers aren't in full-time
jobs.
In fact, the husbands of working women have
occupations with higher than average prestige. This is
because of a very high correspondence between the
occupational prestige of husbands and wives when both
are employed full-time. People who marry tend to share
very similar levels of education and similar family
backgrounds. Indeed, divorce and remarriage contribute to
the similarity of husbands and wives in terms of
occupational prestige.
These findings must not cause us to overlook the fact
that women long were excluded from many occupations
and are still underrepresented in elite managerial and
professional careers. What they do show, however, is that
within the special conditions outlined here, female status
attainment does not differ much from that of men.


431

UNIT XII


Text I

I. Read the article and say why it is headlined in
this way:

Saying Good-Bye to This World

Hospice is not a very common word for Russia. The
modern hospice movement - the provision of homes for
terminally ill patients where they spend their last days
was born in Britain. The first among them was an
establishment founded in 1967 by Lady Cicely Saunders
with her own money. She named it after St. Christopher. A
few years ago, on the initiative of Victor Zorza, a British
journalist, hospices began to appear in this country. Today
there are 22, seven of them in St.Petersburg and one in
Moscow.
To whom does the hospice provide care? Information
comes in concerning prospective patients from area
outpatient clinics, or from district oncologists or general
practitioners. An application must be submitted with a
case report and diagnosis. Some patients need palliative
institutional treatment.
Patients are only admitted here in the following cases.
First, those who suffer from an intractable pain syndrome,
when no home medication can help. In this event, they are
placed under round-the-clock observation and an effective
anesthetic plan is selected. Personnel here know that
relatives of these patients need temporary relief. Second,
special attention is given to lonely people and those who
live in communal apartments. For the majority of them
this cozy home with a quiet courtyard is a heavenly place,
if it is appropriate to say so about a hospice. After
spending a week or two here, many do not want to leave,
regarding the discharge as an act of cruelty.
432

Although the furnishings and the equipment in this
home for the terminally ill show that the Moscow
authorities have invested considerable funds in this
project, the city budget is still limited. Just like British
hospices, Russian ones count on philanthropists. One firm
provides writing paper; another provides flowers and
someone to look after them; a fourth donated fixtures and
fittings for the bathrooms.
Unlike its London counterpart, the Moscow hospice has
a house call service. Doctors, nurses, a social worker, a
lawyer, and a psychologist visit patients in their homes.
They provide medical and social assistance, including
patient care, apartment cleaning, meal preparation, buying
food, assistance in executing legal documents. There are
many things to do, and so the service tries to mobilize the
patient's relatives, neighbors, and colleagues.

II. Find in the text sentences containing
information on:

1. Hospices in Britain.
2. Categories of patients admitted to hospices.
3. A house call service.

III. Give definitions of the following words and
word-combinations:

Hospice; terminally-ill patient; round-the-clock
observation; temporary relief; philanthropist; counterpart.

IV. Answer the following questions:

1. Where was the modern hospice movement born?
2. When was the first hospice established?
3. How many hospices are there in the world today?
4. Whom does the hospice provide care for?
5. In what cases are the patients admitted to the
hospice?
433

6. Do hospices exist on the philanthropic grounds?
7. What specialists take care of the terminally ill
patients?

V. Copy out all the word-combinations relating to
major characteristics of hospices.

VI. Review the article. Use copied out word-
combinations in your review.

VII. Express your own opinion of the necessity
of hospices.

VIII. Conduct an interview with a terminally-ill
patient.

Text II

I. Read the article and say why everybody is sure that
AIDS is becoming a major killer in the world.

Fourth Dimension
The World Health Organization (WHO) has released
some chilling statistics: HIV infection is now the fourth
largest killer in the world. AIDS accounts for more deaths
than cancer, and is catching up fast with such leaders as
cardiovascular diseases, injuries, and acute respiratory
conditions among the elderly.
AIDS has been rampant on the planet for more than 20
years now. During this time it has taken a heavier toll of
human lives than all other infections put together: more
than 11 million. The number of HIV carriers in the world
defies tally. Mortality from this plague of the 20th century
has been growing dramatically every year. There is no
antidote against AIDS, nor- terrible though this may sound
- is one forthcoming in the foreseeable future.
Some purported AIDS vaccines have been developed in
the world. These vaccines are, in particular, touted by the
434

United States, Thailand, Switzerland, and a number of
African states. Yet, first, the majority of medical experts in
the world as well as the WHO doubt the effectiveness of
such drugs and, second, each vaccine is subject to tests
lasting at least six to eight years.
The first AIDS-related death in this country was
registered in 1987. Now the situation in Russia is
changing for the worse. This is evident from Health
Ministry statistics. The situation is worst in Moscow and
the Moscow Region; next come the Kaliningrad Region, the
Krasnodar Territory, the Rostov Region, the Tver Region,
and the Nizhny Novgorod Region.
Yet Russia does not expect an upsurge in AIDS
mortality until five to ten years from now. Civilized
countries, on the contrary, believe that early next century,
the death toll from this terrible disease will decline. These
countries are already using unique AIDS treatment
methods which, however, are only effective in the early
stages of the infection. It can prolong a patient's life by 10
to 20 years, or even more. Still, the cost is prohibitive for
an overwhelming majority 90 percent, according to
some estimates - of those infected: It costs as much as $
10,000 a year to take a course of treatment.
In Russia, this figure appears way beyond the means of
the vast majority of patients and indeed the state itself.
The health authorities do their best for research in the
field of AIDS treatment and in AIDS prevention projects.

II. Give Russian equivalents for:

To release some chilling statistics; to take a heavy toll of
human lives; the foreseeable future; AIDS-related deaths;
an upsurge in mortality; to prolong a life; an overwhelming
majority; prevention projects.

III. Reproduce the situations in which the above
word-combinations may be used.
IV. Give reasons in accordance with which:
435


1. HIV infection is the fourth largest killer in the world;
2. Medical experts doubt the effectiveness of drugs
against AIDS;
3. The situation in Russia is changing for the worse;
4. An overwhelming majority can't take a course of
treatment.

V. Divide the article into logical parts.

VI. Review the article.

VII.If you are to interview a HIV infection victim,
what possible questions would you ask him?

Text 3

I. Read and translate the text:



The Golden Mean

Analysts at the All-Russia Research Center for Living
Standards maintain that the proportion of the middle class
in the country's largest cities has reached 10 percent.
Smaller towns are surveyed less frequently but even there
new groups of neither poor nor rich people have emerged,
though Russian provinces are thought to be lagging
behind the center both in the pace of reform and in living
standards. What kind of people in average Russian cities
comprise the Russian middle class? Who fits the middle
class criteria? How do people get into this golden mean
and stay there? The sociological group Sotsium is studying
the middle class in provinces - their occupation, values,
and lifestyle.
The general feeling in small provincial towns is one of
dissatisfaction and insecurity. The following idea has
436

become the usual way of thinking in these towns: our
living standards are deteriorating, we getting less while the
prospects of improving the well-being of our families are
bleaker. This feeling to a certain extent prevents people
from understanding their new role in the structure of
society. And although social mobility in the provinces is
more conservative, the boundaries of the middle class are
just as mobile as expansive.
Sociologists believe that the core of the regional middle
class consists of highly qualified professionals. They fit
into two groups - blue collar workers and the technical
intelligentsia. These groups' skills are valued on the high
technology and computer software market. They are
banking officers, specialists working for foreign firms or
joint ventures, and entrepreneurs - owners of several small
sales outlets, heads of small businesses, including
medical, auto, advertising, leisure, and tourism.
Many people questioned have suddenly discovered
hidden skills and their desire to achieve something and
they were happy for their lucky chance - a newspaper ad,
a meeting with a former fellow student, an idea that
suddenly occurred to them, or some unexpected job offer
that in the end turned their life around.
Of course, there is no universal method of getting out of
the vicious circle of poverty, but the principle is just one
for all - keep moving According to one businessman, an
ability to sell yourself is also a key factor. In his opinion,
any commodity, including our intellect, needs to be
promoted and advertised. However, 30-40 year old
specialists, who grew up in the stagnation era have never
learned to treat their knowledge as commodity. This, they
claim, is beneath their profession dignity. As for starting
from scratch, this to many means all but a failure of their
entire life.
All people in the middle class that were surveyed noted
that they work 12-14- hour days at a pace longer be the
need for a specialist. Some of them are afraid of
competition and changes in the political situation.
437

For the absolute majority, these fears are exaggerated.
Today the middle class in the provinces has already proved
its viability.

II. Give definitions of the following words and
word-combinations:
The golden mean; blue collar workers; technical
intelligentsia; joint venture; commodity; competition.
III. Find in the text synonyms for:
To appear; to conduct a poll; to worsen; welfare; border;
specialist; to estimate; capacity; to reach; technique.
IV. Find in the text the following expressions:
; ; ;
; ;
;
; ; ;
; ; ;
.
V. Make up your own sentences with:
The golden mean; lifestyle; to improve well-being; social
mobility; to value skills; desire to achieve something; lucky
chance; unexpected job offer; universal method;
professional dignity; exaggerated fears.
VI. Answer the following questions:

l. What is the percentage of the middle class in large
cities of Russia?
2. What was the aim of the survey in provinces?

Text 4

I. Read the article and state its main problem:

Survey Smokes Out Increasing Drug Use
Among Young

The Institute of Social Research at the Russian
Government Academy has carried out a detailed survey to
438

determine public attitudes and experts' opinions towards
drug taking and drug users. The results of this research
were not encouraging - the age of drug users is falling.
Experts in this field consider that the highest risk
category is school and university students. Teenagers
themselves also consider that it is the under-18s who
suffer most from drug problems. The next group is 18-30,
after which the problem disappears almost entirely.
The accuracy of this assessment is confirmed by
answers; to the question: Where is it easiest to get hold of
drugs? While the experts and relatives of drug users
stated: Mainly at markets, and then discotheques and
parties for the young, and finally, in the drug pushers'
flats, teenagers gave the more accurate reply that it was
firstly at the drug pushers' flats, then parties, and finally,
markets that drugs are most readily available. Incidentally,
almost none of the teenagers mentioned the mass media
as a source of information on the dangers of drug abuse.
They get their information from their peers (80 percent), or
from knowing adults.
An absolute majority of experts believes that morals and
culture, and also of the poor work of the present situation
with drug abuse is the result of a decline in protection
agencies and the explosion in crime (one in three
respondents are convinced that the police have links with
the drug mafia). Both groups say the main reasons for a
partiality towards drugs is the influence of friends who are
already drug users, lack of interesting work, boredom and
nothing to do, and finally, too much money.
About one third of teenagers are strongly negative in
their attitude to drug-taking among their peers: It is a
serious illness warranting compulsory treatment. Then
about another third were completely loyal: It is a stupid
habit like smoking or alcohol. They grow up and give up.
By contrast, relatives of drug takers have already learnt
from bitter experience. Almost twice as often as other'
respondents they expressed the view that if a member of
one's family shows signs of drug addiction, one should
439

immediately seek specialist help.
The problem is that the specialised medical institutions
work inadequately. The clinics and hospitals are poor and
squalid; there is a shortage of doctors dealing with drug
users; and those who do so are under-qualified and have
only a hazy conception of the experience acquired in other
countries which could be of benefit to Russia (so say 56
percent of specialists).
With regard to social help for drug users, experts are
even more pessimistic 86 percent have little belief in its
potential. At the same time it is social and psychological
rehabilitation which almost all experts believe to be one of
the most necessary and efficacious means of helping drug
users. Few respondents supported the idea of creating
special jobs for drug users. On the other hand, 11 percent
of teenagers suggested that disposable syringes be
distributed free to drug users. Of the experts, 27 percent
were in favor and 47 percent against.
Almost half of the respondents are anxious for tougher
laws to fight the drug mafia. Sixty four percent of experts
are categorically against the legalisation of drug use. But
all the same, half of respondents believe that there is an
obvious first preventive step: people close to someone who
is involved in the cycle of depravity should try to convince
them that the stake in this game is their own life. A first
step, but one that might well have a positive effect in the
formidable battle against drug use.

II. Read the article once more and render its
contents in Russian.

III. Give Russian equivalents for:
To determine public attitudes; to suffer from drug
problems; accuracy of the assessment; mass media; to
prevent situation with drug abuse; a decline in morals and
culture; protection agencies; drug mafia; boredom;
compulsory treatment; to give up smoking or alcohol; from
bitter experience; to show signs of drug addiction;
440

disposable syringes; to be involved in the cycle of
depravity.

IV. Make up sentences with these word-
combinations.

V. Give English equivalents for;
; ;
;
; ;
;
; ;
.

VI. Make up word-combinations:

Drug use
abuse
abuser
addict
addiction
pusher
partiality

VII.Reproduce situations where these word-
combinations may be used.

VIII. Answer the following questions:

1. What was the aim of the survey?
2. What were the results of this survey in general?
3. Who comprises the highest risk category?
4. When does the problem disappear? After what age?
Why? What do you think?
5. Where is it easy to get drugs?
6. Where do teenagers get information concerning drug
distribution?
7. What does an absolute majority of experts think in
441

accordance with the present situation?
8. What are the main reasons for a partiality towards
drugs?
9. Is drug-taking a habit and nothing more serious?
10. How would you characterize the conditions in the
specialized medical institutions?
11. How is it possible to help drug-addicts?
12. What is the first preventive step?

IX. Agree or disagree with the following:

1. The highest risk category for drug-taking is the
elderly population.
2. The mass media is a source of information on the
dangers of drug use.
3. The present situation with drug use is the result of
decline in morals and culture.
4. The police have no links with the drug mafia.
5. The main reason for a partiality towards drug is too
much money.
6. It is necessary to create special jobs for drug-users.
7. Disposable syringes must be distributed free.
8. Tougher laws should be introduced to fight the drug
mafia.

X. There are some main reasons for increase in
drug abuse. They are:

1. Insufficient mass media propaganda concerning
dangers of drug-abuse.
2. Decline in morals and culture.
3. Poor work of the health protection agencies.
4. Explosion in crime.
5. The influence of friends who are drug users.
6. Lack of interesting work.
7. Boredom and nothing to do.
8. Too much money.
What are the reasons that may be put at the first place,
442

at the second one, and so on? Arrange them in the order of
decrease.
XI. Some major steps should be taken to reduce the
danger of drug problems. What would you choose out
of those suggested below?

1. To seek specialist help at the sign of drug addiction.
2. To secure adequate work of the specialized medical
institutions.
3. To provide social and psychological rehabilitation
help for drug users.
4. To create special jobs for drug users.
5. To introduce tougher laws to fight the drug mafia.
6. To legalise drug use.
XII. Speak on:

1. The aim and the results of the survey.
2. The highest risk category.
3. The main reasons for drug addiction increase.
4. Preventive steps.
XIII. Review the article.

XIV. Make up a special questionnaire to assess
the situation with drug use in your region.
XV. Conduct an interview with a drug-addict.
XVI. A role-play: Suddenly you find out that your
close friend acquired a habit of taking drugs. You are
shocked as you understand you may lose your friend.
You try to persuade him to give up this dreadful habit
and offer your sincere assistance of any kind.

Text 5

I. Read and translate the text:

Character and Communication

Communication is the most important skill in life. We
443

spend most of our waking hours communicating. But
consider this: You've spent years learning how to read and
write, years learning how to speak. But what about
listening? What training or education have you got that
enables you to listen so that you really, deeply understand
another human being from the individual's own frame of
reference?
Comparatively few people have had any training in
listening at all. And, for the most part, their training has
been in the personality ethic of technique, truncated from
the character base and the relationship base absolutely
vital to authentic understanding of another person.
If you want to interact effectively with me, to influence
me your spouse, your child, your neighbor, your boss,
your coworker, your friend - you first need to understand
me. And you can't do that with technique alone. If I sense
you're using some technique, I sense duplicity,
manipulation. I wonder why you're doing it, what your
motives are. And I don't feel safe enough to open myself up
to you.
The real key to your influence with me is your example,
your actual conduct. Your example flows naturally out of
your character, or the kind of person you truly are - not
what others say you are or what you may want me to think
you are. It is evident in how I actually experience you.
Your character is constantly radiating, communicating.
From it, in the long run, I come to instinctively trust or
distrust you and your efforts with me.
If your life runs hot and cold, if you're both caustic and
kind, and, above all, if your private performance doesn't
square with your public performance, it's very hard for me
to open up with you. Then, as much as I may want and
even need to receive your love and influence, I don't feel
safe enough to expose my opinions and experiences and
my tender feelings. Who knows what will happen?
But unless I open up with you, unless you understand
me and my unique situation and feelings, you won't know
how to advise and counsel me. What you say is good and
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fine, but it doesn't quite pertain to me.
You may say you care about and appreciate me. I
desperately want to believe that. But how can you
appreciate me when you don't even understand me? All I
have are your words, and I can't trust words.
I'm too angry and defensive - perhaps too guilty and
afraid to be influenced, even though inside I know I
need what you could tell me.
Unless you're influenced by my uniqueness, I'm not
going to be influenced by your advice. So if you want to be
really effective in the habit of interpersonal
communication, you cannot do it with technique alone.
You have to build the skills of empathic listening on a base
of character that inspires openness and trust. And you
have to build the Emotional Bank Accounts that create a
commerce between hearts.
(from SEVEN HABITS)

II. Express the meanings of the following phrases:

Effective communication; personality ethic; authentic
understanding; empathic listening; to inspire openness
and trust; Emotional Bank Accounts.

III. Choose from the text all possible words that
may characterize the process of communication as it
is.

IV. Make up disjunctive questions:

1. Communication is the most important skill in life.
2. Comparatively few people have had any training in
listening.
3. Your character is constantly communicating.
4. Unless you understand a person you can't advise or
counsel him.
5. Sometimes it is not reasonable to trust words.
6. We have to build skills of empathic listening.
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V. Answer the following questions. Give your
arguments.

1. What are the basic types of communication? There
are four of them, aren't there?
2. Is it possible or impossible to learn communication
skills for a short period of time?
3. What training or education should you have in order
to communicate properly?
4. What is meant by effective interaction?
5. How would you interact with your spouse (your
neighbor, your boss, your coworker, your child)?
6. Is there direct or indirect connection between
character and communication?
7. Must we trust completely the words we hear in a
conversation with the other person?
8. Are you in favor of or against empathic listening?

VI. Make up a list of character traits that are of
help for a productive communication.

VII.Speak on the main points of the text.

VIII. Make up dialogues with your partner in
accordance with the following scripts:

1. You are an attentive listener of an interesting
episode that happened to your conversationalist last
Sunday.
2. Your life runs hot and cold. You feel dissatisfaction
and ask your friend to help you in overcoming these
unpleasant sensations. You expect sympathy and comfort.





446

Text 6

I. Read the article and render its contents in
Russian:

Russia's Madmen are No Worse off Than
Britain's

At the Serbsky Center for Psychiatry, most patients
admitted are murderers. But British insane criminals
cause no fewer problems.
A Russian-British conference on the problems of
forensic medicine has been held at the Serbsky State
Scientific Center for Social and Forensic Psychiatry, and
revealed that insane criminals cause England's doctors
just as many problems as Russia's. British patients are
not just sick people, they are aggressive criminals. The
British doctors try to cure them, but nobody cares about
this. All people are only interested in the details of the
crimes that they have committed and the punishments
that they will receive.
According to statistics from the Serbsky Center, only
one third of Russia's criminals are completely mentally
normal. One in every 10 is insane, and most of them suffer
from some sort of mental disorders and live very much on
the borderline of insanity. Unfortunately, very often it is
only after a forensic psychiatric examination that the
person himself and his relatives realize that he is sick.
That is, after he has committed a crime.
The very contingent of people accused or under
investigation, who are brought to the Serbsky Center for
examination, has also changed considerably of late.
According to the Center's statistics, nowadays 80 percent
of them are murderers, whereas 20 years ago the center
received far more hooligans and vagrants. And while in the
past the patients' eccentricities were largely harmless to
the rest of society, now they are becoming a matter of life
and death for potential victims.
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An examination in forensic psychiatry largely
determines the amount of time that the person will spend
in the overcrowded detention center. Many people under
investigation spend months waiting for their turn. The
center's clinic is designed for only 250 beds, but, oddly,
even they are sometimes empty. The detention centers
have no money to conduct preliminary tests, and without
this, the center cannot admit patients. Sometimes the
detention center's staff simply don't have the means to
deliver the prisoners to the place where the examinations
are conducted.
Britain's psychiatrists, with whom the Serbsky Center
has kept in touch for the past seven years, also experience
problems that have nothing to do with medicine. The
English authorities have long been fighting to raise the age
at which a person is deemed criminally responsible
currently 10 years of age.
And just like Russian doctors, they are concerned about
the conditions in which the mentally-disturbed patients
are kept. In some cases, Britain's mad patients live in
worse conditions than Russia's. Here, mad criminals are
held in special clinics, whereas on the British Isles, even
insane women criminals are locked in jail cells.
Notes:
Accused -
Vagrant -
Detention center -


II. Give all statistical data presented in the article.

III. Divide the article into logical parts.

IV. Compare the situation with insane criminals in
Russia and in Britain.

V. What problems are similar for both countries?

448

VI. Give your arguments: whether mentally-
disturbed criminals should be punished in the same
way as sane ones or not.

VII.If you had to conduct an interview with the
British leading psychiatrist, what possible questions
would you ask him?

449

TEXTS
FOR WRITTEN TRANSLATION
I. Translate the text in writing:
MASS SOCIETY
When we say that the new order of mass society is a
consensual society, this does not mean, however, that it is
completely consensual, a fabric of seamless harmony. The
competition and conflict of corporate bodies resting on diverse
class, ethnic, professional and regional identifications and
attachments are vigorous and outspoken in this new order of
society. So are the unorganized antagonisms of individuals and
families of these diverse class, ethnic, professional, and regional
sectors. Inequalities exist in mass society and they call forth at
least as much resentment, if not more, as they ever did. Indeed,
there is perhaps more awareness of the diversity of situation
and the conflict of sectional aspirations in this society than in
most societies of the past.
What is specific to this modern mass society, with all its
conflicts, is the establishment of consensually legitimate
institutions within which much of their conflict takes place and
which impose limits on this conflict. Parliaments, the system of
representation of interests through pressure groups, systems of
negotiation between employers and employees, are the novel
ways of permitting and confining the conflict of interests and
ideals characteristic of modern mass societies.
These institutions, the very constitution of the mass
society, can exist because a widespread consensus, particularly
a consensus of the most active members of the society,
legitimates them, and, more fundamentally, because a more
general and more amorphous consensus of the less active
imposes restraint on the more active when they might otherwise
infringe on the constitution. This consensus grows in part from
an attachment to the center, to the central institutional system
and value order of the society. It is also a product of a newly
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emergent at least on such a vast scale feeling of unity with
one's fellow men, particularly within the territorial boundaries
of the modern societies.
Hence, despite all internal conflicts bridging and
confining them, there are, within the mass society, more of a
sense of attachment to the society as a whole, more sense of
affinity with one's fellows, more openness to understanding, and
more reaching out of understanding among men than in any
earlier society of our western history or in any of the great
Oriental societies of the past. The mass society is not the most
peaceful or orderly society that has ever existed; but it is the
most consensual.
The maintenance of public peace through apathy and
coercion in a structure of extremely discontinuous interaction is
a rather different thing from its maintenance through
consensus in a structure of a more continuous interaction
between center and periphery and among various peripheral
sectors. The greater activity of the periphery of the society, both
in conflict and in consensus especially in the latter is what
makes this a mass society.
The historical uniqueness of the modern society, notably
in its latter-day phases, is the incorporation of the mass into the
moral order of its society. The mass of the population is no
longer merely an object which the elite takes into account as a
reservoir of military and labour power or as a possible or actual
source of public disorder. Nor does it any longer consist of a set
of relatively discrete local societies occasionally in contact with
the center under the impulsion of coercion and interest.
(by EDWARD SHILS)

451

II. Translate the text in writing:
STUDYING MASS COMMUNICATION
The American society is constantly changing. The mass
media supported by that society are also changing. In some
part, the process is reciprocal. That is, the society influences its
media, but the media, once in place, sometimes modify the
society. These facts make the search for stable generalizations
about the personal, social, and cultural influence of mass
communication a difficult one. For example, as will become
clear from the examination of studies of the movies of the
1950s, such films apparently had a significant impact on the
children of that particular period.
But the films of the 1950s, and the responses made to
them by young people during the time, offer few reliable guides
to relationships between media and youth of more
contemporary generations. Since the media first arrived, each
succeeding decade has brought a different set of economic
conditions, new technology, changing political demands, and a
continuously developing culture. In this dynamic milieu, the
media continued to change their form, content, and
distribution. This, in turn, modified the influence that they had
on the people who attended to them. The process continues,
and it will go on into the foreseeable future.
What this means for the student of mass communication
is that the question of what influence mass communication has
on people is an extraordinarily complex one. These are few
eternal verities that can adequately desribe the effects of all
mass media on all people during all historical periods. Even a
conclusion about the influence of a particular medium that
seems inescapably true for a specific category of people during a
given period may prove to be invalid at a later time. This is not
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to say that no stable generalizations can be found through an
examination of the major research studies of the past. There are
also a few generalizations that appear to have wide applicability
under a variety of times and circumstances.
In an ideal world, science would proceed very
systematically to accomplish its twin goals of innovation and
accumulation. In such a world, some studies would move
forward the cutting edge of theory and method whereas others
would replicate and confirm earlier findings. Such an ideal
science would be self-policing, and the generalizations
accumulated would be both reliable and valid. Unfortunately,
things seldom work out so neatly in the real world of scientific
investigation. Studies in almost every field are undertaken for a
bewildering variety of reasons, ranging from the trivial to the
profound. Thus, the accumulation of knowledge is often
frustratingly uncoordinated.
The study of mass communication has been particularly
unsystematic. It is not a concisely defined field, and it has had
only a relatively brief history. One problem has been that those
who have studied the media in the past have come from several
different disciplines. Some were investigations that led
researchers to conceptualize the process of mass
communication in a new and important way. Others introduced
innovative methodological procedures, techniques, or strategies
that made a lasting contribution to the scientific study of mass
communication. And still others played a particularly important
part in shaping the beliefs of the non-scientific public about the
nature of media influences.
They all represent attempts to study the media within the
framework of science. In some cases the research efforts were
programs rather than single projects. Some were based on
elaborate experiments; others used survey techniques. One was
based on a purely clinical strategy. But above all, these appear
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to us as the ones that have made the most difference. They have
been widely cited; they have stimulated extensive further
research; some have created substantial controversies; but
above all, they have attracted the attention of the community of
communication scholars, and in many cases the general public,
to provide important perspectives on the process and influences
of mass communication.

III. Translate the text in writing.
FROM SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY TO SOCIOLOGY
(by Igor Kon)
The Ideological and Theoretical Premisses of
Sociological Knowledge
Sociology arose in the middle of the nineteenth century
as an independent science of the patterns of development and
functioning of social systems, not because a new object of study
had appeared, but because problems had developed in other
social sciences that could not be tackled by the traditional
means and within the bounds of the existing system of
knowledge.
The sociological vision of the world presupposes (1) a view
of society as a systemic whole functioning and developing
according to its own laws; (2) a conscious stance on study of
actually existing social relations; (3) reliance on empirical
methods of research in contrast to speculative philosophical
constructs.
The elements of this approach were built up gradually
within the context of social philosophy and the philosophy of
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the history of modern times, and as empirical studies and the
differentiation of social and humanitarian sciences.
The problem of society as a system had already been
posed by seventeenth-century theories of social physics.
Insofar as society was represented as part of nature, social
science became methodologically a part of natural science.
While the stellar world was depicted in these theories as a
mechanical interaction of celestial bodies, society was regarded
as a kind of astronomical system of individuals connected by
social attraction and repulsion.
The thinkers of the seventeenth century, having taken
mathematics (geometric method), astronomy, and mechanics, as
the model of science, endeavoured to treat not only history but
also social statistics (which was making its first significant
a