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The Way to CDMA Technology

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The Way to CDMA Technology
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The Way to CDMA Technology
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1.1
1.2
1.3
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3
3.1
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4.1
4.2
5
6
6.1
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.2.1
6.2.3
6.3
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8.1
8.2
8.2.1
8.3
Into!"ction to Cell"la Technology
#ogess in $a!io Comm"nications
The %o&th in Cell"la Ma'et ( its !eman!s
Why it is calle! cell"la)
A!*antages o+ Digital Comm"nications
Wieless Digital Tansmission #o,lems
-it .o $ate
Sol"tions against Ai tansmission #o,lems
Channel co!ing
Intelea*ing
Cell"la System Achitect"e
Cell"la System Com/onents
Digital Systems
M"lti/le Access Systems
0e1"ency Di*ision M"lti/le Access 20DMA3
Time Di*ision M"lti/le Access 2TDMA3
The %SM 4.TW5$6
Co!e Di*ision M"lti/le Access 2CDMA3
D"/le7 Tansmission8 0DD ( TDD
Data Tansmission
The %eneal #ac'et $a!io System 9%#$S:
Timescales +o %#$S
%#$S Achitect"e
%#$S $e+eence Achitect"e
%#$S A//lications
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2;
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4<
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1 Introduction to Cellular Technology
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The 1"est to 'no& the "n'no&n an! see the "nseen is inheent in h"man nat"e.
It is this estlessness that has /o/elle! man'in! to e*e highe /innacles an! e*e
!ee/e !e/ths. This insatia,le !esie le! to the !isco*ey o+ light as ,eing
electomagnetic? /a*ing the &ay to !isco*ey o+ the a!io.
The oigin o+ a!io can ,e tace! ,ac' to the yea 168< to 4e&ton theoy o+
com/osition o+ &hite light o+ *aio"s colos. This theoy ,o"ght the im/otance as
light as an aea o+ st"!y to the attention o+ many scientists? es/ecially those in
."o/e? &ho ,egan to /"s"e e7/eiments &ith light &hich lea! to
im/otant!isco*eies connecte! to the e*ent"al !e*elo/ment o+ the a!io.
These !isco*eies ae the +o"n!ation o+ to!ay@s &ieless cimm"nicaton systems.
.7/eiments &ith light ae still ,eing caie! o"t to!ay in many "ni*esities? an!
in!"sties. 5ne o+ the o"tcomes o+ light e7/eiments in the 1;7<s is the o/tical +i,e?
&hich is c"ently ,eing "se! +o long A ha"l *oice an! !ata tansmission. It is
,elie*e! that the "se o+ o/tical +i,e technology &ill incease !amatically the
into!"ction o+ &i!e,an! net&o's +o *oice? !ata? an! *i!eo tansmission? &hich is
,ase! on the Asynchono"s Tans+e Mo!e 9ATM: s&itch.
1.1 Progress in Radio Communications
$a!io connections &ee +ist "se! +o Wieless Comm"nications in the late 1;th
cent"yB in+omation &as sent *ia CetheC as +ollo&s8 D
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Progress in Radio communications
1873 .lectomagnetic &a*e theoy E.C. Ma7&ell
1887 .7/eimental /oo+ o+ the e7istence o+ electomagnetic &a*es F. FetG
18;5 0ist ecei*e &ith antenna +o &eathe e/ots A. #o/o&
18;5 0ist &ieless tansmission "sing s/a' in!"cto geneate! %. M. Maconi
18;7 Maconi Wieless Telega/hy Com/any +o"n!e!
1;<1 0ist tansatlantic tansmission Maconi
1;<; 0ist a!io ,oa!cast 4e& Ho'?
Ca"so
0ig.1
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1.2 The Growth in Cellular Maret ! its demands
The cell"la tele/hone in!"sty has enIoye! /henomenal go&th since its ince/tion in
1;83. In I"st one moe e7am/le o+ the im/ossi,ility o+ /oIecting the a!o/tion o+ ne&
technologies? a &i!ely acce/te! 1;85 /e!iction hel! that the total n"m,e o+ cell"la
s",sci,es might each as many as ;<<?<<< ,y the yea 2<<<. In +act? ,y the en! o+
1;;4 thee &ee &ell o*e 2< million s",sci,es in the =nite! States alone? an!
a//o7imately 5< million &ol!&i!e. $ecent ann"al s",sci,e go&th ates ha*e
,een as high as 4<J? an! it is ,elie*e! that this go&th ate co"l! contin"e tho"gh
the est o+ the 1;;<s.
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In o!e to meet this inceasing !eman! +o se*ice? ne& !igital cell"la tele/hone
systems ha*e ,een into!"ce! !"ing the +ist hal+ o+ the 1;;<s. As to!ayKs cell"la
o/eatos mo*e to a!o/t these ne& technologies in thei systems? they !eman!8
Incease! ca/acity &ithin thei e7isting s/ect"m allocation an! easy !e/loyment
o+ any technology it ta'es to get them that ca/acity incease.
Fighe ca/acities an! lo&e system !esign costs 9/l"s lo&e in+ast"ct"e costs:
&hich &ill lea! to a lo&e cost /e s",sci,e.
A lo&e cost /e s",sci,e? com,ine! &ith ne& s",sci,e +eat"es? &hich &ill
hel/ the o/eatos to incease thei ma'et /enetation.
An incease! ma'et /enetation? &hich &ill lea! to an incease in n"m,e o+
s",sci,es an! a system? &hich o++es s"//ot +o that? incease! ca/acity.
Figh 1"ality calls m"st ,e maintaine! !"ing the change to o migation to any ne&
!igital technology.
Avdantages of cellular communications
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A lower cost per subscriber
An increased market penetration
Higher capacities and lower system
design costs
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Fig.2
1." Why it is called cellular#
.*eyone is +amilia &ith the "sage o+ the tem 2cell"la3 in !esci,ing mo,ile a!io
systems. Ho" /o,a,ly 'no& that it is calle! cell"la ,eca"se the net&o' is
com/ose! o+ a n"m,e o+ cells. Mo,ile a!io systems &o' on the ,asis o+ cells +o
t&o easons.
The +ist eason is that a!io signals at the +e1"encies "se! +o cell"la ta*el only a
+e& 'ilometes 9'ms: +om the /oint at &hich they ae tansmitte!.
They ta*el moe o less e1"al !istances in all !iectionsB hence? i+ one tansmitte is
*ie&e! in isolation? the aea ao"n! it &hee a a!io signal can ,e ecei*e! is
ty/ically a//o7imately cic"la. I+ the net&o' !esigne &ants to co*e a lage aea?
then he m"st ha*e a n"m,e o+ tansmittes /ositione! so that &hen one gets to the
e!ge o+ the +ist cell thee is a secon! cell o*ela//ing slightly? /o*i!ing a!io signal.
Fence the const"ction o+ the net&o' is a seies o+ a//o7imately cic"la cells.
The secon! eason has to !o &ith the a*aila,ility o+ something calle! a!io s/ect"m.
Sim/ly? a!io s/ect"m is &hat a!io signals "se to ta*el tho"gh s/ace.
=sing a mo,ile a!io system? it cons"mes a cetain amo"nt o+ a!io s/ect"m +o the
!"ation o+ the call. An analogy hee is ca /a's. When yo" /a' yo" ca in a ca
/a' it ta'es "/ a /a'ing s/ace. When yo" lea*e the ca /a'? the s/ace ,ecomes
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+ee +o someone else to "se. The n"m,e o+ s/aces in the ca /a' is stictly limite!
an! &hen thee ae as many cas as thee ae s/aces no,o!y else can "se the ca
/a' "ntil someone lea*es.
$a!io s/ect"m in any /atic"la cell is athe li'e this. Fo&e*e? thee is an im/otant
!i++eence. 5nce yo" mo*e +a eno"gh a&ay +om the +ist cell? the a!io signal &ill
ha*e ,ecome m"ch &ea'e an! so the same ,it o+ a!io s/ect"m can ,e e"se! in
anothe cell &itho"t the t&o inte+eing &ith each othe. -y this means? the same ,it
o+ a!io s/ect"m can ,e e"se! se*eal times ao"n! the co"nty. So s/litting the
net&o' into a n"m,e o+ small cells inceases the n"m,e o+ "ses &ho can ma'e
tele/hone calls ao"n! the co"nty.
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So? in s"mmay? cell"la a!io systems ae o+ten calle! 2cell"la3 ,eca"se the net&o'
is com/ose! o+ a n"m,e o+ cells? each &ith a!i"s o+ a +e& 'ilometes? s/ea!
acoss the co"nty. This is necessay ,eca"se the a!io signal !oes not ta*el long
!istances +om the tansmitte? ,"t it is also !esia,le ,eca"se it allo&s the a!io
+e1"ency to ,e e"se!? th"s inceasing the ca/acity o+ the net&o'.

Fig. 3
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1 Ad$antages o% Digital Communications
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0ist o+ all &e can say that a !igital comm"nication system is one &hee the *oice
signal has ,een !igitiGe! /io to &ieless tansmission.
DigitiGing is a/ocess &hee the *oice signal is sam/le! an! !iscete? n"miic
e/esentation o+ the signal ae tansmitte! ?athe than the oiginal signal itsel+.
This is m"ch !i++eent +om analog systems &hee the oiginal?contin"o"s *oice signal
is tansmitte! "sing a stan!a! +om o+ 0M mo!"lation.
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As the tem LDigital2 im/lies? the *oice signal is !igitiGe! +o tansmission &ithin the
cell"la net&o's.5nce !igitiGe!? A!*ance! co!ing ? tansmission?an! eo coection
techni1"es ae em/loye!. These a!!itional techni1"es ma'e it /ossi,le to !etect an!
coect tansmission eos at the ecei*ing en!.
Anothe a!*antage o+ !igital &ieless comm"nications is that !igital /o*i!es moe
ta++ic ca/acity /e gi*en $0 s/ect"m. This is ma!e /ossi,le ,y "sing the channel
,an!&i!th moe e++iciently .
In !igital systems? m"lti,le "ses occ"/y the same +e1"ency? an! they ae se/aate!
,y time o co!es. This is moe e++icient than assigning each "se to a se/aate
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+e1"ency ? &hich is e++icient than assigning each "se to a se/aate +e1"ency? &hich
is common in analog systems.
Digital systems also "se techni1"es to e!"ce? o com/ess the amo"nt o+
in+omation to ,e tansmitte! o*e the ai +om each "se.
These com/ession techni1"es can ta'e a!*antage o+ the /o,a,ility that not e*ey
"se nee!s ma7im"m ,an!&i!th at e7actly the same moment.
Anothe a!*antage o+ !igital comm"nication system is that they ha*e ah inheent
le*el o+ sec"ity . =nothoiGe! listenes m"st ha*e com/le7 ecei*es? they m"st
!eco!e the !igital in+omation? an! then they m"st con*et the !igital signal into
analog signal.
Digital has ,ette ,"iltDin s"//ot +o nonD*oice se*ices an! "se !ata ta++ic.
-y ,y/assing the *oice signal com/ession /ocess? "se !ata can ,e /ocesse!
!iectly in thei !igital +omats.
With !igital systems? thee is no nee! to con*et the signal. The !ata is sim/ly
/asse! tho"gh as !igital in+omation. This !igital in+omation can "s"ally ,e
/ocesse! tho"gh the system at highe s/ee!s.
Mastly ? Analog sytems? on the othe han!? "se m"ch sim/le tansmission
techni1"es? &hich e1"ie a ecei*e no moe com/le7 than an ine7/ensi*e 0M a!io.


Figure 4
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2 Wireless Digital Transmission
Pro&lems
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Wieless comm"nication channels s"++e +om se*ee atten"ation an! signal
+l"ct"ations. Mage atten"ation is !"e to the "se@s mo,ility tho"gh the /o/agation
en*ionment that ca"ses almost no !iect signal +om the tansmitte can each the
ecei*e. .*en i+ so? the lineDo+Dsight signal may ,e s"/eim/ose! ,y its e+lecte! o
scattee! !"/licates that each the ecei*e at !i++eent time instant ca"sing signal
+l"ct"ations. When a mo,ile station mo*es +om one location to anothe? all
/o/agation scenaio may change com/letely an! the ecei*e! signal changes 25
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acco!ingly. Thee !i++eent mo!els that ae commonly "se! to chaacteise a
&ieless channel ae8
#o/agation /ath loss 9neaD+a atten"ation: .
Sha!o&ing 9*aiation on the a*eage /o&e: .
M"lti/ath +a!ing 9+ast signal +l"ct"ation:.
#o/agation /ath loss
#o/agation /ath loss occ"s &hen the ecei*e! signal ,ecomes &ea'e an! &ea'e
!"e to inceasing !istance ,et&een MS an! -TS . #ath loss is /o//tional to the
s1"ae o+ the !istance an! the s1"ae o+ the tansmitte! +e1"ency .
Sha!o&ing
Sha!&ing is !"e to o,stacles ,eing ,et&een the MS an! the -TS ? li'e ,"il!ings?
hills etc. When the MS mo*es ao"n! ? the signal +l"ct"ates nomally ao"n! a mean
*al"e !e/en!ing on the o,stacles .
M"lti/ath +a!ing
M"lti/ath +a!ing occ"es &hen thee is moe than one tansmission /ath to the MS
o -TS ? an! thee+oe moe than one signal is ai*ing at the ecei*e .This may ,e
!"e to ,"il!ings o mo"ntains ? eithe close to o +a +om the eci*ing !e*ice.
$ayleigh +a!ing an! time !is/esion ae +oms o+ m"lti/ath +a!ing.
N$ayleigh +a!ing 8D
This occ"es &hen the signal ta'es moe than one /ath ,et&een the MS an! -TS .
In this case? the signal is not ecei*e! on a line o+ sight /ath !iectly +om the T7.
Antenna . $athe ? it is e+lecte! o++ ,"i!ings? +o e7am/le ? an! is ecei*e! +om
se*eal !i++eent in!iect /aths . $ayleigh +a!ing occ"s &hen the o,stacles ae close
to the ecei*ing antenna .
NTime !is/esion 8D
It is anothe /o,lem elating to m"lti/le /aths to the $7. Antenna o+ eithe MS o
-TS . Fo&e*e ? in contast to $ayleigh +a!ing ? the e+lecte! signal comes +om an
o,Iect +a a&ay +om the $7. antenna .Since the ,it ate on the ai is 27< ',itOsec ?
one ,it coes/on!s to 3.7 P sec o 1.1 'm . I+ an o,stacle is +"the than 5<< m a&ay?
then the e+lecte! ,it &ill inte+ee &ith the ne7t tansmitte! ,it 9ISI:.
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Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig.
1.4 Bit Error Rate
Sometimes? &hen yo" ae "sing a mo,ile /hone? yo" &ill notice that the s/eech
1"ality 2,ea's "/3 o !isa//eas com/letely +o shot /eio!s o+ time. -y mo*ing
to&a! a &in!o& yo" can sometimes im/o*e the sit"ation. This loss o+ s/eech
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1"ality is ca"se! ,y eos. That is? the tansmitte might sen! 1<11? ,"t ,eca"se o+
/o/agation /o,lems? s"ch as +ast +a!ing? the ecei*e might thin' that 1<<1 &as
sent. The thi! ,it is sai! to ,e in eo. This is a little li'e s/elling something o*e the
/hone.Ho" might say 2S3 ,"t the /eson at the othe en! might es/on! 2&as that 0)3
An eo &as ma!e ,eca"se the line &as not o+ s"++icient 1"ality.
Mo,ile /hones contain a!*ance! systems +o coecting eos that. Fo&e*e? these
systems ae not al&ays a,le to emo*e all the eos. Witho"t eo coection? the
s/eech 1"ality &o"l! al&ays ,e so tei,le that yo" &o"l! ne*e ,e a,le to
"n!estan! the othe /eson.
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Inte+eence? +a!ing? an! an!om noise ca"se eos to ,e ecei*e!? the le*el o+
&hich &ill !e/en! on the se*eity o+ the inte+eence. The /esence o+ eos can
ca"se /o,lems. 0o s/eech co!es s"ch as AD#CM? i+ the ,it eo ate 9-.$: ises
a,o*e 1<
D3
9that is? 1 ,it in e*ey 1<<< is in eo? o the eo ate is <.1J: then the
s/eech 1"ality ,ecomes "nacce/ta,le.
0o neaD/e+ect *oice 1"ality? eo ates o+ the o!e o+ 1<
D6
ae e1"ie!. 0o !ata
tans+es? "ses e7/ect m"ch ,ette eo ates? +o e7am/le on com/"te +iles? eo
ates highe than 1<
D;
ae nomally "nacce/ta,le.
I+ the only so"ce o+ eo on the channel &as an!om noise? then it &o"l! ,e
/ossi,le? an! geneally e++icient? to sim/ly ens"e that the ecei*e! signal /o&e &as
s"++icient to achie*e the e1"ie! eo /e+omance &itho"t any nee! +o eo
coection. Fo&e*e? &hee +ast +a!ing is /esent? +a!es can ,e momentaily as !ee/
as 4< !-. To incease the ecei*e! /o&e ,y 4< !- to o*ecome s"ch +a!es &o"l! ,e
highly ine++icient? es"lting in a signi+icantly e!"ce! ange an! incease! inte+eence
to othe cells. Instea!? eo coection co!ing acce/ts that ,its &ill ,e ecei*e! in
eo !"ing +a!es ,"t attem/ts to coect these "sing e7ta ,its 92e!"n!ant3 ,its:
a!!e! to the signal.
How to face B!"
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Fig. !
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" 'olutions against Air transmission
(ro&lems
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Antenna Di*esity
It inceases the ecei*e! signal stength ,y ta'ing a!*antage o+ the nat"e /o/eties
o+ a!io &a*es ? thee ae t&o !i*esity metho!s? they ae 8D
1. S/ace !i*esity .
2. #olaiGation !i*esity .
NS/ace !i*esity
can ,e achie*e! ,y mo"nting t&o ecei*es instea! o+ one . I+ the t&o ecei*es ae
/hysically se/aate! ? the /o,a,ility that ,oth o+ them ae a++ecte! ,y a !ee/ +a!ing
!i/ at the same time is lo& .
N#olaiGation !i*esity
With this techni1"e the t&o s/ace !i*esity ecei*es ae e/lase! ,y one !"al
/olaiGe! antenna ? the antenna contains t&o !i++eently /olaiGe! antenna aays.
Time A!*ance
Time A!*ance is into!"ce! to o*ecome the e++ect o+ time alignment. When the MS
is mo*ing +a a&ay +om the -TS ? this -TS tells the MS ho& m"ch time ahea! o+ the
synchoniGation time it m"st tansmit the ,"st .
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0ig. ;
0ig. 1<
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1.) Channel Coding
.o coection is &i!ely !e/loye! in mo,ile a!io? &hee +ast +a!ing is almost
"ni*esally /esent. .o coection systems all &o' ,y a!!ing e!"n!ancy to the
tansmitte! signal. The ecei*e chec's that the e!"n!ant in+omation is as it &o"l!
ha*e e7/ecte! an!? i+ not? can ma'e eo coection !ecisions. An e7temely sim/le
eo coection scheme &o"l! e/eat the !ata thee times. The +ist ,it in each o+ the
thee e/etitions is com/ae! an!? i+ thee is any !i++eence? the *al"e that is /esent
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in t&o o+ the thee e/etitions is ass"me! to ,e coect. This is e/eate! +o all ,its.
S"ch a system co"l! coect one eo in e*ey thee ,its ,"t ti/les the ,an!&i!th
e1"ie!. Consi!ea,ly moe e++icient schemes than this ae a*aila,le. Similaly to
eo coection systems? thee ae schemes that !etect eos ,"t !o not coect
them. In the /ece!ing sim/le e7am/le? i+ the message &as only e/eate! t&ice? then
i+ the e/etition o+ a gi*en ,it &as not the same as the oiginal tansmission it is clea
that an eo occ"e! ,"t it is not /ossi,le to say &hich tansmission &as in eo. In
an eo !etection scheme? the ecei*e then e1"ests that the ,loc' that &as
!etecte! to ,e in eo is etansmitte!. S"ch schemes ae calle! a"tomatic e1"est
e/eat 9A$Q:. They ha*e the a!*antage o+ o+ten e!"cing the tansmission
e1"iements 9e*en acco"nting +o the ,an!&i!th nee!e! +o etansmission o+
eoe! ,loc's: ,"t a!! a *aia,le !elay to the tansmission &hile ,loc's ae
e/eate!. This *aia,le !elay is "ns"ita,le +o s/eech ,"t ty/ically acce/ta,le on
com/"te +ile tans+e. Some o+ the moe a!*ance! co!ing systems can /e+om eo
coection an! also !etect i+ thee &ee too many eos +o it to ,e /ossi,le to coect
them all an! hence e1"est etansmission in this case. .o coection metho!s
,oa!ly +all into t&o ty/es8 ,loc' o con*ol"tional co!ing. -oth ae highly in*ol*e! an!
mathematical? an! the teatment hee &ill no moe than scatch the s"+ace. -loc'
co!ing ,asically &o's ,y /"tting the in+omation to ,e tansmitte! in a mati7 an!
m"lti/lying this ,y anothe mati7? &hose contents ae +i7e! +o the /atic"la co!ing
scheme an! 'no&n to ,oth the tansmitte an! the ecei*e? as sho&n in 0ig"e .
The es"lt o+ the mati7 m"lti/lication +oms the co!e&o!. This co!e&o! is then
tansmitte! a+te the in+omation? &hich is le+t "nchange!. At the ecei*e? the
in+omation is loa!e! into anothe i!entical mati7? m"lti/lie! ,y the 'no&n mati7 an!
the es"lts com/ae! &ith the ecei*e! co!e&o!. I+ thee ae !i++eences? then
com/le7 mati7 o/eations 9&hich ae /ocesso intensi*e: can ,e "se! to !etemine
&hee the eo lies an! it can ,e coecte!. I+ no sol"tion can ,e +o"n!? then moe
eos than can ,e coecte! ha*e occ"e!

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1.* Interlea$ing
Signals ta*eling tho"gh a mo,ile comm"nication channel ae s"sce/ti,le to +a!ing .
The eoDcoecting co!es ae !esigne! to com,at eos es"lting +om +a!es an!?
at the same time? 'ee/ the signal /o&e at a easona,le le*el. Most eoDcoecting
co!es /e+om &ell in coecting an!om eos. Fo&e*e? !"ing /eio!s o+ !ee/
+a!es? long steams o+ s"ccessi*e o ,"st eos may en!e the eoDcoecting
+"nction "seless. Intelea*ing is a techni1"e +o an!omiGing the ,its in a message
steam so that ,"st eos into!"ce! ,y the channel can ,e con*ete! to an!om
eos. In 0ig"e ? &e &ant to sen! the message 2A$. H5= S=$. TFAT TF.H A$.
C5MI4% T5 M=4CF WITF =S3 o*e a +a!ing channel. 5ne &ay to intelea*e the
message is to loa! it into a mati7 o+ +o" o&s an! ten col"mns. We t"ncate the
message into +o" /ats an! loa! them into the +o" o&s. Then &e ea! the message
o"t +om the to/? col"mn ,y col"mn. The es"lting an!omiGe! message is sent
tho"gh the channel.The channel into!"ces se*eal ,"st eos into the message.
As a es"lt, the "n!eline! al/ha,ets ae ecei*e! in eo. At the ecei*ing en!? a
!eintelea*e econst"cts the message "sing the same mati7? e7ce/t in this case
the !eintelea*e loa!s the ecei*e! message into col"mns +ist? then ea!s the
message o"t +om the o&s. As &e can see? the ,"st eos ae in!ee! con*ete! to
scattee! an!om eos.
0o e7am/le in %SM systems? Intelea*ing is "se! to se/aate consec"ti*e ,its o+ a
message so that these ae tansmitte! in a nonDcosec"ti*e &ay. .ach 2< ms o+
s/each gi*es 456 ,its o+ in+omation . These ae !i*i!e! in 8 ,loc's o+ 57 ,its each
an! tansmitte! in 4 ,"sts ? 2 ,loc's in each ,"st . To e!"ce the /o,a,ility o+
losing in+omation ? the 57 ,it ,loc's ae tansmitte! in 8 ,"sts . So each ,"st
contains ,loc's +om !i++eent s/eech segments .

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43
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TM21<6.=<1.%><<<1
+ Cellular 'ystem Architecture
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Inceases in !eman! an! the /oo 1"ality o+ ol! se*ice le! mo,ile se*ice /o*i!es
to eseach &ays to im/o*e the 1"ality o+ se*ice an! to s"//ot moe "ses in thei
systems. -eca"se the amo"nt o+ +e1"ency s/ect"m a*aila,le +o mo,ile cell"la
"se &as limite!? e++icient "se o+ the e1"ie! +e1"encies &as nee!e! +o mo,ile
cell"la co*eage. In mo!en cell"la tele/hony? "al an! ",an egions ae !i*i!e!
into aeas acco!ing to s/eci+ic /o*isioning g"i!elines.
De/loyment /aametes? s"ch as amo"nt o+ cellDs/litting an! cell siGes? ae
!etemine! ,y enginees e7/eience! in cell"la system achitect"e.
45
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#o*isioning +o each egion is /lanne! acco!ing to an engineeing /lan that
incl"!es cells? cl"stes? +e1"ency e"se? an! han!o*es.
#ells
A cell is the ,asic geoga/hic "nit o+ a cell"la system.The tem cell"la comes +om
the honeycom, sha/e o+ the aeas into &hich a co*eage egion is !i*i!e!. Cells ae
,ase stations tansmitting o*e small geoga/hic aeas that ae e/esente! as
he7agons. .ach cell siGe *aies !e/en!ing on the lan!sca/e. -eca"se o+ constaints
im/ose! ,y nat"al teain an! manDma!e st"ct"es? the t"e sha/e o+ cells is not a
/e+ect he7agon.
#lusters
A cl"ste is a go"/ o+ cells in &hich all a*aila,le +e1"encies ha*e ,een "se! once.
4o channels ae e"se! &ithin a cl"ste. 0ig"e ill"states a se*enDcell cl"ste.
$re%uenc& !euse
-eca"se only a small n"m,e o+ a!io channel +e1"encies &ee a*aila,le +o mo,ile
systems? enginees ha! to +in! a &ay to e"se a!io channels in o!e to cay moe
than one con*esation at a time. The sol"tion the in!"sty a!o/te! &as calle!
+e1"ency /lanning o +e1"ency e"se. 0e1"ency e"se &as im/lemente! ,y
est"ct"ing the mo,ile tele/hone system achitect"e into the cell"la conce/t.
The conce/t o+ +e1"ency e"se is ,ase! on assigning to each cell a go"/ o+ a!io
channels "se! &ithin a small geoga/hic aea. Cells ae assigne! a go"/ o+
channels that is com/letely !i++eent +om neigh,oing cells. The co*eage aea o+
cells ae calle! the +oot/int. This +oot/int is limite! ,y a ,o"n!ay so that the same
go"/ o+ channels can ,e "se! in !i++eent cells that ae +a eno"gh a&ay +om each
othe so that thei +e1"encies !o not inte+ee 9see 0ig"e :.Cells &ith the same
n"m,e ha*e the same set o+ +e1"encies. Fee? ,eca"se the n"m,e o+ a*aila,le
+e1"encies is 7? the +e1"ency e"se +acto is 1O7. That is? each cell is "sing 1O7 o+
a*aila,le cell"la channels.
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0ig.12 47
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0ig.13
#ell '(litting
=n+ot"nately? economic consi!eations ma!e the conce/t o+ ceating +"ll systems
&ith many small aeas im/actical. To o*ecome this !i++ic"lty? system o/eatos
!e*elo/e! the i!ea o+ cell s/litting. As a se*ice aea ,ecomes +"ll o+ "ses? this
a//oach is "se! to s/lit a single aea into smalle ones. In this &ay? ",an centes
can ,e s/lit into as many aeas as necessay in o!e to /o*i!e acce/ta,le se*ice
le*els in hea*yDta++ic egions? &hile lage? less e7/ensi*e cells can ,e "se! to co*e
emote "al egions 9see 0ig"e :.
Handoff
The +inal o,stacle in the !e*elo/ment o+ the cell"la net&o' in*ol*e! the /o,lem
ceate! &hen a mo,ile s",sci,e ta*ele! +om one cell to anothe !"ing a call. As
a!Iacent aeas !o not "se the same a!io channels? a call m"st eithe ,e !o//e! o
tans+ee! +om one a!io channel to anothe &hen a "se cosses the line ,et&een
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a!Iacent cells. -eca"se !o//ing the call is "nacce/ta,le? the /ocess o+ han!o++
&as ceate!. Fan!o++ occ"s &hen the mo,ile tele/hone net&o' a"tomatically
tans+es a call +om a!io channel to a!io channel as a mo,ile cosses a!Iacent
cells.
D"ing a call? t&o /aties ae on one *oice channel. When the mo,ile "nit mo*es o"t
o+ the co*eage aea o+ a gi*en cell site? the ece/tion ,ecomes &ea'. At this /oint?
the cell site in "se e1"ests a han!o++. The system s&itches the call to a stonge
+e1"ency channel in a ne& site &itho"t inte"/ting the call o aleting the "se. The
call contin"es as long as the "se is tal'ing? an! the "se !oes not notice the han!o++
at all.
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0ig.14
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0ig.15
51
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0ig.15
The !ensity o+ /o/"lation in a co"nty is so *aie! that !i++eent ty/es o+ cells ae
"se!8
D Macocells
D Micocells
D Selecti*e cells
D =m,ella cells
Macocells
The macocells ae lage cells +o emote an! s/asely /o/"late! aeas.
Micocells
These cells ae "se! +o !ensely /o/"late! aeas. -y s/litting the e7isting aeas into
smalle cells? the n"m,e o+ channels a*aila,le is incease! as &ell as the ca/acity o+
the cells. The /o&e le*el o+ the tansmittes "se! in these cells is then !ecease!?
e!"cing the /ossi,ility o+ inte+eence ,et&een neigh,oing cells.
Selecti*e cells
It is not al&ays "se+"l to !e+ine a cell &ith a +"ll co*eage o+ 36< !egees. In some
cases? cells &ith a /atic"la sha/e an! co*eage ae nee!e!. These cells ae calle!
selecti*e cells.
A ty/ical e7am/le o+ selecti*e cells is the cells that may ,e locate! at the entances
o+ t"nnels &hee co*eage o+ 36< !egees is not nee!e!. In this case? a selecti*e cell
&ith co*eage o+ 12< !egees is "se!.
=m,ella cells
TM21<6.=<1.%><<<1
)&(es of cells
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The Way to CDMA Technology
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A +ee&ay cossing *ey small cells /o!"ces an im/otant n"m,e o+ han!o*es
among the !i++eent small neigh,oing cells. In o!e to sol*e this /o,lem? the
conce/t o+ "m,ella cells is into!"ce!. An "m,ella cell co*es se*eal micocells.
The /o&e le*el insi!e an "m,ella cell is incease! com/aing to the /o&e le*els
"se! in the micocells that +om the "m,ella cell. When the s/ee! o+ the mo,ile is
too high? the mo,ile is han!e! o++ to the "m,ella cell. The mo,ile &ill then stay
longe in the same cell 9in this case the "m,ella cell:. This &ill e!"ce the n"m,e o+
han!o*es an! the &o' o+ the net&o' .A too im/otant n"m,e o+ han!o*e
!eman!s an! the /o/agation chaacteistics o+ a mo,ile can hel/ to !etect its high
s/ee!.
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The Way to CDMA Technology
e 7 i s t i n g c e l l s
1 R $ R 2 ' m
m i c o c e l l s
$ R 3 < < m
0ig.16
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) Cellular 'ystem Com(onents
57
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The cell"la system o++es mo,ile an! /ota,le tele/hone stations the same se*ice
/o*i!e! +i7e! stations o*e con*entional &ie! loo/s. It has the ca/acity to se*e
tens o+ tho"san!s o+ s",sci,es in a maIo meto/olitan aea. The cell"la
comm"nications system consists o+ the +ollo&ing +o" maIo com/onents that &o'
togethe to /o*i!e mo,ile se*ice to s",sci,es 9see 0ig"e:8D
1. #",lic s&itche! tele/hone net&o' 9#ST4:
2. Mo,ile tele/hone s&itching o++ice 9MTS5:
3. Cell site &ith antenna system
4. Mo,ile Station 9MS:
*')+
The #ST4 is ma!e "/ o+ local net&o's? the e7change aea net&o's? an! the longD
ha"l net&o' that inteconnect tele/hones an! othe comm"nication !e*ices on a
&ol!&i!e ,asis.
,o-ile )ele(.one 'witc.ing /ffice 0,)'/1
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The MTS5 is the cental o++ice +o mo,ile s&itching. It ho"ses the mo,ile s&itching
cente 9MSC:? +iel! monitoing an! elay stations +o s&itching calls +om cell sites to
&ieline cental o++ices 9#ST4:. In analog cell"la net&o's? the MSC contols the
system o/eation. The MSC contols calls? tac's ,illing in+omation? an! locates
cell"la s",sci,es.
).e #ell 'ite
The tem cell site is "se! to e+e to the /hysical location o+ a!io e1"i/ment that
/o*i!es co*eage &ithin a cell. A list o+ ha!&ae locate! at a cell site incl"!es /o&e
so"ces? inte+ace e1"i/ment? a!io +e1"ency tansmittes an! ecei*es? an!
antenna systems. 59
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The Way to CDMA Technology
,o-ile 'tation 0,'1
The mo,ile s",sci,e "nit consists o+ a contol "nit an! a tanscei*e that tansmits
an! ecei*es a!io tansmissions to an! +om a cell site. Thee ty/es o+ MS=s ae
a*aila,le8
1. The mo,ile tele/hone 9ty/ical tansmit /o&e is 4.< &atts:
2. The /ota,le 9ty/ical tansmit /o&e is <.6 &atts:
3. The tans/ota,le 9ty/ical tansmit /o&e is 1.6 &atts:
The mo,ile tele/hone is installe! in the t"n' o+ a ca? an! the han!set is installe! in
a con*enient location to the !i*e. #ota,le an! tans/ota,le tele/hones ae han!
hel! an! can ,e "se! any&hee. The "se o+ /ota,le an! tans/ota,le tele/hones is
limite! to the chage li+e o+ the intenal ,attey.
0ig.17
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1., Digital 'ystems
As !eman! +o mo,ile tele/hone se*ice has incease!? se*ice /o*i!es +o"n! that
,asic engineeing ass"m/tions ,oo&e! +om &ieline 9lan!line: net&o's !i! not
hol! t"e in mo,ile systems. While the a*eage lan!line /hone call lasts at least ten
min"tes? mo,ile calls "s"ally "n ninety secon!s. .nginees &ho e7/ecte! to assign
+i+ty o moe mo,ile /hones to the same a!io channel +o"n! that ,y !oing so they
incease! the /o,a,ility that a "se &o"l! not get !ial toneSthis is 'no&n as callD
,loc'ing /o,a,ility. As a conse1"ence? the ealy systems 1"ic'ly ,ecame sat"ate!?
an! the 1"ality o+ se*ice !ecease! a/i!ly.
The citical /o,lem &as ca/acity. The geneal chaacteistics o+ TDMA? %SM?
#CS1;<<? an! CDMA /omise to signi+icantly incease the e++iciency o+ cell"la
tele/hone systems to allo& a geate n"m,e o+ sim"ltaneo"s con*esations.
0ig"e ; sho&s the com/onents o+ a ty/ical !igital cell"la system.
The a!*antages o+ !igital cell"la technologies o*e analog cell"la net&o's incl"!e
incease! ca/acity an! sec"ity. Technology o/tions s"ch as TDMA an! CDMA o++e
moe channels in the same analog cell"la ,an!&i!th an! ency/te! *oice an! !ata.
-eca"se o+ the enomo"s amo"nt o+ money that se*ice /o*i!es ha*e in*este! in
AM#S ha!&ae an! so+t&ae? /o*i!es loo' +o a migation +om AM#S to DAM#S
,y o*elaying thei e7isting net&o's &ith TDMA achitect"es.
.7ten!e! Time Di*ision M"lti/le Access 9.ATDMA:
The e7ten!e! TDMA 9.ATDMA: stan!a! claims a ca/acity o+ +i+teen times that o+
analog cell"la systems. This ca/acity is achie*e! ,y com/essing 1"iet time !"ing
con*esations. .ATDMA !i*i!es the +inite n"m,e o+ cell"la +e1"encies into moe
time slots than TDMA. This allo&s the system to s"//ot moe sim"ltaneo"s cell"la
calls.
#esonal Comm"nications Se*ices 9#CS:
The +"t"e o+ telecomm"nications incl"!es /esonal comm"nications se*ices.
#CS at 1;<< MFG 9#CS1;<<: is the 4oth Ameican im/lementation o+ DCS18<<
9%lo,al System +o Mo,ile comm"nications? o %SM:. Tial net&o's &ee o/eational
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in the =nite! States ,y 1;;3? an! in 1;;4 the 0e!eal Comm"nications Commission
90CC: ,egan s/ect"m a"ctions. As o+ 1;;5? the 0CC a"ctione! commecial
licenses. In the #CS +e1"ency s/ect"m the o/eatoKs a"thoiGe! +e1"ency ,loc'
contains a !e+inite n"m,e o+ channels.
The +e1"ency /lan assigns s/eci+ic channels to s/eci+ic cells? +ollo&ing a e"se
/atten &hich estats &ith each nth cell. The "/lin' an! !o&nlin' ,an!s ae /aie!
mio images. As &ith AM#S? a channel n"m,e im/lies one "/lin' an! one !o&nlin'
+e1"ency8 e.g.? Channel 512 T 185<.2 MFG "/lin' /aie! &ith 1;3<.2 MFG !o&nlin'.
63
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0ig.18
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The Way to CDMA Technology
Siemens
1.- Multi(le Access 'ystems
Wieless telecomm"nications has !amaticall incease in /o/"laity? es"lting in the
nee! +o technologies that allo& m"lti/le "ses to shae the same s/ect"m? calle!
M"lti/le Access techni1"es.
Met@s ta'e a close loo' at the !i++eences ,et&een the maIo cell"la technologies in
"se to!ay.
0DMA? TDMA an! CDMA ae the thee maIo technologies a*aila,le? along &ith
*aiations o+ each.
65
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All thee technologies ha*e one goal in common that is the most im/otant conce/t to
any cell"la tele/hone systems &hich is 2M"lti/le Access3? meaning that m"lti/le?
sim"ltaneo"s "ses can ,e s"//ote!. In othe &o!s? a lage n"m,e o+ "ses shae
a common /ool o+ a!io channels. The 2MA3 in each technology stan!s +o 2M"lti/le
Access3 &hich is a !i+inition o+ ho& the a!io s/ect"m is !i*i!e! into channels an!
ho& channels ae allocate! to the many "ses o+ the system.
The technologies !i++e signi+icantly in the manne ,y &hich they accom/lish this
shaing.
1.-.1 .re/uency Di$ision Multi(le Access 0.DMA1
0DMA is "se! +o stan!a! analog cell"la. .ach "se is assigne! a !iscete ,an! o+
the $0 s/ect"m.The *oice signal o+ each "se is mo!"late! on a se/aate channel
+e1"ency? &hich is assigne! 1<<J o+ the time to that "se.
The ta!itional analog cell"la systems? s"ch as those ,ase! on the A!*ance! Mo,ile
#hone Se*ice 9AM#S: an! Total Access Comm"nications System 9TACS:
stan!a!s? "se 0e1"ency Di*ision M"lti/le Access 90DMA:. 0DMA channels ae
!e+ine! ,y a ange o+ a!io +e1"encies? "s"ally e7/esse! in a n"m,e o+ 'ilohetG
9'FG:? o"t o+ the a!io s/ect"m.
0o e7am/le? AM#S systems "se 3< 'FG CslicesC o+ s/ect"m +o each channel.
4ao&,an! AM#S 94AM#S: e1"ies only 1< 'FG /e channel. TACS channels ae
25 'FG &i!e. With 0DMA? only one s",sci,e at a time is assigne! to a channel. 4o
othe con*esations can access this channel "ntil the s",sci,eKs call is +inishe!? o
"ntil that oiginal call is han!e! o++ to a !i++eent channel ,y the system. In o!e to
o*ecome this ine++iciency? !igital access technologies &ee into!"ce!.
0DMA e1"ies 45 system timing.
0DMA e1"ies 45 timing acc"acy.
0DMA A,ase! Analog system geneally consi!ee! as a lo& ca/acity system.
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0ig.1;
+ort. American Analog #ellular '&stems
5iginally !e*ise! in the late 1;7<s to ealy 1;8<s? analog systems ha*e ,een
e*ise! some&hat since that time an! o/eate in the 8<<DMFG ange. A go"/ o+
go*enment? telco? an! e1"i/ment man"+act"es &o'e! togethe as a committee to
!e*elo/ a set o+ "les 9/otocols: that go*en ho& cell"la s",sci,e "nits 9mo,iles:
comm"nicate &ith the Ccell"la system.C System !e*elo/ment ta'es into
consi!eation many !i++eent? an! o+ten o//osing? e1"iements +o the system? an!
o+ten a com/omise ,et&een con+licting e1"iements es"lts. Cell"la !e*elo/ment
in*ol*es some ,asic to/ics8
1. 0e1"ency an! channel assignments
2. Ty/e o+ a!io mo!"lation
3. Ma7im"m /o&e le*els
4. Mo!"lation /aametes
5. Messaging /otocols
6. CallD/ocessing se1"ences
The A!*ance! Mo,ile #hone Se*ice 9AM#S:
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AM#S &as elease! in 1;83 "sing the 8<<DMFG to ;<<DMFG +e1"ency ,an! an! the
3< 'FG ,an!&i!th +o each channel as a +"lly a"tomate! mo,ile tele/hone se*ice. It
&as the +ist stan!a!iGe! cell"la se*ice in the &ol! an! is c"ently the most
&i!ely "se! stan!a! +o cell"la comm"nications. Designe! +o "se in cities? AM#S
late e7/an!e! to "al aeas. It ma7imiGe! the cell"la conce/t o+ +e1"ency e"se ,y
e!"cing a!io /o&e o"t/"t. The AM#S tele/hones 9o han!sets: ha*e the +amilia
tele/honeDstyle "se inte+ace an! ae com/ati,le &ith any AM#S ,ase station. This
ma'es mo,ility ,et&een se*ice /o*i!es 9oaming: sim/le +o s",sci,es.
Mimitations associate! &ith AM#S incl"!e8
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1. Mo& calling ca/acity
2. Mimite! s/ect"m
3. 4o oom +o s/ect"m go&th
4. #oo !ata comm"nications
5. Minimal /i*acy
6. Ina!e1"ate +a"! /otection
AM#S is "se! tho"gho"t the &ol! an! is /atic"laly /o/"la in the =nite! States?
So"th Ameica? China? an! A"stalia. AM#S "ses +e1"ency mo!"lation 90M: +o
a!io tansmission. In the =nite! States? tansmissions +om mo,ile to cell site "se
se/aate +e1"encies +om the ,ase station to the mo,ile s",sci,e.
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Narrowband Analog Mobile Phone Service
(NAMPS)
Since analog cell"la &as !e*elo/e!? systems ha*e ,een im/lemente! e7tensi*ely
tho"gho"t the &ol! as +istDgeneation cell"la technology. In the secon! geneation
o+ analog cell"la systems? 4AM#S &as !esigne! to sol*e the /o,lem o+ lo& calling
ca/acity. 4AM#S is no& o/eational in 35 =.S. an! o*eseas ma'ets an! 4AM#S
&as into!"ce! as an inteim sol"tion to ca/acity /o,lems.
4AM#S is a =.S. cell"la a!io system that com,ines e7isting *oice /ocessing &ith
!igital signaling? ti/ling the ca/acity o+ to!ayKs AM#S systems. The 4AM#S conce/t
"ses +e1"ency !i*ision to get thee channels in the AM#S 3<D'FG single channel
,an!&i!th. 4AM#S /o*i!es thee "ses in an AM#S channel ,y !i*i!ing the 3<D'FG
AM#S ,an!&i!th into thee 1<D'FG channels. This inceases the /ossi,ility o+
inte+eence ,eca"se channel ,an!&i!th is e!"ce!.
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1.-.2 Time Di$ision Multi(le Access 0TDMA1
The 'ey /oint to ma'e a,o"t TDMA is that "ses ae still assigne! a !iscete slice o+
$0 s/ect"m? ,"t m"lti/le "ses no& shae that $0 channel on a time slot ,asis.
.ach o+ the "ses altenate thei "se o+ the $0 channel . 0e1"ency Di*ision is still
"se!? ,"t these caies ae no& +"the s",!i*i!e! into some n"m,e o+ time slots
,e caie.
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A "se is assigne! a /atic"la time slot in a caie an! can only sen! o ecei*e
in+omation at those times. This is t"e &ethe o not the othe time slots ae ,eing
"se!. In+omation +lo& is not contin"o"s +o any "se? ,"t athe is sent an! ecei*e!
in L,"sts2 . The ,"sets ae eDassem,le! at the ecei*ing en! ? an! a//ea to
/o*i!e contin"o"s so"n! ,eca"se the /ocess is *ey +ast.
TDMA !igital stan!a!s incl"!e 4oth Ameican Digital Cell"la 9'no&n ,y its
stan!a! n"m,e ISD54:? %lo,al System +o Mo,ile Comm"nications 9%SM:? an!
#esonal Digital Cell"la 9#DC:.
0o e7am/le? ISD54 ,ase! TDMA system? a 3< 'FG channel is !i*i!e! into 6 time
slots each &ith 3< 'FG ,an! mo!"late! signal. Altho"gh thee ae 6 time slots? each
"se nee!s 2 time slots? so thee ae a total o+ 3 "ses /e 3< 'FG channel. This is
thee times moe e++icient than AM#S
#DC !i*i!es 25 'FG slices o+ s/ect"m into thee channels.
%SM system "ses ,oth 0DMA an! TDMA o/eates &ith a 2<< 6hG ,an!&i!th?
!i*i!e! into 8 timeslots? &hee each "se is assigne! a single timeslot? th"s allo&ing
8 "ses /e channel +e1"ency.
TDMA e1"ies timing synchoniGation so that "ses only tansmit !"ing thei
assigne! time slot. In o!e to !o that? all "ses m"st ha*e a common? elati*ely
acc"ate? time e+eence. TDMA ty/ically ac1"ies its timing +om a cloc' associate!
&ith the T1 o .1 s/an line &hich connects the cell to the system.
TDMA e1"ies millisecon! acc"acy.
%SM an! TDMA ae a,o"t 3 times moe s/ectal e++icient than analog.
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0ig.1;
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1.-.2.1 The G'M networ
The %SM technical s/eci+ications !e+ine the !i++eent entities that +om the %SM
net&o' ,y !e+ining thei +"nctions an! inte+ace e1"iements.
The %SM net&o' can ,e !i*i!e! into +o" main /ats8
The Mo,ile Station 9MS:.
The -ase Station S",system 9-SS:.
The 4et&o' an! S&itching S",system 94SS:.
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The 5/eation an! S"//ot S",system 95SS:.
The achitect"e o+ the %SM net&o' is /esente! in +ig"e
Mo,ile Station MS
A Mo,ile Station consists o+ t&o main elements8
The mo,ile e1"i/ment o teminal.
The S",sci,e I!entity Mo!"le 9SIM: .
The Mo,ile .1"i/ment Teminal
Thee ae !i++eent ty/es o+ teminals !isting"ishe! /inci/ally ,y thei /o&e an!
a//lication8 The U+i7e!K teminals ae the ones installe! in cas. Thei ma7im"m
allo&e! o"t/"t /o&e is 2< W.The %SM /ota,le teminals can also ,e installe! in
*ehicles. Thei ma7im"m allo&e! o"t/"t /o&e is 8W.
The han!hels teminals ha*e e7/eience! the ,iggest s"ccess than's to thei &eight
an! *ol"me? &hich ae contin"o"sly !eceasing. These teminals can emit "/ to 2 W.
The e*ol"tion o+ technologies allo&s !eceasing the ma7im"m allo&e! /o&e to <.8
W.
The SIM 9S",sci,e I!entity Mo!"le:
The SIM is a smat ca! that i!enti+ies the teminal. -y inseting the SIM ca! into the
teminal? the "se can ha*e access to all the s",sci,e! se*ices. Witho"t the SIM
ca!? the teminal is not o/eational. The SIM ca! is /otecte! ,y a +o"D!igit
#esonal I!enti+ication 4"m,e 9#I4:. In o!e to i!enti+y the s",sci,e to the
system? the SIM ca! contains some /aametes o+ the "se s"ch as its Intenational
Mo,ile S",sci,e I!entity 9IMSI:.
Anothe a!*antage o+ the SIM ca! is the mo,ility o+ the "ses. In +act? the only
element that /esonaliGes a teminal is the SIM ca!. Thee+oe? the "se can ha*e
access to its s",sci,e! se*ices in any teminal "sing its SIM ca!.
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0ig.2<
).e Base 'tation 'u-s&stem
The -SS connects the Mo,ile Station an! the 4SS. It is in chage o+ the tansmission
an! ece/tion. The -SS can ,e !i*i!e! into t&o /ats8
The -ase Tanscei*e Station 9-TS: o -ase Station.
The -ase Station Contolle 9-SC:.
The -ase Tanscei*e Station8 D
The -TS coes/on!s to the tanscei*es an! antennas "se! in each cell o+ the
net&o'. A -TS is "s"ally /lace! in the cente o+ a cell. Its tansmitting /o&e !e+ines
the siGe o+ a cell. .ach -TS has ,et&een one an! si7teen tanscei*es !e/en!ing on
the !ensity o+ "ses in the cell.
The -ase Station Contolle8 D
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Siemens
The -SC contols a go"/ o+ -TS an! manages thei a!io esso"ces. A -SC is
/inci/ally in chage o+ han!o*es? +e1"ency ho//ing? e7change +"nctions an!
contol o+ the a!io +e1"ency /o&e le*els o+ the -TSs.
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0ig.21

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).e +etwor2 and 'witc.ing 'u-s&stem
Its main ole is to manage the comm"nications ,et&een the mo,ile "ses an! othe
"ses? s"ch as mo,ile "ses? ISD4 "ses? +i7e! tele/hony "ses? etc. It also incl"!es
!ata ,ases nee!e! in o!e to stoe in+omation a,o"t the s",sci,es an! to
manage thei mo,ility. The !i++eent com/onents o+ the 4SS ae !esci,e! ,elo&.
The Mo,ile se*ices S&itching Cente 9MSC:
It is the cental com/onent o+ the 4SS. The MSC /e+oms the s&itching +"nctions o+
the net&o'. It also /o*i!es connection to othe net&o's.
Fome Mocation $egiste 9FM$:
The FM$ is consi!ee! as a *ey im/otant !ata,ase that stoes in+omation o+ the
s"sci,es ,elonging to the co*eing aea o+ a MSC. It also stoes the c"ent location
o+ these s",sci,es an! the se*ices to &hich they ha*e access. The location o+ the
s",sci,e coes/on!s to the SS7 a!!ess o+ the Visito Mocation $egiste 9VM$:
associate! to the teminal.
Visito Mocation $egiste 9VM$:
The VM$ contains in+omation +om a s",sci,eKs FM$ necessay in o!e to /o*i!e
the s",sci,e! se*ices to *isiting "ses. When a s",sci,e entes the co*eing aea
o+ a ne& MSC? the VM$ associate! to this MSC &ill e1"est in+omation a,o"t the
ne& s",sci,e to its coes/on!ing FM$. The VM$ &ill then ha*e eno"gh in+omation
in o!e to ass"e the s",sci,e! se*ices &itho"t nee!ing to as' the FM$ each time
a comm"nication is esta,lishe!. The VM$ is al&ays im/lemente! togethe &ith a
MSCB so the aea "n!e contol o+ the MSC is also the aea "n!e contol o+ the VM$.
The A"thentication Cente 9A"C:
The A"C egiste is "se! +o sec"ity /"/oses. It /o*i!es the /aametes nee!e! +o
a"thentication an! ency/tion +"nctions. These /aametes hel/ to *ei+y the "seKs
i!entity.
The .1"i/ment I!entity $egiste 9.I$:
The .I$ is also "se! +o sec"ity /"/oses. It is a egiste containing in+omation
a,o"t the mo,ile e1"i/ments. Moe /atic"laly? it contains a list o+ all *ali! teminals.
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A teminal is i!enti+ie! ,y its Intenational Mo,ile .1"i/ment I!entity 9IM.I:. The .I$
allo&s then to +o,i! calls +om stolen o "na"thoiGe! teminals 9e.g? a teminal &hich
!oes not es/ect the s/eci+ications concening the o"t/"t $0 /o&e:.
The 5/eation an! S"//ot S",system 95SS:
The 5SS is connecte! to the !i++eent com/onents o+ the 4SS an! to the -SC? in
o!e to contol an! monito the %SM system. It is also in chage o+ contolling the
ta++ic loa! o+ the -SS. Fo&e*e? the inceasing n"m,e o+ ,ase stations? !"e to the
!e*elo/ment o+ cell"la a!io net&o's? has /o*o'e! that some o+ the maintenance
tas's ae tans+ee! to the -TS. This tans+e !eceases consi!ea,ly the costs o+ the
maintenance o+ the system. 87
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1.-." Code Di$ision Multi(le Access 0CDMA1
The thi! maIo m"lti/le access technology? &hich is also !igital? is Co!e Di*ision
M"lti/le Access 2CDMA3.
CDMA is a geneal categoy o+ !igital &ieless a!io technologies that "ses s/ea!
s/ect"m techni1"es to mo!"late in+omation acoss gi*en ,an!&i!th.
ISD;5 &as an inteim stan!a! that !e+ine! the o/eation o+ the +ist a//lication o+
CDMA.
In CDMA? in+omation signals +om all "ses ae sim"ltaneo"sly mo!"late! acoss the
entie channel ,an! &i!th 91.23 MhG:.
=ni1"e !igital co!es 'ee/ "ses se/aate! on the 1.23 MhG channel.
All the thee3 MA3 technologies ta'e a!*antage o+ the +act that a!io signals ta*el
only a +inite !istance. The es"lt is that +e1"encies can ,e e"se! &ith minimal
inte+eence a+te a minim"m !istance. The es"lting assignment o+ +e1"encies is
e+ee! to 2e"se /atten.3
CDMA !oesn@t e1"ie +e1"ency e"se /atten i.e. e*ey co!e can ,e "se! in e*ey
secto o+ e*ey cellB this is one o+ the most signi+icant a!*antages o+ CDMA as
+e1"ency e"se /lanning is *ey com/le7.
In CDMA? timing is citical an! a1"ie! +om the %lo,al #ositioning system3%#S3 as
acc"ate synchoniGation ,et&een cells is citical to CDMA o/eation.
CDMA also e1"ies micosecon! acc"acy.
The maIo a!*antage o+ CDMA &hen com/ae! to the othe technologies is its
e++icient "se o+ a*aila,le s/ect"m? as ,an!&i!th e++iciecy !iectly to system ca/acity.
The geate the e++iciency? the moe "ses can shae the same s/ect"m? ,"t it also
can im/act the amo"nt o+ in+ast"ct"e e1"i/ment e1"ie! to s"//ot a gi*en
n"m,e o+ "ses. This in!iectly im/acts the cost o+ o/eation.
CDMA is a +om o+ s/ea!Ds/ect"m? a +amily o+ !igital comm"nications techni1"es
that ha*e ,een "se! in militay a//lications +o yeas. 5iginally thee &ee t&o
moti*ations +o "sing CDMA8 eithe to esist enemy e++ots to Iam the
comm"nications? o to hi!e the +act that comm"nication &as e*en ta'ing /lace. The
"se o+ CDMA +o ci*ilian mo,ile a!io a//lications &as /o/ose! 4< yeas ago? ,"t
!i! not ta'e /lace till ecently.
In Mach 1;;2? the Telecomm"nications In!"sty Association 9TIA: esta,lishe! the
T$D45.5 s",committee &ith the chate o+ !e*elo/ing a s/ea!Ds/ect"m !igital
cell"la stan!a!. In the E"ly o+ 1;;3? the TIA ga*e its a//o*al to the CDMA ISD;5
stan!a!.
In ecent times? CDMA has gaine! &i!es/ea! intenational acce/tance ,y cell"la
a!io system o/eatos as an "/ga!e that &ill incease ,oth thei system ca/acity
an! the se*ice 1"ality.
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0ig.22
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1.2 Du(le3 Transmission4 .DD ! TDD
T&o !"/le7 metho!s ae "se! +o coo!inating the "/lin' 9=M: an! !o&nlin' 9DM:
com/onents o+ a tansmission ,et&een a ,ase station an! a mo,ile station? namely
0e1"ency Di*ision D"/le7 90DD: an! Time Di*ision D"/le7 9TDD:.
=M an! DM ae im/lemente! +o 0DD in !i++eent +e1"ency ,an!s. The ga/ ,et&een
the t&o +e1"ency ,an!s +o =M an! DM is 'no&n as the !"/le7 !istance. It is
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constant +o all mo,ile stations in a stan!a!. %eneally the DM +e1"ency ,an! is
/ositione! at the highe +e1"ency than the =M ,an!.
In the case o+ TDD? =M an! DM ae im/lemente! in the same +e1"ency ,an!. This is
!one ,y !i*i!ing the ,an! into timeslots 9TS: an! +ames. A +ame contains a s/eci+ic
n"m,e? n? o+ timeslots? TS. A n"m,e? n? o+ these timeslots is ese*e! +o =M
tansmission 9hal+ o+ the timeslots in 2% systems: an! the emaining +o DM
tansmission. The !"ation o+ a +ame !etemines the cyclical e/etition o+ the
coes/on!ing =M O DM tansmission. The =M an! DM tansmission occ"s almost
sim"ltaneo"sly A i.e.? the !"ation o+ a +ame is geneally in the ange o+ a n"m,e o+
ms. TDD tansmission is mainly "se! as o+ the 2n! mo,ile comm"nications
geneation 9in !igital tansmissions:. Digital tansmission sim/li+ies s/eech an! !ata
com/ession.
As a es"lt? only a +action o+ the time nee!e! +o analog tansmission is e1"ie! +o
!igital tansmission o+ s",sci,e !ata.
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0ig.23

0ig.24
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TM21<6.=<1.%><<<1
* Data Transmission
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5ne o+ the /o,lems o+ !ata tansmission "sing %SM is /ose! ,y the c"ent
com/aati*ely "seD"n+ien!ly "sage o+ !ata se*ices in the teminals 9e.g. SMS: o
the com/licate! connection o+ teminal e1"i/ment *ia a!a/te.
Teminal e1"i/ment in &hich !i++eent +"nctions ae integate!? as &ell as !is/lays
o/timiGe! +o each in!i*i!"al !ata tansmission +om /o*i!e an ans&e to this.
A !ecisi*e /o,lem is /ose! ,y the com/aati*ely lo& !ata tansmission ates o+
%SM #hase 1 an! 2. Data tansmission ates o+ <.3 D;.6 ',itOs com/ae! to 64 ',itOs
"sing ISD4 ae consi!ea,ly too lo&.
To incease the !ata tansmission ates? ne& ,eae se*ices ae ,eing !e*elo/e! in
%SM #hase 2W? &hich &ill a!a/t the !ata tansmission ates to the ISD4
tansmission ates in *aio"s "sage aeas o e*en? ,e consi!ea,ly a,o*e them.
> Figh S/ee! Cic"it S&itche! Data FSCSD
> %eneal #ac'et $a!io Se*ice %#$S
> .nhance! Data ates +o the %SM .*ol"tion .D%.
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0ig.25
In #hases 1 an! 2 %SM allo&s !ata tans+es at ates o+ only <.3 to ;.6 ',itOs. Thee
!i++eent /inci/les ae into!"ce! in %SM #hase 2W +o inceasing the !ata ate8
TM21<6.=<1.%><<<1
3', volution to 4,)'5 6ate )ransmission 7 +etwor2 lements 8 *rotocols
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FSCSD? %#$S an! .D%..
H'#'65 Hig. '(eed #ircuit 'witc.ed 6ata
FSCSD in theoy allo&s "/ to 8 /hysical channels o+ a caie to ,e ,"n!le! togethe
9m"ltilin'ing: to a single s",sci,e. In /actice? ho&e*e? only "/ to 4 channels ae
,"n!le! togethe. The ma7im"m tans+e ate /e /hysical channel &as incease!
+om ;.6 ',itOs to 14.4 ',itOs &ith the into!"ction o+ a ne& co!ec. As a es"lt? "/ to
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57.6 ',itOs can ,e eache! 9o theoetically? 115.2 ',itOs:. FSCSD? li'e con*entional
%SM? only tans+es cic"itDs&itche! 9CD: !ata. 5nly mino mo!i+ications to the %SM
net&o' ae e1"ie! to into!"ce FSCSD.
3*!'5 3eneral *ac2et !adio 'ervices
%#$S also allo&s ,"n!ling 9m"ltilin'ing: o+ "/ to 8 /hysical channels to a s",sci,e.
0o" ne& co!ing metho!s ena,le tans+es at ates o+ ;.<5 O13.4 O 15.6 O 21.4 ',itOs
/e /hysical channel. %#$S into!"ces /ac'etDs&itche! 9#S: !ata tansmission?
&hich allo&s e++icient "se o+ eso"ces an! !iect access to /ac'et !ata net&o's
9#D4:. 4e& net&o' elements an! /otocols ae ,eing into!"ce! that &ill /a*e the
&ay +o =MTS. %#$S is thee+oe o+ maIo im/otance +o la"nching =MTS.
635 n.anced 6ata !ate for t.e 3', volution
.D%. into!"ces a ne& mo!"lation metho! o*e the a!io inte+ace A8#S6 98D#hase
Shi+t 6eying:. In theoy? this allo&s tans+e ates thee times +aste than those +o the
con*entional %SM mo!"lation metho!? %MS6 9%a"ssian Minim"m Shi+t 6eying:. In
this &ay? .D%. inceases the /e+omance o+ %#$S an! FSCSD? an! tansmission
at "/ to 6;.2 ',itOs /e /hysical channel is achie*a,le. A ma7im"m ate o+ 553.6
',itOs is /ossi,le &ith 8 channels m"ltilin'ing.
4)!A 0+15 4,)' )errestrial !adio Access 0+etwor21
0"lly ne& tansmission metho!s 9WCDMA? ATM: ae "se! in =MTS +o the =T$A
a!io access an! the =MTS Teestial $a!io Access 4et&o' 9=T$A4:. 4e&
net&o' elements an! a ne& /otocol achitect"e ae nee!e!. The ma7im"m
tansmission ate *ia the a!io access &ill a//oach 1;2< ',itOs.
Fig.26
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Fig.27
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TM21<6.=<1.%><<<1
, The General Pacet Radio 'ystem
5GPR'6
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The %eneal #ac'et $a!io System 9%#$S: is a ne& se*ice that /o*i!es act"al
/ac'et a!io access +o mo,ile %lo,al System +o Mo,ile Comm"nications 9%SM:
an! timeD!i*ision m"lti/le access 9TDMA: "ses. The main ,ene+its o+ %#$S ae that
it ese*es a!io eso"ces only &hen thee is !ata to sen! an! it e!"ces eliance on
ta!itional cic"itDs&itche! net&o' elements. The incease! +"nctionality o+ %#$S
&ill !ecease the incemental cost to /o*i!e !ata se*ices? an occ"ence that &ill? in
t"n? incease the /enetation o+ !ata se*ices ,et&een cons"me an! ,"siness
"ses. In a!!ition? %#$S &ill allo& im/o*e! 1"ality o+ !ata se*ices as meas"e! in
tems o+ elia,ility? es/onse time? an! +eat"es s"//ote!. The "ni1"e a//lications
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that &ill ,e !e*elo/e! &ith %#$S &ill a//eal to a ,oa! ,ase o+ mo,ile s",sci,es
an! allo& o/eatos to !i++eentiate thei se*ices. These ne& se*ices &ill incease
ca/acity e1"iements on the a!io an! ,aseDstation s",system eso"ces. 5ne
metho! %#$S "ses to alle*iate the ca/acity im/acts is shaing the same a!io
eso"ce among all mo,ile stations in a cell? /o*i!ing e++ecti*e "se o+ the scace
eso"ces. In a!!ition? ne& coe net&o' elements &ill ,e !e/loye! to s"//ot the
high ,"stiness o+ !ata se*ices moe e++iciently. In a!!ition to /o*i!ing ne& se*ices
+o to!ayKs mo,ile "se? %#$S is im/otant as a migation ste/ to&a! thi!D
geneation 93%: net&o's. %#$S &ill allo& net&o' o/eatos to im/lement I#D,ase!
coe achitect"e +o !ata a//lications? &hich &ill contin"e to ,e "se! an! e7/an!e!
"/on +o 3% se*ices +o integate! *oice an! !ata a//lications. In a!!ition? %#$S
&ill /o*e a testing an! !e*elo/ment aea +o ne& se*ices an! a//lications? &hich
&ill also ,e "se! in the !e*elo/ment o+ 3% se*ices.
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1.17Timescales %or GPR'
When a ne& se*ice is into!"ce!? thee ae a n"m,e o+ stages ,e+oe it ,ecomes
esta,lishe!. %#$S se*ice !e*elo/ments &ill incl"!e stan!a!iGation? in+ast"ct"e
!e*elo/ment? net&o' tials? contacts /lace!? net&o' oll o"t? a*aila,ility o+
teminals? a//lication !e*elo/ment? an! so on. These stages +o %#$S ae8
Mi'e the %SM stan!a! itsel+? %#$S &ill ,e into!"ce! in /hases. #hase 1 is
e7/ecte! to ,e a*aila,le commecially in the yea 2<<<O1. #oint to #oint %#$S
9sen!ing in+omation to a single %#$S "se: &ill ,e s"//ote!? ,"t not #oint to
M"lti/oint 9sen!ing the same in+omation to se*eal %#$S "ses at the same time:.
%#$S #hase 2 is not yet +"lly !e+ine!? ,"t is e7/ecte! to s"//ot highe !ata ates
tho"gh the /ossi,le inco/oation o+ techni1"es s"ch as .D%. 9.nhance! Data
ates +o %SM .*ol"tion:? in a!!ition to #ointDtoDM"lti/oint s"//ot.
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Date Milestone
Tho"gho"t
1;;; D 2<<<
4et&o' o/eatos /lace tial an! commecial contacts +o %#$S
in+ast"ct"e.
Inco/oation o+ %#$S in+ast"ct"e into %SM net&o's
S"mme o+
2<<<
0ist tial %#$S se*ices ,ecome a*aila,le. Ty/ical single "se
tho"gh/"t is li'ely to ,e 28 ',/s.
0o e7am/le? TDMo,il is /lanning a %#$S tial at .7/o2<<< in Fano*e
in the S"mme o+ 2<<<
Stat o+ 2<<1
-asic %#$S ca/a,le teminals ,egin to ,e a*aila,le in commecial
1"antities
Tho"gho"t
2<<1
4et&o' o/eatos la"nch %#$S se*ices commecially an! oll o"t
%#$S.
Vetical ma'et an! e7ec"ti*e %#$S ealy a!o/tes ,egin "sing it
eg"laly +o non*oice mo,ile comm"nications
2<<1O2
Ty/ical single "se tho"gh/"t is li'ely to ,e 56 ',/s. 4e& %#$S
s/eci+ic a//lications? highe ,itates? geate net&o' ca/acity sol"tions?
moe ca/a,le teminals ,ecome a*aila,le? +"elling %#$S "sage
2<<2 Ty/ical single "se tho"gh/"t is li'ely to ,e 112 ',/s.
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%#$S #hase 2O .D%. ,egins to emege in /actice
2<<2
%#$S is o"tinely inco/oate! into %SM mo,ile /hones an! has
eache! citical mass in tems o+ "sage. 9This is the e1"i*alent to the
stat"s o+ SMS in 1;;;:
2<<2O3 3%SM ai*es commecially
0ig.2;
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1.11GPR' Architecture
0om a high le*el? %#$S can ,e tho"ght o+ as an o*elay net&o' onto a secon!D
geneation %SM net&o'. This !ata o*elay net&o' /o*i!es /ac'et !ata tans/ot
at ates +om ;.6 to 171 ',/s. A!!itionally? m"lti/le "ses can shae the same aiD
inte+ace eso"ces.
%#$S attem/ts to e"se the e7isting %SM net&o' elements as m"ch as /ossi,le?
,"t in o!e to e++ecti*ely ,"il! a /ac'etD,ase! mo,ile cell"la net&o'? some ne&
net&o' elements? inte+aces? an! /otocols that han!le /ac'et ta++ic ae e1"ie!.
Thee+oe? %#$S e1"ies mo!i+ications to n"meo"s net&o' elements? as
s"mmaiGe! in the ne7t 0ig"e.
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GSM Network
Element
Modification or Upgrade Required for GPRS
Subscriber
Terminal (TE
A totally new subscriber terminal is required to access GPRS
services.
!ese new terminals will be bac"ward com#atible wit! GS$
%or voice calls.
!TS
A so%tware u#grade is required in t!e e&isting base
transceiver site '(S).
!S"
!e base station controller '(S*) will also require a so%tware
u#grade, as well as t!e installation o% a new #iece o%
!ardware called a #ac"et control unit 'P*+). !e P*+ directs
t!e data tra,c to t!e GPRS networ" and can be a se#arate
!ardware element associated wit! t!e (S*.
"ore Network
!e de#loyment o% GPRS requires t!e installation o% new core
networ" elements called t!e Serving GPRS Su##ort -ode
'SGS-) and Gateway GPRS Su##ort -ode 'GGS-).
#atabases
($%R& '%R&
and so on
All t!e databases involved in t!e networ" will require
so%tware u#grades to !andle t!e new call models and
%unctions introduced by GPRS.
(ig)*+
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1.11.1 GPR' Re%erence Architecture
A %#$S teminal can ,e one o+ thee classes8 A? -? o C. A Class A teminal s"//ots
%#$S an! othe %SM se*ices 9s"ch as SMS an! *oice: sim"ltaneo"sly. This
s"//ot incl"!es sim"ltaneo"s attach? acti*ation? monito? an! ta++ic. As s"ch? a
Class A teminal can ma'e o ecei*e calls on t&o se*ices sim"ltaneo"sly. In the
/esence o+ cic"itDs&itche! se*ices? %#$S *it"al cic"its &ill ,e hel! o /lace! on
,"sy athe than ,eing cleae!.
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A Class - teminal can monito %SM an! %#$S channels sim"ltaneo"sly? ,"t can
s"//ot only one o+ these se*ices at a time. Thee+oe? a Class - teminal can
s"//ot sim"ltaneo"s attach? acti*ation? an! monito? ,"t not sim"ltaneo"s ta++ic. As
&ith Class A? the %#$S *it"al cic"its &ill not ,e close! !o&n &hen cic"itDs&itche!
ta++ic is /esent. Instea!? they &ill ,e s&itche! to ,"sy o hel! mo!e. Th"s? "ses
can ma'e o ecei*e calls on eithe a /ac'et o a s&itche! call ty/e se1"entially? ,"t
not sim"ltaneo"sly.
A Class C teminal s"//ots only nonsim"ltaneo"s attach. The "se m"st select
&hich se*ice to connect to. Thee+oe? a Class C teminal can ma'e o ecei*e calls
+om only the man"ally 9o !e+a"lt: selecte! se*ice. The se*ice that is not selecte!
is not eacha,le. 0inally? the %#$S s/eci+ications state that s"//ot o+ SMS is
o/tional +o Class C teminals.
3*!' 'u-scri-er )erminals
4e& teminals 9T.s: ae e1"ie! ,eca"se e7isting %SM /hones !o not han!le the
enhance! ai inte+ace? no !o they ha*e the a,ility to /ac'etiGe ta++ic !iectly. A
*aiety o+ teminals &ill e7ist? as !esci,e! in a /e*io"s section? incl"!ing a highD
s/ee! *esion o+ c"ent /hones to s"//ot highDs/ee! !ata access? a ne& 'in! o+
#DA !e*ice &ith an em,e!!e! %SM /hone? an! #C Ca!s +o la/to/ com/"tes. All
these T.s &ill ,e ,ac'&a! com/ati,le &ith %SM +o ma'ing *oice calls "sing %SM.
3*!' B''
.ach -SC &ill e1"ie the installation o+ one o moe #C=s an! a so+t&ae "/ga!e.
The #C= /o*i!es a /hysical an! logical !ata inte+ace o"t o+ the ,ase station
system 9-SS: +o /ac'et !ata ta++ic. The -TS may also e1"ie a so+t&ae "/ga!e?
,"t ty/ically &ill not e1"ie ha!&ae enhancements.
When eithe *oice o !ata ta++ic is oiginate! at the s",sci,e teminal? it is
tans/ote! o*e the ai inte+ace to the -TS? an! +om the -TS to the -SC in the
same &ay as a stan!a! %SM call. Fo&e*e? at the o"t/"t o+ the -SC the ta++ic is
se/aate!B *oice is sent to the mo,ile s&itching cente 9MSC: /e stan!a! %SM? an!
!ata is sent to a ne& !e*ice calle! the S%S4? *ia the #C= o*e a 0ame $elay
inte+ace.
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0ig.31
3*!' #ore +etwor2
In the coe net&o'? the e7isting MSCs ae ,ase! "/on cic"itDs&itche! centalDo++ice
technology? an! they cannot han!le /ac'et ta++ic. Th"s t&o ne& com/onents? calle!
%#$S S"//ot 4o!es? ae a!!e!8
Se*ing %#$S S"//ot 4o!e 9S%S4:.
%ate&ay %#$S S"//ot 4o!e 9%%S4:.
The S%S4 can ,e *ie&e! as a C/ac'etDs&itche! MSCBC it !eli*es /ac'ets to mo,ile
stations 9MSs: &ithin its se*ice aea. S%S4s sen! 1"eies to home location
egistes 9FM$s: to o,tain /o+ile !ata o+ %#$S s",sci,es. S%S4s !etect ne&
%#$S MSs in a gi*en se*ice aea? /ocess egistation o+ ne& mo,ile s",sci,es?
an! 'ee/ a eco! o+ thei location insi!e a gi*en aea. Thee+oe? the S%S4
/e+oms mo,ility management +"nctions s"ch as mo,ile s",sci,e attachO!etach
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an! location management. The S%S4 is connecte! to the ,aseDstation s",system
*ia a 0ame $elay connection to the #C= in the -SC.
%%S4s ae "se! as inte+aces to e7tenal I# net&o's s"ch as the /",lic Intenet?
othe mo,ile se*ice /o*i!esK %#$S se*ices? o ente/ise intanets. %%S4s
maintain o"ting in+omation that is necessay to t"nnel the /otocol !ata "nits
9#D=s: to the S%S4s that se*ice /atic"la MSs. 5the +"nctions incl"!e net&o'
an! s",sci,e sceening an! a!!ess ma//ing. 5ne 9o moe: %%S4s may ,e
/o*i!e! to s"//ot m"lti/le S%S4s. Moe !etaile! technical !esci/tions o+ the
S%S4 an! %%S4 ae /o*i!e! in a late section.
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0ig. 32
%#$S Mo,ility Management
Mo,ility management &ithin %#$S ,"il!s on the mechanisms "se! in %SM
net&o'sB as a MS mo*es +om one aea to anothe? mo,ility management +"nctions
ae "se! to tac' its location &ithin each mo,ile net&o'. The S%S4s comm"nicate
&ith each othe an! "/!ate the "se location. The MS /o+iles ae /ese*e! in the
*isito location egistes 9VM$s: that ae accessi,le ,y the S%S4s *ia the local %SM
MSC. A logical lin' is esta,lishe! an! maintaine! ,et&een the MS an! the S%S4 in
each mo,ile net&o'. At the en! o+ tansmission o &hen a MS mo*es o"t o+ the aea
o+ a s/eci+ic S%S4? the logical lin' is elease! an! the eso"ces associate! &ith it
can ,e eallocate!.
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1.12 GPR' A((lications
%#$S &ill ena,le a *aiety o+ ne& an! "ni1"e se*ices to the mo,ile &ieless
s",sci,e. These mo,ile a//lications contain se*eal "ni1"e chaacteistics that
enhance the *al"e to the c"stomes. 0ist among them is mo,ilitySthe a,ility to
maintain constant *oice an! !ata comm"nications &hile on the mo*e. Secon! is
imme!iacy? &hich allo&s s",sci,es to o,tain connecti*ity &hen nee!e!? ega!less
o+ location an! &itho"t a lengthy login session. 0inally? localiGation allo&s s",sci,es
to o,tain in+omation ele*ant to thei c"ent location. The com,ination o+ these
chaacteistics /o*i!es a &i!e s/ect"m o+ /ossi,le a//lications that can ,e o++ee!
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to mo,ile s",sci,es. The coe net&o' com/onents o++ee! ,y Cisco ena,le
seamless access to these a//lications? &hethe they esi!e in the se*ice /o*i!eKs
net&o' o the /",lic Intenet.
In geneal? a//lications can ,e se/aate! into t&o highDle*el categoies8 co/oate
an! cons"me. These incl"!e8
#ommunications5 9
.DmailB +a7B "ni+ie! messagingB intanetOIntenet access
:alue9added services 0:A'15 9
In+omation se*icesB games
9commerce5 9
$etailB tic'et /"chasingB ,an'ingB +inancial ta!ing
;ocation9-ased a((lications5 9
4a*igationB ta++ic con!itionsB ailineOail sche!"lesB location +in!e
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