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MUSCLE CONTROL

By MAXICK
A New Edition with forward and amendments
By PAUL !O"BRIEN
www!isometri#$trainin%!#om
Copyright 2005 Paul J.O'Brien
All rights reserved. No part of this oo! "ay e reprodu#ed or trans"itted in any for" or y any
"eans $ithout per"ission y the author.
%his oo! features e&er#ises that progressively sti"ulate and overload the "us#les. Proper $ar" up
of the "us#les' tendons' liga"ents and (oints is "andatory. Although very enefi#ial' e&er#ise has the
potential to #ause in(ury and even death. As su#h Paul J.O)Brien' and Boru *itness' its o$ners agent
affiliates and e"ployee)s are not liel for any in(uries sustained follo$ing this #ourse of e&er#ise.
Al$ays #onsult a physi#ian prior to eginning any e&er#ise progra". +f you feel any strain' dis#o"fort
or pain $hile e&er#ising' stop i""ediately and #onsult your physi#ian.
Foreword
As a "artial artist + spent years studying the "ove"ent of the hu"an ody' trying to find that elusive
alan#e et$een total and #o"plete fluidity and i"penetrale ro#! hard tension. +n "y studies as a fitness
professional' + sear#hed for the s#ientifi# !no$ledge y $hi#h this #ould e "ade possile. *inally in "y studies
of %raditional Chinese ,edi#ine + found the theories and philosophies that have allo$ed "e to find the ans$er.
+n "odern s#ien#e $e have a #on#ept !no$n as +so"etri#s. +so"etri#s is si"ply the #o"plete
#ontra#tion of a "us#le $ithout "oving the angle of the (oint. %his is one of the #hief se#rets to developing
devastating po$er in the "artial arts. +t is e&tre"e strength in stillness that allo$s #o"plete fluidity in "ove"ent.
+ $as often as!ed ho$ + developed su#h strength in su#h a s"all fra"e as "ine and + replied though the "artial
arts $ithout !no$ing ho$ the "artial arts a#hieved this.
As + studied "yology as part of "y studies for e#o"ing a fitness professional + learnt $hy the "artial
arts had #reated su#h strength in "e. +t $as through +so"etri#s. %he deep stan#es of the "artial arts and the full
tension applied after a te#hni-ue $ere responsile for "y strength and tone.
+so"etri#s has een proven to e the single -ui#!est and "ost effe#tive for" of developing strength and
tone in the hu"an ody. %he funny part is very fe$ people train in this "anner. + resear#hed "ore and "ore in
to this fas#inating field only to dis#over that all the great "artial artists and fighters su#h as Bru#e /ee and the
0reat 0a"a' had used #rude variations of +so"etri#s and that this $as responsile for there in#redile po$er.
+ e&peri"ented on developing "y o$n te#hni-ues' studying "y ody and adapting things as + needed
the". + "ade in#redile gains and $as soon ale to out lift friends of "ine in the gy" $ho $ere "u#h igger and
stronger than +. As it stands' + #an leg press over 2'500ls and have the photo)s to prove it. Of #ourse prole"s
arose' + #ouldn)t find any"ore $eight to press against and test "yself upon in any gy".
One day $hile #onsoling "yself through ro$sing in oo!stores' 1+ a" an osessive reader and treat
"yself to uying large a"ounts of oo!s $henever + #an #o"e up $ith a plausile e&#use2 + found a very old
#opy of a oo! $ritten y ,a&i#! and the oo! dealt $ith developing the hu"an ody using only ody$eight
+so"etri#s. + devoured the oo! and applied his prin#ipals and e&er#ises into "y routine and the results $ere
astounding. + egan introdu#ing these te#hni-ues to "y friends and #lients' and they too "ade in#redile gains
in strength and "us#le tone.
+ adapted the te#hni-ues to serve a variety of purposes to losing $eight and toning lean $iry "us#le' to
uilding up "ass and ul!. All you have to do is stop at the level you are #o"fortale $ith and s$it#h to a
"aintenan#e progra".
3is physi-ue $as astounding and as + dis#overed "ore aout his life 1$hi#h + have in#luded in this
edition2 + $as even "ore i"pressed. 4hat follo$s here is ,a&i#! progra" for developing the hu"an ody to
astounding levels of strength and it only ta!es a fe$ "inutes' #o"pletely invigorates the ody' urns in#redile
a"ounts of fat and $ill produ#e a physi-ue unparalleled in today)s so#iety. People $ill a##use of ta!ing fat
urners' protein sha!es' even steroids. %hose $ho are i"pressed $ith your appearan#e $ill e astounded y
your physi#al strength and enduran#e.
But est of all' any one #an follo$ the advi#e and progra" in#luded here' it re-uires no e-uip"ent' only
a fe$ "inutes of your ti"e' and $ill leave you feeling energi5ed and (oyful.
+n the follo$ing pages you $ill find' ,a&i#!)s original training progra". +t re"ains inta#t and unaltered
save for a fe$ a"end"ents + gra""ar and spelling for the sa!e of #larifi#ation. + have painsta!ingly reprodu#ed
the original photos of ,a&i#! and his students to the est of aility.
+t is $ith envy and (ealousy + leave you here' e#ause you are aout to e&perien#e $hat' for "any
people' in#luding "e' despite over fourteen years in the "artial arts and fitness industry' is a uni-ue feeling. +t is
not often that you get to e&perien#e $hat you feel the first ti"e you try this. Cherish it' re#ord it and re"e"er
that you !no$ $hat it is to feel alive in every "us#le of your ody.
3ave a !iller $or!out.
6ours'
Paul J.O'Brien
B.A.' N.C.7.3.8.' 9ip. A#u.' Cert Clin. ,ed. ,.%.C.,.C.+.' ,.C.%h.A.
http:;;$$$. iso"etri# <training .#o"
http:;;$$$.strong<in<=<se#onds.#o"
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 .................................................................................................... 01
Chapter 2 .................................................................................................... 07
Chapter 3 .................................................................................................... 12
Chapter 4 .................................................................................................... 19
Exercise 1 .................................................................................................. 22
Exercise 2 .................................................................................................. 26
Exercise 3 .................................................................................................. 30
Exercise 4 .................................................................................................. 33
Exercise .................................................................................................. 42
Exercise 6 .................................................................................................. 44
Exercise 7 .................................................................................................. 0
Exercise ! .................................................................................................. 6 4
Exercise 9 .................................................................................................. 6!
Exercise 10 ................................................................................................ 72
Exercise 1 1 ................................................................................................. !0
Exercise 12 ................................................................................................. !4
Exercise 13 ................................................................................................. !6
Exercise 14 ................................................................................................. !!
Exercise 1 ................................................................................................. 92
Exercise 16 ................................................................................................. 94
Exercise 17 ............................................................................................... 100
Exercise 1! ............................................................................................... 104
Exercise 19 ............................................................................................... 10!
Exercise 20 ............................................................................................... 116
Exercise 21 ............................................................................................... 122
" ia#ra$s of the %&scles .......................................................................... 124
CHAPTER 1
Myself
' tr&st that ' shall not be acc&sed of lac( of $odest) in be#innin# a boo( with so see$in#l)
e#otistical a chapter*headin#. ' ha+e not the, li#htest intention of blowin# $) own tr&$pet- b&t l feel
certain that $) own personal narrati+e of how experience #rad&all) re+ealed to $e $) $ethod of
exercisin# conscio&s control o+er $) +ol&ntar) $&scles will $a(e far $ore interestin# readin# to the
#eneral p&blic than if ' ,-et $)self down to the didactic co&rse &s&all) p&rs&ed in wor(s of this
description.
' foresee that anato$ical explanations and references will be &na+oidable, b&t ' will endea+or to
deal with the$ as l&cidl) as possible, &r#in# the reader not to pass s&ch passa#es o+er, b&t to st&d)
the$, and, for his own sa(e, to tr) to fix in his $e$or) the na$es and positions of the +ario&s $&scles-
beca&se in practicin# $) $ethods of $&scle*control, one of the $ost i$portant considerations is
concentration of the $ind on the partic&lar $&scles to be bro&#ht into Control.
My Early Years
' a$ a nati+e of ./rtte$ber#, in 0er$an), and was born on 1&ne 2!
th
, 1!!2. 2ein# an onl)
child, $) farther and $other de+oted the$sel+es to $) &pbrin#in#- e+er) care was bestowed &pon $e,
b&t ' was so sic(l) an infant, that despite their &nre$ittin# attention and the efforts of the doctors, the
con#enital wea(ness de+eloped, and ' contracted diseases s&ch as &s&all) spell death to a child of
tender )ears.
E+en before ' had attained the a#e of fi+e, ' s&ffered fro$ l&n# tro&ble that ca$e to be re#arded
as chronic, and, e+ent&all), drops) de+eloped. 3s $a) well be i$a#ined, it was #enerall) conceded
that ' had not lon# to li+e. 4o #ra+e was $) condition, that when ' had reached $) fifth birthda), the
official $edical $an, called in to +accinate $e accordin# to law, ref&sed to do so &ntil he had recei+ed
a certificate fro$ $) fa$il) ph)sician exoneratin# hi$ fro$ all bla$e in the e+ent of $) de$ise.
5accination did not (ill $e- indeed, ' beca$e a little stron#er after reco+er) there fro$, and in a
short ti$e be#an to stand on $) le#s &ns&pported for the first ti$e.
%&scle Control
Attacked by Rickets
2&t $) tro&bles were b) no $eans o+er. %) parents were of exceptionall) s$all stat&re, and '
was so di$in&ti+e for $) a#e, besides bein# far &nder nor$al de+elop$ent, that ' co&ld not attend
school.
3nd then $) #eneral wea(ness $anifested itself in that for$ of disease $ost co$$on to sic(l)
children. ' beca$e ric(et) 6 ric(ets bein# a disease attac(in# the bones. Certain str&ct&ral ano$alies
which ' bear tot eh present da) will afford a$ple testi$on) of the terrible $anner in which ' was
afflicted with the disease.
%) parents were in despair abandonin# what little hope the) had had of rearin# $e. The doctors
were &nani$o&s that e+en with the $ost caref&l n&rt&rin# ' sho&ld ne+er attain $anhood, and that
e+er) )ear of the anticipated short span of life before $e wo&ld b&t be one $ore )ear of increased
s&fferin#.
2&t, so$ehow or other, ' $ana#ed to cheat the doctors, and be#an to reco+er a little in health, so
that at the a#e of se+en ' was able to attend school.
A Weakling Among the Robust
3nd now for the first ti$e it was bro&#ht ho$e to $e how terrible and affliction is ill health. '
had all $) life been ac7&ainted with ph)sical s&fferin#- b&t now ' was bro&#ht into direct contact with
bo)s of $) own a#e, whose ex&berance of spirit and perpet&al so&rce of wonder to $e. Fro$ wonder '
passed to en+) of the$, and with en+) ca$e as sense of h&$iliation.
' thin( that if ' had not been possessed of a fairl) lo#ical $ind ' sho&ld ha+e #one &nder then. '
watched $) co$rades at pla), and was sei8ed with an al$ost fe+erish desire to beco$e as stron# and
health) as the). 2&t than(s to $) te$pera$ent, hopeless as $) case see$ed to be, ' ne+er despaired. '
was too )o&thf&l at the ti$e to de+ise $eans to #ain the co+eted health and stren#th- b&t ' tho&#ht that
b) i$itatin# $) co$rades in so far as ' co&ld, b) eatin# the sa$e (inds of food as the) did, ' $i#ht in
ti$e beco$e as the) were.
2&t to do so was not eas). ' be##ed to be allowed to exercise with wei#hts and d&$b*bells at
ho$e- b&t $) parents did not belie+e in s&ch thin#s for a sic(l) child. ' was (ept on the special diet
prescribed for $e, and told to abandon all tho&#h e+en of #entle exercise.
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2
%&scle Control
;<ne as wea( as )o& o&#ht to do nothin# b&t rest as $&ch as possible,= was the ad$onition
contin&all) dr&$$ed into $) ears.
A Momentous Haening
' was terribl) cha#rined, the $ore so beca&se ' felt con+inced that $) parents were wron#, b&t
there is little do&bt that ' sho&ld ha+e s&b$itted tot heir r&lin# ad not an e+ent occ&rred which had the
effect of alterin# $) whole career, and ' +eritabl) belie+e was the sa+in# of $) life.
' had reached $) tenth birthda), and had i$pro+ed so far that $) health was fairl) nor$al, b&t '
was so &ndersi8ed and $&sc&larl) wea( that ' was ta(en for a bo) of onl) abo&t six to se+en )ears of
a#e. ' was therefore at an a#e to appreciate, with all a bo)>s interest in s&ch thin#s, the co$in# of a
circ&s to o&r little town, especiall) as the $ost i$portant ite$ anno&nced was that a stron# $an wo&ld
appear who wo&ld, besides perfor$in# the &s&al feats of stren#th, s&pport twent)*fi+e ad&lt people on
a plan(.
' cannot describe $) ea#erness to behold this prodi#) of stren#th- ' was nearl) heartbro(en
when $) parents ref&sed to ta(e $e to the circ&s. ' beca$e so deter$ined to witness the stron# $an>s
perfor$ance, that ' sold all $) $ost cherished belon#in#s 6 $ost of the$ at a h&#e sacrifice, ' a$
afraid 6 to $) school$ates, &ntil ' had eno&#h $one) to b&) a tic(et.
' had no e)es for an) other part of the circ&s, b&t waited with i$patience for the ?erc&les to
appear. This show wo&ld not ha+e ca&sed $&ch excite$ent in these record brea(in# da)s- b&t ' was
d&$bfo&nded at his feats, )et he was, if possible, e+en $ore a$a8ed at the $&sc&lar de+elop$ent of
the $an.
' went ho$e, fo&nd a con+enient slab of stone, and started in secret to fashion $)self a d&$b*
bell. ' felt that all ' needed was exercise, and ne+er do&bted that in ti$e ' sho&ld beco$e as stron# as
the $an whose perfor$ance ' had witnessed. %) ea#erness o+erca$e $) discretion- $) father #rew
s&spicio&s of $e, disco+ered what ' was abo&t, and before ' had co$pleted it, s$ashed that cr&de
wei#ht to ato$s.
?is intention was #ood- he had been told b) the doctors that ' $&st not exert $)self in an) wa).
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3
%&scle Control
3nd ' ha+e no do&bt that the s$ashin# of that l&$p of stone was abo&t the best thin# that co&ld
ha+e happened, for ' was as deter$ined as e+er to exercise, and $) in+enti+e fac&lties were now
directed to de+ise $eans whereb) ' co&ld carr) o&t $) resol+e witho&t the &se of apparat&s which
$i#ht betra) $e. 3nd th&s ' was led to disco+er that which ' ha+e now perfected into $) s)ste$ of
Muscle Control
"&rin# the bedridden da)s of infanc) ' had often stretched and contracted $) $&scles, and it
now occ&rred to $e to do this a#ain, b&t in a $ore stren&o&s wa), with certain $echanical $o+e$ents
that wo&ld tire the $&scles.
3t first $) exercises consisted of weird $o+e$ents and contortions prefor$ed e+er) $ornin#
and e+enin# in the secl&sion of $) bedroo$.
3nd it was then that ' be#an to obser+e how b) certain $o+e$ents ' co&ld contract and relax
certain $&scles. 3ss&redl), the best (nown (now of all the $&scles is the biceps, beca&se it is to that
that e+er) bo)s attention is drawn, the si8e of it when contracted bein# held as a s&re indication of a
bo)>s stren#th and prowess. 2&t in tr)in# to affect this $&scle in other $o+e$ents than b) si$pl)
bendin# the ar$, $) attention was drawn to the wa) in which other $&scles of the ar$ and forear$
responded to these $o+e$ents.
@ow, if at the ti$e ' had had so$e little (nowled#e of anato$), of how $&scles are &s&all)
arran#ed in pair which act anta#onisticall) to each other, ' sho&ld, &ndo&btedl), ha+e had re+ealed to
$e the s)ste$ of $&scle control which has bro&#ht $e to $) present al$ost perfect condition of health
and stren#th.
2&t ' (new nothin# )et of muscle-relaxation, which, as ' shall explain later, is as i$portant to
$&scle*control as contraction.
My Health !mro"es
2&t $&sc&lar exercises, e+en as ' prefor$ed the$, had this effect &pon $e- in abo&t a )ear>s
ti$e ' had so i$pro+ed in health and ph)si7&e that ' be#an to hold $) own test of stren#th with $)
school co$rades, 3nd ' re$e$ber how at an earl) a#e of fo&rteen ' carried a sac( of flo&r farther than
an) $an in the town had been able to do. 4&ch fa$e 6 or notoriet), if )o& will 6 did ' ac7&ire b) this
feat, that at the openin# of o&r local athletic cl&b ' was in+ited to beco$e a $e$ber, altho&#h that a#e
li$it of entrants had been fixed at not less than ei#hteen )ears.
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4
%&scle Control
't is tr&e that ' entered as a passi+e $e$ber onl), which $eant that ' was not allowed to handle
the hea+ier wei#hts 6 for the co$$ittee were responsible for accidents to$ $e$bers- b&t it was an
hono&r, ne+ertheless, of which ' was A&stl) pro&d, for ' felt it to be a si#nificant ac(nowled#e$ent of
the res&lts achie+ed b) $) own perse+erance.
4o enco&ra#ed was ' that ' set to wor( to brin# $)self farther alon# the road of i$pro+e$ent b)
$eans of $ore stren&o&s exercises than those which had helped $e so well hitherto.
' proc&red li#ht d&$b*bells- b&t fo&nd that ' $ade no headwa)- that instead of benefitin#, ' felt
tired after exercise. ' re+erted to $) old s)ste$ of $&scle $o+e$ents, bod) contortions, etc- b&t
altho&#h these did not tire $e so $&ch, ' was conscio&s that there was little i$pro+e$ent, where&pon '
too( the d&$bbells a#ain in hand, with res&lts as before.
' was nonpl&ssed and cha#rined, when it dawned &pon $e that ' was &sin# and tirin# $)
$&scles instead of $a(in# the$ stron#er. 3nd then it occ&rred to $e that it is not
W#R$% &'T (#'R!)HME(T
which $a(es $&scles stron#. Exercise of the $&scles, rational exercise, aids the $&scles to obtain
no&rish$ent, b&t as ' obser+ed later, rational exercise $&st be acco$panied b) $ental concentration on
the $&scles to be exercised.
' ret&rned once $ore to $) ori#inal $ethod of exercisin# b&t this ti$e ' set $)self to i$pro+e
it.
Concentration
' had alread) perfected inas$&ch as ' co&ld contract e+er) +ol&ntar) $&scle in $) bod) at will.
2&t it see$ed to $e that the $ore ' contracted, the to&#her the $&scles beca$e and
i$pro+e$ent was chec(ed. Bet, b) the aid of a little (neadin# the $&scles, and b) application of the
(nowled#e ' was now #atherin# fro$ the per&sal of scientific wor(s, which a$on# other thin#s, ta&#ht
$e to &se less effort while exercisin#, ' fo&nd $) de+elop$ent and stren#th increasin#- and this
witho&t the re#&lar &se of wei#hts or d&$bbells.
' was now old eno&#h to lea+e school, and after so$e hesitatin# deri+ed no do&bt fro$ their
earl) fears of $) rearin#, $) parents decided that ' sho&ld enter the en#ineerin# profession- and ' was
accordin#l) apprenticed to a local $an.
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CHAPTER !!
Ho* Muscle control *as Re"ealed to Me
'n the en#ineerin# shops ' had $an) opport&nities of st&d)in# the effect of hard labo&r &pon
certain $&scles.
The s$iths and labo&rers were so$e of the finest $en of nat&ral ph)si7&e that one co&ld wish to
see, and of co&rse, ' expected that the) wo&ld #reatl) exceed $e in stren#th. 2&t it was soon
ac(nowled#ed that, altho&#h ' was b) far the s$allest in stat&re a$on# the )o&th e$plo)ed, ' was the
stron#est.
Bet ' was not satisfied- ' was p&88led to disco+er how it was that b) $eans of $) exercises that
' had #rown stron# so rapidl), b&t that, now pro#ress to f&rther i$pro+e$ent see$ed so slow.
Ho* Mechanical E+ercise may Hinder Muscle,-e"eloment
<ne da) ' was watchin# a Ao&rne)$an filin# $etal. ' fell to wonderin# +a#&el) wh) it was that
his ar$s and deltoid de+elop$ent was so s$all in co$parison with the rest of his bod), (nowin# as '
did, that the $an had wor(ed at the bench for )ears. 4&rel), accordin# to accepted theor), it was A&st
these parts which sho&ld ha+e been the $ore de+eloped considerin# the nat&re of his wor(C
' was so interested in this case, that ' be#an to ta(e caref&l note of other wor($en- and $)
obser+ations at len#th con+inced $e that mechanical exercise will not increase bulk or strength beyond
a certain degree.
' fo&nd o&t later b) experi$ent that $echanical exercise will onl) prod&ce #ood res&lts if
interest is directed tot eh $&scles bein# &sed. 'f the $ind is directed onl) to the wor( bein# prefor$ed,
a certain point of $&sc&lar resistance is reached- b&t not there it stops. To sec&re f&ll benefit fro$ the
exercise, it is essential that the $ind be concentrate on the $&scles, and not on the wor( perfor$ed.
%&scle Control
The Case of the )tonemason
'nstances b) wa) of exa$ple $a) be #i+en b) the h&ndred. Ta(e the case of a stone$ason, who has to
&se a ha$$er or $allet for $an) ho&rs dail), d&rin# which ti$e tho&sands of blows are st&c(, and the
sho&lder and ar$ ha+e to bear the wei#ht, aw well as &se the $allet.
@ow accordin# to the theories en&nciated b) $an) teachers of ph)sical c&lt&re, the #reater the
n&$ber of repetitions prefor$ed of one exercise, the #reater the de+elop$ent of the $&scles e$plo)ed.
2&t here is a flat contradiction of those theories, for it will be obser+ed that the $aAorit) of
stone$asons do not e+ince an)thin# exceptional in the wa) of ar$ or sho&lder $&scle de+elop$ent.
3nd the explanationD
Eerfectl) si$pleC The stone$ason>s $ind is necessaril) concentrated &pon the wor( before hi$,
and he pa)s little or no heed to his $&scles.
.hich leads to another 7&estion:
.o&ld the stone$ason, or an) $an wieldin# a ha$$er for $an) ho&rs a dail), and
concentratin# his attention &pon the $&scles e$plo)ed, de+elop colossal $&scles in conse7&enceD
The answer is in the ne#ati+e- for the reason that then $ind tires in a short ti$e if connected on
an) one partic&lar obAect. 3nd then a li$it is reached. There wo&ld certainl) be exceptional
de+elop$ent of the $&scles &pon which the $ind was concentrated so lon# as there was no increase of
effort in the blows deli+ered.
Muscle Rela+ation
This, as ' ha+e alread) hinted, is the (e) to proper $&scle de+elop$ent. The better to explain
how ' ca$e to disco+er this fact, ' will ret&rn to $) narrati+e.
' had reached the f&ll contraction sta#e, b&t had e+identl), co$e to a standstill.
3nd wh) had ' co$e to a standstillD .h) did $) $&scles ser+e $e to a certain extent and then
fail $eD 't was as if the) str&c( wor(, beca&se ' (new that it was not a 7&estion of exha&stion of
ener#), b&t rather, if ' $a) &se s&ch a ho$el) lan#&a#e, that the $&scles see$ed to ;stic(= 6 there was
hindrance of free pla) so$ewhere.
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7
%&scle Control
3nd there it was that ' learned that while one #ro&p of $&scles is bein# e$plo)ed, other
$&scles are in+ol+ed which, b) their resistance, hinder the free action of the first #ro&p. .hen ' had
#rasped this fact , the idea ca$e to $e that, to allow each $&scle to p&t forth to the &t$ost the ener#)
therein contained, it was absol&tel) necessar) that the other $&scles $&st not be allowed to interfere 6
in a word, the) $&st, b) the effort of will, be relaxed.
3nd to be able b) the exercise of will*power to contract certain $&scles while relaxin# others
anta#onistic to the$ is
What is Meant by Muscle Control
2efore proceedin# with $) narrati+e, ' feel it necessar) that ' tr) to explain $)self as clearl) as
possible on this i$portant point, e+en at the ris( of repeatin# $)self.
The newl) born child possess a certain a$o&nt of $echanical control o+er its own $&scles
inas$&ch as it can $o+e and stretch its li$bs in an) possible direction- and this is the be#innin# of the
control possessed b) the a+era#e h&$an bein#.
3ccordin# to the art of profession adopted, different #ro&ps of $&scles are bro&#ht $ore or less
&nder control b) the $ethod of constant repetition.
'n $ost cases, the $&scles are bro&#ht to this state of obedience b) external infl&ence, and not
b) the indi+id&al hi$self.
%an) )ears $a) therefore be spent in controllin# a few #ro&ps of $&scles that $i#ht ha+e been
bro&#ht &nder absol&te control in a few $onths, if the $&scles had been controlled b) the indi+id&al in
a scientific $anner.
The reason that $&scles ta(e so lon# to brin# &nder control b) o&tside infl&ence ' ha+e alread)
explained when ' pointed o&t how other $&scles are constantl) in+ol+ed, which hinder the $o+e$ent
and control of the $&scles partic&larl) re7&ired. 3s ti$e #oes on, the &n*re7&ired $&scles fall
#rad&all) into passi+it) of the$sel+es- and the indi+id&al $a) ha+e #i+en &p the wor( in sheer
disco&ra#e$ent, ha+in# lost hope of e+er attainin# exceptional or e+en ordinar) s(ill in his art,
profession or craft.
3 si$ple exa$ple $a) be #i+en. Ta(e a st&dent of the piano. ?owe+er #reat his $&sical talent
$a) be, he will ne+er be able to express hi$self on the (e)*board perfectl) &ntil his fin#ers are &nder
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!
%&scle Control
absol&te control of the $ind. ?ow +er) few achie+e #reatness as pianoforte +irt&osi is well (nown tot
hose interested- for altho&#h tho&sands of st&dents spend their whole ti$e st&d)in# at the
conser+atories, and &nder e$inent $asters, the reall) #reat $a) be co&nted on the fin#ers of two hands.
This fail&re in those who e+identl) possess artistic abilit) is d&e alwa)s to a lac( of proper
$&sc&lar control. The fin#ers will not obe) the $ind of the perfor$er. ?e (nows perfectl) well where
the) o&#ht to #o, and where he desires the$ to #o, b&t the) insist &pon the wron# notes, and in
prod&cin# the wron# 7&alit) of tone.
The tro&ble is &s&all), if not alwa)s, ca&sed thro&#h the act&al tendons and $&scles of the hand
hinderin# the action of the flexor and extensors of the forear$.
This brin#s $e once $ore to the s&bAect of relaxation, which is one of the necessar) conditions
for s&ccessf&l $&scle*control.
Felaxation is A&st as i$portant as contraction, for &nless a $&scle be s&pple eno&#h to lie soft
when relaxed, real control is o&t of the 7&estion.
This applies not onl) to the partic&lar $&scle, b&t to those s&rro&ndin#, or those $&scles, which
co$e into direct contact with, and are #o+erned to a certain extent b), the said $&scle.
The control to the s&rro&ndin# $&scles will in t&rn be hindered b) the proxi$it) of a $&scle or
#ro&p of $&scles that will not absol&tel) relax.
The to&#hness of a $&scle is (nown as
Muscle &inding
and is &s&all) bro&#ht abo&t tho&#ht ind&l#ence in hea+) wor(, stren&o&s sport, or incorrect
exercisin#. 't is the deadl) ene$) of a#ilit), or end&rance, and is $&ch dreaded b) cha$pions in all
branches of sport.
That this condition is 7&ite &nnecessar) $a) be pro+ed b) the fact that the stron#est, fastest and
$ost a#ile ani$als ha+e $&scles that $a) be li(ened in softness to a spon#e.
' $aintain, therefore, and will show to )o&r satisfaction, that the stron#est $an, and the hardest
wor(er, can retain and add to his stren#th b) ed&catin# his $&scles and #ettin# the$ &nder reasonable
#ood control.
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%&scle Control
.e will ta(e the wei#ht lifter- the $an who is interested in #ettin# hea+) wei#hts aloft. ?e
&s&all) starts liftin# at the a#e of ei#hteen )ears and $a(es rapid strides.
3fter a )ear or so, he scarcel) appears to i$pro+e at all, so slow is his pro#ress- and &s&all), b)
the ti$e he has reached his twent)*fifth )ear he has see$s to ha+e attained his li$it. This is not the
case with $an) other sports, followers of which $a) contin&e to i$pro+e steadil) &p to thirt)*fi+e or
e+en fort) )ears of a#e- and not onl) as far as stren#th ' concerned, b&t in a#ilit), speed and end&rance.
This onl) #oes to pro+e that wei#ht liftin# is the s&rest wa) to to&#hen the $&scles and to ca&se
$&scle*bindin#.
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10
CHAPTER !!!
! &ecome a Chamion
' ha+e alread) related how ' had co$e to a f&ll*stop in de+elop$ent9 contraction and isolation of
the $&scles had bro&#ht the$ into pro$inence, and had no&rished the$ exceedin#l)- b&t it needed
relaxation to allow the$ to retain stren#th and ener#) and (eep the$ stipple.
' had ere this been able to (eep $) $&scles s&pple to a certain de#ree b) the aid of $assa#e, b&t
when ' had learned of the anta#onis$ of the $&scles, f stro+e to find a $eans whereb) ' co&ld pre+ent
a certain $&scle fro$ operatin# contraril) to another in action. ' tho&#ht o+er the s&bAect da) and ni#ht,
&ntil ' fo&nd that nat&re has pro+ided a nat&ral $eans of $assa#e which is nothin# $ore co$plicated
than the
Passi"e Condition of Rela+ation
' wor(ed &pon $) idea, #rad&all) e+ol+in# the s)ste$ as set forth in the present wor(, and in a
)ear or two ' had bro&#ht $) bod) to a $ost extraordinar) condition of de+elop$ent and control,
co$bined with stren#th that was dee$ed al$ost G&ncann).G %eanwhile $) health beca$e so perfect
that $) rob&stness ca&sed A&st as $&ch co$$ent as $) wea(ness in childhood.
! Take ' Weight,.ifting
.hen it had dawned on the cl&b co$$ittee how abs&rd it was to (eep $e an) lon#er on the
passi+e list, ' was re*ad$itted as an acti+e $e$ber, and after six $onthsH practice with the wei#hts, '
was able to lift with ease in one hand as $&ch as the bi##est $en there co&ld lift with both hands.
' was as(ed how it was that ' was able to (eep $) $&scles in s&ch a perfect condition of
s&ppleness and control. *The reason,G ' answered, Gis beca&se ' first control the $&scles, and then lift
with these controlled $&scles. The ordinar) wei#ht*lifter #ains his standard b) $eans of wei#ht*liftin#
exercises with wei#hts9 th&s his $&scles &nder#o an &ninterr&pted to&#henin# process, while $ine are
so stipple that ' can beat far hea+ier $en than $)self at their own pet lifts.G
' pointed o&t one of o&r cha$pions as an exa$ple. ?e was &sin# and contractin# a lot of
$&scles that co&ld not possibl) be of assistance in raisin# his wei#ht aloft- with the conse7&ence that
he was partiall) paral)8in# and ha$perin# the $&scles that, &nhindered, co&ld ha+e lifted a $&ch
hea+ier wei#ht.
%&scle Control
2&t ' did +er) little practice with the wei#hts, for ' soon reco#ni8ed that to lift hea+) wei#hts and retain
tr&e s&ppleness of $&scles was o&t of the 7&estion.
! Win an #en Chamionshi
't was not lon# after ' had #i+en e+idence of $) powers as a wei#htlifter that news reached &s of
an open cha$pionship to be held at so$e distance fro$ o&r town. ' was selected to represent o&r
athletic cl&b9 and as there were three classes*hea+), $iddle, and li#ht wei#hts*and ' was not too hea+)
to enter the li#ht wei#ht*' was entered for all three.
Each cl&b represented sent its own fla# bearer. @ow o&r fla# bearer was o&r bi##est $e$ber, a
l&st) fellow standin# well o+er six feet in hei#ht, and broad in proportion.
.hen we arri+ed at o&r destination, there was $&ch a$&se$ent ca&sed b) the #reat contrast in
si8e of o&r fla# bearer and $)self. @at&rall), the for$er was ta(en for the co$petitor, and we were
infor$ed that it was a breach of eti7&ette that the chosen athlete sho&ld carr) his cl&bHs fla#. .hen the
real sit&ation was explained to the$, and the) learned that it was ' who was the co$petitor, their
a$&se$ent t&rned to derisi+e $erri$ent, which was not to be wondered at, seein# * that ' wei#hed
barel), a h&ndredwei#ht.
2&t their $erri$ent t&rned to wonder when ' carried off the li#ht wei#ht- to a$a8e$ent when '
too( the $iddle wei#ht- and to st&pefaction when the) saw $e the tri&$phant winner of....
All Three Chamionshis
' was so$ewhat of a celebrit), and was re#arded as a. ph)sical pheno$enon. 2&t, of co&rse, '
(new 1 was nothin# of the (ind. ' (new instead that 1 was onl) an ordinar) sort of indi+id&al to who$
it had been #i+en to disco+er a rational, nat&ral $eans of ac7&irin# perfect health, and of e$plo)in# to
the &t$ost the ener#) of which a perfectl) health) bod) is capable.
3t the a#e of twent)*three ' went to %&nich. ' left ho$e beca&se ' co&ld not interest $)self in
the en#ineerin# profession. 't occ&rred to $e, in an indefinite wa) at first, that ' had a $ission in life-
and ' was well aware that 1 sho&ld not #o +er) far b) $ere wei#ht*liftin# perfor$ances and $&sc&lar
posin# before the nati+es of a place which was little $ore than a +illa#e.
%&nich is a fa$o&s art centre, and there is a$ple opport&nit) for a $an of #ood ph)sical
proportions to earn a li+in# as artistHs or sc&lptorHs $odel. 3 +isit to the athletic cl&b there bro&#ht $e
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12
%&scle Control
to the notice of those who were see(in# a $odel s&ch as $)self, and the de$and for $) ser+ices
increased so $&ch that ' was able to earn a fair a$o&nt of $one), which was +er) welco$e, as it
afforded $e the $eans to p&rs&e $) st&dies in anato$) and ph)siolo#).
My /irst Puil
' had elaborated $) s)ste$ to s&ch an extent that ' decided to rest the efficac) of it on another. '
selected for $) p&rpose a $an who had been ta(in# a (een interest for )ears in wei#ht*liftin# and
$&scle de+elop$ent. <ne da) he confessed to $e that, tr) as he wo&ld, for the pre+io&s )ear or two he
had $ade no ad+ance either in stren#th or de+elop$ent.
?ere was the +er) $an for who$ ' was loo(in#C ' explained $) theories to hi$, and pers&aded
hi$ to place hi$self &nder $) care. ?e consented, and in a short ti$e lie was sensible of i$pro+e$ent,
which contin&ed &ntil in abo&t three )earsH ti$e he had #ained a de+elop$ent and control of his
$&scles al$ost e7&al to $) own, so $&ch so, indeed, that he s&cceeded in liftin# do&ble his own bod)
wei#ht in a do&ble handed Aer(- a feat which till then had onl) been acco$plished b) one $an other
than $)self.
E&pils, posin#, liftin# and st&d t now occ&pied $e al$ost excl&si+el), and 1 th&s spent a few
happ) )ears. 3ltho&#h liftin# (ept $), de+elop$ent stationar) for a ti$e, ' wor(ed at $) s)ste$ so
steadil) that ' re#istered a #rad&al increase in stren#th.
Finall) ' decided to stop lifting altogether, and to #o heart and so&l into the perfectin# of $)
$ethods.
! Come to England
2&t one )ear later '' chanced to see a challen#e iss&ed to an) $iddlewei#ht lifter in the world,
and it ca$e fro$ En#land.
' accepted at once, and ca$e to Iondon- b&t, as it t&rned o&t, the challen#e was an old one, and
the challen#er had, in the $eanti$e, p&t on so $&ch wei#ht that he co&ld not #et down to the $iddle*
wei#ht li$it, and altho&#h ' was 7&ite willin# to contest at catch*wei#hts, the challen#er decided that
he wo&ld not #o on with the $atter, which was a sore disappoint$ent to $e.
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13
%&scle Control
' was on the point of ret&rnin# to %&nich when ' $ade the ac7&aintance of $) #ood friends,
%onte 4aldo and 3pollo.
These #entle$en wo&ld not hear of $) lea+in# En#land &ntil ' had p&t &p so$e records and had
#i+en an exhibition of $&scle*control. .hat decided $e to follow their ad+ice was their declaration
that people tho&#ht $) photo#raphs to be fa(es, and $) lifts #reatl) exa##erated.
%) blood was &p, in three wee(s ' was read), and on the e+enin# of 1an&ar) 19th, 1910, ' #a+e
a de$onstration before a distin#&ished asse$bl) of stron# $en and ph)sical c&lt&rists at the 3pollo
4aldo 4chool, 9 0reat @ewport 4treet, ..
2&t ' cannot do better than reprod&ce the acco&nt of $) de$onstration as described b) the editor of
that decidedl) pop&lar wee(l), ;?E3IT? 3@" 4TFE@0T?.G
Ma+ick0s .ifting
JFeprinted fro$ G?ealth and 4tren#thGK
Lifters of all ages, weights, and nationalities were there in great force, they having been
expressly invited to witness an exhibition by Maxick, of Munich.
Professor Salay, whose name was associated -with weight-lifting more than a decade ago, and who
has not inaptly been described as !the father of weight-lifting,! was there in all his glory. "here were
also many of the younger generation, including Messrs. #. $%. &aswell 'the marvellous ten-stoner(,
&harlie )ussell 'the ten-stone champion of former days(, *dward +ston 'claimant to the middle-weight
lifting championship(, #. L. &ar,uest 'the great nine-stoner(, Mr. -. &. "romp van .iggelen, Mr.
)eggie #alker 'the famous sprint champion(, Mr. #. /. #ood 'the w-ell-know-n wrestler(, 0oung
/lson, Monte Saldo 'Maxick1s manager, who acted as stage manager(, the *ditor of !-ealth and
Strength,! and many others.
"hat Maxick is by way of being a physical phenomenon is beyond ,uestion. -is muscular
control is marvellous. 2n a series of poses, with which he followed up his lifts, he thrilled the onlookers
by the splendour of his development, and the manner in which he !commanded! 'that is the word for it(
each muscle of his body.
-is will seemed to act as commander-in-chief, and at a signal from him, and without any forcing, the
latissimus dorsi, the abdominals, the deltoids, etc., seemed to do whatever they were told. -is body, in
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14
%&scle Control
fact, was like a transformation scene. /ne moment he was all chest3 the next he was all back3 and
again you saw his abdominal muscles marshalled, so to speak. 2t was really very wonderful indeed.
-e certainly astonished the onlookers by his weight-lifting feats. -e commenced with a number
of one-handed lifts, including the 454 lbs. onehanded 6erk five times. "his seemed ,uite easy to him.
"hen one after the other he performed a series of two-handed lifts. "he weights were tested by Messrs.
)ussell, &aswell, &ar,uest, Salay, and van .iggelen, who testify he lifted 444 tbs. clean to the chest,
and then pressed it above his head, with his heels together and body erect. -is next feat was a 475 lbs.
lift clean to the chest. "his lie pressed above his head in the recognised &ontinental style. -is next lift
of 48897 lbs. drew forth a spontaneous encomium from Professor Salay, who declared he had never
seen such lifting. Maxick raised the barbell clean to his chest, then in a singularly graceful style,
pressed it above his head by means of a steady two-handed bent press.
2n neither of the three lifts described above did any of the weights come in contact with the
lifter1s body.
:oth the above lifts are claimed as world1s records, and it is a pity that we have not as yet a
recognised weight-lifters1 association, by whom such claims could be officially decided.
+nother lift which roused much admiration was the raising of ;54 lbs. any way up to the chest.
"his, which was double his own weight '2 should have stated that 6ust before the exhibition he was 6ust
under $5 st. $$ lbs.(, he then 6erked above his head, and really he did not seem to find it very difficult.
"his was done in the <erman style3 up to the waist, then to the chest, and then aloft.
+fter the 4=7 lbs. lift, Maxick made an attempt upon a still further advance upon this. "he
weight of the bells in this case was kept a secret, only to be revealed in the case of success. "hough he
made several very creditable efforts, he failed, but it was announced that he would try again on a
future occasion.
"he exhibition was distinctly interesting, and not by any means devoid of dramatic incident and
humour. >ature, when she endowed Maxick with his remarkable physi,ue, threw in with it a very
attractive smile. 2t lit up his countenance every time he made an attempt upon a lift, and it softened into
tenderness once or twice when Monte Saldo1s pretty, flaxen-haired daughter 'aged three( insisted on
walking up to him as he was resting and demanded a kiss.
' had alwa)s heard that the En#lish were a +er) conser+ati+e race of people, +er) slow to adopt
new theories and ideas, b&t $) experience has pro+ed the +er) re+erse, for the En#lish people did not
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1
%&scle Control
wait for $e to pro+e $) theories and assertions on their own ph)si7&e, b&t listened to $) ar#&$ents
and too( $e on tr&st, si$pl) beca&se the) saw lo#ic and co$$on sense &ntainted b) $)ster) in $)
state$ents.
3ssisted b) %onte 4aldo, ' ha+e s&cceeded in b&ildin# &p a lar#e clientele, and o&r s&ccess in
c&rin# f&nctional co$plaints and disorders thro&#h the $eans, of $&scle*control, co$bined with
s&itable $echanical exercises and proper diet, is now a $atter of Co$$on (nowled#e.
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16
CHAPTER !1
Will,Po*er and Muscle,Control
The serio&s st&dent of $&scle*control will soon beco$e aware of the fact that his will*power
has beco$e #reater, and his $ental fac&lties clearer and capable of increased concentration.
Th&s it will be obser+ed that the controllin# of the $&scles reacts &pon the $ind and stren#thens
the $ental powers in exactl) the sa$e proportion that the control of the $&scles stren#thens the bod)
and li$bs.
%ost teachers of ph)sical c&lt&re will tell the st&dents to (eep his $ind concentrated &pon the
$&scles. 3s the $o+e$ents are &s&all) $echanical, the ad+ice is necessar), tho&#h &seless, for
$onoton) tires and Aades both bod) and $ind.
The $ind is bo&nd to wander d&rin# the perfor$ance of an) exercise that is $echanical, and
re7&ires $an) repetitions.
.hen, howe+er, an intelli#ent effort is bein# $ade to control a certain $&scle, a definite obAect
is bein# ai$ed at, and the $ind cannot possibl) wander. The interest is s&stained, and the power of
$ental concentration #rad&all) b&t s&rel) de+eloped.
3s ' ha+e $entioned &pon another pa#e, the &se of $echanical exercises is necessar) for the f&ll
de+elop$ent of the whole $&sc&lar s)ste$, b&t these $a) be co$bined with $&scle*control in s&ch a
$anner that no dr&d#er) or $onoton) will be apparent.
For lastin# and practical res&lts, exercisin# $&st be pleas&rable and ener#isin#- not $onotono&s
and exha&stin#- and ' assert witho&t preA&dice to the other $an) excellent $ethods of exercisin# in
+o#&e to*da), that the #reater the ad+ances with the all*powerf&l $arch of ci+ilisation, the #reater will
the need of $&scle*control beco$e- for a #reat brain will not be at its best in a debilitated or &nfit bod),
and there will be little ti$e for sports and #a$es, sa+in# for the few. The fi#ht for s&pre$ac) will
beco$e too (een, and the fit bod), and the 7&ic(l)*wor(in#, responsi+e brain will be the #reatest assets
of the bread*winner.
'n #a$es of s(ill, the power of controlled $&scle is &ndisp&ted.
%&scle Control
.h) is it that two $en of e7&all) #ood b&ild, intelli#ence, (eenness, and si#ht will differ in
Gfor$G absol&tel)D
3s an exa$ple, ta(e two #olfers. The) both (now exactl) where the ball o&#ht to #o, b&t
perhaps onl) one of the$ can #et it in an)thin# li(e a tr&e direction at e+er) stro(e.
<ne has his dri+in# $&scles &nder control, and the other has not. 't $a) be that the s&rro&ndin#
$&scles are ha$perin# or ca&sin# a de+iation of the $&scles re7&ired for the partic&lar stro(e- b&t in
an) case, perfect control and s&ppleness are not present, or he wo&ld $a(e the sa$e stro(e in precisel)
the sa$e $anner, and with the sa$e res&lt, as $an) ti$es as the end&rance of the $&scles wo&ld
allow.
The end&rance of a controlled $&scle is +er) #reat indeed.
Firstl), beca&se plent) of blood is a+ailable for its &se, and secondl), beca&se the blood*flow is
&nrecorded b) press&re fro$ the s&rro&ndin# $&scles, for these are all relaxed, and soft also.
The stiff #olf st&dent is the despair of the professional instr&ctor. <ften one hears the re$ar(9
GThat fellow will ne+er a$o&nt to an)thin#, for he (eeps hi$self stiff, and will not allow the $&scles
to relax.G ' a#ree. ?e ne+er will a$o&nt to an)thin# if he tries to #et rid of his stiffness b) learnin# #olf
or an) other #a$e. ?ow can he possibl) concentrate his $ind on his stro(e or #a$e if he has to thin(
of his $&scles as wellD
'f the) had been #ot into perfect condition b) $&scle*control, and (ept so b) a few $in&tesH
dail) attention, he wo&ld relax a&to$aticall), and his whole $ind wo&ld th&s be centred &pon his
stro(e, the correct $&scles wor(in# &nha$pered as soon as re7&ired.
Therefore it $&st alwa)s be borne in $ind b) the st&dent that $&scle control $&st be re#arded
in its widest $eanin#, which is9 to relax, restrain, #o+ern, direct and contract the $&scles- not onl) in
#ro&ps, b&t sin#l) as far as the connections and adhesions of other $&scles, tendons, and li#a$ents
per$it.
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1!
%&scle Control
A /EW H!(T)
Ho* to 2et the Muscles under Control
Coax the $&scles, do not force the$.
'f &nd&e force be &sed in an effort to sec&re 7&ic( res&lts, the $&scles will to&#hen, and )o&r
obAect will be defeated.
1&st p&ll or press, as the case $a) be, followin# the directions as closel) as possible, loo(in# all
the ti$e for the partic&lar $&scle to appear. 3s soon as so$ethin# li(e the pose has been sec&red, tr) to
fix *,,o&r $ind &pon the exact $anner in which )o& #ot the res&lt, and relax the $&scles, and tr) to #et
the pose a#ain in the sa$e wa).
<nl) &se a $irror to disco+er if )o& ha+e sec&red the desired control and not for #ettin# it.
4t&dents who alwa)s exercise before a $irror are ne+er confident of #ettin# an exact pose witho&t its
aid.
The $irror sho&ld be there, placed in s&ch a position that a t&rn of the head or e)es will show
whether the pose has been correctl) sec&red.
'f the pose is &nsatisfactor), t&rn the e)es or head awa) and tr) a#ain, &ntil )o& #et the $&scle
or $&scles controlled thro&#h the feelin#, and not the +ision.
2efore #oin# on to the act&al exercises of control, $) final ad+ice to the st&dent is9
)T'-Y #(E E3ERC!)E AT A T!ME A(- PRACT!)E PAT!E(CE
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E 3ERC!)E 1
Rela+ation
This is a $ost i$portant exercise*the be#inner $&st learn to relax all the $&scles.
4t&d) the pose JFi#. 1K, and it will be seen that not a sin#le $&scle s&##ests contraction.
Thin( of each part of the bod) in t&rn, be#innin# at the head and wor(in# downwards.
3llow each $&scle to droop as )o& thin( of it- b&t care $&st be exercised that, while doin# so,
)o& do not contract other $&scles which )o& ha+e alread) relaxed.
'f this exercise is conscientio&sl) perfor$ed Bo& will find that .L*o&r le#s will al$ost #i+e wa)
&nder )o&.
For pose of $&scles of the bac( in this exercise see p. 23 JFi#. 2K.
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E3ERC!)E 1 5continued6
Rela+ation
Fi#. 2 shows co$plete relaxation of the $&scles of the bac(.
The whole bac(, as the front, is in repose, and the pose shows how the bac( sho&ld appear in
this exercise.
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E3ERC!)E 7
Contraction
3s soon as )o& ha+e $astered Exercise 1, and as soon as )o& feel that the le#s are abo&t to #i+e
wa), stri+e to contract all the $&scles si$&ltaneo&sl).
Bo& will probabl) find at the first atte$pts that certain $&scles re$ain in a state of relaxation,
not bein# &nder proper control of the will.
Felax all the $&scles as in Fi#s. 1 and 2. Then thin( of each part of the bod) in t&rn, fro$ the
head downwards, contractin# each $&scle as )o& thin( of it, and retainin# each in a state of contraction
&ntil e+er) $&scle is contracted as shown in Fi#. 3.
Bo& will $ost li(el) disco+er when be#innin# this exercise that )o& ha+e &nconscio&sl)
allowed so$e of the $&scles to relax. To these $&scles, therefore, )o& will ha+e to pa) $ost partic&lar
attention, contractin# and relaxin# the$ &ntil )o& ha+e the$ &nder proper $ental control.
These two exercises of relaxation and contraction sho&ld be repeated alternatel) &ntil )o& are
able to acco$plish co$plete relaxation and contraction at will.
Feference to the charts on pp. 110 and 111, showin# the positions of the principal $&scles, will
be of #reat assistance to )o& in thin(in# of each $&scle in t&rn.
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E3ERC!)E 7 5continued6
Contraction
This pose, Fi#. 4, shows how the bac( will appear when all the $&scles are in a proper state*of
contraction.
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E3ERC!)E 8
!solation of the .atissimus -orsi
Co$plete relaxation and contraction ha+in# been s&ccessf&ll) acco$plished, the next step is
isolation, which is contraction at will of a partic&lar set of $&scles independentl) of all the other
$&scles.
2e#in with the bi# $&scles &nder the ar$s Jlatissi$&s dorsiK.
Eose as in Fi#. . ?ands rested li#htl) &pon hips towards the front and $&scles allowed to han#
li$p.
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E3ERC!)E 8
5continued6
!solation in Contraction of the .atissimus -orsi
The $ind sho&ld now be concentrated on the parts indicated b) the arrows in Fi#. 6. Thin( of
the$ all the ti$e, and then broaden the bac( to its &tter$ost- b&t witho&t ro&ndin# it.
Meepin# the bac( as flat as possible, lift the sho&lders, and then drop the$ when )o& feel that
the bac( is expanded.
'n earl) atte$pts, press&re on the hips with the hands, so as to dra# down fro$ the sho&lders,
will be of assistance in broadenin# the bac(, tho&#h later it will be fo&nd that, with practice, these
$&scles will be readil) expanded witho&t s&ch aid.
'f diffic&lt) is experienced in acco$plishin# this exercise witho&t ro&ndin# the bac(, be#inners
$a) help the$sel+es b) brin#in# the sho&lders forward, ro&ndin# the bac( and pressin# with the hands
a#ainst the waist. Then with the $&scles (ept expanded, the be#inner sho&ld stri+e to brin# bac( the
sho&lders &ntil the bac( is flat.
3 little practice of this exercise will res&lt in rapid increase of chest circ&$ference.
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E3ERC!)E 9
!solation of the Trae<ius Muscle
This sho&lder $&scle is one of the $ost diffic&lt to isolate- therefore it has been dee$ed
necessar) to explain the $ethod of control b) $ore ill&strations than the n&$ber de+oted to pre+io&s
exercises.
The pose in Fi#. 7 is $ainl) for the p&rpose of showin# the $&scle to be isolated, indicated b)
an arrow.
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E3ERC!)E 9 5continued6
!solation of the Trae<ius Muscle
4'@0IE
3n effort sho&ld first be $ade to isolate the $&scle b) si$ple control.
Clasp the hands as in Fi#. !. "rop the ri#ht sho&lder low, allowin# the sho&lder*blade to
protr&de at the bac( Jsee arrow*point in Fi#. !K.
@ow press downwards with the left hand, b&t resist at the sa$e ti$e with the ri#ht hand,
(eepin# the ar$s al$ost strai#ht at the elbows.
Eractice and experi$ent &ntil the trape8i&s $&scle shows in the for$ of a l&$p r&nnin# fro$
sho&lder to nec(, as in Fi#. 7.
Fepeat the process with the left sho&lder, pressin# downwards with the ri#ht hand and resistin#
with the left hand.
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E3ERC!)E 9 5continued6
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!solation of the Trae<ius Muscle
"<N2IE
?a+in# $astered isolation of this $&scle on each side sin#l), an atte$pt $&st now be $ade to
isolate it on both sides si$&ltaneo&sl), as in Fi#. 9.
'f sin#le isolation has been practiced &ntil it can be acco$plished with relati+e case, little
diffic&lt) will be experienced in perfor$in# do&ble isolation.
Correct isolation will not ha+e been recei+ed &ntil the lines indicated b) the arrow*heads in Fi#.
9 are clearl) defined.
The be#inner sho&ld &nderstand that altho&#h to effect isolation of the $&scles $echanical
action $a) be e$plo)ed at first, it will be fo&nd that when the $&sc&lar s)ste$ has b) $eans of these
exercises beco$e s&fficientl) s&pple and &nder proper $ental control, each $&scle will respond to
little effort be)ond that of $ere will*power.
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E3ERC!)E 9 5continued6
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!solation of the Trae<ius Muscle
?a+in# acco$plished do&ble isolation of the trape8i&s $&scle, as shown in Fi#. 9, relax the
ri#ht side onl), retainin# the left side isolation. Then re#ain the ri#ht side isolation, a#ain sec&rin#
do&ble isolation.
Then retain contraction on the ri#ht side, relaxin# the $&scle on the left side, then a#ain sec&re
do&ble isolation.
'f s&fficientl) ad+anced, when )o& ha+e relaxed the ri#ht side, isolate the ri#ht hand latissi$&s
dorsi $&scle Jsee Exercise 3K, as in Fi#. 10.
Then relax the latissi$&s dorsi $&scle, still retainin# contraction of the left hand trape8i&s
$&scle, and isolate the ri#ht hand trape8i&s, sec&rin# do&ble isolation once $ore in Fi#. 9.
@ow retain contraction on the ri#ht side, relax the left side and isolate the left hand latissi$&s
dorsi, th&s re+ersin# Fi#. 10.
The latter part of this exercise is a co$bination of Exercises 3 and 4.
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E 3ERC!)E :
Controlled !solation of the Trae<ius Muscle
2e#in the si$&ltaneo&s isolation of both trape8i&s $&scles, as shown in Fi#. 9. Fetainin#
contraction of the$, raise the ar$s &ntil al$ost on a le+el with the sho&lders.
@ow draw the sho&lder*blades to#ether, still retainin# isolation of the trape8i&s $&scles, as in
Fi#. 11.
.hen the contractions and positions shown in Fi#s. 7, !, 9, 10, and 11 ha+e been s&ccessf&ll)
acco$plished, co$plete control of the trape8i&s $&scles will ha+e been sec&red.
%aster) of Exercises 4 and will #i+e extraordinar) sho&lder power and s&ppleness, with
conse7&ent s&periorit) in e+er) sport or occ&pation in which the ar$s co$e into pla).
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E 3ERC!)E ;
!solation of the Pectoralis Ma@or
Fi# 12 shows co$plete relaxation of #reat $&scles of the chest Jpectoralis $aAorK.
These $&scles are well placed for relaxation, and $ade to dance, if the ar$, han#in# loosel), be
Aer(ed li#htl) a#ainst the bod). .ith practice, which $eans proper control, these $&scles $a) be $ade
to dance witho&t assistance of the ar$s, either sin#l) or to#ether.
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E3ERC!)E ; 5continued6
!solation of the Pectoralis Ma@or
Clasp hands as in Fi#. 13, then strain chest as if to brin# the ar$s to#ether, resist with the ar$
$&scles at sa$e ti$e. Contraction sec&red, decrease press&re of the hands, retainin#, as far as lies in
)o&r power, contraction of chest $&scles.
3fter practice and concentration of will, isolation of the pectoralis $aAor $a) be acco$plished
witho&t assistance of the hands.
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E3ERC!)E ; 5continued6
!solation and Control of the Pectoralis Ma@or
?a+in# $astered the contraction of the pectoralis $aAor witho&t the assistance of press&re b)
the hands, brin# the ar$s slowl) to the hori8ontal, while still retainin# the contraction as alread) shown
in Fi#. 13. 'f s&ccessf&l, the re$ar(able res&lt shown in Fi#. 14 will be sec&red.
' a$ not, of co&rse, pressin# a#ainst an)thin# with $) ar$ to sec&re this contraction, as the
st&dent will disco+er if he #i+es to this exercise a reasonable a$o&nt of attention.
These chest $&scles pla) an i$portant part in all exercises in which the ar$s are &sed,
especiall) in piano pla)in#, as the power i$parted to the ar$s b) these $&scles is considerable,
especiall) for inward or downward press&re.
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E 3ERC!)E =
Comlete Rela+ation of the Abdominal Wall
2efore an) of the exercises of abdo$inal control can be s&ccessf&ll) $astered, co$plete
relaxation of the abdo$inal $&scles $&st be sec&red.
3 bod) pose sho&ld be so&#ht wherein all strain is re$o+ed fro$ the abdo$inal $&scles JFi#.
1K.
.hen there is proper relaxation, the $&scle will offer no resistance to the to&ch. Feel the
$&scles, and alter the balance of the bod) &ntil all the $&scles are 7&ite soft.
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E3ERC!)E = 5continued6
-eression of the Abdominal Wall
This is affected entirel) b) external at$ospherical press&re - and this exercise is the (e) to the
control, do&ble, and one*sided abdo$inal isolations.
"eflate the l&n#s, and then thr&st the chest forward Jb&t not &pwardsK, as shown in Fi#. 16. 'f
the abdo$inal $&scles are properl) relaxed, the at$ospheric press&re fro$ witho&t will p&sh the$
bac( in the $anner shown in Fi#. 16, the l&n#s bein# e$pt), and the chest thr&st forward.
There $&st he no abdo$inal $&sc&lar effort to effect this. 't is repeated that the) $&st be in a
state of co$plete relaxation, offerin# no assistance on their own acco&nt, and no resistance to the
external at$ospheric press&re.
'f the chest be lifted Npwards, the abdo$inal $&scles will not ha+e s&fficient pla) to be pressed
inwards.
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E3ERC!)E = 5continued6
!solation of the Abdominal Muscles
"<N2IE EEFEE@"'CNI3F '4<I3T'<@
4ec&re the depression as ill&strated b) Fi#. 16, and, witho&t inhalin#, raise the ar$s as shown in
Fi#. 17, and swa) the bod) sli#htl) bac(wards and forwards, &ntil the desired contraction has been
sec&red.
't wo&ld be &seless to la) down an) hard and fast r&le as to the best position to ass&$e for the
acco$plish$ent of this contraction. %an) of $) p&pils ha+e $ana#ed to effect it bL* bendin# sli#htl)
forward.
The contraction sho&ld be in+ol&ntar), or the whole of the abdo$inal wall will beco$e
in+ol+ed.
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E3ERC!)E = 5continued6
!solation of the Abdominal Muscles
CE@TF3I 4'@0IE EEFEE@"'CNI3F '4<I3T'<@
4ec&re depression shown in Fi#. 16 and witho&t inhalin#, press the hands in towards the bod),
with a sli#ht downward tendenc), and the effect shown in Fi#. 1! will be sec&red in a $ore or less
$ar(ed de#ree.
The hands sho&ld be placed at the base of the abdo$inal $&scles, one restin# in the other for
con+enience, with the pal$s &pward.
The wrist and part of the forear$ $a) be rested a#ainst the pel+is for extra press&re to be
obtained - b&t we ha+e fo&nd that the better the position, and the less the press&re, the better the res&lt.
't is a 7&estion of correct position and $o+e$ent. Iean sli#htl) forward when perfor$in# this
exercise, to #i+e increased pla) to the abdo$inal $&scles.
For Fi#s. 1!, 19, 20 and 21 we ha+e &sed photo#raphs of a p&pil, %). 3. .. 2ecton, of
2ir$in#ha$, b) per$ission of .H17r. 1. F. Fitchie, Ehoto#rapher, of 92 Ear( Foad, 2earwood,
2ir$in#ha$.
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E3ERC!)E = 5continued6
!solation of the Abdominal Muscles
<@E*4'"E" EEFEE@"'CNI3F '4<I3T'<@
This is acco$plished precisel) in sa$e $anner as central, sin#le perpendic&lar isolation JFi#.
1!K - b&t press&re $&st now be exerted with one hand, on one side onl) JFi#. 19K.
The si$plest wa) to exercise this contraction is #rad&all) to chan#e press&re fro$ centre to
either side.
The l&n#s, of co&rse, $&st be (ept deflated all the ti$e.
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E3ERC!)E = 5continued6
!solation of the Abdominal Muscles
C?3@0'@0 T?E EFE44NFE FF<% T?E CE@TFE T< T?E 4'"E
Fi#. 20 ill&strates #rad&al chan#in# fro$ centre to sides, which, as alread) re$ar(ed, is the
si$plest wa) to sec&re one*sided perpendic&lar isolation.
Eress&re of left hand bein# partiall) re$o+ed, the rect&s abdo$in&s is, in conse7&ence, #i+in#
wa) beneath air press&re.
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E3ERC!)E = 5continued6
!solation of the Abdominal Muscles
'n Fi#. 21 we ha+e another re$ar(able pose b) %r. 2ecton, showin# that it is possible to sec&re
one*sided isolation of the abdo$inals &nassisted b) press&re of the hands, either at the base of the
abdo$en, or behind the bac(.
.e cannot repeat too often that in all exercises of abdo$inal control, it $&st be thoro&#hl)
&nderstood that the abdo$inal $&scles are depressed b) external at$ospheric Eress&re onl), the l&n#s
bein# e$pt), the chest thr&st forward, and the abdo$inal $&scles co$pletel) relaxed. 3n) atte$pt to
acco$plish this exercise b) depression of the $&scles b) contraction of the$ is i$possible.
The effect on the #eneral health of this exercise is $o$ento&s. Eractice will relie+e all
sto$achic and intestinal disorders, stren#then the abdo$inal or#ans, and operate powerf&ll) a#ainst
constipation.
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E3ERC!)E >
True Abdominal Control
32"<%'@3I F<II'@0
This is acco$plished b) sec&rin# b) contraction a deep depression of an) part of the abdo$inal
wall- b&t it $&st be borne in $ind that all other abdo$inal $&scles $&st re$ain absol&tel) relaxed.
Iittle diffic&lt) will be experienced to effect this depression, s&ch &s&all) occ&rrin# with the
&npracticed A&st below the stern&$.
The position of the depression sho&ld be #rad&all) chan#ed, wor(in# fro$ the apex of the
abdo$inal wall down to the base, and then ret&rnin# fro$ the base to the apex.
The be#inner $a) assist hi$self with hands, b&t it is a co&rse not to be reco$$ended. 't is
preferable to stri+e to acco$plish this exercise, e+en at the +er) first atte$pts, solel) b) $&scle*
control.
Fi#. 22 shows the depression abo&t $idwa) between the base and apex of the abdo$inal wall.
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E3ERC!)E > 5continued6
True Abdominal Control
Fi#. 23 shows depression al$ost at base of abdo$inal wall.
Correctl) carried o&t, the effect of abdo$inal rollin# is that of a wa+e.
The beneficial effect on the internal abdo$inal or#ans is re$ar(able.
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E 3ERC!)E A
!solation of the .atissimus -orsi Muscles
.'T? 3F%4 EOTE@"E"
?old ar$s hori8ontall) in line with sho&lders, $a(in# bac( as narrow as possible. "raw
sho&lder*blades ti#htl) to#ether.
The sho&lders sho&ld now present a +er) narrow appearance.
3t this sta#e, concentrate the $ind on the latissi$&s dorsi $&scles, alternatel) contract and
relax Jsee Exercise 3K, retain position as ill&strated b) Fi#. 24.
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E3ERC!)E A 5continued6
!solation of the .atissimus -orsi Muscles
?a+in# sec&red a #ood HHfeelin#G of the latissi$&s dorsi, to the excl&sion of other $&scle #ro&ps,
b) narrowin# the sho&lders as shown in Fi#. 24, now broaden the sho&lders to the &tter$ost, as in Fi#.
2.
Co$pare contraction of the latissi$&s dorsi in this fi#&re with that ill&strated in Fi#. 6.
'n atte$ptin# this feat, it will be fo&nd that $an) other $&scles will beco$e in+ol+ed, incl&din#
those of the trape8i&s - b&t effort sho&ld be $ade to relax all $&scles except those of the latissi$&s
dorsi.
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E 3ERC!)E 1?
Prearing the Muscles for )houlder 5-eltoid6
Control
Ta(e &p position as in Fi#. 26. ?ollow the chest, brin# sho&lders well forward and low as
possible.
Ta(e care all other $&scles are in a state of relaxation and the $ind concentrated entirel) &pon
the deltoids
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E3ERC!)E 1? 5continued6
Prearing the Muscles for )houlder 5-eltoid6
Control
?a+in# sec&red #ood d&plication of Fi#. 26, lift sho&lders alwa)s to the front as hi#h as is in
)o&r power to do JFi#. 27K. This ill&stration #i+es a correct idea of $anner in which the sho&lders are
to be thr&st
@otice how other*tr&n( $&scles han#in# in folds are relaxed
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E3ERC!)E 1? 5continued6
Prearing the Muscles for )houlder 5-eltoid6
Control
?a+in# sec&red the position indicated b) Fi#. 27, carr) the sho&lders strai#ht bac( as far as the)
will #o, witho&t lowerin# the$ at all. J4ee Fi#. 2!.K
Feach &p and bac( with the sho&lders to #ain the f&llest possible stretch. Endea+or to relax art)
other $&scles that see$ to ha$per the f&ll stretch.
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E3ERC!)E 1? 5continued6
Prearing the Muscles for )houlder 5-eltoid6
Control
Fro$ the position indicated in Fi#. 23, lower the sho&lders bac(ward and downward &ntil the)
reach the position shown in Fi#. 29. These fo&r $o+e$ents are fo&r portions of a circle, and $a) be
co$bined into one contin&o&s $o+e$ent if desired.
3 f&ller explanation is herewith appended.
J1K 4ho&lders held low, and to the front JFi#. 26K.
J2K 4ho&lders lifted hi#h, and to the front JFi#. 27K.
J3K 4ho&lders (ept hi#h and carried o+er to the bac( JFi#. 2!K. J4K 4ho&lders dropped low and
(ept o+er to the bac( JFi#. 29K.
This is a splendid exercise for an) sport in which free pla) and stren#th of the sho&lders is
i$portant9 i.e. 0olf, swi$$in#, boxin#, fencin#, etc.
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E 3ERC!)E 11
)houlder 5-eltoid6 Control
Eosition as Fi#. 30, elbows pressed a#ainst ribs. Clasp hands in $anner shown, alternatel) p&ll
and p&sh with the$, b&t ta(e care to (eep elbows pressed a#ainst ribs, or the strain will be transferred
to pectoralis $aAor, whereas it is to be concentrated on deltoid.
3s in all other isolation exercises, attention $&st be #i+en to relaxation of all other $&scles.
4&ccessf&l acco$plish$ent of this exercise res&lts in sec&rin# a bea&tif&l pla) of sho&lder $&scles.
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E3ERC!)E 11 5continued6
)houlder 5-eltoid6 Control
Fro$ position 30, drop sho&lder forward, and allow sho&lder*blade to stand o&t at the bac( JFi#.
31K.
E&sh and p&ll alternatel) with hands exactl) in sa$e $anner as described for Fi#. 30.
5ariet) $a) be had b) perfor$in# one p&shin# and p&llin# $o+e$ent, position 30, alternatel)
with one p&shin# and p&llin# $o+e$ent, position 31.
3 s(ilf&l exec&tant of $&scle*control will chan#e these positions, al$ost i$perceptibl), the
onl) apparent $o+e$ent bein# a ripplin# of the sho&lder $&scles.
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E 3ERC!)E 17
True )houlder 5-eltoid6 Control
Iean forward and sli#htl) to one side JseJ, Fi#. 32K. 3llow the ar$ to han# li$pl) fro$ the side.
@ow drop the sho&lders and allow the sho&lder*blade to stand o&t at the bac(, as in Exercise 4,
Fi#. 4, brin#in# the trape8i&s $&scle into pla).
Fetain this contraction, and lift the ar$ sli#htl) &pward, A&st s&fficientl) to contract the sho&lder
$&scles. Meepin# the ar$ at this an#le fro$ the bod), $o+e it bac(wards and forwards as far as it will
#o, describin# the portion of a circle with the elbow.
Th&s will the sho&lder first be contracted b) control, and then in t&rn contracted in all positions.
Eractice of sho&lder JdeltoidK control will be fo&nd to be a $ost effecti+e $eas&re a#ainst the
attac(s of #o&t, rhe&$atis$, and si$ilar $aladies.
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E 3ERC!)E 18
!solation of the )erratus Magnus Muscles
'nterlace the fin#ers, and then clasp the bac( of the head as in Fi#. 33.
Meep the forear$s pressed well a#ainst the head. @ow bend the nec( as far bac( as possible,
loo(in# &pwards towards the ceilin#.
This will ca&se the elbows to point &pwards as well, which is 7&ite correct, as this will ca&se the
serrat&s $a#n&s to protr&de as seen in Fi#. 33.
@ow with ar$s p&ll the head forwards to the first position, resistin# with the nec(.
The p&ll, of co&rse, $&st be concentrated at the serrat&s $a#n&s.
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E 3ERC!)E 19
)ingle !solation of the )erratus Magnus Muscles
?a+in# sec&red control of serrat&s $a#n&s, Ex. 13, Fi#. 33, drop one ar$ to side as shown in
Fi#. 34. "o not confine the st&d) of an) sin#le isolation to one side onl) practice controllin# both sides
alternatel). 'n exec&tin# these exercises of control of the serrat&s $a#n&s $&scles care sho&ld be ta(en
that abdo$inal $&scles are not contracted.
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E3ERC!)E 19 5continued6
)ingle !solation of the )erratus Magnus Muscles
This ill&stration, Fi#. 3, is #i+en to show fro$ the side the $anner in which the serrat&s
$a#n&s $&scle, are controlled.
These exercises are especiall) i$portant fro$ a health point of +iew. Eractice is bo&nd to res&lt
in, in far #reater l&n# power, is there will be freer $obilit) of the ribs.
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E 3ERC!)E 1:
!solation of the !ntercostals Muscles
The intercostals $&scles are those fillin# the inter+als between the ribs.
This exercise is one of the si$plest to perfor$- )et one of the $ost diffic&lt to describe.
The tro&ble &s&all) is that either these $&scles are lac(in# in de+elop$ent, or that the) are
co+ered with fat. The $o+e$ent that brin#s the intercostal $&scles into pla) is scarcel) perceptible- for
it is sec&red b) leanin# sli#htl) to one side, drawin# the hip &p si$&ltaneo&sl) to $eet the rib.
'f be#inners experience diffic&lt) at first in raisin# the hip, the) $a) help the$sel+es b) liftin#
the correspondin# heel fro$ the #ro&nd, b&t effort sho&ld be $ade to dispense with this and as soon as
possible.
?a+in# drawn &p the hip, the intercostal $&scles will contract well eno&#h, b&t the) are apt to
beco$e b&nched &p to#ether.
The contraction ha+in# been sec&red, it now re$ains for the p&pil to disco+er how to spread the$ o&t
as shown in Fi#. 36.
This $a) be obtained if the bod) be twisted fro$ abo+e the waist sli#htl) awa) fro$ the contracted
$&scles.
The lower part of the bod), incl&din# the hips, sho&ld re$ain stationar).
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E 3ERC!)E 1;
.oosening of -eltoid% .atissimus -orsi% and Trae<ius Muscles
Clasp the hands, or interlace the fin#ers.
4tretch the ar$s &pwards as far as )o& are able, p&llin# o&twards and sidewa)s, &sin# plent) of
ener#).
The loosenin# of the $&scles is th&s sec&red b) the aid of the sho&lder*blades.
'f the $&scles ro&nd the chest are to&#h, a few wee(sH practice will be necessar) before the
res&lt shown in Fi#. 37 will be sec&red.
'n the pose ill&strated, the deltoids are doin# the wor(, and the latissi$&s dorsi are bein# $ade
s&pple b) stretchin#.
This exercise has the additional ad+anta#e of #i+in# s&ppleness to the sho&lders.
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E3ERC!)E 1; 5continued6
.oosening of -eltoid% .atissimus -orsi% and Trae<ius Muscles
?a+in# sec&red the effect shown in Fi#. 37, brin# the hand.- down on to the head, still p&llin#
o&twards and retainin# , the expansion of the sho&lder*blades, as in Fi#. 3!.
"o not draw the sho&lder*blades to#ether, b&t broaden the bac( to the &tter$ost.
"epend entirel) &pon a correct o&tward p&ll for the acco$plish$ent of the effect ill&strated.
This exercise will ens&re s)$$etr) of for$, for if the effort be not e+en on both sides it cannot
be correctl) acco$plished.
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E3ERC!)E 1; 5continued6
.oosening of -eltoid% .atissimus -orsi% and Trae<ius Muscles
Fi#. 39 ill&strates exactl) how the latissi$&s do+si $&scles sho&ld appear fro$ the front, when
the position depicted in Fi#. 3! has been sec&red.
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E 3ERC!)E 1=
Controlling of -eltoid% .atissimus -orsi% and Trae<ius Muscles
4ec&re contraction ill&strated b) Fi#. 3!. Felax power fro$ o&tward p&ll, and p&sh hands-
stron#l) to#ether. The sho&lder*blades ha+e dropped ri#ht bac( to nor$al position, and a different
portion of deltoid Jsho&lderK bro&#ht into action PFi#, 40Q.
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E3ERC!)E 1= 5continued6
Controlling of -eltoid% .atissimus -orsi% and Trae<ius Muscles
Fetain the contraction of the bac( $&scles as ill&strated b) Fi#. 40, release the press&re of the
hands, and re$o+e the$ fro$ the head, flexin# the biceps as shown in Fi#. 41.
Concentrate the $ind in 7&ic( s&ccession &pon biceps, deltoid, trape8i&s, and latissi$&s dorsi
$&scles, retainin# control Jin contractionQ of all fo&r sets si$&ltaneo&sl), then sec&rin# the$
separatel).
<nce control of these $&scles has been sec&red, in the $anner indicated, there will ens&e a bi#
increase in wei#ht*liftin# capacit).
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E 3ERC!)E 1>
Control of E+tensor Muscles of the Arms
Fro$ position of repose as shown in Fi#. 42, #rad&all) contract, while thin(in# of the$, all
extensor $&scles of the ar$s.
't will be obser+ed in ill&stration $) hand is clenched - h&t contraction of extensor $&scles
$&st be perfor$ed witho&t assistance of clenchin# the fists. The be#inner had better atte$pt this
contraction with hands held loosel) open.
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E3ERC!)E 1> 5continued6
Control of E+tensor Muscles of the Arms 5&ices6
@ow loc( ar$ at elbow, b) contractin# Jand p&shin# withK triceps JFi#. 43K. Fetainin# loc(ed
elbow, p&sh ar$ bac(wards as far as it will #o. Fet&rn to ori#inal position JFi#. 43K, and brin# ar$
slowl) &p in hoot of the bod) ri#ht toK f&ll stretch abo+e head. Thro&#ho&t $o+e$ent concentrate the
$ind &pon (eepin# the ar$ absol&tel) loc(ed, b) p&shin# with the triceps.
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E 3ERC!)E 1A
Control of the /le+or Muscles of the Arm
2end the bod) forward, holdin# the elbow al$ost at ri#ht an#les to the bod).
Contract the biceps as shown in Fi#. 44.
@ote well that the sho&lder is dropped low and the &pper ar$ and elbow p&shed well awa) fro$
the bod).
This position sec&res a $a#nificentl) f&ll and powerf&l contraction of the biceps witho&t $&ch
effort.
The elbow $a) be lifted e+en f&rther fro$ the bod), and the sho&lders dropped still lower.
This position will enable the st&dent with a well*de+eloped ar$ to $a(e the forear$ and biceps
$eet.
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E3ERC!)E 1A 5continued6
Control of the /le+or Muscles of the Arm
'n Fi#. 4 a si$ilar position of ar$ is shown, as Fi#. 44 b&t the biceps is shown f&ll instead of
profile.
The st&dent sho&ld note that the fist is clenched.
To sec&re f&ll contraction of biceps, it is absol&tel) &nnecessar) to clench the fist, as will be
shown in Fi#. 46.
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E3ERC!)E 1A 5continued6
Control of the /le+or Muscles of the Arm
The contraction of the biceps is still retained with the open hand and a slac( wrist JFi#.46K
' (now that be#inners will al$ost instincti+el), clench the fist when contractin# the biceps the
st&dent is therefore ad+ised to atte$pt
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E3ERC!)E 1A 5continued6
Control of the /le+or Muscles of the Arm
?a+in# sec&red position Fi#. 46, t&rn pal$ of the hand o&twards, still retainin# contraction of
the biceps JFi#. 47K.
The biceps will ha+e len#thened so$ewhat, b&t it is possible to (eep it contracted and hard
thro&#ho&t.
Fet&rn the forear$ to Fi#. 46, clench fist as shown in Fi#. 4, relax and repeat.
The fo&r contractions shown in Fi#s. 44, 4, 46, and 47 brin# the forear$ &nder control, if
attention be transferred fro$ &pper ar$ to forear$.
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E 3ERC!)E 7?
Control of the E+tensor Muscles of the Thigh
4tand &pon ro&#h s&rface where feet will not slip, strain as if to force le#s apart, (eepin# the
(nees strai#ht.
The effect shown in Fi#. 4! will be reprod&ced.
Considerable concentration will ha+e to be &sed to pre+ent tile (nees fro$ bendin# sidewa)s.
The stiffer )o& (eep the (nees, the #reater the effect &pon the thi#hs.
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E3ERC!)E 7? 5continued6
Control of the E+tensor Muscles of the Thigh
Elace one foot a few inches to the front.
Fest foot softl) &pon #ro&nd- do not press or p&t an) R*ei#ht &pon it.
Concentrate the $ind brin#in#, the extensor $&scles into hi#h relief b) contraction alone
JFi#. 49K.
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E3ERC!)E 7? 5continued6
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Control of the E+tensor Muscles of the Thigh
?an# well forward fro$ below waist, force one hip well to the front JFi#. 0K. The torso $&st
bend bac( to sec&re balance.
3llow f&ll wei#ht of whole bod) to be s&pported entirel) b) front and o&tside of thi#h.
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E 3ERC!)E 71
Control of the &ices of the Thigh% and 2astronomius of the Calf
4ec&re position shown in Fi#. 1.
Eoint the toes to sec&re control of the #astrono$i&s. *@ow brin# the toes as far to the front as
the) will co$e b) an(le $o+e$ent alone, to sec&re control of the $&scles on the o&tside of the shin
JTibialis antic&sK.
Control of &ices of Thigh
Fe#ain position 1- draw the heel of the foot &p towards the b&ttoc(, concentratin# the $ind
&pon the biceps of the thi#h.
To sec&re a $ore powerf&l contraction of the biceps of the thi#h, the thi#h sho&ld be carried as
far bac( as it will #o.
'n sec&rin# this control of the biceps of the thi#h the st&dent $&st #o slowl), for cra$p is
&s&all) experienced in the earl) sta#es.
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-iagrams of the Muscles
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