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Online Learning

By Susan Stone

EME 6062

Annotated Bibliography
Online learning has seen great growth over the past few years. The advancements as well as the
struggles with online learning have been tremendous and well documented. Research has indicated the
need for continuing education not only for teacher but also for the administration. Educational
practices and pedagogy have brought a new focus to the presentation of the online material. The
success or the failure of the online learner is at the center of the educational debate. Much of the
research today has shown that communication between the instructor and the student is essential for
the student to have a positive experience in the world of online learning. Effective instructional tools
and the delivery of information to students greatly influence the learning environment.

1 Baghdadi, Z. D. (2011). Best Practices in Online Education: Online Instructors, Courses, and
Administrators. Turkish Online Journal Of Distance Education, 12(3), 109-117.
Summary: The article discussed the positive association of synchronous communication for online
students. In particular it focused on the audio functions and the quality of online learning environments.
It concluded that students and teachers benefited from the use of communication in many forms.
However, Asynchronous learning did not receive such favorable results and was not perceived as an
effective instructional tool. The study felt that social constructivist learning theory was needed in order
to have positive learning effects and the environment of interface.
Assessment: The study was useful; however, it addressed a limited number of graduate students. It was
reliable but more information was needed to validate the results. The source did not appear bias and
objectivity was employed. The goal of the article was to examine instruction for online students. In
particular it provided insight to course quality in online learning environments.
Reflection: The article did not provide enough background on the subjects to determine the usefulness
of the findings. The study continually built a positive look at online classrooms. The students
encouraging viewpoints on various dimensions of instructional success was compared to face to face
instruction. The study examined instructor perceptions and followed other studies in the bibliography.
Keywords in the study were internet in education, discussion in education, web-based instruction,
online courses, and instructional effectiveness in higher education.
2 Baran, E., Correia, A., & Thompson, A. (2011). Transforming online teaching practice: critical analysis of
the literature on the roles and competencies of online teachers. Distance Education, 32(3), 421-
Summary: The paper deliberated effective online activities and critical educational practices. Traditional
pedagogy was determined ineffective in a web based course. The study looked at the emergence of
online learning for the past twenty years. An increasing emphasis was placed on the empowerment of
the student and the adoption of emerging technologies in everyday life. The study looked at the

examination of teachers and their beliefs toward the new culture of learning, ethical practices, and their
role as the sole performer in the new classroom.
Assessment: The paper was another confirmation of needed practices in online learning. One feature of
the article was the critical reflective practices that transform learning practices with students. The
information appeared reliable but did not produce new studies in regards to critical reflections for
instructors. The paper did not seem to have any bias. The goal of the paper was to bring dimension to
online instructors.
Reflection: The source was helpful and indicated the changes needed in pedagogy. It added more
understanding as to the needs of the instructor. Critical thinking was addressed not only in regards to
the student but to the instructor as well. The information produced in the paper did not change views
about the virtual instructing environment. Keywords for this article were online teaching, transformative
learning theory, online teacher roles, and competencies.
3 Bozorgmanesh, M. (2011). Online Classes and Traditional Classes in adult education. Nature & Science,
9(8), 81-84.
Summary: The article discussed the possibility of a world without classrooms. It provided pros and cons
of virtual learning. It focused on the importance of the role of the teacher and their involvement in the
delivery of the material. It talked about the rapid expansion of distance education and the opportunities
it has given to so many individuals who never dreamed education was possible because of other factors
in their lives such as work.
Assessment: The article did not provide much if any useful information. The statements made in the
article were not followed with documentation to validate. It could not be determined if the information
was reliable or not due to the lack of data provided. It did not seem to exhibit any bias. The paper did
not seem to have a goal.
Reflection: The paper does not fit with the other articles in the bibliography. It reiterates what other
sources have stated without research. The paper can be used as a reference about the expansion of
online learning and the necessity of involved teachers in the course material. The discussion concerning
two way communications could be helpful when discussing the essentials to teaching in an online
environment. Keywords in the paper are online classes, traditional classes, and distance education.
4 Brown, J. M. (2012). ONLINE LEARNING: A Comparison of Web-Based and Land-Based Courses.
Quarterly Review Of Distance Education, 13(1), 39-42.
Summary: The article reviewed the performance of students in web based courses versus those in land
based courses. It discussed the quality of the instruction due to the demand for the web based courses.
The study compared an instructor who taught online as well as land. They found no significant
differences in the grades between the two but more students withdrew from the web based course.
Many students were noted as believing it was easier to fall behind in the web based instructed class.

Assessment: The article did not contain new information. Other articles published about online learning
encompassed more detail and results. The goal was to explore differences in online and land based
sources. The pros and cons expressed by the students were common in most findings. The article
substantiates previous information but does not provide new material.
Reflection: The article discussed the method they used to prepare their data. I believe using an
instructor who taught both land based and web based was a good way to obtain results. However, I
think results could have been skewed by choosing just one instructor. The article furthers my knowledge
about the way students perceive online learning. One item that did strike me was that students
preferred the land based in this study. Key words in this study were same instructor, performance,
quality, and withdrawal.

5 Carr, N. (2012). The Crisis in Higher Education. Technology Review, 115(6), 32-40.
Summary: The paper discussed maintaining quality and accountability in an online environment. It also
examined purposeful teaching in web based instruction. Consideration for an online community and
communication within the virtual classroom was examined. Faculty perception of online teaching was
analyzed and reported to be negative since faculty members do not want to learn a new method of
teaching. Research indicated that virtual education can be just as effective, if not more so, than face to
face learning.
Assessment: The source provided useful information about web based instruction. It analyzed
perceptions and growth in the industry. It focused on the acceptance of the tools and in the business.
The evidence appeared to be reliable and unbiased. The goal of the study was to emphasis the
desirability of online learning but the ineffectiveness of many instructors.
Reflection: The paper reflects the views of others who researched online learning. It added more depth
to other papers in the sequence. The article provided empirical data to other corroborated material. It
echoed the need for training and support in the expansion of online resources. The article also restated
the help that both instructors and students need during the delivery of web based instruction.
6 Chau, P (2010). Online Higher Education Commodity . Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 22(3)
Summary: The report claimed that capitalism was a major reason for the boom of online learning. The
increasing demand for virtual classes was associated with the modification of knowledge. The process of
providing quality education was negated by a society who is more interested in a more accessible
education. The study suggested that education will turn from a traditional brick and mortar to a for-
profit online institution. In the end capitalism will devalue the word education.
Assessment: The report is very valuable. It reflected many beliefs in the educational field today in
regards to the reasons for online learning. It is important to note that while the cost of education has
increased more and more classes are only offered online. It is imperative to offer both to accommodate

all students. The words mass production and mass education are noteworthy in the document. The
paper did contain bias and did not contain a significant amount of research. The goal of the paper was to
discuss the influence of money in education.
Reflection: The paper provided a far wing look at education online. It categorized students as consumers
which in some cases seemed appropriate. It remains to be seen at what the good and bad costs online
learning will be in the future. The article took a harsh stance toward online learning and will be a good
rebuttal argument in the positive for web based instruction. Key words in the article were capitalism,
mass production, mass education, and consumers.

7 Christie, M. M., & Garrote Jurado, R. R. (2009). Barriers to Innovation in Online Pedagogy. European
Journal Of Engineering Education, 34(3), 273-279.
Summary: The paper attempted to understand why instructors do not utilize all of the tools of their
specific learning management systems. Most instructors felt they did not have time or the motivation to
become experts in their Learning Management System (LMS). It was determined that older teachers
more time to learn the system. Resources such as time and money needed to be invested in the LMS in
order to see a commitment to utilization of the product. Obstacles to advancements in the virtual world
were significant and resulted in less than effective pedagogy.
Assessment: The study was useful to understand problems with learning management systems. The
objectivity of the study was limited since it referred to only one universitys management system. The
reading brought another set of issues to light in the virtual environment. The information seemed
reliable but also incorporated some bias. The goal of the paper was to expose the need for resources in
order to promoted the LMS to instructors and as a result lead to a higher excellence of education.
Reflection: The article works well with current bibliographies in the project. It exposes yet another issue
that must be addressed in the ever growing virtual world. It helped outline the needs and advantages of
training. The adjustments that are needed for instructors when changes are made in the learning
management systems cannot be underestimated or diminished. Keywords for the article were online
learning, pedagogical use of learning management systems, and engineering education.
Quarterly Review Of Distance Education, 13(1), 11-14.
Summary: The article discussed the necessity for communication, course design and teacher
preparation as it pertains to online learning. The focus was primarily on the instructor and their role in
the online environment. It also touched on the lack of knowledge of pedagogy. An online community to
share ideas was noted as a solution to the amount of time spent in the course. International students
were discussed as well as synchronous and asynchronous learning activities.

Assessment: The article did not provide data for the methods recommended. In regards to online
learning progress, the article was not beneficial. Most of the information provided was common sense.
The article did not seem to have a purpose other than to pontificate over possibilities. Even though
studies were mentioned, very little data was given or how improvements could be made in the online
Reflect: The paper validated my feelings about more training needed for online teachers but did not give
recommendations about how, how long, how often, etc. training was needed. I did not think methods of
communication were discussed or researched. I do not feel this paper will be beneficial as it seems to
ponder rather than confirm findings.
9 Dray, B. J., Lowenthal, P. R., Miszkiewicz, M. J., Ruiz-Primo, M., & Marczynski, K. (2011). Developing an
instrument to assess student readiness for online learning: a validation study. Distance
Education, 32(1), 29-47.
Summary: The article focused on the readiness of students to take online classes. Previous studies
appeared to have mainly focused on whether a student could use email, word processing, and basic
software and also personal characteristics such as self-direction. This study used a three phase method
to attempt to determine the success of the online learner. The results implied that the areas of interest
of a student are essential as well as the level of engagement. The term online learner appeared to be in
dispute depending on the numbers of hours a student will spend in the online environment.
Assessment: The study was useful because of the data it provided and the background of other studies.
The study did not bring new knowledge to the discussion of online learning. The information was
reliable and referenced well. The source did not appear biased. The goal was to bring a way to assess
the readiness of the online learner.
Reflect: The source was helpful because it gave background on questions asked to students who are
considering online courses. It helps to shape my argument through its views on past performance of
student in the online environment. However, the article added to my confusion: I still do not know a
good way to determine a students readiness to take an online course. Because it deals with values,
thoughts, and beliefs it is hard to understand how this will impact the changes in course development
and retention rates.

10 Emerson, L., & MacKay, B. (2011). A comparison between paper-based and online learning in higher
education. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 42(5), 727-735.
Summary: The study compared the learning of online students to those in a paper-based or classroom.
The study was conducted on the use of punctuation. The study used identical materials and focused
primarily on the use of the apostrophe. The study used both qualitative and quantitative results in its
conclusion. The significant differences discussed were the confidence in the material learned and the
24% better results in the assessment of the paper based learners. The results showed that paper-based
learners were more confident in their mastery of the information than the online students.

Assessment: The result of the study was very useful. It was important to understand confidence as it
pertained to learning and how that might relate to performance. It attempted to understand the
relationship between learning modes and learning outcomes. It also attempted to discuss the level of
interactivity needed to engage students. The study did not appear to reflect bias.
Reflect: The paper certainly provided more information for my knowledge base about online learning. It
also reiterates that more studies need to be completed on what engages students in an online
classroom. The discussion about the role interactive play will influence my methods of live lessons. The
quantitative results from both groups provided valuable information. The factors that may have
influenced their results were perhaps the most beneficial to consider.
11 Green, T., Alejandro, J., & Brown, A. H. (2009). The Retention of Experienced Faculty in Online
Distance Education Programs: Understanding Factors that Impact their Involvement.
International Review Of Research In Open & Distance Learning, 10(3), 1-15.
Summary: Faculty turnover was costly. Before an organization is capable of developing an operational
distance education, faculty must be in place. Positive factors of online education for the instructors were
flexible scheduling, opportunity to learn new methods of technology and pedagogy. Negative aspects of
teaching online included the time and effort needed to teaching online, no additional financial
compensation, lack of institutional support, training and experience. Distance educators needed
continuous training at workshops to remain in the environment.
Assessment: The paper provided beneficial information about the pros and cons of online teaching. The
educators made acceptable reasons for their decision about the remaining in the institution to teach
online courses. The information was reliable and used documented evidence of the results. The paper
did seem to contain a small amount of bias. The goal of the paper was to discuss ways to retain
instructors for distance education.
Reflection: The paper was worthwhile to understand the many views and reasons instructors choose or
do not choose to engage in online teaching. The information provided further validation about the
conceptions of the web based courses. It had no controversial data that would influence change in the
opinion. The paper can be used to provide validation about concerns in continuing training and
development in distance education. Key words in the article were instructor retention, workshops, and
initial training.
12 Hartnett, M., St. George, A., & Dron, J. (2011). Examining Motivation in Online Distance Learning
Environments: Complex, Multifaceted, and Situation-Dependent. International Review Of
Research In Open And Distance Learning, 12(6), 20-38.
Summary: This article discussed the motivational factors of the online learner. Poor motivation was
related to a high drop out of online learners. Self-determination theory discussed both intrinsic and
extrinsic motivation in online context. Multiple influences contributed to the success of the student. The
study revealed no substantial influences in regards to intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors.

Assessment: The finding from this article did not contain a lot of substantial information about online
learning. The case study involved a relatively low number of students and did not reveal remarkable
results. The paper did not appear to contain bias about the subject. The goal of the study was to
demonstrate that motivation in online environment results from relationship between individuals and
the environment in which they are located.
Reflection: The study was not a substantial help. Motivational variations amid the learners for the
interval of the class were not evident. It did not change the direction of the bibliography or influence
any prior findings. It did validate findings that motivation is a complex trait and influenced by many
factors. Key words contained in the article were motivation, self-determination theory, online learning,
and distance education, e-learning, intrinsic and extrinsic.
13 Heeyoung, H., & Johnson, S. D. (2012). Relationship between Students' Emotional Intelligence, Social
Bond, and Interactions in Online Learning. Journal Of Educational Technology & Society, 15(1),
Summary: The study discussed the bond students have with their online class. The study found no
correlation between the asynchronous activities in the classroom. Course structure was determined to
influence the relationship that students had towards the class. When students were able to perceive
emotion due to the interaction with the class the study found they had a more positive outlook towards
the course. The main focus of the research was the degree of the association between the three
dimensions of emotional intelligence, social bond, and interaction.
Assessment: The article was a very useful source. The study did not seem to be biased. The information
was followed with methods and data to substantiate the findings. The information was reliable and
included a systematic review of the issues. The goal was to seek an interdependency correlation
between emotion, cognition, and behavior.
Reflection: The article was very useful to understanding three factors of online learning. It provided key
information concerning feelings, intellect and behavior. One issue that was mentioned but not
addressed was the results of the study were achieved by respectful and active participants. After
reading the note, it would be helpful to understand how many of the studies have considered students
who did not have a choice except online learning. Key words in this study were emotional intelligence,
social bond, and online interactions.
14 Hege, B. R. (2011). The Online Theology Classroom: Strategies for Engaging a Community of Distance
Learners in a Hybrid Model of Online Education. Teaching Theology & Religion, 14(1), 13-20.
Summary: The article discussed the relationship that must be maintained in an online environment and
pedagogy. It described several strategies to accomplish goals and expectations in a classroom. One of
the most important issues discussed was not to treat the online environment as you do a virtual
classroom. It focused on the dynamics of the educational process. Blogging, Skype, was a method used
to build a learning community. Virtual office hours were thought to be a necessity in web based

Assessment: Because this article discusses specific ways to build online communities, it has significant
value in the bibliography. The article does not provide data to corroborate the analysis. The source did
have bias. The author was an online educator and was influenced by his personal findings. The goal of
the paper was to provide tactics to meet the needs of students and a safe educational environment.
Reflection: The specific strategies will provide options for student communication in the virtual
classroom. The paper was useful for its detailed assessment of virtual options in messaging. It also
addressed the importance of specific courses and the importance/unimportance that each student
places on the material. It reminded teachers to implement strategies for consistent engagement in the
virtual classroom.
15 Kop, R., Fournier, H., & Mak, J. (2011). A Pedagogy of Abundance or a Pedagogy to Support Human
Beings? Participant Support on Massive Open Online Courses. International Review Of Research
In Open And Distance Learning, 12(7), 74-93.
Summary: The paper described the control of the classroom. It related the shift of control from the
teacher to the student. It discussed the notion that learning is changing with emergent technologies.
The learning experience changed through the plethora of networks of information available to learners
with the stroke of a key. Social and cognitive existences were part of the virtual community and
network. The study focused on learning in massive open online course (MOOC) as opposed to a
traditional course.
Assessment: The source had some advantageous information. It revealed the need for a collaborative
experience. The information appeared to be reliable and unbiased. The goal was to expose the
relationship built in an online environment which should be nurtured in a climate of kinship, care,
mutual respect, and support. It related the need of the instructor to embrace change and enthusiasm
throughout the course.
Reflection: The paper acknowledges the need for a change in the rational, attitude, strategy, and
pedagogies of virtual classrooms. The article built a stronger argument for the introduction and training
of emerging technologies to be accepted within formal educational institutions. The information did not
introduce new ideas but did reinforce ones already stated. Keywords in the article were connectivism,
networked learning, media affordances, and learner autonomy.
16 Kerr, S. (2011). High School Online: Pedagogy, Preferences, and Practices of Three Online Teachers.
Journal Of Educational Technology Systems, 39(3), 221-244.
Summary: The study focused on the use of online tools used by high school students. It was noted that
students did not utilize all of the tools in the course. Researchers also concluded that the use of a
computer alone did not mean that higher order thinking was accomplished. The use of scaffolding was
still necessary to answer complex questions. The use of a collaborative project by the students was
deemed to be ineffective way of engaging the students in the material.

Assessment: While this supported previous findings, it did not seem to relay reliable information. The
study looked at three high school teachers. It did not provide the amount of time they had spent
teaching in the environment or how much training they had attained. It did exhibit some contradictions
such as the preference for text based material. The goal of study was to look at communication as it
relates to the success in web based learning.
Reflection: The article supported other studies concerning the lack of use of online learning tools. The
source was not as helpful as anticipated because of its lack of data. It does not add a lot to shape the
argument made in this project. The article did not influence change about the topic. Keywords in the
article were higher order thinking, collaborative tools, and high school students.
17 Leong, P. (2011). Role of social presence and cognitive absorption in online learning environments.
Distance Education, 32(1), 5-28.
Summary: This study hoped to correlate student satisfaction with absorption of material. They wanted
to understand how involved students became with the online activities. The study suggested in online
learning environments that social presence, cognitive absorption, and interest all have an impact on
student satisfaction. The study used an online survey to gather the data. The study was able to establish
a correlation on student satisfaction.
Assessment: The study included a plethora of information that can be used for online learning. The
source used a substantial amount of data to validate the findings. The information appeared reliable
and unbiased. The goal of the study was to link online learning satisfaction to interest, absorption and
satisfaction. Through research, chart and references, the study appeared to have met its objective.
Reflection: The study was helpful to reiterate the findings other studies in the same area. The study
added depth and support to other studies I have reviewed. From the data collected this will substantiate
the belief in the field: students learn more when they are interested. The study was certainly useful in
the field of online learning. Keywords in the paper were social presence; cognitive absorption; interest;
online student satisfaction.
18 Lindgren, R., & McDaniel, R. (2012). Transforming Online Learning through Narrative and Student
Agency. Journal Of Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 344-355.
Summary: The paper focused on the technology platform in online learning. It discussed two issues
narrative and student agencies. It focused on implementing new ways to promote the material in an
online setting. Instead of using current technology, new designs are needed to engage and maintain
students in web based communities. Story generators, agents, story database systems, and interactive
fiction systems were examples provided of narrative intelligence. Student agencies were described as
the choices one makes to make a modification in their life. The study felt an element of narration was
important in maintaining engagement in the course.
Assessment: The information was somewhat unclear. The results of the study appeared to be
subjective. While there did not seem to be bias in the paper, the study used 200 students but only a few

courses and assignments were reviewed. The results of the study once again verified the need for
unique instruction in online classrooms. The objective was to investigate the effects of an online course
where narrative and student agencies are focal design features.
Reflection: The study was not as helpful as first believed. The information proposed was somewhat
confusing. Reward and incentives were mentioned but not elaborated on in the paper. It would have
been helpful to understand the role that incentives might play in an online environment. The paper did
not change previous thoughts on the topic but did peak interest in the notion enticements. Keywords in
the paper were online learning, narrative, agency, undergraduate education, and emerging media.

19 Mawn, M. V., Carrico, P., Charuk, K., Stote, K. S., & Lawrence, B. (2011). Hands-on and online:
scientific explorations through distance learning. Open Learning, 26(2), 135-146.
Summary: The study hoped to determine how online learning would affect the outcomes of science
courses and lab experiments. The paper looked at ways to engage students in hands on practices and
produce a meaningful outcome. Three New York State courses were analyzed to determine the needs of
teaching and learning scientific content as well as scientific processes. The process looked at traditional
techniques usually explained in a laboratory environment. It was determined that students could
integrate scientific processes in the online environment and because of the lack of time restraints; the
students could rework their findings and thus have a deeper understanding of the material.
Assessment: The goal of the paper made it different from other articles studied. It appeared that virtual
learning opportunities could extend to a variety of locations. It was determined that just because a
student worked in their chosen environment, their science content knowledge could still increase. The
study did not appear to have bias. The goal of the study was to determine if it was possible for students
to develop scientific process skills while meeting other obligations in their varied locations.
Reflection: The study was very useful since other learning goals were explored. The learning
parameters of hands on experiments in the virtual environments gave new information to the
bibliography. It expanded on the results and capability of online learning. The study will be beneficial as
it explored other requirements and needs in the virtual world. The paper used 107 students in its
results; however, more studies would be helpful to understand whether field-based activities could
stimulate critical thinking skills and nurture an interest in science in the virtual classroom.
20 Perry, E. L. (2011). Online learning. New Directions For Teaching & Learning, 11(1), 95-104.
Summary: Multiple theories of learning were used to discuss the principles of the designs needed. One
idea that was discussed was the use of tools to identify the way material should be presented to
learners. The VARK was an online learning questionnaire for students who are considering taking an
online class. Three techniques of delivery were noted to be needed for the various learning styles. One
of the suggestions was for teachers to deliver material in numerous formats. Second, was to allow for

lenient navigation in the course. Lastly, it encouraged discussion participation. Virtual field trips were
also encouraged in the report.
Assessment: The paper did not prove to have many benefits. The suggestion for students to share
information with their instructor about their specific learning style does not seem reasonable especially
when some classes contain hundreds of students. However, incorporating the three learning styles was
needed for many reasons such as boredom. The paper did not use research to confirm the goal of the
article. The goal of the paper was to identify individual learning styles when designing instructional
templates used in online education.
Reflection: The article did not provide significant information about online learning. The paper was
chosen to demonstrate the philosophy change of online learning in recent years. The conclusions drawn
in this argument suggested the extraordinary amount of growth and research in the field. The
information was obsolete and did not work well with the bibliography. Key words in the paper were
VARK, learning styles, and earlier beliefs.
21 Saltmarsh, S., & Sutherland-Smith, W. (2010). S(t)imulating learning: pedagogy, subjectivity and
teacher education in online environments. London Review Of Education, 8(1), 15-24.
Summary: The article discussed the many modes of delivering instruction. It dealt with the issue of
retention of the students in a web based class. It looked at the subjectivity of the instructor as well as
the influence of social norms. Focuses were placed on the professional development and competency
standards for the online instructors. Discussions concerning online learning environments differed
immensely, as did the pedagogic tactics and expert practices of instructors who used them.
Assessment: The article discussed the differences in modality and the effectiveness of the delivery but
accessed only three subjects in their review. While the article seemed to have reliable information,
there did not seem to be enough to draw a decisive conclusion. The article did appear to have some bias
in its findings. The goal of the study was to expose the challenges of online teaching and learning and
the opportunities for conveying teaching practices and teacher subjectivities.
Reflection: While the information was interesting, it did not have enough qualitative or quantitative
statistics to corroborate the findings. It did not present a goal that appeared to be measureable. The
information did not seem to have a logical order. It also did not develop what the subjective issues were
in regards to online learning. Keywords for this article were online education, teacher education, higher
education, subjectivity, and pedagogy.
22 Sansone, C., Fraughton, T., Zachary, J., Butner, J., & Heiner, C. (2011). Self-regulation of motivation
when learning online: the importance of who, why and how. Educational Technology Research &
Development, 59(2), 199-212.
Summary: The article discussed the Self-regulation of Motivation (SRM) model. It discussed the
relationship between the interested and non-interested students. Students with more of an individual
interest in the subject seemingly expected the information to be beneficial and have less need to adjust

their involvement once they began. Their motivation and performance at the end may be less reliant on
their involvement during the lesson. The paper also centered on whether and interest in computers
played a role in the motivation of students but no correlation was found.
Assessment: The paper is very valuable. It is one of the most useful resources in the bibliography. The
paper did have some bias as it promoted certain models of learning. The information presented appears
to be reliable and validated through its evaluations. The objective of the paper was to explore the
relationship between goals and experience of online learning as it relates to motivation.
Reflection: This paper adds a great deal of information. It proposed that to enhance sustained learning
over time, it may be useful to design online settings to meet individuals interests. The findings proposed
that a students motivational circumstances may be key for enhancing education online. Keywords in
this paper were self-regulation of motivation, interest experience, and individual interest.
23 Wise, B., & Rothman, R. (2010). The ONLINE LEARNING Imperative: A Solution to Three Looming
Crises in Education. Education Digest, 76(3), 52-58.
Summary: The article discusses the tipping point in education. The author felt education had reached
a critical point and the focus needs to be on global skill demands versus educational attainment, funding
issues, and teacher shortages. One of the solutions discussed in the paper was the option of online
learning. The author focused on the role of the teacher versus the role of the student. The author
believed the student will need to take more responsibility for their learning.
Assessment: The article provided statistics and evaluations to prove the three focus points of the paper.
It was a useful source in determining specific needs in the field of education. It provided new
information to the bibliography that prior research had not discovered. The author did not include
prejudice in the article. The goal of the paper was to bring answerability for student results to a much
higher and meaningful level.
Reflection: The article added meaningful information concerning the future of education. It is useful to
note the precise arguments and solutions in the paper. It added to information to help push the need
for online education. The paper discussed financial concerns facing the educational community. It also
added to bibliography because of the discussion about the shortage of teachers in the near future.
Keywords in the paper were global skills, teacher shortage, and high quality education.
24 Ward, M. E., Peters, G., & Shelley, K. (2010). Student and Faculty Perceptions of the Quality of Online
Learning Experiences. International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 11(3),
Summary: The study used quantitative and qualitative results to gain the perception of discussion
groups in a virtual world. The paper remarked on the hesitancy of the instructors to assess online
learning as effective as face to face instruction. Even with the synchronous instruction teachers were
reluctant to validate the quality of instruction found in the virtual world. Asynchronous discussions were

deemed ineffective by both student and instructor. The ease of using the online environment was a
positive for all parties involved.
Assessment: It was a useful source because it shows the progression of change as more and more
technology improves web based instruction. In the three years since this article was written, great
strides have been documented in the discussion groups among teachers and students. The study did not
use a large subject group therefore the results do not seem as valid as other papers in the bibliography.
The goal of this study was to examine instructor observations of the virtues of synchronous interactive
online instruction (SIOI).
Reflection: Two way communications appeared to be of great interest in the online community.
Instructional effectiveness seems to be founded on the basis of communication between all participants.
The report established challenges faced in the delivery of the course and the reception of the course.
The article did not change any views but did establish the changes that are evident with the variety of
students who attend the same course. Key words in the article included instructor observations,
effectiveness, asynchronous and synchronous.
25 Zembylas, M., & Vrasidas, C. (2005). Levinas and the Inter-face: The Ethical Challenge of Online
Education. Educational Theory, 55(1), 61-78.
Summary: The study discussed the moral worth of the educational process. The balance of an ethical
orientation was debated over the digital world. The needs of the underprivileged raised other concerns
in regards to the availability of the internet. A discussion of globalization and the ethics of technology
brought about the skepticism of education theorists. The author felt there was an ethical ambiguity in
the educational system.
Assessment: The goal of the study was to determine how identity and communication are revealed in
online education. The discussion about an ethical pedagogy online was not corroborated with any
research. The author created the article with bias. The information is not reliable since no statistics
were used in assessing the proposal. The article did not compare to others because of the lack of
substantiation of the material.
Reflection: The article encouraged a classroom that promoted listening and witnessing by teachers. It
also pontificated that grades were fundamentally problematic because it puts the student in a grade
driven physical world that could lead to ethical issues. This article cannot be used in the discussion of
online learning. Most of the information was confusing and references were made to words that did not
have notes to follow. Key words in the article were ethical, ambiguity, witnessing, and problematic