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IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL

DESIGN




By

KUKADIYA CHIRAG V. PATEL DHIRAJ N. PATEL KUNAL N. SHAH JAYMIN P.
100750106011 100750106026 110753106009 110753106014


Name of Supervisor


Prof. PRIYANK B SHAH
M.Tech (Transportation Engineering) Department Of
Civil Engineering, SVBIT, Gandhinagar.


A Report Submitted to Gujarat Technological University
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
The Degree of Bachelor of Engineering (8
th
Semester)
in
Civil Engineering
29
th
April, 2014


Bapu Gujarat Knowledge Village Shankersinh
Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology, Vasan,
Gandhinagar 382650
IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page I






CERTIFICATE



This is to certify that A Report Submitted as a Project II for the thesis entitled
IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN was carried out by following students
at Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology f or partial fulfillment of B.E. degree to be
awarded by Gujarat Technological University. This research work has been carried out under
my supervision and is to my satisfaction.




KUKADIYA CHIRAG V. PATEL DHIRAJ N. PATEL KUNAL N. SHAH JAYMIN P.
100750106011


Date: 29
th
April, 2014
100750106026 110753106009 110753106014
Place: Ahmedabad.









GUIDE BY
Prof. Priyank B Shah
(Assistant Professor) SVBIT,
Gandhinagar
Head of Civil Department
Prof. Abijitsinh Parmar
(Assistant Professor)
SVBIT,
Gandhinagar



Bapu Gujarat Knowledge Village Shankersinh
Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology Gandhinagar
382650
IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page II

THESIS APPROVAL

This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled IMPROVEMENT IN
TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN was carried out by following students at Shankersinh Vaghela
Bapu Institute of Technology (075) is approved for award of the degree of B.E. in Civil
Engineering by Gujarat Technological University.




KUKADIYA CHIRAG V. PATEL DHIRAJ N. PATEL KUNAL N. SHAH JAYMIN P.
100750106011 100750106026 110753106009 110753106014





Date: 29
th
April, 2014

Place: Ahmadabad.


















------------------------- ------------------------- ------------------------
( ) ( ) ( )
IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page III

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY

I hereby certify that I am the sole author of this thesis and that neither any part of this thesis
nor the whole of the thesis has been submitted for a degree to any other University or
Institution. I certify that, to the best of my knowledge, my thesis does not infringe upon
anyones copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques,
quotations, or any other material from the work of other people included in my thesis,
published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referencing
practices. I declare that this is a true copy of my thesis, including any final revisions, as
approved by my thesis review committee.





Date: 29
th
April, 2014

Place: Ahmadabad.



KUKADIYA CHIRAG V. PATEL DHIRAJ N. PATEL KUNAL N. SHAH JAYMIN P.
100750106011 100750106026 110753106009 110753106014









Verified By:

Prof. Priyank Shah

(Assistant Professor
at Department of
Civil Engineering
SVBIT)
IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATE I
THESIS APPROVAL II
DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF FIGURE VI
LIST OF TABLE VI
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS VII
ABSTRACT VIII

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. INTRODUCTION 2
1.2. TYPES OF TRAFFIC SIGNALS 3
1.3. FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN INSTALLING A SIGNAL 3
1.3.1 ADVANTAGES TRAFFIC SIGNALS 3
1.3.2 DISADVANTAGES TRAFFIC SIGNALS 4
1.4. TERMINOLOGY 4
1.5. OVERVIEW 4
1.5.1 DEFINITIONS AND NOTATIONS 5
1.5.2 PHASE DESIGN 6
1.5.3 TWO PHASE SIGNALS 7
1.5.4 FOUR PHASE SIGNALS 8
1.5.5 INTERVAL DESIGN 10
1.5.6 CYCLE TIME 11
1.6. EFFECTIVE GREEN TIME 13
1.7. LANE CAPACITY 14
1.8. CRITICAL LANE 14
CHAPTER 2 LITRATURE REVIEW 15
2.1RESEARCH PAPERS ON TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN 16
2.1.1 ROAD SAFETY PERFORMANCE ASSOCIATED WITH
IMPROVED TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN AND INCREASED
SIGNAL CONSPICUITY
17
2.1.2 PROBLEM AND POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR BETTER
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT: AHMEDABAD-VADODRA NH-8
18
2.1.3 IMPROVED TRAFFIC SIGNAL COORDINATION
STRATEGIES FOR ACTUATED CONTROL
19
2.1.4 IMPROVING SAFETY IN TH E TRANSPORT INDUSTRY
THROUGH INCREASED VISIBILITY
20
IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page V

2.1.5 IMPROVING TRAFFIC SYSTEMS STRATEGY AND OPERATIONS
USING A CAPABILITY MATURITY APPROACH
21

2.1.6 TRAFFIC SIGNAL SUPPORTING STRUCTURES AND METHODS 22
2.1.7 TRAFFIC SIGNAL CONTROL SYSTEM AND METHOD 22
2.1.8 TRAFFIC SIGNAL LIGHT DEVICE 24
2.1.9 TRAFFIC SIGNAL WITH INTEGRATED SENSORS 25

CHAPTER 3 METHEDOLOGY

26

CHAPTER 4 SURVEY METHODS

28
4.1 INTRODUCTION 29
4.2 USING COUNT PERIOD TO DETERMINE STUDY METHOD 29
4.3 TRAFFIC VOLUME COUNT FLOW CHART 30
4.4 MANUAL COUNT METHOD 31
4.4.1 MANUAL COUNT RECORDING METHOD







31
4.5 A TYPICAL SHEET FOR MANUAL VOLUME COUNT METHOD 32
4.5.1KEY STEP TO MANUAL COUNT STUDY 32
4.5.2 PEDESTRAIN COUNT 32
4.5.3 VEHICLES CLASSIFICATION COUNT 33
4.5.4 AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC AND ANNUAL AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC
COUNTS:
33
CHAPTER 5 DESIGN PROCESS AND RESULT ANALYSIS

3.1INTODUCTION
3.2DESIGNS STEP
3.3 INITIAL SITE INSPECTION
3.4 SITE PLAN
3.4.1 KERB LINE
3.5 PRELIMINARY DESIGN
3.4 DESIGN/SITE INSPECTION
3.6.1 POWER SUPPLY
3.6.2 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
3.6.3 PHOTOGRAPHS

3
. MODIFIED DESIGN/SITE PLAN
3.8 CONSULTATION
3.9 NON STANDARD DESIGN
3.10 FINAL SITE INSPECTION
35
5.1 INTODUCTION 36
5.2 DESIGNS STEP 37
5.3 INITIAL SITE INSPECTION 37
5.4 SITE PLAN 38
5.4.1 KERB LINE

39
5.5 PRELIMINARY DESIGN 40
5.6 DESIGN/SITE INSPECTION

41
5.6.2 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 42
5.6.3 PHOTOGRAPHS

43
5.7 MODIFIED DESIGN/SITE PLAN 45
5.8 NON STANDARD DESIGN 45
5.9 FINAL SITE INSPECTION 45
5.10 DETAIL DESIGN 46
5.11 AS PER IRC: 106-1990 PCU FOR DIFFERENT VEHICLE 47
5.12 TRAFFIC VOLUME COLLECTION DATA SHE 48
5.13 HOURLY VARIATION OF TRAFFIC IN ALL DIRECTION: 49
5.14 HOURLY VARIATION CHART FOR ALL DIRECTION: 50
5.17 HOURELY TRAFFIC VOLUME AS PER DATA 51
5.18 TRAFFIC FLOW DISCRIPTION: 51
5.19 HOURELY TRAFFIC VOLUME CHART: 52
5.20 PEAK HOUR FLOW DIAGRAM 53
CHAPTER 7 DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE 55
CHAPTER 8 RESULT AND CONCLUSION 65
REFERANCE 67
IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page VI

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure Name Page no
Figure -1.1 SIGNAL TIMING AT TRAFFIC SIGNAL

SIGNAL TIMING AT TRAFFIC SIGNAL

SIGNAL TIMING AT TRAFFIC SIGNAL

SIGNAL TIMING AT TRAFFIC SIGNAL

4
Figure -1.2 FOUR LEGGED INTERSECTION

6
Figure -1.3 TWO PHASE SIGNAL

7
Figure -1.4 ONE WAY OF PROVIDING FOUR PHASE SIGNALS

8
Figure -1.5 SECOND POSSIBLE WAY OF PROVIDING A FOUR PHASE
SIGNAL

9
Figure -1.6 THIRD POSSIBLE WAY OF PROVIDING A FOUR-PHASE
SIGNAL

10
Figure -1.7 GROUP OF VEHICLES AT A SIGNALIZED
INTERSECTION WAITING FOR
GREEN SIGNAL

11
Figure -1.8 HEADWAY DEPARTING SIGNAL 12
Figure 5.1 STEPS IN DESIGN PROCESS 36
Figure 5.2 TOP VIEW OF INCOMTAX CIRCLE ROAD 39
Figure 5.3 HOURLY VARIATION 50
Figure 5.4 TRAFFIC COMPOSITION CHART 51
Figure 5.5 HORELY TRAFFIC FLOW CHART 52
Figure 5.6 TRAFFIC PEAK HOURE FLOW DIAGRAM 53
Figure 5.6 TRAFFIC FLOW DIAGRAM FOR INCOMTAX CIRCLE 56
Figure 5.7 PHASE TRAFFIC FLOW FOR INCOMTAX CIRCLE 57
Figure 5.8 PHASE ALLOCATION 59
Figure 5.9 EXISTING CYCLE 60
Figure 5.10 REVISED CYCLE 60
Figure 5.11 TRAFFIC FLOW DIAGRAM 61
Figure 5.12 PHASE WISE FLOW 61
Figure 5.13 EXISTING CYCLE TIME 64
Figure 5.14

REVISED CYCLE TIME 64

LIST OF TABLE

TABLE NO PAGE NO
TABLE NO-1 32
TABLE NO-2 47
TABLE NO-3 48
TABLE NO-4 49
TABLE NO-5 51
TABLE NO-6 52
TABLE NO-7 58
IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page VII
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT





I would like to express my highest appreciation to my supervisor Prof. Priyank Shah,
Professor and, Faculty of Technology, SVBIT College, Unava. For his thoughtful guidance during the
course of this project. His wisdom, flexibility, and patience were essential to the success of this work
Major Project.
Also, I would like thank to my colleagues, your help are really appreciated and will be
remembered forever.
Finally, I would like to special thankful to my parents, brothers and friends for their persistent
support in my studying at SVBIT, Ahmedabad. Their love and understanding always helps.


Chirag Kukadiya(100750106011)
Dhiraj Patel(100750106026)
Kunal Patel(110753106009)
Jaymin Shah(110753106014)
IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page VIII


ABSTRACT

Road traffic congestion is a recurring problem worldwide. In India, a fast growing economy, the problem
is acutely felt in almost all major cities. This is primarily because infrastructure growth is slow compared
to growth in number of vehicles, due to space and cost constraints. Secondly, Indian traffic being non-lane
based and chaotic is largely different from the western traffic. The difference can be understood fully only
through experience. Traffic research has the goal to optimize traffic flow of people and goods As the
number of road users constantly increases, and resources provided by current infrastructures are limited,
Improvement In our Project we are trying to solve this traffic congestion At Incomtax Circle
(Ahmedabad). The income tax circle is main route which connect EAST and WEST side of the city.
Income tax circle have currently many issues with traffic jams and accidents due to improper design of
traffic signal. This project survey Conduct for understanding of required improvement parameters
in Recent Traffic Signal Design. Improvement in existing traffic time cycle to improve the traffic
flow


INTRODUCTION

IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page 1


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
















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1.1 INTRODUCTION:
This Traffic Signal design course describes principals used in the design of traffic
signals. Included in this course is a discussion of support selection, signal head
placement, detection design, and the selection of signal control and timings.
After collecting the needed data and completing the necessary planning tasks, the
final design plans for the traffic signal installation are prepared. Prior to initiating the
design work, it is very important that the designer visit the site so that he or she can
have an accurate visual image of the design environment. More than one site visit will
typically be required to fully understand the traffic operations environment of the
intersection in question. At the very least, a visit should be made during both the
weekday AM peak hour and the weekday PM peak hour. If the intersection is in close
proximity to a special traffic generator, such as a school or factory, a site visit during
the entrance and exit times of the generator will also prove valuable. A night visit is
also a good idea
The type of intersection to be controlled has a pronounced effect on the design that is
developed. Although standard 4-leg intersections are the norm, there are many other
types of intersections that, in one respect or another, require special treatment
The conflicts arising from movements of traffic in different directions is solved by
time sharing of the principle. The advantages of traffic signal includes an orderly
movement of traffic, an increased capacity of the intersection and requires only
simple geometric design. However the disadvantages of the signalized intersection are
it affects larger stopped delays, and the design requires complex considerations.
Although the overall delay may be lesser than a rotary for a high volume, a user is
more concerned about the stopped delay.
1.1.1 WHY TRAFFIC SIGNALS REQUIRED :
Conflicting traffic movements, make roadway intersections unsafe for vehicles and
pedestrians Intersections are a major source of crashes and vehicle delay (as vehicles
yield to avoid conflicts with other vehicles). Most roadway intersections are not
signalized due to low traffic volumes and adequate sight distances. At some point,
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traffic volumes and crash frequency/severity (and other factors) reach a level that
warrant the installation of traffic signals.
1.2TYPES OF TRAFFIC SIGNALS:
5-leg Intersections
"T" Intersections
Skewed Intersections
Staggered Intersections
Freeway Ramps
Intersections with Frontage Roads
Single Point Urban Interchanges
1.3 FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN INSTALLING A
SIGNAL:
A number of factors should be considered when planning to signalize an intersection.
These factors include:The negative effects of traffic delay. Excessive delay results in
significant fuel waste, higher motorist costs and air pollution. Potential diversion of
arterial traffic into neighborhood streets. Red-light running violations and associated
crashes Cost.
1.3.1 ADVANTAGES TRAFFIC SIGNALS :
Ensures orderly movement of traffic in all directions
Provisions for the progressive flow of traffic in a signal-system corridor
Provisions for side-street vehicles to enter the traffic stream
Provisions for pedestrians to cross the street safely
Potential reduction of accidents, conflicts ensuring safety
Possible improvements in capacity, and
Possible reductions in delay


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1.3.2 DISADVANTAGES TRAFFIC SIGNALS:
Large stop time delay
Complex signal design problems
The possible effects of a poorly-timed traffic signal
Increase in vehicle delay,
Increase vehicle crashes (particularly rear-end crashes)
Disruption to traffic progression
SIGNAL TIMING AT A TRAFFIC SIGNAL:
Green time: The time period in which the traffic signal has the green indication
Red time: The time period in which the traffic signal has the red indication
Yellow time: The time period in which the traffic signal has the yellow indication
Cycle: One complete rotation or sequence of all signal indications
Cycle time (or cycle length): The total time for the signal to complete one sequence
of signal indication.

Fig-1.1 signal timing at a traffic signal
1.4 OVERVIEW
The conflicts arising from movements of traffic in different directions is solved by
time sharing of the principle. The advantages of traffic signal include an orderly
movement of traffic, an increased capacity of the intersection and require only simple
geometric design. However the disadvantages of the signalized intersection are it
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affects larger stopped delays, and the design requires complex considerations.
Although the overall delay may be lesser than a rotary for a high volume, a user is
more concerned about the stopped delay.

1.4.1 DEFINITIONS AND NOTATIONS
A number of definitions and notations need to be understood in signal design. They
are discussed below:
Cycle: A signal cycle is one complete rotation through all of the indications provided.
Cycle length: Cycle length is the time in seconds that it takes a signal to complete
one full cycle of indications. It indicates the time interval between the starting ofof
green for one approach till the next time the green starts. It is denoted by .
Interval: Thus it indicates the change from one stage to another. There are two types
of intervals - change interval and clearance interval. Change interval is also called the
yellow time indicates the interval between the green and red signal indications for an
approach. Clearance interval is also called all red is included after each yellow
interval indicating a period during which all signal faces show red and is used for
clearing off the vehicles in the intersection.
Green interval: It is the green indication for a particular movement or set of
movements and is denoted by . This is the actual duration the green light of a
traffic signal is turned on.
Red interval: It is the red indication for a particular movement or set of movements
and is denoted by . This is the actual duration the red light of a traffic signal is
turned on.
Phase: A phase is the green interval plus the change and clearance intervals that
follow it. Thus, during green interval, non conflicting movements are assigned into
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each phase. It allows a set of movements to flow and safely halt the flow before the
phase of another set of movements start.
Lost time: It indicates the time during which the intersection is not effectively utilized
for any movement. For example, when the signal for an approach turns from red to
green, the driver of the vehicle which is in the front of the queue, will take some time
to perceive the signal (usually called as reaction time) and some time will be lost here
before he moves.
1.4.2 PHASE DESIGN
The signal design procedure involves six major steps. They include the (1) phase
design, (2) determination of amber time and clearance time, (3) determination of cycle
length, (4)apportioning of green time, (5) pedestrian crossing requirements, and (6)
the performance evaluation of the above design. The objective of phase design is to
separate the conflicting movements in an intersection into various phases, so that
movements in a phase should have no conflicts. If all the movements are to be
separated with no conflicts, then a large number of phases are required. In such a
situation, the objective is to design phases with minimum conflicts or with less severe
conflicts.
There is no precise methodology for the design of phases. This is often guided by the
geometry of the intersection, flow pattern especially the turning movements, the
relative magnitudes of flow. Therefore, a trial and error procedure is often adopted.
However, phase design is very important because it affects the further design steps.
Further, it is easier to change the cycle time and green time when flow pattern
changes, where as a drastic change in the flow pattern may cause considerable
confusion to the drivers. To illustrate various phase plan options, consider a four
legged intersection with through traffic and right turns. Left turn is ignored. See
figure 1.
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Figure 1.2: Four legged intersection
The first issue is to decide how many phases are required. It is possible to have two,
three, four or even more number of phases.
1.4.3 TWO PHASE SIGNALS
Two phase system is usually adopted if through traffic is significant compared to the
turning movements. For example in figure 2, non-conflicting through traffic 3 and 4
are grouped in a single phase and non-conflicting through traffic 1 and 2 are grouped
in the second phase.

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Figure 1.3 : Two phase signal
However, in the first phase flow 7 and 8 offer some conflicts and are called permitted
right turns. Needless to say that such phasing is possible only if the turning
movements are relatively low. On the other hand, if the turning movements are
significant ,then a four phase system is usually adopted.
1.4.4 FOUR PHASE SIGNALS
There are at least three possible phasing options. For example, figure 3 shows the
most simple and trivial phase plan.

Figure 1.4 : One way of providing four phase signals
where, flow from each approach is put into a single phase avoiding all conflicts. This
type of phase plan is ideally suited in urban areas where the turning movements are
comparable with through movements and when through traffic and turning traffic
need to share same lane. This phase plan could be very inefficient when turning
movements are relatively low.
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Figure 4 shows a second possible phase plan option where opposing through traffic
are put into same phase.

Figure 1.5 : Second possible way of providing a four phase
signal
The non-conflicting right turn flows 7 and 8 are grouped into a third phase. Similarly
flows 5 and 6 are grouped into fourth phase. This type of phasing is very efficient
when the intersection geometry permits to have at least one lane for each movement,
and the through traffic volume is significantly high. Figure 5 shows yet another phase
plan. However, this is rarely used in practice.
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Figure 1.6 : Third possible way of providing a four-phase signal
There are five phase signals, six phase signals etc. They are normally provided if the
intersection control is adaptive, that is, the signal phases and timing adapt to the real
time traffic conditions.
1.4.5 INTERVAL DESIGN
There are two intervals, namely the change interval and clearance interval, normally
provided in a traffic signal. The change interval or yellow time is provided after green
time for movement. The purpose is to warn a driver approaching the intersection
during the end of a green time about the coming of a red signal. They normally have a
value of 3 to 6 seconds.
The design consideration is that a driver approaching the intersection with design
speed should be able to stop at the stop line of the intersection before the start of red
time. Institute of transportation engineers (ITE) has recommended a methodology for
computing the appropriate length of change interval which is as follows:
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(1)
where is the length of yellow interval in seconds, is the reaction time of the
driver, is the 85 percentile speed of approaching vehicles in m/s, is the
deceleration rate of vehicles in , is the grade of approach expressed as a
decimal. Change interval can also be approximately computed as , where
SSD is the stopping sight distance and is the speed of the vehicle. The clearance
interval is provided after yellow interval and as mentioned earlier, it is used to clear
off the vehicles in the intersection. Clearance interval is optional in a signal design. It
depends on the geometry of the intersection. If the intersection is small, then there is
no need of clearance interval whereas for very large intersections, it may be provided.
1.4.6 CYCLE TIME
Cycle time is the time taken by a signal to complete one full cycle of iterations. i.e.
one complete rotation through all signal indications. It is denoted by . The way in
which the vehicles depart from an intersection when the green signal is initiated will
be discussed now. Figure 6 illustrates a group of N vehicles at a signalized
intersection, waiting for the green signal.

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Figure 1.7 : Group of vehicles at a signalized intersection waiting for
green signal
As the signal is initiated, the time interval between two vehicles, referred as headway,
crossing the curb line is noted. The first headway is the time interval between the
initiation of the green signal and the instant vehicle crossing the curb line. The second
headway is the time interval between the first and the second vehicle crossing the curb
line. Successive headways are then plotted as in figure 7.

Figure 1.8: Headways departing signal
The first headway will be relatively longer since it includes the reaction time of the
driver and the time necessary to accelerate. The second headway will be
comparatively lower because the second driver can overlap his/her reaction time with
that of the first driver's. After few vehicles, the headway will become constant. This
constant headway which characterizes all headways beginning with the fourth or fifth
vehicle, is defined as the saturation headway, and is denoted as . This is the
headway that can be achieved by a stable moving platoon of vehicles passing through
a green indication. If every vehicles require seconds of green time, and if the signal
were always green, then s vehicles/per hour would pass the intersection. Therefore,
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(2)
where is the saturation flow rate in vehicles per hour of green time per lane, is the
saturation headway in seconds. vehicles per hour of green time per lane. As noted
earlier, the headway will be more than h particularly for the first few vehicles. The
difference between the actual headway and h for the vehicle and is denoted as
shown in figure 7. These differences for the first few vehicles can be added to get start
up lost time, which is given by,

(3)
The green time required to clear N vehicles can be found out as,

(4)
where is the time required to clear N vehicles through signal, is the start-up lost
time, and is the saturation headway in seconds.

1.5 EFFECTIVE GREEN TIME
Effective green time is the actual time available for the vehicles to cross the
intersection. It is the sum of actual green time ( ) plus the yellow minus the
applicable lost times. This lost time is the sum of start-up lost time ( ) and clearance
lost time ( ) denoted as . Thus effective green time can be written as,

(5)
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1.5 LANE CAPACITY
The ratio of effective green time to the cycle length ( ) is defined as green ratio. We
know that saturation flow rate is the number of vehicles that can be moved in one lane
in one hour assuming the signal to be green always. Then the capacity of a lane can be
computed as,

(6)
Where is the capacity of lane in vehicle per hour, is the saturation flow rate in
vehicle per hour per lane, is the cycle time in seconds.
1.7 CRITICAL LANE
During any green signal phase, several lanes on one or more approaches are permitted
to move. One of these will have the most intense traffic. Thus it requires more time
than any other lane moving at the same time. If sufficient time is allocated for this
lane, then all other lanes will also be well accommodated. There will be one and only
one critical lane in each signal phase. The volume of this critical lane is called critical
lane volume.
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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW















LITERATURE REVIEW

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2.1 RESEARCH PAPERS ON TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN
2.1.1 ROAD SAFETY PERFORMANCE ASSOCIATED
WITH IMPROVED TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN AND
INCREASED SIGNAL CONSPICUITY
Paul de Leur
Ph.D., P.Eng., Road Safety Engineer, Insurance Corporation of British
Columbia and the BC Ministry of Transportation, Vancouver B.C.
Abstract
The lack of traffic signal conspicuity is often cited as a contributing factor by
drivers who are involved in accidents at intersections. As such, increasing the
conspicuity of traffic signals should lead to improved safety performance. This paper
describes a project to determine the road safety effectiveness associated with
improved signal conspicuity. The project described in this paper was conducted in
two phases. Phase 1 investigated the impact of improved signal head design on road
safety performance. In Phase 2, the conspicuity of standard signal backboards was
increased by adding yellow diamond grade reflective tape along the outer edge. This
was done in an attempt to frame the signal heads and make them more visible to
motorists, with the intent of improving intersection safety.
Conclusion
Of the 25 sites that were and investigated in this study, a total of 19 sites have
shown a reduction in the number of claims after the implementation of the
improvements to the conspicuity of the signal head backboard. The magnitude of the
reduction in claim frequency ranged from a low of 2.8 percent to a high of 60.7
percent

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2.1.2 PROBLEM AND POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR
BETTER TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT: AHMEDABAD-
VADODRA NH-8
haribandu panda and R S Pundir
Institute Of Rural Management (Anand-India)
Abstract
The basic objective of the present study was to identify such management measures
that will lead to better traffic performance. We selected as a sample of study, the
Vadodara-Ahmedabad section of the National Highway Number 8. An attempt was
made to understand the problems, reasons and possible solutions for better traffic
management.
According to the study, accidents/breakdown of vehicles, RTO checking and
poor driving practices are the most important reasons of traffic jam on the Vadodara-
Ahmedabad section of NH-8. Drowsiness, wrong overtaking and use of alcohol are
the major reasons of accidents. Also, it was observed that health of driver, road and
vehicle conditions are important factors that added to occurrence of accidents. The
study revealed that the average cost of accidents per annum, on the said section of
NH-8, was as high as about Rs. 25 million (cost to the injured party, insurance
Company and party causing accidents), excluding damage to vehicles. As regards
high fuel consumption due to traffic jams, the annual loss varied from about Rs.1.2
million to Rs. 10.7 million.
Conclusion
Some of the major factors that contribute to the traffic problem in the
Ahmedabad-Vadodara section of NH-8 have been identified as: narrow bridge on the
Vatrak River, non-existence of road dividers and four-lanes throughout, encroachment
by garages, restaurants and hotels and unavailability of pucca parking places in front
of these establishments. To solve this problem a proper policy needs to be devised in
such a way that instead of wastage of fuel and manpower during traffic jams road
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users could be provided trouble free highway and at the same time there may not be
additional financial burden on the Government
2.1.3 IMPROVED TRAFFIC SIGNAL COORDINATION
STRATEGIES FOR ACTUATED CONTROL.
Carroll J. Messer and Ramanan Nageswara
Southwest Region University Transportation Center, Center for
Transportation Research, University of Texas at Austin, 1996
Abstract
Traffic actuated signals have been efficiently used in controlling isolated
intersections because they respond to random traffic fluctuations using loop detectors
on all approaches. Application to coordinated arterial operations is a more
complex task and insights into the operational performance of various arterial
signal timing strategies is limited.
The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of the
performance of various traffic models providing arterial coordination using
actuated control and determine better ways to use the added flexibility of the actuated
control in a coordinated system, and recommend more efficient strategies for
coordination using actuated control. Representative traffic control problems were
modeled into a statistical test bed using TRAF-NETSIM. A series of scenarios
covering a range of arterial geometry, traffic volumes, and traffic actuated control
settings were tested. The results indicate that green splits have to be more
perfectly tuned in pre-timed operation for optimal performance at higher volume
levels. At low volumes, any reasonable signal timing strategy works well as long
as the detectors work and traffic signals are coordinated. NETSIM simulation
results for pre-timed control demonstrate that PASSER II-90's green splits are
optimal and any significant improvement to the arterial is only possible by
employing traffic actuated control.


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Conclusion
This result is because any extra green time given to the minor street was
always coming back to the major street when there was not enough demand; whereas,
any extra time given to the major street was never going back to the minor street when
the minor street needed more green time, as the major approach was not actuated.
This finding suggests that a more optimal allocation of arterial green times is possible

2.1.4 IMPROVING SAFETY IN THE TRANSPORT
INDUSTRY THROUGH INCREASED VISIBILITY
Agota Berces
Technical, Regulatory and Business Development Manager
3M Traffic Safety Systems Division
Abstract
Road safety in the transport industry is gaining an ever increasing focus by the
Australian public and governments at all levels. This growing attention on road safety
over many years has seen a decrease in accident rates but s till more can be done to
incrementally improve these results. A lot of the initiatives are high cost and long
term and will take several years to implement, but many of the low cost, immediate
impact measures are often ignored. The paper focuses on freight transport and
warehouse safety and aims to demonstrate how innovative reflective technologies can
prevent heavy vehicle and warehouse operations crashes and fatalities by increasing
visibility. Over the last 10 years the road toll has shown a declining trend in all
vehicle categories, including heavy vehicles despite the facts that the number of
vehicles and the kilometres travelled on the roads have significantly increased. Many
countries have adopted mandatory markings on heavy vehicles while Australia is still
behind international best practices. It is important that the downward trend remains
and simple, low cost conspicuity measures support and accelerate the declining
tendency. Part one introduces the audience to the science of retro-reflection
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explaining why we consider truck drivers having a disadvantaged position compared
to other car users. Trucks are considered highly visible due to their large size, but in
reality during night-time they blend into the dark background and become invisible.
It will also highlight the risks we might encounter in a warehouse environment.
Enhanced visibility of working personnel has always been a focus, yet the visibility of
objects, forklifts and other equipment which contributes to worker safety has often
been neglected.
Conclusion
Safe Work Australia statistics demonstrate that there is still a lot to do to
decrease work related fatalities and injuries. Machine operators and truck drivers are
listed among the most dangerous occupations and data collected from 2003 show that
60% of fatal workplace accidents involved a vehicle. Although the number of
research studies is limited, it is proven that improved safety practices can reverse any
negative trends in statistics and can help to prevent incidents. High visibility,
fluorescent orange or yellow-green safety clothing is now an entrenched part of the
safety culture, whereas the usage of fluorescent and retro reflective high-performance
materials is not so widespread yet on vehicles and warehouse machinery. The role and
the benefits of high visibility markings applied on heavy vehicles, forklifts and other
warehouse equipment are currently underestimated and are not recognised in national
or state level regulations. These readily available retro reflective vehicle and
equipment technologies should be leveraged to improve safety for workers and for all
Australian road users. The adoption of the high performance, UN ECE 104 certified
retro reflective tapes for usage in heavy vehicle visibility marking is another safety
improvement for both heavy vehicle drivers and other road users.




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2.1.5 IMPROVING TRAFFIC SYSTEMS STRATEGY
AND OPERATIONS USING A CAPABILITY MATURITY
APPROACH
Phil Charles, Luis Ferreira, Ronald John Galiza
School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland Brisbane,
Queensland, Australia 4072
Abstract
A review of improvement frameworks identified the Capability Maturity
Model as a potentially useful approach to assess the current level of capability of
traffic management systems and identify future trajectories in the short to medium
term. The paper outlines an application of the capability maturity process
developed for traffic systems management, with a focus on improving the
effectiveness of processes and institutional arrangements that lead to improved
performance outcomes. The paper also discusses how the approach was used to
provide tools to identify gaps in the performance of current practices, in relation to
exemplar counterpart jurisdictions. Australian and international case studies were
prepared to assess the concept framework and the findings are reported in this
paper. It was found that the capability maturity approach was very useful, being
readily understood by key stakeholders (both internal and external), and the tool
enables an unbiased assessment of the current context and identification of
priority actions for improvement.
Conclusion
Successful process improvements come from clearly defined incremental steps
so provides a easy to understand logical framework for benchmarking and
identifying areas for improvement allows for cross-comparisons with other
jurisdictions to identify potential opportunities for improving current local practice.
More detailed discussion of how the capability level was determine
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2.1.6 TRAFFIC SIGNAL SUPPORTING STRUCTURES
AND METHODS
Stefan Hurlebaus,
College Station, TX (Us);
Abstract
The embodiments presented herein include systems and methods for
mitigating fatigue and fracture in mast-and-arm supporting structures caused by Wind
and other excitation forces. In particular, the embodiments presented herein utilize
pre-stressed devices to reduce tensile stresses in arm-to mast connections and/or
mast-to-foundation connections of the traffic signal supporting structures. Present
embodiments may employ stressed cables, post-tensioned bars (e.g., DYWIDAG
bars), threaded roads, and so forth, to mitigate fatigue and fracture in the traffic
signal supporting structures.
Conclusion
Support structures including a mast and arm component, such as a typical
steel traffic signal supporting structure, are often subject to environmental forces
that result in structural degradation and failure. For example, under excitation from
Wind, as Well as traffic-induced drafting effects, traffic signal supporting structures
often exhibit large amplitude vibrations that can result in reduced fatigue life of the
arm-to-mast connections of these structures. The mechanism of the observed
vibrations has been attributed to across-Wind effects that lead to galloping of the
signal clusters. The corresponding chaotic motion of the structural components leads
to persistent stress and strain cycles that result in high cycle fatigue failure,
particularly at the arm-to-mast connection. Various types of mitigation devices
have been developed. Specifically, numerous devices have been directed to limiting
stress cycles by increasing damping. However, it is now recognized that the
effectiveness of these mitigation devices has been somewhat limited.

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2.1.7 TRAFFIC SIGNAL CONTROL SYSTEM AND
METHOD
Martin Mantalvanos,
Dublin (IE)
Abstract
The invention relates to a traffic signal control system for controlling a
plurality of signal junctions comprising a signal group oriented multi-agent control
scheme, each agent operates independently and represents one or more traffic signals
at a signal junction; means for each agent for determining traffic conditions at its
signal junction and traffic conditions at neighboring agents; and means for applying
fuzzy logic in signal control operations, Wherein signal control operation is
based on traffic conditions at each agent and one or more neighboring agents, such
that the control operation is distributed to each agent to control each of said
plurality of signal junctions. An advantage of the system is that this approach in
combining the flexible signal group control With the artificial intelligence of fuzzy
logic dynamic control is achieved. The operation of the control system is based on
detector data input, that is refined to real time traffic situation model. Through the
traffic model, the decision part of the system (fuzzy logic) is observing the traffic
situation in the Whole intersection. The signal control operation is based on signal
group orientation, in Which the control operation is distributed to several signal
group agents.
Conclusion
l) Favoring particular routes or movements.
2) Delaying/preventing rat runs (short cuts through residential areas)
3) Managing gating traffic (management of the how of traffic from smaller
feed roads into
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main arterial roads in certain areas of the city because of its Efficient Control
and modeling of current conditions.
4) Buses can be given extra priority without unacceptable disruption to other
traffic.

2.1.8 TRAFFIC SIGNAL LIGHT DEVICE
Chen-Ho WU,
Los Altos Hills, CA (US)
Chin-Wang TU,
Cupenino, CA (US)
Abstract
A traffic signal light device that includes a spread window, a Fresnel lens and
an LED module for emitting light. The light emitted by the LED module passes
through the Fresnel lens and to the spread window. The LED module is disposed at a
position that is offset from an axis of the spread window that passes through a center
of, and is perpendicular to, the spread window. The Fresnel lens can have a saw-
toothed pattern of teeth formed as concentric circles on one surface of the
Fresnel lens sharing a common center, Where the size or height of the teeth vary. The
spread window can have a plurality of protruding cells of varying size on a surface of
the spread window.
Conclusion
A traffic signal light device that includes a spread window, Fresnel lens and an
LED module for emitting light


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2.1.9 TRAFFIC SIGNAL WITH INTEGRATED SENSORS
Michael Cole Hutchison,
Plano, TX (US)

Abstract
An apparatus for integrating sensors with a traffic signal. A camera is
operably disposed within a housing. The housing is attached to an object such that the
camera can observe traffic flowing past a traffic signal. A visor is attached to the
housing such that an optical aperture of the camera is covered by the visor, Wherein
the visor comprises a roof having an angle that slopes, relative to the housing,
towards the optical aperture, Wherein the visor further comprises a floor connected
to the roof, and Wherein the floor extends outwardly from the housing

Conclusion
Traffic camera is plagued with a variety of problems. One of the problems of
foremost concern is an issue of dirty lens covers. Even though traffic camera is
provided with visor, the lens or lens cap inside the visor often becomes covered with
dirt, Water condensation, or other debris. The only known method to clean the traffic
camera lens is to send a Work crew with a bucket truck to the intersection, cone off
the lane over which the traffic camera sits, and manually clean the lens

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CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
METHODOLOGY

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Defining Study Area
To Redesign the Traffic Signal Design at Income tax Cross Road due
to Increase in the Traffic volume and Traffic Intensity
Finalization Of Objective And Scope
Literature Survey
Income Tax Cross road
Selection of Site
Volume Study
Collection Of Data
Phase Design
Determination of amber time
Determination of Cycle length
Determination of Clearance Time
Apportioning of green time
Pedestrian Crossing requirements,
Interval design
Evaluation of the design
Traffic Signal Design
Identifing Problem
Traffic Signal Design And Solution
Conclusion
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CHAPTER 4
SURVEY METHOD



















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4.1 INTRODUCTION
Traffic volume studies are conducted to determine the number, movements, and
classifications of roadway vehicles at a given location. These data can help identify
critical flow time periods, determine the influence of large vehicles or pedestrians on
vehicular traffic flow, or document traffic volume trends. The length of the sampling
period depends on the type of count being taken and the intended use of the data
recorded. For example, an intersection count may be conducted during the peak flow
period. If so, manual count with 15-minute intervals could be used to obtain the traffic
volume data.
4.2 USING COUNT PERIOD TO DETERMINE STUDY
METHOD
Two methods are available for conducting traffic volume counts: (1) manual and (2)
automatic. Manual counts are typically used to gather data for determination of
vehicle classification, turning movements, direction of travel, pedestrian movements,
or vehicle occupancy. Automatic counts are typically used to gather data for
determination of vehicle hourly patterns, daily or seasonal variations and growth
trends, or annual traffic estimates.
The selection of study method should be determined using the count period. The
count period should be representative of the time of day, day of month, and month of
year for the study area. For example, counts at a summer resort would not be taken in
January. The count period should avoid special event or compromising weather
conditions (Sharma 1994). Count periods may range from 5 minutes to 1 year.
Typical count periods are 15 minutes or 2 hours for peak periods, 4 hours for morning
and afternoon peaks, 6 hours for morning, midday, and afternoon peaks, and 12 hours
for daytime periods (Robertson 1994). For example, if you were conducting a 2-hour
peak period count, eight 15-minute counts would be required. The study methods for
short duration counts are described in this chapter in order from least expensive
(manual) to most expensive (automatic), assuming the user is starting with no
equipment.
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4.3 TRAFFIC VOLUME COUNT FLOW CHART:


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4.4 MANUAL COUNT METHOD
Most applications of manual counts require small samples of data at any given
location. Manual counts are sometimes used when the effort and expense of
automated equipment are not justified. Manual counts are necessary when automatic
equipment is not available. Manual counts are typically used for periods of less than a
day. Normal intervals for a manual count are 5, 10, or 15 minutes. Traffic counts
during a Monday morning rush hour and a Friday evening rush hour may show
exceptionally high volumes and are not normally used in analysis; therefore, counts
are usually conducted on a Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday.
There are three steps to a manual traffic volume count:
1. Prepare. Determine the type of equipment to use, the field procedures to
follow, and the number of observers required. Label and organize tally sheets.
Each sheet should include information about the location, time and date of
observation, and weather conditions.
2. Select observer location(s). Observers (data collectors) should be positioned
where they have a clear view of traffic and are safely away from the edge of
the roadway.
3. Record observations on site.
4.4.1 MANUAL COUNT RECORDING METHOD
Manual counts are recorded using one of three methods: tally sheets, mechanical
counting boards, or electronic counting boards.




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4.5 A TYPICAL SHEET A TYPICAL SHEET FOR MANUAL
VOLUME COUNT METHOD
T
i
m
e

C
a
r
/
V
a
n
/
J
e
e
p

Buses
L
C
V

T
r
u
c
k

M
u
l
t
i

A
x
e
l

Tractor
A
n
i
m
a
l

D
r
a
w
n

O
t
h
e
r
s

T
w
o

W
h
e
e
l
e
r
s

Auto Rickshaw
C
y
c
l
e

T
O
T
A
L

M
i
n
i
.

B
u
s

O
t
h
e
r

B
u
s

With
Trail
or
W
/
o

T
r
a
i
l
o
r

S
m
a
l
l

C
h
h
a
k
d
a

L
o
a
d
i
n
g

R
i
k
s
h
a
w
s

A
M
T
S

S
T








Table no-1
4.5.1 KEY STEPS TO MANUAL COUNT SYUDY
A manual count study includes three key steps:
1. Perform necessary office preparations.
2. Select proper observer location.
3. Label data sheets and record observations.
4.5.2 PEDESTRIAN COUNTS:
Pedestrian count data are used frequently in planning applications. Pedestrian counts are
used to evaluate sidewalk and crosswalk needs, to justify pedestrian signals, and to time
traffic signals. Pedestrian counts may be taken at intersection crosswalks, midblock
crossings, or along sidewalks.
When pedestrians are tallied, those 12 years or older are customarily classified as adults
(Robertson 1994). Persons of grade school age or younger are classified as children. The
observer records the direction of each pedestrian crossing the roadway.
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4.5.3 VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION COUNTS:
Vehicle classification counts are used in establishing structural and geometric design
criteria, computing expected highway user revenue, and computing capacity. If a high
percentage of heavy trucks exists or if the vehicle mix at the crash site is suspected as
contributing to the crash problem, then classification
counts should be conducted.
Typically cars, station wagons, pickup and panel trucks, and motorcycles are
classified as passenger cars. Other trucks and buses are classified as trucks. School
buses and farm equipment may be recorded
separately. The observer records the classification of the vehicles and the vehicles
direction of travel at
the intersection.
4.5.4 AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC AND ANNUAL
AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC COUNTS:

Average daily traffic (ADT) counts represent a 24-hour count at any specified location.
These counts are obtained by placing an automatic counter at the analysis location for a
24-hour period. Accuracy of the ADT data depends on the count being performed during
typical roadway, weather, and traffic demand conditions. Local levels of government will
typically conduct this type of count.
Annual average daily traffic (AADT) counts represent the average 24-hour traffic volume
at a given location averaged over a full 365-day year. AADT volume counts have the
following uses:

Measuring or evaluating the present demand for service by the roadway or
facility
Developing the major or arterial roadway system.
Locating areas where new facilities or improvements to existing facilities are needed
Programming capital improvements
ADT: Average daily traffic or ADT, and sometimes also mean daily traffic, is the
average number of vehicles two-way passing a specific point in a 24-hour period,
normally measured throughout a year. ADT is the standard measurement for vehicle
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traffic load on a section of road, and the basis for most decisions regarding transport
planning, or to the environmental hazards of pollution related to road transport. Road
authorities have norms based on ADT, with decisions to expand road capacity at
given thresholds.
AADT: Annual average daily traffic, abbreviated AADT, is a measure used primarily
in transportation planning and transportation engineering. It is the total volume of
vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. AADT is a useful
and simple measurement of how busy the road is. It is also sometimes reported as
"average annual daily traffic".

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CHAPTER 5
DESIGN PROCESS AND RESULT
ANALYSIS














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5.1 INTRODUCTION
Traffic signals should be designed to suit a coordinated operation, even if coordination is
not required in the first instance. Nevertheless, they should be designed to suit SCATS
operation (Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System). A systems approach should be
adopted for all traffic signal designs so that all the implications to a coordinated system
are fully taken into account. Consultation with the officers responsible for each activity
during the appropriate design stage is essential to ensure that all their requirements are
met.






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5.2 DESINGS STEP
Figure 5.1 Steps in the design process
5.3 INITIAL SITE INSPECTION
At the beginning of the design process an initial site inspection should be carried out to
identify
existing conditions that need to be considered, and to become familiar with current traffic
patterns, land usage and the general local amenity. It is at this time that photographs are
usually taken as part of the data collection process and to allow review and discussion
during the preliminary design stage (see Section 3.6.3). Specific items that should be
noted and shown on the site plan are listed in



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5.4 SITE PLAN
This plan shows site information, at a scale of 1:200, approximately 50-60 m in each
direction along a road from a site.
Site plan details can vary depending upon whether a site exists, or is a site to be
constructed or reconstructed (see Section 3.4.1).
A site plan shows the road layout and all the existing or proposed features likely to
affect the traffic signal design. These include:
kerb line, end of kerb, kerb ramps, and any other gutter
crossings
storm water grates and inlets
edges of medians and islands, including gaps in medians
edge of pavement and shoulders
driveways, laneways, other streets
property boundaries and fences
paved footpaths
all roadside furniture including signs, bus shelters, seats, telephone booths,
gardens, garbage bins, mail boxes, steps, retaining walls, guard fence, fencing and
hoardings
trees, including type, diameter of trunks, height and spread of foliage
public utilities such as power poles, light poles, pillars, service pits, manhole
covers
overhead clearances from the road to utilities, or structures
extent of awnings, height above kerb, distance back from the kerb face, position
of
any support posts, height variations, blinds and under-awning advertising signs and
other overhead restrictions
bridge decks, including abutments, expansion or contraction joints, and any
handrails and safety fences
type of building development on each corner of the intersection
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Figure 5.2 Top view of Income tax cross road

5.4.1 Kerb lines
Where traffic signal installation is in conjunction with construction or reconstruction
road work plans, only the kerb line and channelisation for those road works are
shown on the site plan, i.e. any existing pavement limits, kerb line or channelisation
which is not part of the final intersection layout is not shown on the site plan.
Where existing kerb line or channelisation adjustments are shown on the design
layout planall existing details are shown on the site plan. Any superseded outline
of pavement, kerb line and/or channelisation is converted to broken line once the
geometric layout is finalised.


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5.5 PRELIMINARY DESIGN
A preliminary traffic signal design is drawn upon the site plan. A preliminary design
is adopted from the preferred concept option prepared during the investigation
process. The concept option should be reviewed and refined at this stage and adopted
as the preliminary design if there is little or no change to the basic concept. If a review
results in major changes to geometry and phasing the revised concept should be
referred back to the investigation stage to ensure it remains the most suitable
treatment before adoption as the preliminary design.
Intersection geometry should be examined to ensure its compliance with design
guidelinesand its appropriateness as a solution to site problems. The design must be
checked against
concurrent road construction plans for the site (if applicable) to ensure it is compatible
and, if
necessary, any appropriate adjustments made. Control points are to be common to
both sets
of plans. The phasing requirements should be examined to ensure optimum
performance for site geometry. This can be done manually using the techniques
outlined in ARR123 Traffic Signals:
Capacity and Timing Analysis or using a computer program such as INTANAL,
SIDRA, or
SCATES. The design may need to be refined several times until optimum
performance is
achieved It is important that this step is done correctly, as the installation of
inadequate or inappropriate traffic signal control could cause increases in delay, fuel
usage, accidents and driver aggravation. A phasing arrangement that is more
sophisticated than necessary may result in greater delays, especially during off-peak
periods when traffic flows are low.

In addition to the site plan information the preliminary plan must show:
a) the proposed location of the:
controller and possible source of supply (if overhead)
detectors
posts and signal faces
stop lines and marked foot crossings lines.
b) phasing diagrams
c) dimensioning for the location of the controller, posts, pavement marking, and
anygeometric layout adjustments.
For manual designs the above information can be shown in pencil on a copy of the
site plan. For computer aided design (CAD), plan information will be stored in separate
layers and the required layers will need to be superimposed to form a complete
preliminary plan.
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5.6 DESIGN/SITE INSPECTION
A hard copy of the preliminary design layout is taken on a design/site inspection to
determine
if the proposed traffic signal information shown on the plan is adequate or needs
adjustment.
Checks should be made to ensure that all existing information affecting traffic signal
installation
has been picked up by the original site survey. If necessary, additional existing
information
affecting signal installation should be picked up and recorded on the preliminary plan.
Unless
this information is for reference only, the site plan will need to be corrected accordingly.
Look for anything that will affect the:
location of the controller and its footing
height and location of posts and their footings
location and size of detector
visibility of signal faces, sight restriction due to horizontal and/or vertical
alignment of approaches, trees, awnings, signs, bus shelters, telephone booths
etc
location of marked foot crossings and ramps, preferably downstream of
drainage inlets
Dimensioning to accurately locate the controller, posts, pavement marking, and
geometric layout adjustments.
Other details to look for include:
Possible source of power supply.
Communication system required for coordination and monitoring purposes
Pavement condition for suitability of detector installation (may require
reconstruction).
Distance to adjacent traffic signal sites if less than 200 m.
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location of any nearby fire station, ambulance station, police station, public
buildings
or railway level crossing that may influence design.
Bus stops and routes that may need to be catered for.
Adequate sight distance (horizontal, vertical) for through and turning traffic.
Adequate sight distance for pedestrians.
Sufficient clearance between overhead wires and mast arms
The need for 300 mm aspects, mast arms, closed visors and louvres.
Extent of existing turn bays, and marked lanes on each approach.
One way traffic movements.
Regulatory signs such as turn bans, parking, give way, and stop.
Any other features which may affect the design.
A hard copy of the preliminary design should be marked up with all additional details
discovered during the site inspection relevant to the installation of traffic signals and
kept as a record for future reference together with photographs of the site.

5.6.1 Communication system
A means of communication should always be provided and this may not necessarily
mean a
physical cable or data cable and it may not necessarily be provided only by Telstra.
Other
means of communication should be considered such as fixed copper line, optic fibre,
leased
line, PSTN dial-up, mobile GSM, mobile GPRS, ADSL, radio, TCP/IP network,
multiplexers,
multidrug etc.
Nevertheless, in most cases, the closest Telstra termination pit to the proposed controller
location will be the method used and where this is the case it must be confirmed in
conjunction with Telstra. Whatever the actual communication system chosen, it must be in
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agreement with the Manager, Network Operations, Transport Management Centre, prior
to commencing the detail design.
5.6.2 Phtographs

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5.7 MODIFY DESIGN/SITE PLAN
If there are no changes following the design/site inspection, the preliminary design can be
used for consultation purposes.
If changes are necessary, modify the design or site plan in accordance with details
picked up during the design/site inspection before using it for consultation purposes. .

5.8 NON-STANDARD DESIGNS
A non-standard design is a design which proposes to use any practice (including the
operation
of the signals) which is not currently documented within the Traffic Signal Design
guidelines. A
non-standard design would typically be new or unique practice not previously used, or
rarely
used, in the RTA. [eg. any proposal to use joint infrastructure at a combined traffic signal
level crossing site.]
When considering non-standard designs consultation should be undertaken with the
Manager Network Operations, Transport Management Centre and the Leader Traffic
Design Policy, Traffic Management from the concept development stage through to the
final design.
Given the fact that there are no RTA guidelines for non-standard designs, these
designs are to be prepared using RTA resources.

5.9 FINAL SITE INSPECTION
This inspection need only be done if there are any changes to the preliminary design
layout that the information gained from the design/site inspection would not cover.

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5.10 DETAIL DESIGN
Once agreement has been reached between all officers involved with the preliminary
design, the detail design is prepared. Detail design procedures involve the preparation of
base plans, design layout plan, setting-out plan (if required), and electrical plans - the
latter being prepared by an officer of the electrical design section

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5.11 AS PER IRC: 106-1990 PCU FOR DIFFERENT VEHICLE:


Table No-2





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5.12 TRAFFIC VOLUME COLLECTION DATA SHE
Table No-3
DESIGN PROCESS AND RESULT ANALISIS

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5.13 HOURLY VARIATION OF TRAFFIC IN ALL DIRECTION:


Table No-4

DESIGN PROCESS AND RESULT ANALISIS

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5.14 HOURLY VARIATION CHART FOR ALL DIRECTION:
Fig no-5.3 HOURLY VARIATION
DESIGN PROCESS AND RESULT ANALISIS

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5.15 TRAFFIC COMPOSITION OF ALL VEHICLES BY CHART:

Fig no-5.4 TRAFFIC COMPOSITION CHART
5.18 TRAFFIC FLOW DISCRIPTION:








Table No-5
DESIGN PROCESS AND RESULT ANALISIS

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5.17 HOURELY TRAFFIC VOLUME AS PER DATA
COLLECTED:
Table no-6
5.19 HOURELY TRAFFIC VOLUME CHART:

Fig no-5.5 HORELY TRAFFIC FLOW CHART
DESIGN PROCESS AND RESULT ANALISIS

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5.20 PEAK HOUR FLOW DIAGRAM:



Fig no-5.6 TRAFFIC PEAK HOURE FLOW DIAGRAM
DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE

IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page 55




CHAPTER 6
DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE























DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE

IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page 56



Section -1

Fig -5.6 TRAFFIC FLOW DIAGRAM FOR INCOMTAX CIRCLE










DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE

IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page 57



Section-2





















Fig-5.7 PHASE TRAFFIC FLOW FOR INCOMTAX CIRCLE

(Assume and Design as Two Way Phase )

Pedestrian Clearance time Major street-1 : 25 x 1.2= 30 sec
Pedestrian Green time for crossing major Street-1 = 30 + 7
Pedestrian reaction time = 37 sec
There for Minimum Green Time for Vehicle on Major Street-2 approach = 37
sec
pedestrian clearance for Major Street-2 = 22.3 x 1.2 = 26 sec
Pedestrian clearance time for crossing
Major Street-2= 26 + 7=33 sec
There for Minimum Green Time for Vehicle on Major Street-1 approach = 37
sec

Critical Lane Volume:

Critical Lane Volume on Major Street-1 = 1567/2 =784 vph/l
Critical Lane Volume on Major Street-2 = 2540/2 =1270 vph/l
DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE

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Green Time for Major Stree-1 Approach=(2540/1270) x 37 =74 sec

Adding Initial Amber and Clearance Time of 2 sec each for Major stree-1 as well as
major Street-2 approaches the minimum cycle length is worked out to (3 + 37 + 3 ) +
(3 + 33 + 3 )=78 seconds immediate higher multiply of 5 = 91 sec for Major Street -1
additional 3 seconds may be apportioned as 3 seconds for major Street-1 Approach
and 2 sec For Major Street -2 Approach (Ratio of Volume of Major Street-1 to
Volume of Major Street-2)

Signal
Timing
Initial
Amber
Green Clearance
Amber
Red Cycle
Length
Major
Street-1
3 48 3 39 93 sec
Major
Street-2
3 55 3 32 93 sec
Table No-7
DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE

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Fig-5.8 PHASE ALLOCATION

Phase-1 Pladi to Usmanpura
Phase-2 Rajiv Gandhi Under Pass To Gandhi Bridge(To C.G.
Road)
Phase-3 Usmanpura to Paldi
Phase-4 Gandhi Bridge to Rajiv Gandhi Under Pass( To C.G.
Road)






DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE

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Existing Phase Design and Cycle Time:



FIG-5.9EXISTING CYCLE
Revised Phase Design and Cycle Time:


FIG-5.10 REVISED CYCLE
DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE

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Design of Traffic Signal at Income-tax Circle:

The traffic flow for a four-legged intersection is as shown in figure -7.1
Given that the lost time per phase is 2.4 seconds, saturation headway is 2.2 seconds,
amber time is 3 seconds per phase, find the cycle length, green time and performance
measure(delay per cycle). Assume critical ratio as 0.9

FIG-5.11 TRAFFIC FLOW DIAGRAM
Solution
The phase plan is as shown in figure

FIG-5.12 PHASE WISE FLOW
DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE

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Sum of critical lane volumes is the sum of maximum lane volumes in each
phase
= 588 + 1501 + 614 + 814 = 3517 vph.
Saturation flow rate, from equation
Si = 3600/h
(h =Saturation Headway)
Si = 3600/2.2= 1637 Vph
V
s
/S
i
= (588/1637) + (1501/1637) + (641/1637) + (814/1637) = 2.14
Peak Hour Factor:
(Peak 15 min
flow from peak hour)
PHF=0.92
Cycle length can be found out from the equation as

N = Number of phases in one cycle
t
L
= Total lost time per phase (sec)
V
c
= Critical volume (vph)
DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE

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PHF = Peak Hour Factor
v
/
c desired
= Desired volume/capacity ratio
h = Saturation Headway (sec)
C = 131 seconds 131 seconds.
The effective green time can be found out as
Effective Green time = 131-(4x2.4) =121.4
Green splitting for the phase 1 can be found out as G1= 121.4(588/1667) = 42.82 sec
Green splitting for the phase 2 can be found out G2 = 121.4 (1501/1667) = 109.31 sec
Green splitting for the phase 3 can be found out G3 = 121.4 ( 641/1667) = 46.68 sec
Green splitting for the phase 4 can be found out G4 = 121.4 ( 814/1667) = 59.27 sec
The actual green time for phase 1 from equationG1 = 42.82 3 + 2.4 =42.22 ~ 43 sec
The actual green time for phase 2 from equationG2 =109.31 3 + 2.4 =108.7 ~109 sec
The actual green time for phase 3 from equationG3 = 46.68 3 + 2.4 =46.08 ~ 46 sec
The actual green time for phase 4 from equationG4 = 59.27 3 + 2.4 =58.67 ~59 sec
Pedestrian time can be found out from as Gp = 1.2 x 25 =30 sec
Pedestrian Clearance Time = 30 + 7 = 37 sec
Effective Pedestrian Clearance Time = 37 +3 = 40 sec
Actual Green Time = 43 + 3 + 174 = 22
DESIGN OF TRAFFIC TIME CYCLE

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Existing Phase Design and Cycle Time:

FIG -5.13 EXISTING CYCLE TIME
Revised Phase Design and Cycle Time:

FIG-5.14 REVISED CYCLE TIME
RESULT AND CONCLUSION

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CHAPTER 7
RESULT AND CONCLUSION























RESULT AND CONCLUSION

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In this section, we compare the results obtained it based traffic survey data. The cycle
length is minimized by 10 sec. calculation based on traffic saturation rate and delay at
each lane. This Design of Cycle Time works on traffic related problems such as traffic
jam; unreasonable latency can be solved but not for time of stoppage of vehicle,
emergency vehicles or forcibly passing, etc. cannot be solved.
In peak hour time Traffic Flow from Rajiv Gandhi under Pass to Gandhi Bridge and
Gandhi Bridge to Rajiv Gandhi under Pass is about 2400 to 2500 vph but the
Road Width is not sufficient to carry this kind of High Traffic Flow as per IRC and
that is too much high compared to the suggested traffic of IRC. The traffic signal is
not adequate as the traffic condition is oversaturated.
Future Scope:
In this case New Find Alternative Road to move this High Traffic Flow towards Paldi
and Towards Vadaj by Using Sabarmati River Front Road Which may be Good
Alternative in Recent Condition.

REFERENCE

IMPROVEMENT IN TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN Page 67


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