1
1. P(tuna salad) = 4
1
2. P(soft drink) = 3
3. Yes
1
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
(b) There are 3 consonants in the word ‘LIST’ and 4 (b) From the table, there are 8 times getting a ‘1’, 33
consonants in the word ‘STUPID’. By the counting times getting a ‘3’ and 21 times getting a ‘5’.
principle, the total number of favourable outcomes in ∴ Number of times getting an odd number
choosing a consonant from each of the words is:
= 8 +33 + 21
3 × 4 = 12
= 62
12
= 62
∴ P(both consonants) 24 =
∴ P(odd number) 100
1
= 31
2 =
50
2
15 More about Probability
16 +12 12 + 21 28 +16
= + +
120 120 120
105
=
120
7
=
8
3
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
4
15 More about Probability
5
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
2. (a) ∵ The first card drawn is the ace of spades. 2. Let B denote a black glove, E denote a blue glove and W
∴ Only 13 hearts are left after the first draw. denote a white glove.
Only 51 cards are left after the first draw. (a) P(BB)
∴ P(heart  the first card drawn is the ace of
spades) = P (1st one is black ) × P ( 2nd one is black 
13 1st one is black)
=
51 4 3
= ×
(b) ∵ The first card drawn is the ace of spades. 10 9
∴ Only 3 aces are left after the first draw. 2
=
Only 51 cards are left after the first draw. 15
∴ P(ace  the first card drawn is the ace of spades)
(b) P(same colour)
3
=
51 = P (BB or EE or WW )
1
= = P ( BB) + P ( EE ) + P ( WW )
17
2
= + P (1st one is blue ) × P ( 2nd one is blue 
15
3. (a) Total number of students = 425 + 218 +157 1st one is blue ) + P (1st one is white ) × P ( 2nd one
= 800
is white  1st one is white)
218
= 2 2 1 4 3
∴ P(disagree  student) 800 = + × + ×
109 15 10 9 10 9
= 13
400 =
45
(b) Total number of people agree = 425 + 92
= 517 3. P(colourblind)
92
∴ P(teacher  agree) = 517
= P (male and colour blind or female and colour blind )
= P ( male and colour blind ) +P (female and colour blind
p. 32
= P ( male ) ×P (colour blind  male ) +
1. (a) P(both defective)
P (female ) ×P (colour blind  female )
= P (1st one is defective ) × P ( 2nd one is defective  .62 ×0.03 +(1 −0.62 ) ×0.02
= 0
1st one is defective) = 0.0262
15 14
= ×
100 99
Exercise
7
=
330 Exercise 15A (p. 8)
6
15 More about Probability
7
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
8
15 More about Probability
7. (a) From the table, there are 115 times getting a ‘2’.
115
=
∴ P(‘2’) 1000
23
=
200
9
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
(b) From the table, there are 115 times getting a ‘2’, 3
103 times getting a ‘3’ and 118 times getting a ∴ P(two boys and one girl) = 8
‘5’.
∴ Number of times getting a prime number
=115 +103 +118
= 336
336
=
∴ P(prime number) 1000
42
=
125
Level 2
10. Number of times the tail shows up = 80 −32
= 48
48
=
∴ P(getting a tail) 80
3
=
5
B GBB
B
G GBG
G
B GGB
G
G GGG
10
15 More about Probability
12. Let W stand for a white straw, R stand for a red straw 4
and G stand for a green straw. =
∴ P(the sum is 9) 36
By using a tree diagram, we have: 1
Bag A Bag B Outcomes =
9
W WW
W WW
W R WR
R WR
G WG
W RW
W RW
R R RR
R RR
G RG
W GW
W GW
G R GR
R GR
G GG
W GW
W GW
G R GR
R GR
G GG
11
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
14. Since there are 4 possible outcomes for urn A and 4 Exercise 15B (p. 17)
possible outcomes for urn B, by the counting principle, the
total number of possible outcomes in drawing one ball Level 1
from each urn is: 4 × 4 = 16 1. P(red card or jack of spades)
= P ( red card ) + P ( jack of spades )
(a) There are 2 favourable outcomes: (5, 5) and (7, 7)
2 26 1
= = +
16 52 52
∴ P(same number)
1 27
= =
8 52
12
15 More about Probability
13
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
6. Let H stand for a head and T stand for a tail. =1 − P (all boys )
By the counting principle, the total number of possible 1
outcomes in tossing two coins is: 2 × 2 = 4 ∴ P(at least one girl) =1 − 8
(a) There are 2 favourable outcomes: HT and TH 7
2 =
= 8
∴ P(one head and one tail) 4
1 9. They are not complementary events because if one
=
2 even number and one odd number are obtained,
neither events occur.
(b) There is 1 favourable outcome: TT
1
∴ P(two tails) = 4
14
15 More about Probability
Level 2 (a) There are 3 favourable outcomes for sum less than 4:
sum equals 2: (1, 1)
11. By the counting principle, the total number of possible sum equals 3: (1, 2), (2, 1)
outcomes is: 6 × 6 = 36
There are 10 favourable outcomes for sum less than 6:
sum equals 2: (1, 1) 3
=
sum equals 3: (1, 2), (2, 1) 36
∴ P(sum less than 4)
sum equals 4: (1, 3), (2, 2), (3, 1) 1
sum equals 5: (1, 4), (2, 3), (3, 2), (4, 1) =
10 12
=
∴ P(sum less than 6) 36
5 (b) There are 4 favourable outcomes for sum equals 5:
= (1, 4), (4, 1), (2, 3) and (3, 2)
18
4
=
12. P(neither black nor white) ∴ P(sum equals 5) 36
1
=
=1 − P ( black or white ) 9
=1 −[ P ( black ) + P ( white )] ∴ P(sum not equals 5)
4 1
=1 − P (sum equals 5)
=1 − +
15 6
1
17 =1 −
= 9
30 8
=
9
13. P(team B wins)
(c) There are 8 favourable outcomes:
=1 − P ( team A wins or draws ) sum equals 4: (1, 3), (2, 2), (3, 1)
sum equals 5: (1, 4), (2, 3), (3, 2), (4, 1)
=1 −[ P ( team A wins ) + P (draws )] sum equals 12: (6, 6)
3 1 8
=1 − + =
8 4 P(sum equals 4 or 5 or 12) 36
3 2
= =
8 9
15
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
(d) Angle subtended by the sector ‘bus’ = P (1st number is odd) ×P ( 2nd number is odd )
= 360 ° −120 ° −20 ° −14 ° −33 ° −13 ° 3 3
=160 ° = ×
6 6
=1 − P ( bus ) 1
=
160 ° 4
=1 −
360 °
∴ P(not by bus) 200
= =1 − P ( product is odd )
360 1
5 (b) P(product is even) =1 − 4
=
9 3
=
4
Exercise 15C (p. 25)
Level 1 5. (a) P(2CDs of male singers)
1. P(both blue) = P(CD of male singer from 1st box) ×
= P(CD of male singer from 2nd box)
= P (1st one is blue ) ×P ( 2nd one is blue ) 3 2
= ×
4 3 3 +5 2 +3
= × 3
8 9 =
1 20
=
6 (b) P(a CD of male singer and a CD of female singer)
= P(CD of male singer from 1st box and CD of
= female singer from 2nd box or CD of female singer
2. P(uses broadband service and has 4 members) = from 1st box and CD of male singer from 2nd box)
= P(CD of male singer from 1st box and CD of
= P ( uses broadband service ) ×P ( has 4 members ) = female singer from 2nd box) + P(CD of female
=0.8 ×0.6 = singer from 1st box and CD of male singer from
=0.48 = 2nd box)
= P(CD of male singer from 1st box) × P(CD of
3. (a) P(both cards are spade) = female singer from 2nd box) + P(CD of female
= singer from 1st box) × P(CD of male singer from
= 2nd box)
= P (1st card is spade ) ×P ( 2nd card is spade )
3 3 5 2
13 13 = × + ×
= × 8 5 8 5
52 52
19
1 =
= 40
16
(b) P(one is ace and one is king) 6. (a) P(both solve the problem)
= P(1st card is ace and 2nd card is king or = P(Terrence solves the problem) × P(Sara solves
= 1st card is king and 2nd card is ace) the
= P(1st card is ace and 2nd card is king) + = problem)
= P(1st card is king and 2nd card is ace)
2 3
= P(1st card is ace) × P(2nd card is king) + = ×
= P(1st card is king) × P(2nd card is ace) 3 4
4 4 4 4 1
= × + × =
52 52 52 52 2
2 (b) P(exactly one of them solves the problem)
=
169 = P(Terrence solves the problem and Sara cannot or
= Sara solves the problem and Terrence cannot)
= P(Terrence solves the problem and Sara cannot) +
4. (a) P(product is odd) = P(Sara solves the problem and Terrence cannot)
= P(Terrence solves the problem) × P(Sara cannot
= solve the problem) + P(Terrence cannot solve the
16
15 More about Probability
Level 2 11. Let C stand for a correct answer and W stand for a wrong
7. Let S stand for a worker suffers from occupational illness answer.
and N stand for a worker does not suffer from = P (CCCC )
occupational illness.
1 1 1 1
P(exactly two of the three workers suffer from the illness) (a) P(all answers correct) = 4 × 4 × 4 × 4
= P(SSN or SNS or NSS)
= P(SSN) + P(SNS) + P(NSS) 1
=
= 0.15 × 0.15 × (1 – 0.15) + 0.15 × (1 – 0.15) × 0.15 + 256
= (1 – 0.15) × 0.15 × 0.15
(b) P(only 3 answers correct)
= 0.057 375 = P(WCCC or CWCC or CCWC or CCCW)
= P(WCCC) + P(CWCC) + P(CCWC) + P(CCCW)
3 1 1 1 1 3 1 1
= × × × + × × × +
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3
× × × + × × ×
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
8. P(two letters drawn are the same) 3
=
= P ( HH or EE or II or SS ) 64
= P ( HH ) + P ( EE ) + P ( II ) + P (SS )
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= × + × + × + ×
11 7 11 7 11 7 11 7 12. Let M stand for a shot is made and N stand for a shot is
4 not made.
=
77 = P ( MMMM )
2 2 2 2
9. Let S stand for a son and D stand for a daughter. (a) P(four shots in four trials) = 5 × 5 × 5 × 5
P(both children are of the same sex) 16
= P (SS or DD ) =
625
= P (SS ) + P ( DD )
(b) P(more than 2 shots out of 4 trials)
3 2 3 4
= × + ×
3 +3 2 + 4 3 +3 2 + 4
1
=
2
17
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
4 trials )
=0.6690 (cor. to 4 sig. fig.)
= P ( MMMN or MMNM or MNMM or
(b) P(at least one student forgets to bring the textbook)
16
NMMM) +
625 =1 −P (all the students bring the textbook )
= P ( MMMN ) + P ( MMNM) + P ( MNMM ) + =1 −0.6690
16 = 0.3310 (cor. to 4 sig. fig.)
P ( NMMM) +
625
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
= × × ×1 − + × ×1 − × Exercise 15D (p. 33)
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Level 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
+ ×1 − × × + 1 − × 1. There are 3 possible outcomes for an odd number: 1, 3 and
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
2 2 2 16 Among the possible outcomes, only 3 and 5 are favourable
× × + outcomes.
5 5 5 625
2
112 ∴ P(prime number  odd number) = 3
=
625
18
15 More about Probability
19
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
= P ( RR or YY ) 5
∴ P(sum of the numbers is 6) = 36
= P ( RR ) + P ( YY )
= P ( R ) ×P ( R  R ) + P ( Y ) × P ( Y  Y ) (b) There are 3 odd numbers on a die. By the counting
14 13 10 9 principle, the total number of favourable outcomes is:
= × + × 3 ×3 = 9
24 23 24 23
34 9
= =
69 ∴ P(both odd) 36
1
10. Let G denote a green form and W denote a white form. =
4
Total number of forms = 50 +30
= 80
(a) P(three forms are of the same colour) (c) Among the 9 possible outcomes that both numbers
= P(GGG or WWW) are odd, only 3 of them are favourable outcomes:
= P(GGG) + P(WWW) (1, 5), (3, 3) and (5, 1)
= P(1st G) × P(2nd G  1st G) × P(3rd G  1st and 3
= 2nd G) + P(1st W) × P(2nd W  1st W) ×
=
∴ P(sum is 6  both are odd) 9
= P(3rd W  1st and 2nd W)
1
50 49 48 30 29 28 =
= × × + × × 3
80 79 78 80 79 78
91
= 13. (a) P(smoker)
316 = P(male and smoker or female and smoker)
= P(male and smoker) + P(female and smoker)
(b) ∵ There are only two colours of forms. = P(male) × P(smoker  male) +
= P(female) × P(smoker  female)
∴ P(three forms are of different colours) =0
=0.515 ×0.13 +(1 −0.515 ) ×0.07
=0.1009
11. (a) Since there is only 1 key can open the door.
1 =1 −P (smoker )
∴ P(1st trial) = 3
(b) P(nonsmoker) =1 −0.1009
(b) P(second trial) =0.8991
= P (1st trial fails ) ×P ( 2nd trial  1st trial fails ) 14. Let R denote a red ball, G denote a green ball and W
2 1 denote a white ball.
= ×
3 2 Total number of balls = 5 + 3 + 2
1 =10
=
3 (a) P(one red and one white)
= P(RW or WR)
(c) P(last trial) = P(RW) + P(WR)
= P(1st trial fails) × P(2nd trial fails  1st trial fails) = P(R) × P(W  R) + P(W) × P(R  W)
× 5 2 2 5
= × + ×
= P(last trial  1st and 2nd trials fail) 10 9 10 9
2 1 1 2
= × × =
3 2 1 9
1
= (b) P(same colour)
3
= P(RR or GG or WW)
= P(RR) + P(GG) + P(WW)
12. By the counting principle, the total number of possible = P(R) × P(R  R) + P(G) × P(G  G) +
outcomes is: 6 × 6 = 36 = P(W) × P(W  W)
(a) There are 5 favourable outcomes for the sum of the
numbers is 6: (1, 5), (2, 4), (3, 3), (4, 2) and (5, 1)
20
15 More about Probability
5 4 3 2 2 1 = P ( prime ) + P ( multiple of 4)
= × + × + ×
10 9 10 9 10 9 2 1
= +
14 5 4
=
45 13
=
20
15. (a) (i) P(true positive result)
= P(AIDS and positive result)
= P(AIDS) × P(positive result) 2. Total number of people = 88 +113 + 78 + 21
= 0.1% × 0.98 = 300
= 0.098 % 78
=
(a) P(disagree) 300
13
=
50
21
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
22
15 More about Probability
1 1 1 1
= ×1 − + 1 − × 13. G = the number obtained is a prime number
3 4 3 4 G = the number obtained is greater than 3
5 (or any other reasonable answers)
=
12
Level 2
14. By the counting principle, the total number of possible
9. Total number of batteries = 2 + 4 outcomes: 6 × 6 = 36
=6
(a) There are 6 favourable outcomes: (1, 1), (2, 1), (1, 2),
(a) P(1st is used and 2nd is new) (2, 2), (1, 3) and (3, 1)
6
= P(1st is used) ×P ( 2nd is new  1st is used) =
∴ P(less than 5) 36
2 4 1
= × =
6 5 6
4
= (b) There are 5 favourable outcomes: (2, 6), (6, 2), (3, 5),
15
(5, 3) and (4, 4)
(b) P(both used) 5
∴ P(equal to 8) = 36
= P (1st is used) ×P ( 2nd is used  1st is used)
(c) P(less than 5 or equal to 8)
2 1 = P (less than 5) + P (equal to 8)
= ×
6 5 1 5
1 = +
= 6 36
15 11
=
36
10. Let H stand for a head and T stand for a tail.
There are 7 possible outcomes for at least one head:
15. (a) P(all of them fail)
HTT, THT, TTH, HHT, HTH, THH and HHH
Among the possible outcomes, there are 3 favourable = P ( Ivy fails) ×P (Grace fails) ×P ( Winky fails)
outcomes: HHT, HTH and THH
3 1 2 5
= 1 − ×1 − ×1 −
∴ P(exactly two heads  at least one head) = 7 2 5 8
9
=
80
11. For the 1st time the rumour spreads, Alfred can
choose any 40 classmates out of the 40 possible
classmates.
For the 2nd to the 10th times the rumour spreads, the (b) P(at least one of them passes)
student can choose any 39 classmates (excluding Alfred)
=1 − P (all of them fail)
out of the 40 possible classmates.
9
Since every time the rumour spreads are independent =1 −
events. 80
∴ P(still has not returned to Alfred in 10 times) 71
=
40 39
9
80
= ×
40 40
= 0.796 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.) 16. (a) P(sum of 2) = P(‘1’ and ‘1’)
= P(‘1’) × P(‘1’)
308 308
12. F = a head is obtained when a coin is tossed or = ×
F = a queen is drawn from a deck of 52 cards 2000 2000
(or any other reasonable answers) = 0.0237 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
23
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
24
15 More about Probability
22. Let H denote a head and T denote a tail. 23. (a) P(head appears)
=P ( H ) = P(normal coin and head or
(a) (i) P(wins in her 1st trial) 1 = twoheaded coin and head)
= = P(normal coin and head) +
2
= P(twoheaded coin and head)
= P (TTH ) 2 1 1 2
= × + ×
1 1 1 3 2 3 2
(ii) P(wins in her 2nd trial) = 2 × 2 × 2 2
=
1 3
=
8
(b) By using a tree diagram, we have:
(iii) P(wins in her 3rd trial) head
normal coin
= P (TTTTH ) tail
1 1 1 1 1 head
= × × × × normal coin
2 2 2 2 2
tail
1
= head
32
twoheaded coin
head
From the tree diagram, there are 4 possible outcomes.
Among the possible outcomes, only 2 are favourable
outcomes.
(b) By using geometric sequence, we have
25
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
26
15 More about Probability
9. Answer: A
2
There are 3 possible seats for Tracy after Lily takes a seat. =1 − + P (fail in the 1st trial) ×P (open in the 2nd trial 
10
Among the possible seats, 2 seats are next to Lily.
2 fail in the 1st trial) ]
∴ P(Tracy sits next to Lily) = 3
2 8 2
=1 − + ×
10 10 9
10. Answer: B 17
Let W denote a white chopstick and B denote a black =1 −
45
chopstick.
28
P(same colour) =
= P(WW or BB) 45
= P(WW) + P(BB)
= P(W) × P(W  W) + P(B) × P(B  B)
2 1 2 1 HKMO (p. 43)
= × + ×
4 3 4 3 1. P(all odd)
1 = P(1st is odd and 2nd is odd and 3rd is odd)
= = P(1st is odd) × P(2nd is odd  1st is odd) × P(3rd is odd
3

= 1st and 2nd are odd)
11. Answer: D
P(greater than or equal to 5)
27
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 5B
5 4 3
= × ×
9 8 7
5
=
42
45
=
∴ P(white ball > black ball) 100
9
=
20
28
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