Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 330
_EMPTY_
_EMPTY_
^ o ^
^
o
^
_EMPTY_
_EMPTY_
1 '
1
'
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS By GLENN MURPHY, C.E., PH.D. Professor of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Iowa
MECHANICS
OF MATERIALS
By
GLENN MURPHY, C.E., PH.D.
Professor of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics
Iowa State College
CQ/10
IRWIN-FARNHAM PUBLISHING COMPANY
Chicago, Illinois
1948
1A 4C5 M Copyright 1948 by IRWIN-FARXHAM PUBLISHING COMPANY PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF
1A
4C5
M
Copyright 1948
by
IRWIN-FARXHAM PUBLISHING COMPANY
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof
may not be reproduced in any form without
written permission of the publishers.
£ ' (t' //- PREFACE , The purpose of a textbook in mechanics of materials
£
'
(t'
//-
PREFACE
,
The purpose of a textbook in mechanics of materials is to assist the
student in his development of an understanding of the behavior under load
of structural members and machine parts constructed from the common
engineering materials. To be of tangible assistance, such a textbook should
direct his attention to those principles which have been found useful in
explaining observed phenomena, it should acquaint him with standard
procedures of analysis in order that he may readily understand the bulk of
^ the engineering literature on the subject, it should provide him with a set
of problems by means of which he may test his understanding of the subject,
and it should serve to make him aware that our knowledge of materials is
e> not final and absolute but is constantly growing—that what we know about
mechanics of materials is a tool which, when intelligently used, is of in-
estimable value in the daily tasks of engineering.
With these several objectives, this book has been designed as a text-
book—not as an encyclopedia. The principles of statics, the characteristics
of the geometry of the loaded member, and the effects of the properties of
the material have been emphasized in the consideration of each type of
stress situation. The statics, the geometry, and the properties of the ma-
terial have been used as the starting point in the development of each
phase of the work, for it is the author's conviction that only through an
understanding of the relative importance of each does the student obtain
perspective of the problems of stress analysis.
Discussion is included of those topics which normally comprise the first
course in mechanics of materials, strength of materials, or resistance of
materials, and the customary formulas have been developed. It is to be
hoped that a minimum of emphasis will be placed on the formulas as such.
Those which the author considers important are printed in boldface type.
At appropriate intervals some elementary aspects of design applications
have been included to help the student in his evaluation of the analysis in
its relationship to practical engineering problems.
A rather generous set of drill problems has been included. Some of the
problems are very simple, many require more than a superficial under-
standing of the subject, and the others require a reasonable degree of
mastery of the text material. The problems are grouped at the ends of their
respective chapters. Some students may find this practice inconvenient,
especially if they are accustomed to books in which the problems are
distributed throughout the text in such a way that any one may be solved
by plugging some numbers into the formula in the preceding paragraph.
However, it is the author's observation that those practical engineering
vi PREFACE problems which he is asked to solve are seldom immediately preceded by the
vi PREFACE
problems which he is asked to solve are seldom immediately preceded by
the appropriate formula in italics or boldface type.
Answers are given to practically all of the even-numbered problems. It
is hoped that this device will be useful not only to those instructors who
wish the student to have answers available as he works the problems, but
also to those instructors who feel that the student should be encouraged to
develop confidence in his own results as is essential in engineering practice.
Many individuals have contributed directly or indirectly to the manu-
script, and to them the author expresses his appreciation. Particular credit
is due to Professor E. H. Ohlsen of Iowa State College for his helpful
criticism and suggestions, and to Professor H. J. Gilkey, Head of the De-
partment of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics at Iowa State College, for
many stimulating discussions concerning the general field of Mechanics of
Materials. Several of the author's colleagues have contributed helpful sug-
gestions, particularly in the form of problems.
The author is deeply indebted to Frances Murphy for her care in the
preparation of the finished drawings for the figures. Credit is due to Susan
Barker for her assistance in the preparation of the manuscript.
GLENN MURPHY
AMES, IOWA
February 1948
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING ARTICLE 1. Introduction 2. Objectives
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
ARTICLE
1. Introduction
2. Objectives of Stress Analysis
3. Methods of Stress Analysis
4. Classification of Load-carrying Members .
5. Definition of Stress
6. Uniform Stress Distribution and Axial Loading .
7. Stress Concentration under Axial Loading .
8. Stresses on Inclined Planes of Axially Loaded Members
9. Strain Due to Axial Loading
10. Shearing Strain
11. Strain Due to Temperature Changes
12. Stress-Strain Relationships
13. Elastic Action
14. Inelastic Action and Failure
15. Allowable Working Stress and Factor of Safety .
16. Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Members
17. Thin-walled Pressure Vessels
18. Dynamic and Repeated Loading
PAGE
1
1
2
3
5
6
9
11
14
16
17
17
22
23
26
26
28
30
CHAPTER 2. JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS FOR AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS
19.
General Considerations .
20.
Types of Welds
21.
Allowable Stresses in Welds
22.
Design Considerations
23.
Types of Riveted Joints .
24.
Stresses in Lap Joints
25.
Stresses in Butt Joints .
26.
Efficiency of a Riveted Joint
27.
Other Design Procedures
28.
Design Considerations
29.
End Fittings .
49
49
51
51
55
56
64
67
68
70
71
CHAPTER 3. TORSION
30.
General Considerations
31.
Geometry of a Circular Torsional Member
32.
Shearing Stresses in a Circular Torsional Member
33.
Power Transmission by Torsional Members
34.
Stresses on Inclined Planes
35.
Shearing Stresses in Noncircular Sections
36.
Stress Concentration
37.
Couplings and Riveted or Bolted Fittings
38.
Thin-walled Members in Torsion
39.
Localized Compression or Buckling .
40.
Stresses beyond the Proportional Limit
41.
Helical Springs
42.
Statically Indeterminate Composite Torsion Members
43.
Design Considerations
81
81
83
85
88
89
92
95
95
96
99
100
CHAPTER 4. STRESSES IN FLEXURAL MEMBERS
44.
Types of Flexural Members
44.
Types of Flexural
45.
Flexural Stresses
113
115
viii TABLE OF CONTENTS ARTICLE PAGI, 46. Limitations of the Flexure Formula 121 47. Shear
viii TABLE OF CONTENTS
ARTICLE PAGI,
46. Limitations of the Flexure Formula
121
47. Shear Diagrams
123
48. Moment
.127
49. Shearing Stress 131
50. Stresses beyond the Proportional Limit
136
51. Stress Concentration
137
52. Beams of Two
139
53. Design Considerations
141
CHAPTER 5. DEFLECTION OP FLEXUBAL MEMBERS
54. Introduction
163
55. Fundamental Geometrical Relationships in a Bent Flexural Member
163
Double Integration
56. General Integration
165
Area Moments
57. General Relationships
169
58. Application of
.173
59. Deflections by Superposition
.176
60. Deflections Caused by Shear
.178
61. Design Considerations
179
CHAPTER 6. STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BEAMS
^-
62.
Introduction . 187
63.
Solution of Statically Indeterminate Beams
187
64.
Double Integration
.187
65.
Area Moments
192
66.
Superposition of Structures
.196
67.
Theorem of Three Moments 199
CHAPTER 7. COLUMNS
68. Introduction 209
69. Euler Column Theory 210
70. Alternate Solution of Differential Equation 213
71. Intermediate Columns
.214
72. Effect of End Conditions 219
73. Eccentric Loads on Compression Blocks
222
74. Eccentric Loads on Columns
225
75. The Secant Formula 227
76. Double-Modulus Formulas 230
77. Design Considerations
231
CHAPTER 8. COMBINED LOADINGS
78. Introduction 243
79. Principal Stresses 243
80. Maximum Shearing Stress
246
81. The Mohr Circle 250
82. Diagonal Tension 251
83. Principal Strains 253
84. Theories of Elastic Failure 255
CHAPTER 9. DYNAMIC AND REPEATED LOADS
85. Importance of Nonstatic Loads
269
Dynamic Loads
86. Definition 269
87. Basis of Evaluation of Equivalent Static Loads
270
TABLE OF CONTENTS IX ARTICLE 88. Axial Dynamic Loads 89. Torsional Impact Loads 90. Flexural
TABLE OF CONTENTS
IX
ARTICLE
88. Axial Dynamic Loads
89. Torsional Impact Loads
90. Flexural Impact Loads
91. Design Considerations for Dynamic Loads
Repeated Loads
92. Definition
93. Effect of Repeated Loading
94. Criterion of Resistance .
95. Mechanism of Failure
96. Fluctuating Stresses
97. Stress Concentration
PAGE
.
271
.
273
.
274
275
277
278
278
280
281
282
APPENDIX A. PROPERTIES OF SECTIONS
TABLE
I. Properties of l-Bearas
II. Properties of Channels .
III.
Properties of Equal Angles
IV.
Properties of Unequal Angles .
295
296
297
298
APPENDIX B. ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS
Answers to Problems
299
INDEX
Index
307
_EMPTY_
_EMPTY_
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
_EMPTY_
_EMPTY_
CHAPTER 1 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 1. Introduction.—One important phase of engineering activity is
CHAPTER 1
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
1.
Introduction.—One important phase of engineering activity is design,
and it is one of the most involved, for the development of a good design for a
structure or machine requires the integration of information from a variety
of sources. Careful consideration must be given to the function of the com-
pleted product; the optimum arrangement of the members must be de-
termined; and the most suitable material selected, considering factors such
as availability, workability, cost, durability, and appearance. From an
estimate of the loads to which the structure will be subjected, the most
effective shape and size of the individual members must be determined,
and appropriate means of connecting them must be devised. Consideration
should be given to possible manufacturing processes in order that effective
and economical fabrication processes may be specified, and usually the ap-
pearance of the finished product is important.
The success of the design is, in the last analysis, largely dependent upon
the judgment and experience of the engineer responsible for the details, but
most of the actual calculations involved in the design are based upon well-
established analytical and experimental procedures. These procedures are
set up to assist the engineer in important determinations such as ascertain-
ing the optimum size for the individual members of the structure or the
machine. The field of knowledge comprising the techniques of establishing
relationships among load, size, and shape of members is known as stress
analysis.
2.
Objectives of Stress Analysis.—The objectives of stress analysis are
to determine the ways in which individual structural members resist load
and to provide the methods by which the engineer responsible for their
design is enabled to answer with confidence the two critical questions:
(1) Is the proposed member strong enough but not too strong?
(2) Is the proposed member stiff enough without being too stiff?
These questions may be rephrased in the form of certain type problems:
(1) Given a member of specified dimensions and specified material, find
the maximum load that it will carry before it fails by breaking or by de-
forming too much.
(2) Given a member of specified dimensions and shape which is to carry a
specified load, find the material which will be best adapted to meet the
1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1 given requirements and to avoid failure by breaking or by
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Chap. 1
given requirements and to avoid failure by breaking or by excessive
deformation.
(3) Given limiting dimensions of a member which is to carry a specified
load, find the material which will be best adapted to meet the given re-
quirements and to avoid failure by breaking or by excessive deformation.
The first of these problems is a problem of investigation, and the other
two are design problems. In each, the relative arrangement of the members
within the structure is assumed to be established by other considerations.
3. Methods of Stress Analysis.—Both analytical and experimental
methods of stress analysis are used. The analytical procedures are based on
(1) the laws of motion (or equilibrium),
(2) verified observations of the characteristics of materials, and
Fig. 1
(3) assumptions regarding the behavior of members under load, as justi-
fied on the basis of results obtained from their use.
After the loads which the structure must carry have been estimated, the
force which each member must carry or resist is evaluated with the aid of
free-body diagrams and the laws of motion, as formulated in analytical
mechanics (Statics and Dynamics). Analytical mechanics, together with
information obtained from observations and measurements, is used to
establish the relationships among loads, dimensions, and material for the
individual members of the structure. In the design of a truss, for example,
analytical mechanics is used to determine the forces which the loads develop
in each member, while stress analysis is used to determine the distribution of
the forces within individual members. A number of experimental proce-
Art. 4 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING dures have been developed for assistance in the
Art. 4
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
dures have been developed for assistance in the analysis of stresses.** They
consist essentially in measurements of strain.
4. Classification of Load-carrying Members.—It is obvious that the
maximum load which a given member of a given material will carry is de-
pendent upon the orientation of the load with respect to the member and
upon the way in which the member is supported. For example, a block of
wood 2 in. by 4 in. in cross section and 18 in. long will carry much more load
if the load is directed along the axis of the member than it will if the member
is supported at each end and the load is applied normal to the longitudinal
axis.
Fortunately, any loading (which constitutes a force system) may be re-
solved into a series of relatively simple component loadings, each of which
(a)
(CJ
Fig. 2
may be considered separately. Their effects may be added in most cases.
For example, the resultant force 72 acting at any cross section in a member
(such as at section AAof the airplane landing gear unit in Fig. 1) may be re-
solved into six components—the three forces Fx, Fv, and Fx passing through
the centroid of the cross section and directed along three orthogonal axes,
and three couples or moments Mx, Mv, and M, which lie in the three
orthogonal planes. For convenience, the yz-plane is taken as the plane of the
cross section. Similarly, the resultant force acting at another cross section
BB (near AA} may be resolved into a set of three forces F'x, F'v, and F',
which are parallel to the three forces at section AA, and three moments
* Murphy, Glenn, "Strain-Measuring Equipment," Advanced Mechanics of Materials
(McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1946), p. 49.
t Gilkey, Murphy, and Bergman, "Experimental Aids in Stress Analysis," Materials
Testing (McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1941), Chap. 12.
4 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1 M'x, M'v, and M'x which lie in planes parallel
4 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1
M'x, M'v, and M'x which lie in planes parallel to the planes of the three
moments of section A A.
The two forces Fx and F'x (which are colinear) may be considered to
constitute one component force system acting upon the portion A B of the
original member. It is evident that this force system, shown in Fig. 2(a),
produces a state of compression on planes parallel to A A and BB in the
portion of the member between A A and BB, i.e., the forces tend to shorten
the distance AB and squeeze together adjacent parallel normal planes.
The pair of forces Fv and F'v, Fig. 2(6), as well as the pair Fx and F'x,
tends to produce what is known as a state of shear between A and B. That
is, the forces tend to make adjacent parallel planes slide across one another.
The moments Mx and M'x, which lie in the planes of the cut sections,
tend to twist the portion of the member between AA and BB, Fig. 2(c),
while the pair of moments Mv and M'v tends to bend the member, Fig. 2(d).
Similarly, the pair of moments Mx and M'x tends to produce bending. Thus,
the six possible components tend to develop four possible types of distortion
between sections AA and BB, which are typical of adjacent cross sections
in any member. The four component types of loading producing the four
types of distortion are:
(1) Axial Loading.—This is produced by a pair of colinear forces acting
along the longitudinal axis of the section. If the forces are directed toward
each other, a state of compression is developed within the member, while if
the forces are directed away from each other, a state of tension is developed.
Axial loading occurs in members such as struts, tie rods, connecting rods of
engines, bridge trusses, building trusses, and airplane trusses.
It is evident that if the loads are not axial, even though they are colinear,
bending will be developed in addition to direct compression or tension. If
the member is long and slender and loaded in compression, bending or
buckling will result.
(2) Shear.—A state of shear is developed by forces which lie in the planes
of the cross sections. Forces of this type are developed in rivets, bolts, and
pins, and in most beams. Shear is usually accompanied by bending.
(3) Torsion.—A member which is twisted or tends to be twisted by the
action of a pair of couples lying in planes perpendicular to the axis is said
to be subjected to torsion. This action is typical of the loading condition
developed in shafts and many similar machine parts. The resistance of
circular members to torsion is discussed in Chap. 3.
(4) Flexure.—A state of flexure or bending is developed when the mem-
ber is acted upon by a pair of couples (called bending moment) which lie in
planes perpendicular to the cross section. The bending moment produces
tension on one side of the member and compression on the other side. This
type of loading is discussed in Chap. 4. While some bending is present in
practically all load-carrying members, it is the predominant factor in beams
and long slender compression members.
Art. 5 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 5 Only rarely does one of these four
Art. 5 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 5
Only rarely does one of these four types of loading exist alone. Practically
all structural members or machine parts are loaded and supported in such a
way that they are subjected throughout at least a part of their length to
two or more of the component types of loading. In most cases, however,
each of the components may be treated independently of the others and
then- effects added. Exceptions will be considered later.
5. Definition of Stress. — The effect of an external load on a member
may be indicated as tension, compression, shear, bending, torsion, or combi-
nations of these as described inArt. 4. However, in addition to this qualita-
tive description, a quantitative measure of the intensity of the effect produced
by the loading is essential for design purposes. It is obvious that an axial
load of 1000 Ib, for example, may have a different effect upon a 1/2-in.
diam rod than upon a 2-in. diam rod of the same material.
A numerical index of the intensity of effect at any point on any plane is
given by the unit stress,* denned as the magnitude of the force per unit
area developed at the point on the plane. It is evaluated as
in which S is the unit stress, and
dF is the differential force developed on the differential area dA.
Differential force and differential area are indicated since the unit stress
usually varies over the plane under consideration. From the definition it is
apparent that unit stress has the dimensions of force per unit area. It is
commonly expressed in pounds per square inch, abbreviated as psi., or may
be expressed in kips (thousands of pounds) per square inch, abbreviated as
ksi.
Qualitatively, the unit stress may be normal stress (tension or compres-
sion) or shearing stress, depending upon whether the differential force act-
ing on the given differential area is normal to the area or in the plane of the
area. In general, on planes perpendicular to the axis of the member normal
stresses are produced by axial loading and by flexure, while shearing stresses
are produced by shear and torsion.
Maximum allowable values of unit stress have been established by many
agencies for most engineering materials under various conditions of usage,
and a few of them are listed in Table 1.
The evaluation of the unit stress which a given load causes at a given
point on a given plane in a structural member involves first the determina-
* The expression "unit stress" is frequently abbreviated in technical literature to
"stress." However, the term "stress" is also used in the literature (particularly in Civil
Engineering practice) to denote the total axial force which a member carries. Hence,
some confusion may arise unless units are specified. In this text, the terms "stress" and
"unit stress" will be used interchangeably to denote intensity of loading expressed as
force per unit area.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1 TABLE 1 ALLOWABLE WORKING STRESSES FOR A FEW ENGINEERING MATERIALS*
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Chap. 1
TABLE 1
ALLOWABLE WORKING STRESSES FOR A FEW ENGINEERING MATERIALS*
ALLOWABLE
STHESS (PSI.)
Tension
Shear
Compression
Flexure
Wrought iron
12,000
8000
15000
12 000
Structural steel
18,000
10,000
14000
18 000
Gray cast iron
15,000
3,000
20,000
15000
Aluminum alloy 24S-T
18,000
10000
14000
18 000
Concrete f
0
60
750
1350{
White oak
1800
167
1133
1866
Douglas fir
1800
120
1386
1800
* Values are approximate and are based on average conditions for members without structural defects,
t All values established as a fixed proportion of the ultimate compressive strength. Values listed are for
standard 3000-psi. concrete,
t Reinforced concrete.
tion of the total force which the load causes to be transmitted across the
given plane; and second, the distribution of force (or the variation in stress)
throughout the plane. The first step is usually accomplished by the use of
statics or dynamics, utilizing a free-body diagram, while the determination
of the distribution of the stress is a problem in stress analysis. Stress
distribution under conditions of axial loading will be discussed in the follow-
ing articles, and stress distribution for other types of loading are considered
in subsequent chapters.
6. Uniform Stress Distribution and Axial Loading.—If a vertical axial
load W is applied to the top of a short vertical compressive member as
indicated in Fig. 3(a), it will produce stress throughout the member. The
/////////
(a)
(e)
Fig. 3
magnitude of the average unit stress on any horizontal plane such as A A
may be investigated by first constructing a free-body diagram of one por-
tion of the block bounded by the plane A A. One of the two possible por-
tions is shown in Fig. 3(6) and the corresponding free-body diagram is indi-
cated in Fig. 3(c). It is evident that a force F must be developed at the cut
section if the upper portion of the block is to remain in equilibrium and
that the magnitude of F must be equal to W plus the weight of the portion
of the block above the section A A. If the weight of the block is negligible
Art. 6 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 7 in comparison with the applied load, F
Art. 6 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 7
in comparison with the applied load, F will equal W and the force F must
be colinear with W.
However, the force developed at the sectionAA is not concentrated at a
point as indicated in Fig. 3(c) but is distributed over the plane AA. Under
certain conditions the unit stress will be distributed approximately uni-
formly and under other conditions it may vary greatly from one point to
another. It is unlikely that the stress is ever actually uniformly distributed
in a structural member or machine part; but, if the material is homo-
geneous, the stress may be distributed more nearly uniformly than if it is
nonhomogeneous. For example, the stress would probably be distributed
more nearly uniformly in a block of fine-grained steel than in a material
like wood which contains inequalities due to grain, variations in growth,
and natural defects such as pitch pockets or knots.
The loading conditions necessary for a uniform distribution of stress
may be established by assuming the unit stress to be distributed uniformly.
The differential force acting on each differential area in the cross section
may be evaluated by Eq. (1). Since these differential forces form a parallel
force system, their resultant, the total force developed on the cross section,
may be determined by direct addition of the differential forces, that is, by
integrating Eq. (1).
r rA
I dF = I SdA. (2)
Jo Jo
Since the unit stress is assumed to be uniformly distributed over the
cross section, the term S may be taken outside of the integral sign. Then
Eq. (2) integrates to
F = SA. (2a)
The location of the resultant force developed at the cut section may be
determined by the application of the Principle of Moments.* The moment
equation written with reference to any convenient y-axia is
L
S
x dA. (3)
0
Since the unit stress S is assumed to be constant, it may again be taken
outside of the integral sign, and F may be replaced by SA, from Eq. (2a),
giving
r
KI = S I x dA.
Jo
SAx1 = S I xdA. (3a)
* The moment of the resultant force developed on the cross section is equal to the sum
of the moments of the individual differential forces with respect to the same axis.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1 However, by definition of the centroid of an area, 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1
However, by definition of the centroid of an area,
1
xdA = xA. (4)
0
Hence,
SAxi = SxA, (3b)
and
xl = x. (3c)
That is, the line of action of the resultant must have the same x-coordi-
nate as the centroid of the area. A similar moment equation, written with
respect to a convenient x-axis, will show that the ^-coordinate of the line of
action of the resultant must be equal to the ^-coordinate of the centroid
of the area. Therefore, the line of action of the resultant force developed
on the cross section must pass through the centroid of the cross section.
Since the applied load is colinear with the force F, it also must lie on the
line passing through the centroid of the cross section and must, therefore,
be an axial load. Thus, a necessary condition for the development of a uni-
form stress distribution on any cross section is that the applied load act
along the line forming the loci of the centroids of the cross sections, i.e.,
the applied load must be axial.* While this is a necessary condition for the
development of a uniform stress distribution, it is not a sufficient condition.
A nonuniform stress distribution symmetrical with respect to the longi-
tudinal axis (such as that shown in Fig. 4) will satisfy Eq. (3b). This con-
dition may result from nonuniformities in the material or it may be brought
about by an abrupt change in the cross section of the member.
If the line of action of the resultant does not pass through the centroid
of the cross section, the resultant may be resolved into a force through the
centroid plus a couple. The force will develop axial loading, whereas the
couple will produce bending, and the stress will not be uniformly distributed
across the cross section.
A procedure similar to that used in developing Eqs. (2a) and (3b) may be
followed for shearing stresses with the result that, if the shearing stress is to
be uniformly distributed over the area, the line of action of the resultant
shearing force must pass through the centroid of .the area. The magnitude of
the average shearing unit stress is
S. = f, (2b)
in
which
Q
is the magnitude of the shearing force.
* This assumes that the member is straight. If the member is curved, the stress at a
given cross section cannot be uniformly distributed unless the line of action of the ap-
plied load passes through the centroid of that cross section.
Art. 7 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING In most situations, as will be shown later,
Art. 7
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
In most situations, as will be shown later, shearing stress is not uniformly
distributed over the area resisting the shearing force. Hence Eq. (2b) is
considered to give the average and not the maximum unit shearing stress.
7. Stress Concentration tinder Axial Loading.—If an axially loaded
member contains a discontinuity such as a hole or a pair of symmetrical
notches as indicated in Fig. 4, the stress will not be distributed uniformly
o
(a) U>) tc) Id)
Fig. 4. Nonuniform stress distribution in axially loaded members.
across the minimum cross section or adjacent cross sections but will be
greater near the edges of the discontinuity. This phenomenon is known as
stress concentration. A quantitative measure of the extent of the stress con-
centration is given by the stress concentration factor which, for axial
loading, is denned as the ratio of the maximum stress developed by the
discontinuity to the average stress in the gross cross section.*
K
(5)
Some typical values of stress concentration factors are indicated in Fig. 5.
It will be noted that the magnitude of the stress concentration factor is de-
pendent upon the abruptness or sharpness of the discontinuity. For some
discontinuities, the stress concentration factor may be evaluated mathe-
matically, while, for other shapes, experimental techniques are used to
determine the distribution of stress near the discontinuity.
Stress concentration also occurs in beams, shafts, and other nonaxially
loaded members; and values of the concentration factor for those conditions
are indicated in later chapters. The importance of the stress concentration
factor depends upon the type of loading and the characteristics of the ma-
* The stress concentration factor may also be denned as the ratio of the maximum
stress to the average stress on the net cross section. In using values of the stress concen-
tration factor, it is important that the engineer know which definition of stress concentra-
tion factor was used before he employs values of the factor.
10 Chap. 1 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS /o "? I' I r I _r Lower Curves-
10
Chap. 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
/o
"?
I'
I
r
I
_r
Lower Curves- Jo/id Lines
Broken £.ines •
05
Dotted Lines •
7
7"
O O./ O.2 0.3 O.4 O.S 0.6 O.7 O.8
Fig. 5. Stress concentration factors for axially loaded members.
terial. The concentration factors as given are for static loads. Other types
of loading (impact and repeated loads) may result in different values of the
factors.
Art. 8 11 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING In general, the phenomenon of stress concentration
Art. 8
11
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
In general, the phenomenon of stress concentration may be ignored in the
design of members of ductile materials subjected to static loads, but it is
highly significant in members made of brittle materials, or members sub-
jected to impact and repeated loads. Reasons for this will be pointed out
later.
8. Stresses on Inclined Planes of Axially Loaded Members.—Usually
stresses will be developed on all planes in a loaded member. The technique
of evaluating the stress on a plane perpendicular to the axis of an axially
loaded member is indicated in Fig. 3 and Art. 6. The method for evaluating
the stresses on an inclined plane follows the same general procedure. If
the stress is to be evaluated on an inclined plane such as AA in Fig. 6(a),
la)
ic)
Fig. 6
the first step is to construct a free-body diagram of one portion of the mem-
ber bounded by the plane on which the stress is desired. One suitable free-
body diagram is indicated in Fig. 6(6). The weight of the material is as-
sumed to be negligible. The load P on the top of the member is balanced
by an equal and opposite force F on the inclined plane. However, this force
F is not normal to the inclined plane nor is it parallel to the inclined plane.
Hence, to classify its effect qualitatively as tension, compression, or shear,
it must be resolved into two components, N and Q, which are perpendicular
and parallel respectively to the inclined plane as indicated in Fig. 6(c). If
the plane is assumed to make an angle 6 with the horizontal, the com-
ponents N and Q may be evaluated from a force triangle or from the free-
body diagram as
N = F cos 6, (4a)
and
Q = F sin
(4b)
If the resultant of N and Q passes through the centroid of the area which
the inclined plane delineates on the block and if no discontinuities are
present, the normal and shearing stresses may be assumed to be uniformly
distributed and may be evaluated as
12 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1 Sn = ^, (4c) and S. = -> (4d)
12 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1
Sn = ^, (4c)
and
S. = -> (4d)
respectively. In each equationA is the area of the inclined plane which may
readily be determined from the original cross-sectional area of the specimen
and the angle 6.
The forces N and Q are given by Eqs. (4a) and (4b), in which the term F
is equal to the applied load P if the block is in equilibrium.
Illustrative Problem
A block of concrete 8 in. high and 4 in. by 4 in. in cross section is subjected to an
axial compressive load of 16,000 Ib. Determine the stress on a plane which is per-
pendicular to one pair of faces and which makes an angle of 60° with the horizontal.
Solution: The free-body diagram of Fig. 6(c) may be used and the forces N and Q
determined as:
N = 16,000 (0.500) (a)
= 8,000 Ib compression,
and
Q = 16,000 (0.866) (b)
= 13,860 Ib shear.
The area of the inclined plane is
= 32 sq in.
The normal stress is, therefore,
9 8,000 â„¢
S. = -32" (d)
= 250 psi. compression,
and the shearing stress is
13,860
S- = -32- (6)
= 433 psi. shear.
The direction of the shearing stress and the fact that the normal stress is compres-
sion may be determined from the free-body diagram.
It may be shown that in an axially loaded member the maximum normal
stress at a point occurs on the plane perpendicular to the direction of the
load and that the maximum shearing stress at a point occurs on the plane
which makes an angle of 45° with the direction of the applied load. The
magnitude of the maximum shearing stress is equal to one half of the magni-
tude of the maximum normal stress.
The fact that shearing stress is developed on inclined planes in axially
^"^"^ members is important because many materials are relatively weak in
Art. 8 13 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING shear and will fail along an inclined
Art. 8
13
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
shear and will fail along an inclined plane at a lower load than would cause
failure on the plane at right angles to the direction of the applied load. Ex-
amples are shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Shearing failure of wood loaded in axial compression.
It is apparent that the normal and shearing stresses on a plane which
makes an angle ( — 6) with the horizontal in Fig. Q(d) will be equal in magni-
tude to the normal and shearing stresses on the plane investigated in Fig.
Ss ay ail
1 Ss dx dz
/ P' ft *t
g
J> £/jr fifc
Fig. 8
14 Chap. 1 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 6(c). It may also be shown that the shearing
14
Chap. 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
6(c). It may also be shown that the shearing stress on a plane which makes
an angle of 90° with AA will be equal to the shearing stress on AA. This
may be proved by considering the equilibrium of the differential element in
Fig. 8. The two horizontal components of shearing stress are equal since
they are on adjacent parallel planes, and the two vertical components of
shearing stress are equal for the same reason. Hence, the two horizontal
components of shearing forces form a couple, as do the two vertical com-
ponents of shearing forces. The equation of moments with respect to an axis
through the centroid of the element gives
Ss = S'
That is, a shearing stress on one plane is accompanied by an equal shearing
stress on a plane at right angles with it.
9. Strain Due to Axial Loading.—Whenever a structural member or
machine part is loaded, its shape changes. The magnitude of the change in
shape depends on the material but the action is qualitatively identical (if
the loads are not excessive) for all materials. If a member such as the bar
indicated in Fig. 9 is subjected to an axial tensile load, it will elongate and
HH-*
Fig. 9. Strain in a bar subjected
to tensile loading.
its cross section will become smaller. If an arbitrary length L, known as the
gage length, is laid off on the surface of a member before loading, it will
be found to have increased after the load is applied. The magnitude of the
increase, ei, is called the total strain, and the ratio of the total strain to the
Art. 9 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 15 original length L is called the unit
Art. 9 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 15
original length L is called the unit strain. The unit strain* along the axis is
designated by the symbol «;. Hence,
— •' /*\
«i = T (6)
The value of unit strain given by Eq. (6) is the strain in a 1-in. gage length
or the average value of unit strain occurring over the gage length L. For
situations in which the strain is uniformly distributed throughout the gage
length, Eq. (6) gives the value of the uniform strain at any point; but, if
the unit strain is not uniformly distributed throughout the gage length,
Eq. (6) gives only the value of the average, not the maximum, unit strain.
The unit strain at a point may be expressed as
dei , .
ei = dE (6a)
by using an infinitesimal gage length.
One example of nonuniform distribution of strain is that occurring in a
ductile material stressed to the breaking point in tension. In this case the
unit strain at failure is much greater near the break than it is at points a
short distance from the break.
In an axially loaded member such as that indicated in Fig. 9, strain will
occur in directions at right angles to the applied load as well as in the
direction of the applied load, i.e., the diam of the rod will decrease under the
influence of the axial tension. The unit strain in the transverse direction
may be defined in the same way as the unit strain in the longitudinal direc-
tion,
«, = y. (6b)
in which
e< is the change in the transverse dimensions,
t is the transverse dimension.
For most materials a definite relationship exists between the magnitude
of the unit strain in the transverse direction and the unit strain in the
longitudinal direction. If the strains are not excessive, the ratio of the
transverse unit strain to the longitudinal unit strain is constant. The ratio
is known as Poisson's ratio and is designated by the symbol /*.
M = 2~ (6c)
* The expression "unit strain" is frequently abbreviated to "strain" in the technical
literature. In this text, the two terms will be used interchangeably to denote the ratio
of the total strain to the original length.
16 Chap. 1 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS For axially loaded members a tensile strain in the
16
Chap. 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
For axially loaded members a tensile strain in the longitudinal direction is
accompanied by a compressive strain in the transverse direction and vice
versa. The value of Poisson's ratio is about 0.30 for steel and about 0.33
for most of the other engineering metals. Concrete has a Poisson's ratio of
approximately 0.20, while the Poisson's ratio for some grades of rubber ap-
proaches 0.50.
10. Shearing Strain.—Axial loading produces longitudinal and trans-
verse strains in a block, the sides of which are parallel and perpendicular to
the line of action of the applied load. For example, the block DEFG in
Fig. 10(a) will be deformed to the rectangle indicated by the dotted lines.
te>
Fig. 10
Each of the sides changes in length, but the angles remain right angles.
However, if the block is oriented at 45° with the longitudinal axis of the
member, as the block OABC in Fig. 10(a), it is apparent that the longi-
tudinal extension and lateral contraction will deform the square to a
diamond-shaped element as indicated by the dotted lines. The lengths of
the sides will not change appreciably but each of the angles will change,
those at A and C becoming smaller and those at O and B becoming larger.
If the material is homogeneous and isotropic, the change in angle at
each of the corners will be the same; and the change in angle is a measure
of the shearing strain. If the block OABC is drawn in its original position,
Fig. 10(6), and the deformed block superimposed upon the original block
in such a way that the sides OA of each coincide, the block will form the
rhomboid OAB'C' as indicated by the dotted lines in Fig. 10(6). The total
Art. 12 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 17 shearing strain occurring in the block may
Art. 12 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 17
shearing strain occurring in the block may be measured by the distance
de (CC"), and the unit shearing strain designated by the letter -v is defined
as the ratio of thejptaljhearing strain to the[length dl over.which it occurs.
Hence
\» - tl <v
** .—J
It is evident that if the shearing strain is uniformly distributed Eq (i) may
be written
7 = f (7a)
The shearing strain indicated in the rod of Fig. 10(a) is identical with that
produced in a block subjected to pure shear, Fig. 10(c).
11. Strain Due to Temperature Changes.—Strain or change in dimen-
sions is produced by a variation in temperature as well as by stress. In
general, materials expand as their temperature is increased and contract
as
the temperature is decreased. For most materials, the amount of change
in
strain accompanying a 1° change in temperature is approximately con-
stant for a temperature range of 100° or more, but may vary appreciably
if the change in temperature amounts to several hundred degrees.
A quantitative measure of the unit strain produced by a change in tem-
perature is given by a coefficient known as the coefficient of thermal expan-
sion. It is defined as the unit strain produced by a 1° temperature change
and hence is expressed in dimensions of T-1. Therefore, the coefficient will
have one value if temperatures are expressed in degrees Fahrenheit and a
different value if temperatures are expressed in degrees Centigrade. The
definition of coefficient of thermal expansion may be expressed in equation
form as
e = Ct(tz — <0. (8)
If the material is homogeneous and isotropic, and if the member is not re-
strained, the unit strain developed by a given temperature change is equal
in all directions. The total change in any dimension of a member may be
determined by simply multiplying the unit strain by that dimension.
Certain nickel alloys, such as Invar and Elvinar, have very low coeffi-
cients of thermal expansion and are therefore useful for accurate tapes and
other measuring devices.
12. Stress-Strain Relationships.—In the design or analysis of many
structures and machine parts, it is necessary to predict the amount of strain
or change in dimensions which occurs as a result of a given load. This is
accomplished most effectively by making use of the fact that (within rather
narrow limits) a specific stress is required to produce a specified value of
18 Chap. 1 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS unit strain in a given material. The relationship between
18
Chap. 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
unit strain in a given material. The relationship between unit stress and
unit strain for a material may be shown graphically by means of a diagram
in which values of unit stress are plotted as ordinates against values of unit
strain as abscissae. The resulting line is known as a stress-strain diagram.
Examples of stress-strain diagrams for axially loaded test specimens
are shown in Fig. 11. It will be noted that each diagram consists of a
Stra/n
(a)
Stra/n
(U
Fig. 11. Examples of stress-strain diagrams. (a) Typical for mild
steel except that left portion of curve is expanded horizontally.
(6) Typical for timber, concrete, and certain other brittle materials.
straight-line portion followed by a curve. An equation may easily be de-
veloped for the straight-line portion of a stress-strain diagram. Within the
straight-line range of the diagram, the slope is constant and may be desig-
nated by the symbol E.
dS
(9)
The slope E is known as the modulusjiLelastici^, or Young!s_modul«e, of
the material.
Eq. (9) may be integrated within the range in which E is constant, giving
S
- Si = E(e- «0. (9a)
If
both /Si and «i are zero, i.e., if the curve passes through the origin,
S
= Ee. (9b)
The equation for the curved portion of the diagram of a specific material
is not so easily determined, but a number of equations have been suggested
for the stress-strain relationships for various materials.*
The modulus of elasticity of most metals is but little affected by method
of manufacture, heat treatment, or small percentages of alloys. The
modulus for most of the carbon steels varies from 28,000,000 to 31,000,000
* Osgood, W. R., "Stress-Strain Formulas," J. Aeronautical Sciences (Jan. 1946),
13:45.
< H g a « o S b g M «2 B HH B" OH
<
H
g
a
«
o
S
b
g M «2
B
HH B"
OH -"*
O!
H B
«£8
X
-
d
SgggS
5
h
gag
0
o
s
w
e-
2
oo
Sag
B
«G
s
o
o o o
o
o o o o o
cO
CD
• S q CO „0 00 O i-i -
.
CO O Oi oi oi Tf- .-I .
<n
co cn eo cd »6 id
SONOOCOiDiChihiOiO«»
cicococi>oioeoTt<^<r--t*-r*.co
.
_
_« _ i?5 tO •
o
o o o
.
io
q q
\
Ol iO iO
Ci
O
q q
cc
co co eo
.
cn cn
oooooooooo
.
CO CD CO "O <-i i-t »
§00000
pool's
if
iO N O W "0-
cn
co~ •* eo «5 oi"
Tf
8
c
tN
CN
a
all*
in3
T3
fe
§ -
8
gfe
,
- **
i
i§ 1
09
1
j
15 §•§
-
© © o
-
--J*
*
33
-J
r- r- flt
iii-
•Sib
SET
S5-S-S-3
8.8.
a
a
Sg8"aS582
5
g g3H«»
ChChFh o o-2
7
7 7=»:= »
aa
cc tn * *
•1S S 8 8
CO to eJO
11
p
a n *
oo
S5
•StS
.a -a
3
3
o
o
Qfl
20 Chap. 1 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS psi., a value of 30,000,000 psi. being commonly used
20
Chap. 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
psi., a value of 30,000,000 psi. being commonly used in calculations. The
modulus of elasticity of the aluminum alloys is about 10,000,000 psi., of the
copper alloys about 16,500,000 psi., and of the magnesium alloys about
6,500,000 psi. Values of E are given in Table 2 for some common engineering
materials.
A stress-strain diagram tor shear (unit shearing stress plotted against
unit shearing strain) exhibits the same general qualitative characteristics
as a stress-strain diagram for the same material in tension or compression.
That is, there will be in most cases a straight-line portion followed by a
curve in which the strain increases more rapidly than the stress. Numerical
values of shearing stress are less than the corresponding values of tension
or compression in most cases.
Fig. 12
The modulus of elasticity in shear, also known as the modulus of rigidity,
may be evaluated as the slope of the original straight-line portion of the
stress-strain diagram. It is designated by G. Hence,
G =
dS,
dy'
or, if the stress-strain diagram passes through the origin,
(9c)
(9d)
provided that S, and 7 refer to the coordinates of a point on the straight-
line portion of the stress-strain diagram.
The modulus of rigidity of steel is between 11,000,000 and 12,000,000 psi.
A value of 12,000,000 psi. is frequently assumed in engineering calculations.
The modulus of elasticity, the modulus of rigidity, and Poisson's ratio
are interrelated as may be determined from consideration of the geometry
Art. 12 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 21 of a portion of the square block
Art. 12 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 21
of a portion of the square block OABC in Fig. 10(a). A portion of this
block is reproduced in Fig. 12. It is apparent that the diagonal KA, which
originally had a length a, will become longer as point A moves to A'. The
displacement AA' = e(AK) = ea. Similarly, the diagonal KB will be-
come shorter. The change in length BB' = ape. The unit shearing strain is
equal to twice the change in the angle KAB. Hence, if the change in the
angle is small,
IT = tan (45° - a). (10)
From Fig. 12,
B'K
tana =
A'K
•)
- (1Oa)
The tangent of the difference of the two angles in Eq. (10) may be expressed
in terms of the tangents of each of the angles. Thus,
. tan 45° — tan a _ 1 + e
27 "1+ tan45°tana" 1 - M«
e(1 + M)
2 + e(1 - /*)
However,
S. , S
(10b)
in which
S is the normal stress in the longitudinal direction.
In addition, it may be shown that S, = 1/2/S.
If these quantities are substituted into Eq. (1Ob), it becomes
2S«,1 v
-p-(1 + W
(10c)
It will be noted that the term 2S,/E is very small in comparison with the
other two quantities, being less than 0.001 in most cases. Therefore it may
be neglected and Eq. (1Oc) reduces to
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1 or E = 2G(1 - E 2(1 + (1Od) (10e)
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Chap. 1
or
E = 2G(1 -
E
2(1 +
(1Od)
(10e)
Once the stress-strain relationship for a given material is established,
values of the unit strain may be determined for any given stress and vice
versa. The relationships are especially important in experimental evaluation
of stresses by measuring strains.
Stress-strain diagrams are also useful in indicating the maximum unit
stress which may be developed in the material without causing undesirable
effects.
13. Elastic Action.—The stress-strain diagrams given in Fig. 11 were
obtained by gradually increasing the strain in test specimens until fracture
occurred; and, therefore, they indicated the behavior of the material to and
6QOOO
o.o/
O.OZ O.O3
Unit' Strain
Fig. 13
O.O4-
0.05
including the maximum normal stress which it will develop. If the increase
in strain (or loading) is stopped before the maximum resistance is reached
and then decreased, an unloading stress-strain diagram will be developed.
The relationship between the unloading curve and the loading curve indi-
cates some important attributes of the material. If, for example, a specimen
of mild steel is stressed to 30,000 psi. and the stress removed, the loading
and unloading curves will coincide for all practical purposes. However, if
the stress is increased to 50,000 psi. and then removed, the unloading curve
will not retrace the loading curve but will be essentially a straight line
parallel to the initial straight-line portion of the diagram, as indicated in
Fig. 13. The difference between these two types of behavior is highly sig-
nificant. The first type of action is described qualitatively as elastic action,
while the second is called inelastic action. In other words, if a material
subjected to a cycle of loading and unloading returns to its original di-
Art. 14 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 23 mensions, the material is said to be
Art. 14 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 23
mensions, the material is said to be elastic. If it does not return to its
original dimensions, it is inelastic and the amount of the residual strain in
the material is called the permanent set. It is obvious that the usefulness of
many close-fitting machine parts would be impaired greatly if even a very
small amount of permanent set were developed during their operation.
14. Inelastic Action and Failure.—In order to prevent breakage or other
unsatisfactory behavior of a member in service, it is apparent that the unit
stress must be maintained below a danger level, the magnitude of which de-
pends upon what is considered to constitute failure (unsatisfactory be-
havior) for the member. If the member is a close-fitting machine part, it is
evident that the maximum stress to be permitted (allowable working stress)
must be appreciably lower than if the member were one which would be
undamaged by inelastic action.
There are, in general, three ways in which a member may become un-
satisfactory for a given use: (1) excessive elastic deformation, (2) inelastic
action, and (3) fracture or separation into two or more parts.
(/) Excessive Elastic Deformation.—For many structural members,
there exists a maximum deformation beyond which the member will not
function satisfactorily. The maximum deformation may be established by
clearances or tolerances, as in certain machine parts, or it may be estab-
lished on the basis of undesirable deflection or vibration. For example, a
connecting rod in an automobile engine would not function satisfactorily
if the rod shortened 1 in. during each compression stroke, even though its
action were completely elastic; or a suspension bridge would not be satis-
factory if a deflection of several feet occurred each time a vehicle moved
across the bridge. Excessive elastic deformation may usually be prevented
by adding more material to stiffen the member.
(2) Inelastic Action.—For practically every engineering material, there
exists a range of stress within which the material is elastic, and a range of
stress in which inelastic or plastic deformation will occur. The maximum
unit stress to which the material may be subjected before damage occurs
due to inelastic action is known as the elastic strength. Several properties
have been defined for the purpose of evaluating the elastic strength, each
based on a slightly different concept of what constitutes a practical safe
upper limit of stress.
(a) Elastic Limit. The elastic limit is defined as the maximum unit stress
to which the material may be subjected with no resultant permanent strain
upon removal of stress. This property is of theoretical rather than practical
value because its evaluation involves a series of loading and unloading
operations upon a specimen, each successive loading being a slightly higher
stress than the preceding one. Its determination also involves the use of
strain measuring equipment which is very sensitive and which has no me-
chanical lag.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1 (b) Proportional Limit. The proportional limit is defined as the
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Chap. 1
(b)
Proportional Limit. The proportional limit is defined as the maxi-
mum unit stress to which stress and strain are proportional. It is evident
that it may be evaluated as the unit stress at the upper end of the straight-
line portion of the stress-strain diagram. For some materials the departure
of the stress-strain diagram from the initial straight-line portion is abrupt
and well denned; but, for other materials, the exact point of deviation from
the straight line is highly uncertain. Hence, the proportional limit is not a
universally satisfactory criterion of elastic strength. For most engineering
materials, the unloading stress-strain diagram is a straight line parallel to
the initial tangent. For those materials, the proportional limit and the
elastic limit will have the same numerical value.
(c)
Yield Strength. Yield strength is defined as the unit stress at which
the material will develop a limiting permanent set. It may be found from
the stress-strain diagram by constructing a hypothetical unloading curve.
The limiting value of permanent set (usually 0.002 for metals in tension) is
measured on the strain axis and from that point a straight line is drawn
jY/'e/d Strength 45*si
,'
X
/
/
*'
<i> 1
^qooo
^
/
> ?/)/}/}/j II
o
c
'o.oot 0.000 o a/o o.zo 0,
Unit Strain Unit Strain in an 8-/n Gage Length
xll
(a)
U>)
Fig. 14. Evaluation of elastic strength.
parallel to the initial straight-line portion of the stress-strain diagram. The
stress at the intersection of this line and the curve is the yield strength.
The construction is illustrated in Fig. 14(a). This method of establishing
the elastic strength has the advantage of being sufficiently flexible to allow
for any desired amount of permanent set. On the other hand, the value of
yield strength is meaningless unless the offset (allowable permanent set) is
stipulated.
(d)
Yield Point. A few engineering materials, notably the low-carbon
steels, have the characteristic of yielding abruptly at a stress of 60 per cent
or more of the ultimate strength. This characteristic leads to a stress-strain
diagram with a flat portion or a dip at stresses slightly above the propor-
tional limit as indicated in Fig. 14(6). The stress at which this phenomenon
occurs is a convenient measure of elastic strength and is known as the yield
point. It may be defined as the unit stress at which the material exhibits an
increase in strain with no increase in stress, with the understanding that
with further strain the stress will again increase.
Art. 14 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 25 The mechanism by which this inelastic action
Art. 14 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 25
The mechanism by which this inelastic action under a gradually increas-
ing strain takes place is known a&^slip and may be shown by microscopic
examination to consist in the sliding or slipping of one portion of a crystal
along another portion of the crystal. In order for the magnitude of slip to be
measurable with the ordinary laboratory equipment, slip must occur in a
large number of crystals. The slip takes place along certain planes known as
slip planes which are always oriented in certain directions with respect to
the geometrical axes of the crystal. Slip planes within individual crystals
are normally parallel, but slip planes in adjacent crystals are not usually
parallel because the crystals are oriented in different directions.
A number of other properties have been denned which may be used as
criteria of the elastic strength. Of all the properties, the yield strength is
probably the most generally applicable, although the yield point (for those
materials which have a yield point) is the easiest to determine in the labora-
tory since no stress-strain diagram is required.
If a member is subjected to a constant stress for a long period of time,
inelastic deformation may occur and continue to increase in magnitude un-
til the member separates into two parts. This type of inelastic action is
known as' creep^nd differs from the inelastic action (known as slip) dis-
cussed in tKepreceding paragraphs, in that the inelastic deformation in-
creases under constant stress. When slip occurs, the inelastic strain does not
increase in magnitude under constant stress, whereas, when creep occurs,
the inelastic strain does increase in magnitude under constant stress. Many
of the metals commonly used in engineering (steel, brass, aluminum al-
loys) do not creep at ordinary temperatures but will creep at elevated
temperatures. Metals with low melting points are prone to creep at room
temperature.
The maximum unit stress to which a material may be subjected without
having the inelastic strain exceed a specified amount in a specified time at a
specified temperature is known as the creep limit.
(3) Fracture.—If a specimen is subjected to gradually increasing axial
strain, the material will develop stress until a maximum value is reached,
after which fracture or separation of the specimen into two or more parts
occurs. The fracture may be abrupt (as in a brittle material) or it may be
preceded by a relatively large amount of strain at stresses near the maxi-
mum (as in a ductile material). The percentage elongation (in an 8-in. or a
2-in. gage length), which is the unit strain at fracture in tension expressed
as a percentage, is sometimes used as a measure of ductility.
If a member in service is not to fail by fracture, it is obvious that the
maximum stress must be kept below a limiting value corresponding to the
maximum obtained in the test specimen, which is known as the ultimate
strength. For ductile materials the value of the ultimate strength'in tension
is definite, but the ultimate compressive strength may be indefinite due to
26 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1 the large increase in the cross-sectional area which may
26 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1
the large increase in the cross-sectional area which may accompany the
plastic yielding. For example, a cylindrical specimen of lead 2 in. in diam
and 4 in. high may be compressed to a disc a fraction of an inch thick and
several inches in diameter without reaching maximum resistance. For such
cases the magnitude of the ultimate strength in compression is rather
meaningless, and the maximum stress permitted in compression is usually
based on the yield strength.
15. Allowable Working Stress and Factor of Safety.—The allowable
working stress is denned as the maximum computed stress permitted in the
material. Its value is usually established by the specifications under which
the design is being prepared.
The factor of safety is defined as the ratio of the strength of the ma-
terial to the maximum computed stress in the member. The maximum com-
puted stress in general will not exceed the allowable working stress and may
be far below it if factors such as rigidity (rather than stress) control the
design. The maximum allowable working stress is always established at a
value less than the strength of the material in order to prevent failure.
There are three reasons for this:
(1) The actual maximum stresses are unknown, and an idealized
distribution of stress is normally assumed. In most cases the actual maxi-
mum stress will exceed the maximum computed stress.
(2) The properties of the materials in the member are usually not known
but are assumed to be equal to the properties in standardized test speci-
mens. An allowance must be made for the difference in properties of the
material in the member and the test specimens.
(3) The magnitude of the maximum load which the member must resist
is unknown at the time the member is designed. It is impossible to predict
exactly what loads any structural member or machine part must carry dur-
ing its life, so allowances must be made to provide for the possibility of
loads greater than those estimated for normal operating conditions.
In some branches of engineering the term margin of safety is used. It is
equal to the factor of safety minus 1. A positive margin of safety indicates
a safe member, and a negative margin presumably indicates an unsafe
member.
A factor of safety of 2 or a margin of safety of 1 does not mean that the
member can carry twice as much load as the design load without failure,
since the stress distribution under the higher load may be entirely different
from the distribution under the design load.
16. Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Members.—The axially
loaded members which have been considered in the preceding articles were
assumed to be homogeneous. Hence, the stress (if no stress raisers were
present) was assumed to be uniformly distributed across any normal cross
Art. 16 27 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING section of the member. If the member
Art. 16
27
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
section of the member. If the member is not homogeneous, the stress, in
general, will not be distributed uniformly. If the member consists of two or
more portions which themselves are homogeneous, the stress distribution
within each of the portions may be uniform, but the stresses will not have
the same magnitude. In order to determine the magnitude of the stresses,
it is necessary to know the distribution of the load among the portions of
the cross section.
Since a parallel force system is involved in the free-body diagram of a
short length of the member, only one equation of equilibrium is available,
assuming that the member is symmetrical. Therefore, the distribution of
the load among the portions of the cross section cannot be determined from
the equations of equilibrium alone. Such a member is known as a statically
indeterminate member.
In order to determine the distribution of the force among the various
components of a statically indeterminate member, information other than
that coming from the equations of equilibrium is necessary. In general, in-
formation is obtained from the geometrical behavior of the member under
load. The details of the solution of a specific problem depend upon the
characteristics of that problem, but the principal steps involved in the
solution of an axially loaded indeterminate member are given in the follow-
ing problem.
Illustrative Problem
A concrete post 10 in. square is reinforced with four 1/2-in. square symmetrically
located steel rods as indicated in Fig. 15(a). Determine the maximum load which the
II •
/Oin.
II
||
-M
— ,r
ii
ii
II
-i 1
II
II
II
II
M
il
|
ii
(a)
Fig. 15
post will support if the allowable working stress in the concrete is 800 psi. and de-
termine the stress in the steel.
28 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1 Solution: Afree-body diagram of a portion of the post
28 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1
Solution: Afree-body diagram of a portion of the post is indicated in Fig. 15(6).
The total load on the post is P, the resultant force developed in the steel is R., and
the resultant force in the concrete is R,.
Statics. — The equation of equilibrium gives <j -- /t
P = R, + R, (a)
= S.a, + S.a. (b)
= £(99) + S.(l). (c)
The equation of equilibrium (c) contains two unknowns, P and .5
Hence, one ad-
ditional equation is necessary. The additional equation may be obtained by con-
sidering the geometrical behavior of the post.
Geometry. — If the post acts as a unit, each end of the post will remain plane dur-
ing loading, and the total deformation in the concrete will equal the total deforma-
tion in the steel.
e. = «., (d)
eeLe = e.L
(e)
However, the length of the steel is equal to the length of the concrete, so
(f)
Properties of the Material. — If the stresses are befow the proportional limit,
stress and strain are proportional, and Eq. (f) may be written
£ S. , .
W.=E: (g)
The value of E, may be obtained from Table 1 as 3,600,000 psi. and E, may be
assumed to be 30,000,000 psi. Hence,
30,000,000 „ , ,
„ _
'- 3,600,000 <,'
Since S, is given as 800 psi.,
= 6670 psi. (j)
This value may be substituted back into Eq. (c), giving
P = 99 (800) + 6670 .(k)
= 85,870 Ib. (1)
17. Thin-walled Pressure Vessels. — Thin-walled pressure vessels are
widely used for the storage of air, gas, water, oil, and other liquids. In most
cases the containers are approximately cylindrical in shape; hence, the
stresses are evaluated in the directions of longitudinal and circumferential
axes. The stress acting in the direction of the longitudinal axis is known as
the longitudinal stress, and the other stress acting in a tangential direction
(at right angles to the longitudinal stress) is known as the circumferential
stress. The magnitudes of the longitudinal and circumferential stresses may
be determined with the aid of appropriate free-body diagrams. For example,
the circumferential stress may be determined from a free-body diagram of a
Art. 17 29 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING half section of the cylinder, as indicated
Art. 17
29
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
half section of the cylinder, as indicated in Fig. 16(a). Three forces are
indicated—one due to the internal pressure and the other two due to the
resistance of the cylinder to splitting lengthwise. If the free-body diagram
is constructed to include the fluid within half of the cylinder, it is evident
that the resultant internal pressure'is equal to 2prl. The resisting tensile
force developed in each half of the wall of the cylinder may be designated as
T. The equation of equilibrium written in the direction of the forces gives
2T = 2prl.
(11)
Fig. 16
If the circumferential stress is uniformly distributed throughout the cross
section of the wall,
T = StU, (1la)
and
5, = f • (11b)
Eq. (l1b) indicates the average value of the circumferential stress. If the
stress is not uniformly distributed throughout the thickness of the cylinder
wall, the maximum will be greater than the average value given by Eq.
(11b). It may be shown that the maximum circumferential stress is always
greater than the average value and that the maximum occurs at the inside
surface. However, if the diameter of the cylinder is equal to ten times the
wall thickness, the maximum stress will be only 10 per cent greater than
30 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1 the average stress, and, as the diameter increases in
30 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1
the average stress, and, as the diameter increases in proportion to the
thickness, the stress distribution will become more nearly uniform.
The magnitude of the longitudinal stress may be found from a free-body
diagram produced by cutting the cylinder with a transverse plane. It is ap-
parent that the resultant force developed by the fluid pressure within the
tank, indicated by the arrow in Fig. 16(6), is given by
F
= p*r*. (12)
If
the stress is uniformly distributed, as would be expected from symmetry,
the resultant force developed in the wall is
F' = 2irrtSi. (12a)
From the force equation of equilibrium written in the longitudinal direc-
tion,
F = F', (12b)
from which
St = 2f (12c)
It may be shown that the longitudinal stress is uniformly distributed
throughout the wall thickness except near the end of the cylinder or near
any cutouts or other irregularities in the section.
A comparison of Eqs. (11b) and (12c) indicates that the average cir-
cumferential stress is equal to twice the longitudinal stress. Hence, a thin-
walled cylinder under internal pressure would be expected to fail along a
longitudinal line rather than along a circumferential line. It should be
noted that the stress distribution assumed in this article is not a distribu-
tion that actually exists, but under the conditions indicated is satisfactory
for design procedures. The formulas would not be expected to be valid
for the condition when the external pressure is greater than the internal
pressure, because of the possibility of the cylinder wall failing by buckling.
18. Dynamic and Repeated Loading. — The problems discussed thus far
in
this chapter have dealt with a situation in which the load or the strain
is
increased gradually and in which a condition of equilibrium exists. This
type of loading is known as steady loading or static loading. Two other
types of loading merit consideration because of the difference in the effects
which they produce in a structural member.
(1) Dynamic Loading. — A dynamic load is a load which is applied to the
member with shock or impact rather than by being applied slowly. In
general, its effect is to produce vibration which will gradually be damped
out, resulting in a final deflection or displacement equal to that produced by
Art. 18 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 31 a static load of the same magnitude,
Art. 18 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 31
a static load of the same magnitude, provided that failure does not occur.
However, for an instant during each cycle of the vibration, strains are de-
veloped which are accompanied by higher stresses than would be obtained
if a load of the same magnitude had been applied slowly. If the higher stress
exceeds the strength of the material, failure will occur.
A dynamic load may be considered equivalent to a static load of suf-
ficiently greater magnitude to produce the same maximum distortion that is
produced by the dynamic load. The ratio of the magnitude of the equivalent
static load (static load which would produce the same distortion as the
dynamic load) to the dynamic load is called the load factor. It is evident
that the load factor in a given instance will depend upon the amount of
shock involved in the impact load or will depend on the velocity with which
the impact load is traveling. Load factors as high as 18 are used in the de-
sign of certain airplanes. This means that the wings, for example, must be
designed to carry eighteen times the weight of the plane.
Methods of evaluating dynamic loads in terms of equivalent static
loads are given in Chap. 9.
(2) Repeated Loading.—If a load which produces a stress less than the
proportional limit of a material is applied to a member once or a dozen
times, the member is undamaged; but, if the same stress is applied several
million tunes, failure may occur. For most materials there exists a maximum
stress which may be applied indefinitely or an arbitrarily large number of
times, such as 500,000,000, without producing failure. The magnitude of
this stress is known as the endurance limit of the material and, as usually
employed, it involves the application of alternate equal stresses in tension
and compression. A large number of applications results in fracture because
eventually some portion of the material is stressed above the proportional
limit. When the stress is removed or reversed, strain hardening occurs;
and, with the repeated application of stress, the over-stressed portion be-
comes brittle and finally fractures. The presence of the resulting small crack
causes stress concentration which increases the susceptibility of the ad-
jacent material to failure in the same manner. Thus, a small crack is formed
and gradually works across the member, ultimately resulting in failure of
the member by fracture. This type of fracture is known as progressive
failure or sometimes, fatigue failure. Methods which have been developed
for the evaluation of load factors and the resistance of a material to a combi-
nation of steady loading and repeated loading are discussed in Chap. 9.
PROBLEMS
1. With the aid of appropriate free-body diagrams, determine the type of loading
developed at the sections indicated in each of the members of Fig. P-l and
evaluate the component forces (or couples) which the section must resist.
32 Chap. 1 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS s/00/h per ft I ^OOO /t> \ ff\ 1
32
Chap. 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
s/00/h per ft
I
^OOO /t>
\
ff\
1
fe-
A
6ft
B
J&
Zft
^ft
(a)
Ct)
fc)
P-l
2. Identify the type of loading developed at the indicated sections in each of the
structural elements shown in Fig. P-2. Evaluate the magnitude of each com-
/OO/b
(a)
fe)
ponent force (or forces and couple). Neglect the friction at all surfaces of con-
tact, and neglect the weights of the members.
3. Construct appropriate free-body diagrams to determine the type of loading and
the magnitude of the forces developed in each of the sections indicated in the
members of Fig. P-3.
4. With the aid of suitable free-body diagrams, identify the type of loading and
evaluate the force (or forces and couple) at each of the sections indicated in
Fig. P-4. Neglect the weights of the members.
Probs. 2-4 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING /eOteperft Hill ^-^ 20/6 per fr 4ft ffft
Probs. 2-4
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
/eOteperft
Hill
^-^
20/6 per fr
4ft ffft
Sft
<f/t
/&/> P/ate
s
\°
!
\
\
) •§
ff
1
I
>
K
1 i
[
1!
\C
P-3
P-4
34 Chap. 1 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 5. Determine the magnitude of the stress developed in
34
Chap. 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
5. Determine the magnitude of the stress developed in the 1/8-in. diam control
cable shown in Fig. P-5 due to an applied force of 100 Ib.
P-5
6. Fig. P-6 shows part of the landing-gear assembly for a glider. Determine the
average compressive stress developed on section A A if the reaction on the
wheel is 2360 Ib.
•p-6
7. Determine the minimum diam of structural steel bolts required for each of the
connections at A, B, and C in the landing-gear assembly of Fig. P-6 for a
maximum wheel load of 2360 Ib. Each bolt is in double shear.
8. Determine the maximum compressive stress developed on section A A of the
connecting rod shown in Fig. P-8 if it is used to transmit the force from a
3-1/8-in. diam piston under a pressure of 300 psi.
9. Determine the maximum normal stress developed near the midlength of mem-
ber [72L3 of the pin-connected truss shown in Fig. P-4(6) if it is an aluminum
alloy tube with an outside diam of 1-1/2 in. and a wall thickness of 0.064 in.
Probs. 5-12 35 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 10. From the rolled sections given in
Probs. 5-12
35
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
10. From the rolled sections given in Tables I to IV (Appendix A), select suitable
cross sections for each of the four structural steel truss members marked in Fig.
P-2(c) if the loading shown is critical.
11. Determine the minimum required diam for the structural steel pins at joints
L0, I/i, and L2 in the truss of section P-2(c) if each pin is in double shear.
12. Determine the required diam for the pin in the upper pulley of Fig. P-12 if the
average shearing stress is not to exceed 12,000 psi.
tort
P-12
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 1 13. Determine the diam required for the cable of a
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Chap. 1
13. Determine the diam required for the cable of a mine shaft car which is to carry
a load of 2400 Ib with a load factor of 1.8. Establish the value of working stress
which shall have a factor of safety of 2 with respect to failure by slip.
14. Determine the minimum dimensions for each of the indicated portions of the
truss in Fig. P-14. The material is Douglas fir. Assume each joint to be pin-
connected.
/4,OOO /b
P-14
15. Determine the maximum stress developed in the member of Fig. P-15.
IV c
> in. d/am.
P-15
16. What maximum load may be applied to the member of Fig. P-16 if the maxi-
mum stress is not to exceed 24,000 psi.?
P-16
17. A plate 1/4 in. thick is to be reduced from a 1-in. width to a 1/2-in. width.
Determine the required radius of fillet if the maximum stress is not to exceed
24,000 psi. for an applied load of 2000 Ib.
18. Determine the maximum permissible axial load for the member in Fig. P-18
if the stress is not to exceed 30,000 psi.
P-18
Probs. 13-25 37 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 19. Prove that the maximum shearing stress
Probs. 13-25
37
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
19. Prove that the maximum shearing stress in an axially loaded member occurs on
a plane which makes an angle of 45° with the axis of the plate and show that the
magnitude of the stress is one half of the magnitude of the normal stress on a
transverse cross section.
20. Determine the maximum shearing stress developed near the midlength of
member EC of Fig. P-6 for the wheel load of 2360 Ib.
21. Determine the required cross-sectional area of the member USL4 indicated in
Fig. P-4(6) if the maximum shearing stress is not to exceed 12,000 psi. and the
maximum tensile stress is not to exceed 20,000 psi.
22. Determine the maximum allowable load on the 1-5/8-in. by 1-5/8-in. timber
member of Fig. P-22 if the shearing stress parallel to the grain is not to exceed
100 psi. and if the maximum normal stress parallel to the grain is not to exceed
1000 psi.
P-22
23. Determine the maximum shearing stress which the welded joint of Fig. P-23
must withstand.
, //'n
60,
P-23
24. Aconcrete cylinder 3 in. in diam and 6 in. high failed along a plane making an
angle of 60° with the horizontal when subjected to an axial vertical load of
18,000 Ib. Determine the shearing stress and the normal stress on the plane.
25. Determine the stresses on the plane AAin Fig. P-25.
3OO psi.
P-25
38 Chap. 1 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 26. The normal stress on the inclined plane in
38
Chap. 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
26. The normal stress on the inclined plane in Fig. P-26 is 3000 psi. tension. De-
termine the magnitude of S,.
1 I I 8000 />s/:
P-26
27. In a certain structural member Sx is always equal to 1/2Sv. Determine the
magnitude of the stress on a plane which makes an angle of 30° with Sx.
28. The shearing stress on plane AAin Fig. P-28 is 600 psi. Determine the normal
stress on plane BB.
P-28
29. The control cable for the rudder of a certain airplane is made of 1/8-in. diam.
stranded steel wire and has a total length of 34 ft 6 in. Determine the elongation
of the wire for a pull of 400 Ib. The modulus of elasticity of the wire may be as-
sumed to be 12,000,000 psi.
30. A1-in. diam stranded steel cable is used in a mine hoist. Determine the total
elongation in a length of 800 ft when the cable is subjected to a total tensile
force of 2-1/2 tons. The modulus of elasticity may be assumed to be 12,000,000
psi.
31. An aluminum tube 6 ft long having an internal diam of 1/2 in. and an external
diam of 3/4 in. is welded to the end of an aluminum tube having an internal
diam of 3/4 in. and an external diam of 1 in. The length of the second tube is 4
ft. Determine the total elongation if an axial load of 2400 Ib is applied to the
assembly.
32. A1/4-in. diam steel rod 4 ft long is attached to the end of a brass tube with an
internal diam of 1/4 in. and wall thickness of 1/16 in. What load will be re-
quired to stretch the assembly 1/100 in. if the brass tube is 8 ft long?
33. Asteel rod 1/2 in. in diam and 6 ft long is to be subjected to an axial tensile load
of 1600 Ib. The rod is to be turned down to a diam of 1/4 in. throughout part of
its length, so that the load will cause a total elongation of 1/16 in. Determine
the length of the turned-down portion.
Prohs. 26-41 80 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 34. Determine the change of length of
Prohs. 26-41
80
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
34. Determine the change of length of the steel member BC in Fig. P-34 as a re-
sult of the 2000-Ib load.
'J
in. d/'am
P-34
35. The 200-Ib weight shown in Fig. P-35 is supported by 1/8-in. diam copper
wires. If the load causes the horizontal member to stretch 0.0025 in., determine
the axial force to which the inclined wire is subjected.
6ft
P-35
36. If the member L3U? in Fig. P-4(6) is composed of two 2-in. by 2-in. by 1/8-in.
steel angles, determine its total elongation due to the indicated loads.
37. A1/2-in. diam steel test specimen stretched 0.0024 in. in a length of 8 in. De-
termine the probable load.
38. Aload of 3000 Ib applied to a 1/2-in. diam aluminum test specimen caused an
elongation of 0.0030 in. in a 2-in. gage length. Determine the apparent modulus
of elasticity of the material.
39. A3/4-in. diam brass rod was subjected to a total axial load of 20,000 Ib. De-
termine the elongation in an 8-in. gage length and the change in diam of the rod.
40. Determine the probable change in diam of a 3-1/8-in. diam aluminum piston
subjected to a cylinder pressure of 300 psi.
41. Determine the deflection of point 0 in Fig. P-41 due to the load of 6 kips. The
aluminum alloy tube has an outside diam of 1 in. and a wall thickness of 0.049
in.
40 Chap 1. MECHANICS OF MATERIALS A/ a//oy tube & /a. diam stee/ 42. If
40
Chap 1.
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
A/ a//oy
tube
& /a. diam
stee/
42. If the outside diam of the alloy tube in Fig. P-41 is 0.75 in. and the maximum
permissible displacement of point O due to the 6-kip load is 0.15 in., what
minimum wall thickness must the tube have?
43. Determine the change in diam of the piston of Prob. 40 if the temperature
changes from -30F to 140F.
44. The B-17 airplane has a wing span of 103 ft 9 in. Determine the change in span
if the plane leaves the ground at a temperature of 110F and climbs to an eleva-
tion at which the temperature is — 20F.
45. The Golden Gate Bridge has a span of 4200 ft. Determine the change in length
of a steel floor system for the total span (if no expansion joints were provided)
due to a temperature change of 40F.
46. One of the large cement kilns has a length of 450 ft and a diam of 12 ft. De-
termine the change in length and diam of the structural steel shell caused by an
increase in temperature of 200F.
47. An aluminum tank 3 ft in diam was strengthened by the addition of external
steel hoops 1/4 in. thick. So far as resistance to internal pressure is concerned,
will the strengthening effect be increased or decreased if the temperature of both
metals increases?
48. Asteel micrometer designed for measuring diameters of approximately 4 ft was
calibrated at 68F. What error will be introduced in the measurements if the
instrument is used at a temperature of 110F without correcting for temperature?
49. Abimetallic element was made by securely attaching a strip of nickel to a strip
of copper. Determine the shearing stress developed along the junction between
the two metals if the unit is subjected to an increase in temperature of 40F and
restrained from bending.
Probs. 42-59 41 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 50. Determine the load required to produce
Probs. 42-59
41
STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
50. Determine the load required to produce a deflection of 0.01 in. in the member of
Fig. P-41 if the tube has an external diam of 1 in. and a wall thickness of 0.065
in.
51. Determine the length of the steel member in Fig. P-51 if point Ais to deflect
1/4 in. as a result of a temperature change of 450F.
ffross -j
f/xed distance
P-51
52. Determine the required cross-sectional area of member LiL2 of Fig. P-2(c) if
the member is to be made of structural steel and is to have a factor of safety of
2.00 with respect to failure by slip under a 6-kip load at L2.
53. Determine the factor of safety with respect to failure by slip of the steel rivet
in Fig. P-3(c).
54. Determine the required area of member J73L4 in Fig. P^(6) if the member is to
be constructed of aluminum alloy 17S-T with a factor of safety of 2.0 with
respect to failure by slip.
55. Determine the factor of safety of the member shown in Fig. P-15 with respect
to failure by (a) slip and (6) fracture if the member is structural steel.
56. Determine the factor of safety of the steel rod in Fig. P-34 with respect to
failure by fracture.
57. Determine the factor of safety with respect to failure by both slip and fracture
of the structural steel rod and the aluminum alloy tube shown in Fig. P-41 if
the tube has an external diam of 1 in. and a wall thickness of 0.065 in.
58. An aluminum alloy plate 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide, and 24 in. long is bolted to one
side of a vertical Douglas fir post 4 in. square and 24 in. high. The post is then
loaded with vertical compressive force. Determine the magnitude of the force
and the location of its line of action if it develops a uniformly distributed
compressivfc stress of 500 psi. on a horizontal plane in the fir.
59. A1/2-in. diam steel bolt is run longitudinally through a brass tube having an
inside diam of 1/2 in., an outside diam of 3/4 in., and a length of 16 in. Washers
are placed at the ends of the bolt to provide uniform bearing on the tube. De-
termine the increase in the stress in the brass tube if the nut is tightened one-
quarter turn. The bolt has 8 threads per in.
42 Chap. 1 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 60. Apier of average concrete is 12 in. square
42
Chap. 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
60. Apier of average concrete is 12 in. square and has four 1-in. square steel rein-
forcing bars imbedded longitudinally in it. Determine the load which will de-
velop a maximum compressive stress of 800 psi. in the concrete. What is the
magnitude of the compressive stress in the steel?
61. Aconcrete pier 12 in. square and 2 ft high is to carry a maximum axial compres-
sive load of 300,000 Ib with a factor of safety of 4 with respect to failure by
fracture. Determine whether or not steel reinforcing is required and if so, how
much. Evaluate the shortening of the pier as a result of the load.
62. A Douglas fir post 4 in. square and 3 ft long is to carry an axial compressive load
of 12,000 Ib. How much may the change in length of the post be decreased by
securely bolting a 4-in. by 3/4-in. wrought iron plate to one side of the post?
Where should the line of action of the load lie for the stress to be uniformly
distributed throughout the fir?
63. Member Ain the frame represented in Fig. P-63 is a steel bar with a cross-
sectional area of 0.60 sq in., B is a wrought iron bar with an area of 1.20 sq in.,
and C is assumed to be rigid. The 12,000-Ib load is placed on the rigid member C
in such a position that Aelongates 0.0012 in. more than B. Determine the axial
unit stress in each bar.
///////
-W
64.
c
JZ.OOO /t>
P-63
Bar C represented in Fig. P-64 is brass and has a cross-sectional area of 2 sq in.
The bars are fastened between two rigid supports D and E and are connected
securely at B. At a temperature of 70F there is no stress in either bar. Determine
the stress in bar S (steel) when the temperature is 30F if the bar has a cross-
sectional area of 1/2 sq in.
0
c
J"
0 /o;*.
20 //?.
P-64
65. Bar AB shown in Fig. P-65 is made of aluminum alloy 17S-T with an area of
3 sq in. The post CD is a square concrete post 3 in. on a side. The modulus of
Probs. 60-67 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 43 elasticity of the concrete is 4 X
Probs. 60-67 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 43
elasticity of the concrete is 4 X 106 psi. The bar EC is assumed to be rigid and
has a slope as shown when the load P is zero. Determine the magnitude of the
load P which will make BC horizontal.
66.
Determine the magnitude of the total load, P, which will produce an axial com-
pressive stress of 1000 psi. in member C of Fig. P-66, if the clearance between
the rigid member and C is 0.002 in., as shown when P is zero. The temperature
is assumed to remain constant. Bar A is a 1-1/2-in. by 2-in. brass rod, B is a
24S-T bar 2 in. by 1 in. in cross section, and C is a medium concrete block 4 in.
by 3 in. in cross section.
/////////////
P-66
67. Two 3-in. square wooden blocks and a 2-in. by 3-in. cast iron block are to sup-
port an axial compressive load as shown in Fig. P-67. The cast iron block is
0.004 in. shorter than the wooden blocks. Determine the maximum permissible
magnitude of the load P if the allowable compressive unit stresses are 900 psi.
for the wood and 15,000 psi. for the cast iron. The horizontal member is as-
sumed to be rigid.
44 Chap. 1 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 3 in. £ in. 3 in. h + +
44
Chap. 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
3 in. £ in. 3 in.
h + + 4
4/n. P
Ifl/OOCt
Wood
P-67
68. A heavy steel member BC in Fig. P-68 is supported by a 1-3/4-in. square brass
rod and a 1-in. square steel rod, CD. The line BC is horizontal when the frame is
loaded as shown at a temperature of 110F. Determine the tensile unit stress
developed in the brass by the 30,000-Ib load if the line BC is also horizontal
when the frame is not loaded and the temperature is 10F.
30, OOO ti
P-68
69. The assembly in Fig. P-69 consists of a 1-in. by 1/2-in. steel bar A, a rigid
block C, and a 1-in. by 2-in. Monel Metal bar B, securely fastened together and
attached to rigid supports at the ends. Determine the change in the normal
stress in each of the bars developed by a temperature drop of 40F, and the ap-
plication of the load P of 25,000 Ib.
Probs. 68-71 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 45 P-69 70. The bar marked <S in
Probs. 68-71 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING
45
P-69
70.
The bar marked <S in Fig. P-70 is steel and those labeled A are aluminum alloy
17S-T. Each has a cross-sectional area of 2 sq in. Before application of the
40,000-Ib load, bar S extends 0.0025 in. above bars A as shown. If the hori-
zontal plate is assumed to be rigid and remains horizontal, determine the
maximum normal unit stresses developed in the 17S-T and the steel by the
load P.
ll
I 4O.OOO /t>
\
1
A
S
5
A
-
Y////////////2
y///////
P-70
71.
Three vertical bars of steel, copper, and aluminum alloy 24S-T support a hori-
zontal rigid bar carrying a load P as shown in Fig. P-71. Determine the maxi-
mum allowable load P if the supporting bar is to remain horizontal and the
following stresses are not to be exceeded:
Cross-Sectional
Area
Allowable Unit
Tensile Stress
Bar
Steel
1
sq in.
18,000 psi.
Conner
3
sq in.
10,000 psi.
24S-T
2
sa in.
15.000 psi.
46 Chap. 1 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS //fV/7. P-71 72. A longitudinal joint in a 4-ft
46
Chap. 1
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
//fV/7.
P-71
72. A longitudinal joint in a 4-ft diam cylindrical boiler transmits a total stress of
4000 Ib per in. of length. Determine the intensity of the internal pressure.
73. Two 10-ft diam hemispheres are joined to form a spherical pressure vessel.
Determine the total force transmitted per inch of length of joint when the
internal pressure is 200 psi.
74. Two cylindrical containers 16 in. in diam and 20 in. long are joined by bolting
their flanges together as indicated in Fig. P-74. Determine the number of 1-in.
diam structural steel bolts required to hold the cylinders together when the as-
sembly is subjected to an internal pressure of 200 psi. The increase in the tensile
stress in the bolts is not to exceed 8000 psi.
BO//?.
P-74
75. Determine the minimum wall thickness required for the assembly of Fig. P-74
if it is constructed of magnesium alloy C74-S with a factor of safety of 2.50 with
respect to failure by slip.
76. Determine the minimum diameter of structural steel bolts required for the
cylinder of Fig. P-74 if the increase in the tensile stress in the 8 bolts is not to
exceed 10,000 psi. for an increase in internal pressure of 240 psi.
77. Two flanged half cylinders 20 in. long and 14 in. in diam are joined by bolting
the flanges together using twelve 1/2-in. diam bolts on each side. Determine the
Probs. 72-84 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 47 increase in axial tensile stress in the
Probs. 72-84 STRESS, STRAIN, AND AXIAL LOADING 47
increase in axial tensile stress in the bolts if the internal pressure in the assembly
is increased 200 psi.
78. How many 1/2-in. diam bolts would be required for the assembly of Prob. 77 if
an increase in internal pressure of 240 psi. is not to cause an increase in tensile
stress in the bolts of more than 8000 psi?
79. Asteel boiler 3 ft in diam is welded using a spiral seam which makes an angle
of 30° with the longitudinal direction. Determine the magnitude of the normal
force and the shearing force transmitted across the seam due to an increase in in-
ternal pressure of 160 psi.
80. Acylindrical boiler is to be formed by welding steel plate along a spiral joint.
From the standpoint of stress to be transmitted across the joint, would a spiral
making an angle of 60° with the longitudinal axis of the boiler be preferable to
one with a 45° angle? Explain.
81. Aspherical gas holder 40 ft in diam is subjected to an internal pressure of 180
psi. Determine the thickness of structural steel plate required for the holder if
the tensile stress is not to exceed 12,000 psi.
82. Determine the thickness of steel plate required for a cylindrical boiler 6 in. in
diam and 20 ft long if the tensile stress in the plate is not to exceed 12,000 psi.
for an internal pressure of 240 psi.
83. The longitudinal riveted joint in a 48-in. diam cylindrical pressure vessel is de-
signed for a maximum stress of 10,420 psi. in the walls which are 1/2 in. thick.
Determine the maximum allowable internal pressure in the pressure vessel.
84. The oleo strut BC in Fig. P-6 consists of an alloy steel tube with an inside diam
of 1-7/8 in., filled with oil, and containing a piston at the lower end. Determine
the minimum wall thickness required for the tube if the maximum wheel load
of 2360 Ib is not to develop a tensile stress of more than 24,000 psi. in the tube
wall.
_EMPTY_
_EMPTY_
CHAPTER 2 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS FOR AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS 1Q. General Considerations.—In the design of
CHAPTER 2
JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS FOR AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS
1Q. General Considerations.—In the design of a structure or a machine
composed of two or more members, it is inevitable that connections must be
devised to transmit load from one member to another. Of the many different
systems that have been developed for this purpose at least three are ap-
propriate for joining axially loaded members. One consists in overlapping
the two members and attaching them by means of a third unit, such as a
bolt, rivet, nail, or screw as shown in Fig. 17(a). A second method consists
j --
la) (b) (0
Fig. 17. Types of connections.
in attaching the two members by means of a more uniformly distributed
bonding agent, such as glue, or by welding as indicated in Fig. 17(6). From
the standpoint of analysis, one method of welding, spot welding, produces a
joint somewhat similar to the riveted or bolted connection. The third
method, suitable for attaching rods (or members of circular cross section),
consists in fitting the threaded end of one member into a matching fitting
in the other member, such as the socket of Fig. 17(c).
20. Types of Welds.—Within recent years the techniques of welding
have been developed and improved to the extent that this method of con-
necting two members is now regarded as a standard fabrication procedure
rather than as simply a device for making emergency repairs. The usual
welding operation is performed by clamping the two parts to be joined and
heating them to a sufficiently high temperature to produce localized fusion
—melting the parts together so that a rigid connection is formed upon
cooling. Usually a small amount of additional material (weld metal) is
melted in place so that it adheres to both parts being connected. Heat is
supplied by a gas flame or electrical current.
49
50 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2 A discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of
50 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2
A discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the various
welding procedures may be found in any of the current textbooks on ma-
terials, in technical periodicals, or in the literature of the American Weld-
ing Society
Three types of welds are useful for joining axially loaded members. They
are butt welds, fillet welds, and spot welds, as illustrated in Fig. 18.
lal BvTt We/d (t) Fi//et k/e/J (c) Spot We/d
Fig. 18. Types of welds.
(1) Butt Weld.—This type of connection is formed by preparing the
ends of the member to be joined, aligning the members with a small gap
between them, and filling the space with molten metal, using a technique
which will insure consolidation of the base metal and the added filler ma-
terial. The filler material is usually of the same composition as the base
metal to provide the necessary strength and to reduce electrolytic or chemi-
cal corrosion.* A sketch of a butt weld is indicated in Fig. 18(a).
If the two members which are joined are axially loaded, it is evident that
the primary stress which the weld must withstand is normal stress on a
transverse cross section. The stress may be tension or it may be compres-
sion depending on the direction of the applied load.
(2) Fillet Weld.—In some circumstances a butt weld is impractical and
the connection between the two members is formed by lapping the members
for a short distance and welding around the edges of the overlap as indi-
cated in Fig. 18(6). If an axial load is applied to the members, it is apparent
that the primary stress in the fillet weld will be shear, although under some
conditions tension may be developed. However, in the design or analysis
of a fillet weld it is customary to assume that the weld resists only shearing
stress and to assume that the area subjected to shear is the length of the
weld multiplied by the "throat distance," or thickness of the fillet on a 45°
line from the inside corner. The throat distance is one-half of the distance t
in Fig. 18(6).
(3) Spot Weld.—If the two members being joined are relatively thin,
spot welding may prove more useful than butt welding or fillet welding. The
* If the strength of the joint need not approach the strength of the members being
joined, brazing metal or solder may be used as the filler metal. These materials melt at
relatively low temperatures and may be made to adhere to the parts being joined with-
out fusing them.
Art. 22 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 51 usual technique of forming a spot weld consists in
Art. 22 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 51
usual technique of forming a spot weld consists in lapping the members to
be joined and passing a heavy localized electric current through the two
thicknesses of metal. Under the proper circumstances a small portion of
each member will be melted, forming a more or less circular connection as
indicated in Fig. 18(c). If the two members are subjected to axial loading, it
is apparent that the primary stress in the weld will be shear in the plane of
contact of the members although secondary tensile stresses may be de-
veloped.
21. Allowable Stresses in Welds.—In the design or analysis of a welded
joint, it is customary to assume that the weld is subjected only to tension
if it is a butt weld or subjected only to shear if it is a fillet weld or spot weld.
The strength of a welded joint is dependent upon many factors, including
the quality of the metal used in the weld, the alteration in properties of the
base metal owing to the annealing effect of the welding operation, and the
skill of the operator in preventing local overheating and other defects such
as blowholes and inclusions or irregular portions which serve as stress
raisers. The fusion code of the American Welding Society permits a design
stress of 16,000 psi. (24,000 psi. allowed as an emergency value) in tension
on the section through the throat of the butt weld in steel. The allowable
compressive stress on the butt weld is taken equal to the allowable compres-
sive stress, for the base metal. For a fillet weld the allowable shearing stress
is 13,600 psi. in steel (15,000 psi. emergency value). These stresses are for
static loads only; if the joint is subjected to impact load or to repeated load,
the allowable stresses must be reduced correspondingly. For an ultimate
strength of the material in tension of about 60,000 psi., the factor of safety
is approximately 4.
Spot welding has been widely used for connecting aluminum sheet. The
strength of individual spot welds varies from about 6000 psi. to over 30,000
psi. depending upon the type of equipment used, the thickness of the sheet,
and the characteristics of the alloys involved. For aluminum alloys 2S and
3S a minimum ultimate shearing strength of approximately 9000 psi. is
developed in a weld connecting 0.040-in. sheet while for alloy 52S the cor-
responding strength is about 21,000 psi. For spot welds in alloys 24S and
75S a strength of 26,000 psi. may be regarded as the lower range of ultimate
shearing strength.
The welding procedure is usually adjusted to produce a spot weld having
a diameter equal to the sum of the thicknesses of the sheets plus 1/16 in.
22. Design Considerations.—The purpose of a welded connection is to
hold the members in the desired relative position, to provide a means for a
safe transfer of load from one member to another, and to provide the neces-
sary rigidity. Adequate but not excessive area of weld must be provided. In
addition, the welded joint should be designed to keep secondary stresses
52 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2 (stresses other than those due to axial loading) as
52 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2
(stresses other than those due to axial loading) as low as possible and to
provide the necessary accessibility to the parts. In many applications a
minimum of weight is also desirable.
The design procedure involves (1) the determination of the minimum
amount of weld area necessary to permit the transfer of the axial load on the
basis of the allowable stresses, and (2) the placement of the weld so that it
will be most effective and will not induce bending or other undesirable per-
formance. In addition, it must be so located that fabrication will not be
unduly difficult.
If the members being connected have the same width and a thickness
greater than about 1/2 in., butt welding will often prove the most satis-
factory. If the prevailing conditions do not permit the use of a butt weld, a
lap joint with one or two fillet welds, as indicated in Fig. 19(a), may be used.
(a) (i>) (c)
Fig. 19
This type of connection introduces some bending at the joint, since the two
members attempt to align themselves, as indicated in Fig. 19(c), thereby
introducing undesirable secondary stresses. The bending may be eliminated
by using a butt weld with two cover plates, as indicated in Fig. 19(c),
in which each cover plate is welded to the main plates with fillet welds.
No bending will occur in a joint of this type, but the weight has been in-
creased due to the addition of the cover plates.
If an unsymmetrical member, such as an angle, is welded to a symmetri-
cal member, such as a flat plate, the location of the weld metal must be
considered carefully to prevent undue bending or twisting of the joint.
Illustrative Problem
A 6-in. by 6-in. by 3/8-in. structural steel angle in which the tensile stress is 10,000
psi. is to be welded to a flat plate 10 in. wide. Design a suitable welded connection.
Solution: One possible connection would consist of a fillet weld across the end of
the angle as indicated in Fig. 20(a). The angle has a total cross-sectional area of
4.36 sq in., so the total load to be transferred is 43,600 Ib. With an allowable stress of
13,600 psi. in the throat of the weld, the length of weld required may be determined
as
7 _ 43,600 , .
*" 13,600 (0.707) (0.375)
= 12.1 in.
Obviously, the length available at the end of the angle is only 6 in., so the weld must
extend down the sides of the angle. If the weld were placed along only one side of the
Art. 22 53 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS angle as indicated in Fig. 20(6), twisting would be
Art. 22
53
JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS
angle as indicated in Fig. 20(6), twisting would be induced. This may be shown by
considering a free-body diagram of the end of the angle. The resultant force (F)
in the angle acts at the centroid of the angle as shown in Fig. 20(c), and the resisting
shearing force (Q) developed in the weld acts along the center of the weld. Since
the two forces are not colinear, the resultant couple will induce twisting, which will
increase the stresses on the weld. In order to prevent the undesirable effects which
may result from the twisting, the line of action of the resultant force developed by
the weld should be at the same distance from the back of the angle as the line of
action of the applied force in the angle. This may be accomplished by welding along
the attached leg of the angle as well as along the back of the angle.
The design of the connection then involves the determination of the length of
each of the welds so that their resultant will act along a line 1.64 in. from the back
(a)
(c)
let)
(e)
Fig. 20
(t)
of
the 6-in. by 6-in. angle. The two unknown lengths xi and x2, Fig. 20(d), may be
determined from the free-body diagram, the equations of equilibrium, and the as-
sumption that the unit stress is constant throughout the entire length of each weld.
It is apparent that
Qi + Q, = 43,6001b, (b)
13,600 (0.707) (0.375) Xi + 13,600 (0.707) (0.375) z2 = 43,600, (c)
xi + xi = 12.1 in. (d)
The moment equation of equilibrium written with respect to an axis through Qi
gives
43,600 (1.64) = 13,600 (0.707) (0.375) (6) x2, (e)
from which
z2 = 33.3 in. (f)
Then, from (d),
xi = 8.8 in. (g)
Hence, for a balanced design, the weld should extend for 8.8 in. along the back and
for 3.3 in. along the attached leg.* If it is desirable to include a weld along the
* Practically, the length of each weld should be increased 1/4 in. as allowance for
starting the weld.
54 Chap. 2 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS end of the angle, the force developed by it
54
Chap. 2
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
end of the angle, the force developed by it will also need to be taken into considera-
tion.
It will be noted that this design eliminates twisting about an axis perpendicular
to the plane in which the welds lie; but, it does not eliminate bending with respect
to a transverse axis in the plane of the welds, because the resultant force in the angle
does not lie in the plane of the welds. In addition, the solution is based on the as-
sumption that the stress is uniformly distributed along the length of the weld. This
distribution is not correct, but it is sufficiently accurate for design purposes. In-
evitably stress concentration will exist near the weld, and a distribution other than
that assumed will exist, but the high factor of safety will, in the case of static loads,
provide a sufficient margin to give a safe design. Tests show that a transverse weld
is about 30 per cent stronger than a longitudinal weld.
That the distribution of stress along a longitudinal fillet weld is not uniform may
readily be shown by considering the deformations produced in the members which
are welded together. For example, assume that a 1-in. by 6-in. plate is lap-welded to a
6QOO0/i>
6O,00C/i
Fig. 21
1-in. by 8-in. plate as indicated in Fig. 21, and the unit subjected to an axial load of
60,000 lb. If the unit stress is assumed to be distributed uniformly along the weld,
the distribution of load carried by the 6-in. plate is indicated by the line ABC in
Fig. 21. From statics it is apparent that the load carried by the 8-in. plate must be
as indicated by the line DEF. Thus, at section GG the load carried by the 8-in.
plate will be 40,000 lb, and the load carried by the 6-in. plate will be 20,000 lb.
However, the average unit stress at section GG in the 8-in. plate will be 5000 psi.,
and the corresponding unit strain is
5000
es (30) 106
= 0.000167,
while at the same section the unit strain in the 6-in. plate is
C6 6 (30) 106
= 0.000111.
Obviously the two plates could not act as a unit with this variation in unit strain,
so the actual distribution of stress throughout the members is not the simple one
(h)
(i)
Art. 23 55 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS which is assumed for design purposes. However, since the
Art. 23
55
JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS
which is assumed for design purposes. However, since the values of allowable stress
are obtained from test results by assuming this same simplified distribution, the
load carrying capacity as determined using this distribution must be reasonably
near the actual load carrying capacity. Small differences are absorbed by the factor
of safety.
Glued joints may be designed in essentially the same way as welded
joints. That is, the joint may be assumed to carry a uniform shearing stress,
tensile stress, or compressive stress as the case may be. Values of allowable
stresses in glued joints vary widely because of the many types of glue and
gluing techniques.
23. Types of Riveted Joints.—The two principal types of riveted joints
are lap joints and butt joints. Several typical joints are indicated in Fig. 22
o
o
o
o
o
o
(a)
J/ng/e -riveted lap joint
(6)
Double-riveted Zap joint
jr
rrr
(c)
Single-riveted butt joint
Will? one cover plate
(dJ Dot/bZe-riveted iott joint
with two cover plates
Fig. 22. Types of riveted joints.
and include at (a) a single-riveted (one row of rivets) lap joint, at (6) a
double-riveted lap joint, at (c) a single-riveted butt joint with one cover
plate, and at (d) a double-riveted butt joint with two cover plates. It is
evident that bending of the type indicated in Fig. 19(6) will be present in
any lap joint, and in a butt joint with one cover plate. The use of a butt
56 Chap. 2 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS joint with two symmetrical cover plates eliminates the bending
56
Chap. 2
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
joint with two symmetrical cover plates eliminates the bending but adds
weight, just as in a welded joint.
The center-to-center distance between rivets in any row parallel to the
joint is called the pitch distance. If more than two rows of rivets are used, the
pitch in the outer rows is usually greater than in the inner rows for reasons
which will be apparent later. In general, the pattern of rivets in a joint is
repeated along the joint. The group of rivets involved in the smallest unit
of the pattern is called a repeating group. For example, if a double-riveted
butt joint (Fig. 23) has a pitch of 3 in. in the inner row and 6 in. in the
Ooter row
-/vner row
fdge cf/stance
r—f=r-
.fl pt-
-4-1-
ILT
-y—u-
Fig. 23
-u-
Cover p/ate
j- rfa/n p/afe
outer row, the repeating group would involve three rivets on each side of
the joint and would be 6 in. long; but, if the pitch in the outer row were
4 in., the repeating group would be 12 in. long and would contain seven
rivets on each side.
24. Stresses in Lap Joints.—Since the actual distribution of stress in a
riveted lap joint is highly complex, joints are designed or analyzed on the
basis of a number of limiting assumptions. One important assumption usu-
ally made is that the unit shearing stress is the same on all rivet shear areas.
This assumption corresponds to the assumption of uniform shearing stress
distribution throughout a fillet weld.
However, a check of the maximum shearing resistance developed by the
rivets against the total load to be carried is only a small part of the design
Art. 24 57 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS of a riveted joint as there are many ways
Art. 24
57
JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS
of a riveted joint as there are many ways in which the joint may fail other
than by shear of the rivets. These include failure of the plate in tension at
the rivet hole, failure of the plate in bearing, and failure of the plate in
shear. Each is illustrated in Fig. 24.
It is apparent that the analysis of a joint must involve checking the
stresses on each section where failure might occur. In order to make sure
that no sections are omitted from consideration, it is suggested that the
(a) (6) (c)
Fig. 24. Failures in riveted joints. (a) Shear of rivets. (6) Bearing in plate, (c) Tension
of plate and cover plate at outer row. (d) Incipient tearout of cover plate, (e) Tension
at inner row, tearout at outer row. (/) Tension at inner row, bearing at outer row.
(g) Tension and shear between rows of rivets (rows too close), (h) Tension at inner row
of each cover plate.
"path" of the load be traced from one main plate through the joint to the
other plate. As the load is followed into a joint, such as the lap joint of
Fig. 25, from the left, it is apparent that all of the load must be trans-
mitted past the transverse section which contains the hole. Since the area of
this section (called the net section) is always less than the area of the gross
section (section of the plate without the hole), the stress on the net section
will always be higher than the stress on the gross section of the plate. Then
the load must be transferred from the plate into the rivet without shearing
the plate along the toarout sections, as indicated in Fig. 25, or without
causing the plate to fail in bearing—i.e., by buckling or crushing at the con-
58 Chap. 2 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS tact between rivet and plate. Next, the load must
58
Chap. 2
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
tact between rivet and plate. Next, the load must be carried by the rivet in
shear, as indicated in Fig. 25, after which it is transmitted into the lower
plate by bearing across the net section and finally into the gross section
without causing the lower plate to fail in shear by tearing out or to fail in
tension on the net section.
Gross Section-
load
i
Afet Sect/on'A
7earout Sections
Shear in P/ate~\
—£
cBearing
of Rivet on P/ate
=tHi
Siiear of Pive.
Fig. 25
The load, or force, which must be transmitted across each of the sections
may be evaluated with the aid of appropriate free-body diagrams and the
equations of equilibrium. In each case the stress is assumed to be distributed
uniformly across the critical section even though it is known that it is not
actually distributed in that way due to stress concentration and other
factors. However, the nonuniformity of stress distribution is taken into
account in establishing allowable working stresses so that the results are
dependably safe. Working stresses for riveted connections have been estab-
TABLE 3
Working Stresses for Riveted Joints
(All values in psi.)
Tensile
Shearing
Bearing Stress on Rivets
Use
Stress
Stress
in Rivets
Unfired steel pressure vessels
(ASME Boiler Code)
in Plate
Single Shear
Double Shear
Structural-steel buildings
11,000
8,800
19,000
19,000
40,000
(AISC, 1946)
20,000
15,000
32,000
Steel railway bridges (AREA,
1946)
18,000
18,000
13,500
10,000
27,000
35,000
27,000
Aluminum alloy, 17S-T
35,000
Art. 24 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 59 lished on this basis by a number of organizations.
Art. 24 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 59
lished on this basis by a number of organizations. Typical values are in-
cluded in Table 3.
Usually the assumption is made that the size of the hole is equal to the
nominal size of the rivet, that the rivet fills the hole, that there is no axial
tension in the rivet, and that there is no friction between plates.
Illustrative Problem
The 1/2-in. steel plates in Fig. 26 are joined by a row of 3/4-in. rivets which have a
pitch distance of 4 in. and are located 1 in. from the ends of the plates. Determine
the stresses in the joint if it carries an axial load of 6000 Ib per in. Indicate possible
improvements in the design.
Solution: Since the length of the repeating group is 4 in., a 4-in. section of the plate
will be investigated. This is equivalent to analyzing a pair of plates 1/2 in. by 4 in.
in cross section, connected by a single 3/4-in. rivet and subjected to a load of
24,000 Ib.
(a) Stress in Net Section.—The load transmitted across the net section may be
found by constructing a free-body diagram of a portion of the joint, selecting as one
cut section the net section on which the force is desired. From the free-body dia-
gram of Fig. 26(6), it is apparent that the load carried by the net section is 24,000 Ib.
Hence,
c _ L - _24,QOO_ , ,
"' - A ~ (4-f) («
= 14,750 psi.
The rivet and hole are assumed to have the same diameter.
(b) Shear in Plate.—One possible free-body diagram for determining the force
which the plate must resist in shear is shown in Fig. 26(c). The plate is cut along the
sections on which failure would occur by sliding, or shear. The force equation of
equilibrium, written in the x direction, gives the magnitude of the force as 24,000
Ib, 12,000 Ib on each of the two shear areas. Hence, the average shearing stress, S,, is
„ F 24,000 ,M
<S' = T=207T ()
= 24,000 psi.
The length of the area is the edge distance or distance from the edge to the center of
the hole.
(c) Bearing Stress.—Any one of several free-body diagrams may be used to
determine the force which must be resisted in bearing between the rivet and the
plate. The one in Fig. 26(d) is obtained by removing the rivet from the top plate
and replacing its action by the force F. From the equilibrium of the free-body dia-
gram it is apparent that the load carried in bearing is 24,000 Ib. Therefore, the aver-
age bearing stress is
c F 24>000 M
&"T"-rtfT
= 64,000 psi.
60 Chap. 2 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS (a) f \^ fl (ney/ected) (e) Shear in Rivet
60
Chap. 2
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
(a)
f \^ fl (ney/ected)
(e) Shear in Rivet
Fig. 26
The area in bearing is assumed to be the area of contact projected on a diameter of
the rivet.
(d) Shear in Rivet.—From the free-body diagram in Fig. 26(e), it is evident
that the single rivet carries the 24,000-Ib load on one shear area, so
Q _ L - 24'00P
<Sr ~ A~ 0.441
= 54,500 psi.
(d)
Since the two plates are identical, the stresses in the bottom plate are the same
as those in the top plate. Acomparison of the stresses as evaluated with values of
allowable stress given in Table 3 shows immediately that one poor feature of the
design is the extremely high shearing stress in the rivet. The remedy for this is to
increase the shear area by adding rivets, increasing the size of rivet, or both. For
example, four 1-in. diam rivets might be incorporated into the repeating group. This
Art. 24 61 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS could be done by using a quadruple-riveted lap joint
Art. 24
61
JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS
could be done by using a quadruple-riveted lap joint with a 4-in. pitch in each row,
as shown in Fig. 27.
More than one rivet is involved in the repeating group, so the first step in the
solution is to determine the load carried by each rivet. For this purpose a free-body
diagram such as the one indicated in Fig. 28(a) is used. The equation of equilibrium
gives
24,000 = Sio, + £2o2 + S3a3 + S4a4. (e)
Fig. 27
However, for practical design and analysis purposes, the shearing stress is as-
sumed to be the same on each rivet shear area. Therefore,
and
24,000 = Sj(
at),
„ 24,000
1 4(0.7854)
= 7650 psi.,
(0
(g)
which is less than the allowable stress given in Table 3. From the assumption that
the shearing stresses are equal on each of the rivet shear areas, it follows that each
rivet transmits one-fourth of the total load from one plate to the other.
With the new design, the stress in the net section at the outer rivet is increased
slightly because of the larger hole. The load to be transmitted across the net section
is, from the free-body diagram of Fig. 28(6), still 24,000 Ib. The average tensile
stress in the plate is
62 Chap. 2 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 24,000 -s, (4 - 1) J (h) = 16,000
62
Chap. 2
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
24,000
-s,
(4 - 1) J
(h)
= 16,000 psi.,
which is high.
The tensile stress on the net section at the second row of rivets is less than the
stress at the outer row because the force which must be transmitted across that
2.4, OOO /6
(a)
Z4.OOO/6
(c)
eooo
6OOO /£>
Fig. 28
section is less than 24,000 Ib by the amount of force transmitted by the rivet in the
outer row. This is illustrated by the free-body diagram of Fig. 28(c), in which the
force FI is the shearing force in the rivet in the outer row.
24,000 - 6000
~
(i)
12,000 psi.
Art. 24 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS The bearing stress between the rivets and plates may be
Art. 24
JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS
The bearing stress between the rivets and plates may be checked with the aid of
Fig. 28(d) which represents a free-body diagram of one-half of any of the rivets.
The shearing load is 6000 Ib, so the bearing force is also 6000 Ib, instead of 24,000
Ib as before. Hence, the bearing stress is less than in the original design.
6000
(1) (i)
12,000 psi.,
(j)
which is less than the allowable as given in Table 3. The final item to be checked is
the shear tearout in the plate. The rivets must be spaced so that the plate will not
•3
•B
/?/'vefs ///?. d/am.
Fig. 29
shear longitudinally between rivets, or tear out at the end. The load to be trans-
mitted across each tearout section is 6000 Ib, from Fig. 28(e); so, if the allowable
stress in shear is 8800 psi.
6_00_0_ ,,,
:2Q)Z w
I = 0.68 in.
Hence, the rows of rivets would need to be spaced at least 0.68 in. apart. Practically,
the spacing would need to be greater.
Anumber of other modifications of the joint are possible, some of which would, for
specific situations, be better than the modification investigated here. In general, a
design is good if the stresses approach the allowable values and if the layout is such
that it may easily be fabricated with little chance for error.
64 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2 25. Stresses in Butt Joints.—The analysis of a butt
64 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2
25. Stresses in Butt Joints.—The analysis of a butt joint is carried out
by the same general procedure as the analysis of a lap joint, the primary
difference being that more sections and elements must be checked for stress.
Illustrative Problem
Determine the maximum load (in Ib per in.) that may be applied to the double-
riveted butt joint of Fig. 29 (p. 63) if the stresses are not to exceed those given in
Table 3 for steel.
Solution: Since the pitch in the inner row is 2-1/2 in. and the pitch in the outer
row is 5 in., the length of the repeating group of rivets is 5 in. The stress will be as-
sumed to be the same on all rivet shear areas and the maximum permissible load de-
termined by assuming that different critical sections control the design.
The first step is to indicate how the load is distributed through the joint. On each
side of the joint there are three rivets, two in double shear and one in single shear,
giving five shear areas. The stress in each shear area is assumed to be the same, and
the areas are the same; hence, each shear area will develop the same force. There-
fore, the distribution of forces throughout the joint will be as indicated in Fig. 30.
This distribution is the basis of the analysis for investigating the possibilities of
failure.
The maximum allowable force on each shear area is
F = AS, = (0.7854) (8800) (a)
= 7920 Ib.
(a) If Shear in the Rivets Controls.—To evaluate the strength of the joint in
shear of rivets a free-body diagram should be constructed taking as one cut section
the plane along which failure would occur. In this case a section of the main plate
with all rivets sheared is suitable, and is indicated in Fig. 31 (a). From the free-body
diagram it is apparent that the total force required to develop the limiting shearing
stress on the rivets is
P = 5F (b)
= 34,600 Ib.
Therefore, the strength of the joint is 34,600 Ib if shear in the rivets controls.
(b) If Bearing between Rivets and Plates Controls.—The unit stress de-
veloped on each shear area of each rivet is assumed to be the same, so the rivet in
the outer row will carry one-fifth of the total load and each of the other rivets will
carry two-fifths of the total load, as indicated in Fig. 30. Since the thickness of each
cover plate is more than one-half the thickness of the main plate, it follows that
bearing on the inner row will be critical between the rivets and the main plate rather
than between the rivets and the cover plate. The force which may be developed in
bearing is determined from a free-body diagram of the center portion of one of the
rivets in the inner row, as shown in Fig. 31(6), from which
|P = StA= (19,000) (1) (|), (c)
P = 23,700 Ib.
Hence, a load of 23,700 Ib on a 5-in. strip of the main plate would be required to
develop the limiting bearing stress on the inner row of rivets.
Mill i / I I-Li }-| i 1 1 Ml 1 I 1 i 1
Mill
i /
I I-Li }-|
i
1 1 Ml
1 I
1
i 1
T
?!
rm
llll
ii'
1
66 Chap. 2 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS V Fig. 31 Bearing on the outer row will
66
Chap. 2
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
V
Fig. 31
Bearing on the outer row will be critical on the cover plate since only one cover
plate is involved there and it is thinner than the main plate. From the equilibrium
of the free-body diagram of one-half of the rivet in the outer row, as shown in
Fig. 31(c),
ip = SbA = (19,000) (1) (fs), (d)
P = 29,700 Ib
Therefore, if the joint fails in bearing, it will be expected to fail at the inner row.
Art. 26 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 67 (c) If Tension across the Net Section in the
Art. 26 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 67
(c) If Tension across the Net Section in the Outer Row Controls.—To
evaluate the force transmitted across the net section a free-body diagram is con-
structed in which that section appears as a cut section. A suitable free-body dia-
gram is shown in Fig. 31 (d), from \vhich it is apparent that all of the load must be
transmitted across the section. Hence, the load which will produce the limiting
tensile stress of 11,000 psi. on the net section is
P
= StA = (11,000) (5 - 1) (|), (e)
P
= 22,000 Ib.
(d) If Tension across the Net Section of the Main Plate at the Inner Row
Controls.—The free-body diagram of Fig. 31 (e), which may be used for the analysis
of this case, shows a portion of the main plate, cut at the section under consideration
and with the rivet in the outer row removed. The effect of the rivet, a bearing force
equal to one-fifth of the load, replaces the rivet. From the equation of equilibrium,
P = IP + F, (0
or
|P = F = S,A = (11,000) (5 - 2) (1), (g)
P = 20,600 Ib.
(e) If Tension in the Cover Plate Controls.—The center portion of the lower
cover plate carries three-fifths of the total load since three of the five rivet shear
areas lie between that plate and the main plate. Therefore, the stresses in it will be
greater than in the upper cover plate, although each has the same thickness. The
lower cover plate will obviously be critical at the inner row of rivets since that sec-
tion has maximum force and minimum area. An appropriate free-body diagram is
shown in Fig. 31(/). The three rivets are replaced by the bearing forces which they
exert on the cover plate—each force equal to one-fifth of the load. If the section of
the lower plate is to remain in equilibrium,
|P = AS, = (5-2} (&) (11,000), (h)
P = 17,200 Ib.
Of the five possibilities investigated, limiting stress in tension in the lower cover
plate at the inner row of rivets controls, since the smallest total load is required to
develop the limiting stress at that section. Hence, the maximum load is 17,200 Ib for
the 5-in. section or 3440 Ib per in. of width of joint. This corresponds to a tensile
stress of 6880 psi. in the main plate.
26. Efficiency of a Riveted Joint.—The efficiency of a riveted joint is
denned as the ratio of the load which develops the computed limiting stress
in the joint to the load which develops the limiting stress in the gross sec-
tion. The efficiency of the joint in the preceding illustrative problem is
= °-625
= 62.5 per cent.
The strength of the joint may be increased by increasing the thickness of
the lower cover plate, an increase to 3/8 in. increasing the critical load to
20,600 Ib and the efficiency to 75 per cent. However, this would also in-
crease the weight of the joint.
68 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2 Since the joint is comparatively strong in shear and
68 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2
Since the joint is comparatively strong in shear and bearing, an increase
in efficiency may be attained by using smaller rivets, thereby increasing the
net sections. By using 7/8-in. rivets and a 3/8-in. thick cover plate, the
efficiency may be increased to 75.5 per cent with bearing becoming critical.
It should be noted that the loads computed in the preceding problem are
not the loads which would actually produce the given maximum stresses in
the various elements of the joint because (1) the stresses on the rivet shear
areas are not equal and (2) stress concentration, bending, and friction be-
tween plates are neglected. However, the method does yield satisfactory
design information because the allowable stresses were determined using
the same assumptions.
27. Other Design Procedures. — Because of the evident errors involved in
the simplifying assumption made in the solution indicated in the illustrative
problems, other procedures have been suggested and are sometimes used to
determine the allowable load in a riveted joint. Of these, two will be dis-
cussed.
(1) Determine the allowable load by dividing the ultimate load by the
factor of safety. The ultimate load is found by considering all of the possi-
bilities of failure of individual portions of the joint and using that combina-
tion which will result in complete separation of the joint at the lowest load.
The method will be illustrated by application to the joint of Fig. 29.
(a)
Strength of rivet in outer row:
(1)
Shear
Pi = (0.7854) (44,000) = 34,600 Ib. (a)
(2) Bearing (critical on cover plate)
P2 = (l) (^) (95,000) = 29,700 Ib. (b)
Therefore, the rivet in the outer row will fail first in bearing at a load of
29,700 Ib.
(b)
Strength of each rivet in inner row:
(1)
Shear
P3 = 2(0.7854) (44,000) = 69,200 Ib. (c)
(#) Bearing (critical on main plate)
Pt = 1(J) (95,000) = 47,500 Ib. (d)
The critical load on each rivet in the inner row is 47,500 Ib with failure in
bearing.
(c) Strength of net section of main plate, outer row:
P6 = (5 - 1) (1) (55,000) = 110,000 Ib. (e)
(d) Strength of net section of main plate, inner row:
P6 = (5 - 2) (|) (55,000) = 82,500 Ib. (f)
Art. 27 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS (e) Strength of net section of cover plate, outer row:
Art. 27
JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS
(e) Strength of net section of cover plate, outer row:
P7 = (5 - 1) 0&) (55,000) = 68,800 lb.
(f) Strength of net section of each cover plate, inner row:
P8 = (5 - 2) (A) (55,000) = 51,500 lb.
(g)
(h)
Next, the various combinations of failures which will result in separation of the
joint are considered. The critical ones among these are
(a) Failure of three rivets, Fig. 32(a):
Fig. 32
(i)
P9 = 1\ + 2P4
= 29,700 + 2(47,500)
= 124,700 lb.
(b) Failure of net section of main plate in tension at outer row, Fig. 32(6):
p10 = p6 = 110,0001b. (j)
(c) Failure of net section of main plate in tension at inner row and failure of
rivet in outer row, Fig. 32(c):
70 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2 Pn = Pe + Pi (k) = 82,000 +
70 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2
Pn = Pe + Pi (k)
= 82,000 + 29,700
= 111,700 Ib.
(d) Failure of both cover plates in tension at net section of inner row, Fig. 32(d):
Pl2 = 2P8 (1)
= 2(51,500)
= 100,300 Ib.
Other combinations, such as failure of rivets of inside row and tension in outer
row of cover plate, are obviously stronger. Therefore, the minimum load which will
cause failure is 100,300 Ib. The allowable load is found by dividing by the factor of
safety,
= 20,060 Ib.
It will be noted that this procedure yields a somewhat higher value of
allowable load than the procedure used in Art. 25. However, this solution
is subject to the assumption that the stresses will be distributed in the
same way at low values of load as they are at failure, which is no more cor-
rect than the other assumption of the stress being the same on all rivet shear
areas. In effect, the difference between the two solutions for this problem is
that in the first solution the assumption is made that the lower cover plate
carries three-fifths of the load, while in the second solution the assumption
is made that the lower cover plate carries one-half of the load. For many
designs the two solutions will yield identical results.
(2) Determine the allowable load by assuming that all rivets develop
the same maximum bearing stress. If the rivets all have the same diameter
and bear against plates of the same thickness, this assumption leads to the
same results as the solution based on equal stresses on all rivet shear areas.
Test results indicate that if the rivets do not all have the same diameter, a
distribution on the basis of bearing stress gives more reliable results than
the other types of distribution which may be assumed.
28. Design Considerations. — From the standpoint of strength, the ideal
design is one in which the limiting values of stress are reached at all critical
sections for the same load. However, in the design of a riveted joint the
exact balancing of strengths on the basis of the analyses presented here is,
in general, neither practicable nor good engineering design because the
analyses are approximate and because the procedures usually lead to de-
signs which are expensive to fabricate. Such items as nonstandard dimen-
sions, irregular rivet spacing, and use of more than one size of rivet in a
multiple-row joint increase cost of fabrication and inspection and greatly
Art. 29 71 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS increase the probability of shop construction errors. In some
Art. 29
71
JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS
increase the probability of shop construction errors. In some special cases,
where strength is at a premium, as in aircraft construction, the use of such
devices to attain balanced design may be justified; but, in general, ap-
proximate balancing of the two weakest sections in the joint will give an
acceptable design for strength.
It
is apparent that no riveted joint can have an efficiency of 100 per cent
because the net section at the outer row of rivets must be smaller than the
gross section of the plate. Therefore, from the standpoint of efficiency,
multiple-row joints with a large pitch in the outer row are the most effec-
tive. However, from the standpoint of weight and cost of preparation and
fabrication of the joint, a minimum number of rows with equal pitch is more
advantageous. Good design strikes a balance between the two conflicting
factors.
Most specifications contain limitations on spacing of rivets and on edge
distances to prevent tearing of the plate between rivets.
In
some situations strength is of secondary importance, the critical char-
acteristic being impermeability.
29. End Fittings.—Welded and riveted connections of the type discussed
in
the preceding articles are adapted to attaching plates, angles, channels,
I-beams, and other rolled and extruded sections which have one or more flat
Y////////////
Y//////////S
!'////// ////////^.
\\\\\\\\>kH.\N
n
\X\\\V9
j
A\X\\\\\"Y N XN
v\\\\\7
V
//////// / / S^/JT
(a)
(cJ
40°
Fig. 33
surfaces. In general, other techniques must be used for circular or irregular
members, although tubes may be connected by nesting and pinning or
welding as indicated in Fig. 33 (a) and (b). Tubes of the same diameter may
be attached by fish-mouth welds, as illustrated in Fig. 33 (c). For most mem-
72 Chap. 2 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS bers of circular cross section, attachments are made by
72
Chap. 2
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
bers of circular cross section, attachments are made by means of upset ends
or fittings of the general type indicated in Fig. 33 (d).
In the design of the latter type of connection, attention must be given to
most of the possibilities of failure that were discussed in connection with
riveted joints; that is, the connection may fail in tension at the change in
cross section due to stress concentration, in tension at the net section, in
bearing between the pin and the fitting, in shear of the pin, or in shear of
the metal at the end of the fitting.
In checking the resistance to failure by shear in the metal, it is customary
to assume that the area resisting pullout is that area along two radial lines
which make an angle of 40° with the axis of the member; that is, the area
designated along lines AA in Fig. 33 (d).
The members may be attached to the fittings by original fabrication; in
other words, by upsetting the end of the member and forging it or otherwise
forming it to the desired shape, or by welding the member to the fitting. In
some installations, a threaded connection is desirable. In such a case, the
strength of the material at the connection must be analyzed for at least
three possible modes of failure: (1) tension at the root of the thread, (2)
shear of the thread, (3) bearing between the thread and fitting. If the
threads are cut on the end of the original rod, the cross section will be re-
duced materially at the root of the thread, increasing the stress as a result
of both the decrease in area and the stress concentration due to a sudden
change in cross section.
A study of the failure of threaded connections, including bolts, has indi-
cated that over half of the failures occur at the first thread. In some cases
failure at the root of the thread may be avoided by upsetting the end of the
rod, as indicated in Fig. 34(a), to make the diameter at the root at least
(a)
Fig. 34
equal to the diameter of the cross section of the rod. Stresses in tension may
then be determined in accordance with the procedure outlined in Chap. 1.
Shearing stresses may be evaluated as the total load divided by the spiral
area along which shearing failure would occur, assuming the shearing stress
to be uniformly distributed. Bearing stresses may be determined by divid-
ing the load by the area of contact between the bolt and the fitting. Usu-
ally, the threads are considered to be idealized, as indicated in Fig. 34(6).
Probs. 85-91 73 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS PROBLEMS 85. Determine the load which may be transmitted
Probs. 85-91
73
JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS
PROBLEMS
85. Determine the load which may be transmitted per inch of joint of butt weld if
the plates have a thickness of (a) 3/8 in., (b) 1/2 in., (c) 5/8 in., (d) 3/4 in.,
(e) 7/8 in., and (f) 1-1/2 in.
86. Solve Prob. 85 for fillet welds.
87. What is the ultimate shearing resistance of a single spot weld in 0.040 in. 3S
aluminum alloy sheet? 75S aluminum alloy sheet?
88. Determine the length of fillet weld required to transmit a load of 10,000 Ib
from one 1/2-in. steel plate to another.
89. Two steel plates 1/2 in. thick and 6 in. wide are to be connected by using two
welded cover plates, each 1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide. Design the connection
if the maximum axial tensile stress in the 6-in. main plates is 12,000 psi.
90. The bracket indicated in Fig. P-90 is to be constructed of structural steel plate
3/4 in. thick. Design the bracket (using welded connections) for the maximum
load of 8000 Ib, assuming the structure to be planar and assuming that the
stresses in the members are the same as though the ends were pinned. The de-
flection under the load should not exceed 0.005 in.
91
P-90
A drawn steel tube having an outside diam of 2 in. and a wall thickness of 1/16
in. is to be attached to a 1/4-in. steel plate by splitting the tube and welding as
shown in Fig. P-91. If a weld with a 1/4-in. bead is used, how long must the
weld be in order to develop an axial tensile stress of 12,000 psi. in the tube?
P-91
74 Chap. 2 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 92. If the 2-in. by 1/16-in. steel tube shown
74
Chap. 2
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
92. If the 2-in. by 1/16-in. steel tube shown in Fig. P-91 has four 1/4-in. welds,
each 4 in. long, what maximum tensile stress may be developed in the tube?
93. A 3-in. by 3-in. by 1/4-in. angle is welded to a steel plate. Determine the
lengths of weld required on the two sides parallel to the longitudinal axis of the
angle if it is subjected to an axial tensile force of 2000 Ib.
94. A cylindrical boiler 48 in. in diam is made of 1/2-in. plates and fabricated by
butt welding. Determine the maximum allowable internal pressure.
95. A steel strap 4 in. wide and 3/8 in. thick is to be welded to a heavy steel plate
as indicated in Fig. P-95. Welding is started at points B and D and proceeds
B
P-95
to points A and C, the two beads being placed simultaneously. By the time
the weld is completed the average temperature of the strap is 500F higher than
the temperature of the plate. What is the magnitude of the stress in the weld
when the joint cools? By what percentage do the thermal stresses weaken the
joint?
96. If the strap in Fig. P-95 is to be welded to the plate and it is known that the
temperature of the strap will be greater than the temperature of the plate
when the weld is completed, in what sequence should the various portions of
the joint be welded?
97. Design a welded connection to transmit an axial stress of 16,000 psi. in a 2-in.
by 2-in. by 1/4-in. angle \ > a steel plate 4 in. wide and 1 in. thick.
98. Fig. P-98 represents a joint in a truss. Each member consists of two angles
which are to be welded to the gusset plate as shown. Design the weld for mem-
ber B assuming that the stresses in the members are axial.
focft member consists
of two 2te in. t>y
2% //z fry '/4 in. ang/es.
P-98
Probs. 92-114 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 75 99. Design the weld for member C of Prob.
Probs. 92-114 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 75
99. Design the weld for member C of Prob. 98 and Fig. P-98.
100.
Determine the length of weld required for member A of Prob. 98 and Fig. P-
98.
101.
Design a spot-welded connection for transmitting a unit tensile stress of 20,000
psi. in an 0.040-in. thick sheet of aluminum alloy 75S to another sheet of
75S-T.
102. Does spot welding have any advantages over seam welding insofar as effective-
ness of transferring load from one aluminum alloy sheet to another is con-
cerned?
103. Two 0.040-in. thick sheets of aluminum alloy 52S-T are to be connected by
spot welding. Determine the spacing of the welds if the maximum tensile
stress in the aluminum sheet is to be 12,000 psi.
104. Redesign the joint of Fig. 26 to keep all stresses below those specified in the
ASME Boiler Code.
105. The joint represented in Fig. P-98 is to be fabricated with 3/4-in. diam steel
rivets in accordance with the AISC Code. Determine
(a)
the maximum tensile stress in member B,
(b)
the number of rivets required to attach member A to the plate,
(c)
the bearing stress developed between the rivets and member C.
106. Determine the number of 3/4-in. steel rivets required to attach members B
and C to the gusset plate shown in Fig. P-98, according to the AISC Code.
107. Solve Prob. 105 if the angles, plate, and rivets are aluminum alloy 17S-T.
108. Solve Prob. 106 if aluminum alloy 17S-T is used throughout.
109. A sheet of 0.040-5n. aluminum alloy 17S-T is lap-riveted to a sheet of 0.045-in.
17S-T with two rows of 5/32-in. diam rivets with a pitch of 1/2 in. Determine
the stresses at all critical sections if the joint transmits a load of 600 Ib per
linear in.
110. Two sheets of 0.051-in. aluminum alloy 17S-T are joined with a triple-riveted
lap joint using 5/32-in. diam rivets. The pitch in the two outer rows is 3/4 in.
and in the inner row is 1/2 in. Determine the maximum load per inch of joint
which may be permitted on the splice.
111. Along a certain section in an airplane wing a sheet of 0.040-in. aluminum alloy
is to be lap-riveted to a sheet of 0.051-in. alloy with 5/32-in. diam rivets. De-
termine the pitch if the 0.040-in. sheet is subjected to a maximum stress of
15,000 psi. in the gross section. Use the stresses given in Table 3 for alloy
17S-T.
112. Design a riveted joint suitable for use in an airplane wing if the joint must
transmit the load from a sheet of 0.051-in. aluminum alloy to a sheet of
0.064-in. alloy when the stress in the gross section of the 0.051-in. sheet is
14,600 psi. Rivets are available in diam of 1/8, 5/32, and 3/16 in. Use stresses
for alloy 17S-T.
113. Solve Prob. Ill using a spot-welded joint.
114. Design the joint indicated in Prob. 112 using spot welding.
70 Chap. 2 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 115. A boiler 5 ft in diam is made
70
Chap. 2
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
115. A boiler 5 ft in diam is made from 1/2-in. structural steel plate. The longi-
tudinal joint is a triple-riveted lap joint. Rivets of 1-in. diam are used, the
pitch in the outer rows being 5 in. and in the inner row 3 in. Determine the
maximum allowable internal pressure in the boiler if the allowable stresses in
the joint are S, = 12,000 psi., S. = 9000 psi., and S„ = 20,000 psi.
116. A cylindrical pressure vessel 4 ft in diam is made of 3/8-in. steel plate. The
longitudinal seam is a triple-riveted lap joint with 1-in. diam rivets placed
with a 3-in. pitch in the inner row and a 6-in. pitch in the outer rows. De-
termine the maximum allowable pressure in the vessel if the following stresses
are not to be exceeded: 10,000 psi. shear, 20,000 psi. bearing, and 15,000 psi.
tension.
117. Solve Prob. 116 using ASME Boiler Code stresses.
118. The longitudinal joint of a 48-in. diam cylindrical boiler transmits a total stress
of 4000 lb per in. of length. The boiler plates are 3/8 in. thick and the longi-
tudinal splice is a triple-riveted lap joint with 3/4-in. rivets with a 3-in. pitch
in the inner row and a 5-in. pitch in the outer row. Determine
(a)
the average shearing unit stress in the rivets,
(b)
the average bearing unit stress,
(c)
the maximum average tensile unit stress. State where it occurs.
119. A 6-in. by 4-in. timber member is spliced as indicated in Fig. P-119 using
P=/5800/t>
I'
TT
-r-
P-119
Douglas fir cover plates and 7/8-in. diam steel bolts. If the total load to be
transmitted by the splice is 15,800 lb, determine
(a)
the minimum thickness of the cover plates,
(b)
the edge distance for the bolts in both the main members and the splice
plates,
(c) the factor of safety with respect to failure by slip at the net section in the
main members.
Probs. 115-122 77 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 120. Structural timber members are frequently joined using patented
Probs. 115-122
77
JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS
120. Structural timber members are frequently joined using patented connections
to obtain better transfer of load. One type consists of a metal ring 4 in. in diam
and 1 in. long, one-half of which is embedded in a circular groove cut in each
member at the junction. Two connectors are shown in the splice in Fig. P-120,
1
(
f
-?~^>.
(6)
^ '1
•?/>?. 0,2
7
in.
7
in.
P-120
and the members are held in contact by a bolt through the center of the con-
nectors. Specifications permit the use of the connection illustrated for the
transfer of a load of 10,800 Ib if the material is Douglas fir. Determine the
factor of safety with respect to failure by slip at the weakest part of the splice.
121. The truss indicated in Fig. P-121 is to be constructed of Douglas fir, and the
critical loading condition for certain members is as shown. It is found that the
P-121
lower chord must be constructed of 24-ft lengths of timber and hence must be
spliced. Determine the size of member required and design the splice, using
7/8-in. bolts.
122. The members at joint Ui in the timber truss of Fig. P-121 are to be connected
using a 1/2-in. steel plate on each side and bolting through the plates and
78 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2 members with 7/8-in. diam bolts. Determine a suitable common
78 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 2
members with 7/8-in. diam bolts. Determine a suitable common thickness for
the three members framing into the joint and the number of bolts required for
each if a maximum shearing stress of 6600 psi. is permitted in the bolts.
123. The longitudinal splice in a 48-in. diam steel cylindrical pressure vessel is a
double-riveted butt joint. The main plate is 5/8 in. thick, the two cover plates
are each 3/8 in. thick, and the 7/8-in. diam rivets have a pitch of 3 in. in the
inner row and 4-1/2 in. in the outer row. The allowable stresses in the joint are
10,000 psi. shear, 20,000 psi. bearing, and 16,000 psi. tension. Determine the
maximum allowable load per linear inch of joint.
124. Solve Prob. 123 using ASME Boiler Code stresses.
125. A boiler with a diam of 48 in. is made of 9/16-in. plate. The longitudinal joint
is a double-riveted butt joint with two 5/16-in. cover plates. The diam of the
rivets is 1 in. and the pitch in the inner rows is 3 in. and in the outer rows is
4-1/2 in. If the fluid pressure is 210 psi. in the boiler, determine
(a)
the average shearing unit stress in the rivets,
(b)
the average bearing unit stress between the rivets and the main plate, and
(c)
the highest average tensile stress in the plates. State where it occurs.
126. The longitudinal joint of a boiler transmits a total stress of 3000 lb per in. of
length. If the 1/2-in. steel plates are connected by a double-riveted butt joint
with two 5/16-in. cover plates and 3/4-in. rivets spaced 4 in. in the outer rows
and 3 in. in the inner rows, determine
(a)
the average shearing unit stress in the rivets,
(b)
the maximum average bearing unit stress between rivets and any plate,
and
(c) the maximum average tensile unit stress. State where it occurs.
127. A 100-in. diam cylindrical boiler is made of 1/2-in. steel plate. The longi-
tudinal seam is a double-riveted butt joint with 3/8-in. cover plates and with
3/4-in. diam rivets. The outer rows of rivets have a pitch of 5 in. and the inner
rows a pitch of 2 in. Using the ASME Boiler Code, determine the maximum
pressure that can be allowed within the boiler.
128. A boiler with a diam of 36 in. is made of 1/2-in. steel plate. The longitudinal
joint is a double-riveted butt joint with two 5/16-in. cover plates. The diam of
the rivets is 3/4 in., the pitch in the inner row is 2 in., and in the outer row is
5 in. Determine the maximum internal pressure permitted in the boiler if the
stresses are not to exceed those specified by the ASME Boiler Code.
129. Two 1/2-in. steel plates are joined with a single 9/16-in. thick cover plate to
form a double-riveted butt joint. The pitch of the inner rows is 3 in. and of the
outer rows is 6 in. The diam of the rivets is 1 in. Determine the load per inch of
length which the joint will transmit without the stresses exceeding those
stipulated by the ASME Boiler Code.
130. A boiler with a diam of 60 in. is made of 3/8-in. plate. The longitudinal joint is
a double-riveted butt joint with two 3/8-in. cover plates, but the top plate is
riveted only by the inner row of rivets. The diam of the rivets is 7/8 in., the
pitch is 2 in. in the inner row and 4-1/2 in. in the outer row. If the longitudinal
joint controls, determine the maximum permissible internal pressure to which
the boiler may be subjected.
Probs. 123-142 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 79 131. A spherical pressure vessel 6 ft in diam
Probs. 123-142 JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 79
131. A spherical pressure vessel 6 ft in diam is formed by joining two hemispheres
with a double-riveted butt joint having two 7/16-in. cover plates, one of
which extends only beyond the inner rows of rivets. The pitch in the inner rows
is 3 in. and in the outer rows is 6 in. The diam of the rivets is 1 in., and the
thickness of the plate is 3/4 in. The internal pressure is 400 psi. Determine
(a)
the average shearing unit stress in the rivets,
(b)
the average bearing unit stress on the main plate,
(c)
the average bearing unit stress on the cover plates,
(d)
the average tensile unit stress at each net section of the main plate, and
(e)
the average tensile unit stress at each net section of the tfover plate.
132. Design a double-riveted butt joint for splicing two 9/16-in. steel plates in
which the tensile stress is 8000 psi., using ASME Boiler Code stresses.
133. Design the longitudinal joint for a boiler made of 5/8-in. steel plate if it must
transmit 5000 Ib per in.
134. A sheet of 0.040-in. 17S-T aluminum alloy, in which the maximum tensile
stress is to be 20,000 psi., is to be joined to an 0.051-in. sheet of the same ma-
terial using 5/32-in. diam rivets. Design a joint in which the stresses will not
exceed those given in Table 3.
135. Design the longitudinal joint for a 36-in. diam boiler which is to be subjected
to an internal pressure of 240 psi. Use ASME Boiler Code stresses.
136. Two 3/4-in. steel plates are spliced with two 7/16-in. cover plates to form a
double-riveted butt joint. The pitch in the inner rows of rivets is 3 in. and in
the outer rows is 4 in. The rivets are 1 in. in diam. If the allowable unit stresses
are 10,000 psi. in shear, 22,500 psi. in bearing, and 15,000 psi. in tension, de-
termine the efficiency of the joint.
137. Determine the efficiency of the joint described in Prob. 114.
138. Determine the efficiency of the joint described in Prob. 116.
139. Determine the efficiency of the joint described in Prob. 127.
140. Determine the efficiency of the joint described in Prob. 128.
141. Determine the efficiency of the joint described in Prob. 130.
142. Determine the efficiency of the joint described in Prob. 131.
_EMPTY_
_EMPTY_
CHAPTER 3 TORSION 30. General Considerations.—As indicated in Chap. 1, the resultant force acting on
CHAPTER 3
TORSION
30. General Considerations.—As indicated in Chap. 1, the resultant
force acting on any cross section of a member may be resolved into three
component forces, passing through any convenient reference point, and
three component couples, one of which lies in the plane of the cross section.
Two such couples, acting at two parallel cross sections in the member,
produce between the cross sections an effect known as torsion. The couple
acting at either cross section is called the torque, and its magnitude is, of
course, expressed in terms of force and distance (as inch-pounds or foot-
pounds).
The effect of the torque is to twist the portion of the member between
the couples. The twisting involves a tendency of one cross section to rotate
(about a longitudinal axis) with respect to an adjacent cross section, and a
tendency for any differential area in one cross section to slide along the
corresponding differential area in the adjacent cross section, thus develop-
ing shearing stresses on all cross sections of the member between the
couples. These shearing stresses are called torsional shearing stresses to
distinguish them from shearing stresses produced by forces, as in rivets.
The effects produced in circular and tubular members of constant cross
section will be considered first, and then methods for estimating torsional
effects in noncircular members will be discussed. Throughout this chapter
it will be assumed that the member is subjected only to torsion or to torsion
and axial loading (the axial loading having no effect upon the torsional
stresses or the angle of twist), and that no bending takes place. The latter
restriction requires that the member be straight.
31. Geometry of a Circular Torsional Member.—By direct observation
of a circular member subjected to torsion, it may be determined that,
within the normal range of accuracy of observation,
(1) a cross section which is a plane before twisting remains a plane after
twisting; and
(2) a diameter before twisting remains a straight line and a diameter
after twisting.
In Fig. 35, sections A and B represent two cross sections a distance dl
apart in a circular shaft. The resultant pull, Fi, on the belt at the left end is
balanced by an equal force on the bearing at the left end. Hence, the left
end of the shaft is subjected to a counterclockwise torque Fin. Similarly,
81
82 Chap. 3 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS the resultant belt tension Fz and the bearing force
82
Chap. 3
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
the resultant belt tension Fz and the bearing force at the right end develop
a clockwise torque Fzrz. If the shaft is in equilibrium, the torques must be
equal. Under the action of the applied torque, section A will rotate clock-
wise with respect to B. The relative rotation may be indicated by assuming
B to remain fixed. Then, as shown in an enlarged view of the section AB in
Fig. 35(6), the applied torque will cause the radius OC at A to rotate
through an angle d6 to the position OC', but the radius O'D at B will re-
(a)
H'
(c)
Fig. 35
main fixed. Hence, the straight line CD on the surface of the shaft will be
twisted to the position C'D. The shearing unit strain on the surface (along
C'D) is, by definition (Eq. 7),
CC'
CD'
(14)
The distance CC' may be expressed as the product of the angle of twist
d6 and the radius c of the rod, while the distance CD is dl. Therefore, the
shearing unit strain on the surface of the member is
cdB
dl
(15)
If c is constant with respect to Z, 7, will be constant with respect to I,
and Eq. (15) may be integrated to
Art. 32 TORSION 83 7, = f. (15a) in which 0 is the total angle
Art. 32 TORSION 83
7, = f. (15a)
in which
0 is the total angle of twist in a length L.
The shearing strain along the centerline of the rod (00') is zero since no
movement occurs there, and the shearing strain at any point between the
center and the surface is proportional to the radius of the point because any
diameter of the member remains straight after twisting. Thus, the shearing
unit strain at point E, a distance p from the center of the rod, is
EE' (IK
''^"2-- 7p = OO7 ('
= p| (16a)
= P~
The distortion of a differential block CDGH, formed by two parallel longi-
tudinal lines CD and GH on the surface between section A and B, is il-
lustrated in Fig. 35(c). Under the action of the applied torque the block
takes the shape C'DGH', and it is evident that the angles which were
originally right angles are now distorted as a result of the shearing strain.
The change in angle at each corner of the block is a measure of the shearing
unit strain developed. Similar distortion will occur in a block having one
corner at point E of Fig. 35(6) at a distance p from the center of the cross
section. The magnitude of the distortion will be less, however, since the
total strain is p dO instead of c d6.
32. Shearing Stresses in a Circular Torsional Member.—The shearing
strain developed in the block of Fig. 35(c) is accompanied by shearing
forces on the sides of the block as shown in Fig. 36(a). That is, forces are
required to hold the material in equilibrium in the strained position. Conse-
Sear/ng force
Be/t Tens/on
(a) (£} (c)
Fig. 36
84 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3 quently, shearing stresses are developed both on transverse cross
84 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3
quently, shearing stresses are developed both on transverse cross sections
from forces Qi and Q2 and on longitudinal radial planes by forces Q3 and Qt.
The distribution of the shearing stresses throughout any transverse cross
section of a circular torsional member may be determined from a considera-
tion of the geometry of the twisted member, the properties of the material,
and the conditions of equilibrium.
Geometry. — In the preceding article it was shown that the shearing unit
strain varies directly as the distance from the center of the shaft. Eq. (16b)
divided by Eq. (15) gives
Properties of the Material. — If it is assumed that the shaft is homogeneous
and isotropic and that the stresses do not exceed the proportional limit of
the material, Sp = GyP, and S, = Gy,. Hence, from Eq. (17),
f
n
I
' 'c (18)
That is, the shearing unit stress at any point in the cross section is pro-
portional to the radius of the point.
Statics. — The shaft may be considered to be composed of differential
blocks similar to the one indicated in Fig. 36 (a), each subjected to four
shearing forces as shown. No shearing forces are developed on the outside
surface or on the inside curved surface. Hence, the portion of the shaft of
Fig. 35 (a) between section A and the left end may be diagramed as shown
in Fig. 36(6). The resultant tension in the belt and the resultant force on
the bearing at the left end form a couple; and, if the shaft is in equilibrium,
the resultant couple developed at section A must equal the resultant ex-
ternal torque T at the left end of the shaft.
The resultant torque developed at section A is equal to the sum of the
moments (with respect to a longitudinal axis) of the differential shearing
forces developed on each of the component blocks. The force on the end of
each block is SPda, and its moment arm is p; hence,
T
= I dT = SpPda. (19)
Jo Jo
However, Sp may be replaced by its equivalent from Eq. (18), giving
"A
T
= I - P*da. (19a)
Art. 33 TORSION 85 At a given section, such as A, S, (the stress at
Art. 33 TORSION 85
At a given section, such as A, S, (the stress at the surface) and c (the
radius) are constant, and may therefore be taken outside of the integral
sign. Then,
-A
(20)
The integral may be recognized as the polar moment of inertia of area of
the cross section with respect to the centroidal axis and is designated as J.
Therefore,
or
and
=
M,
c
p
(21)
(21a)
The polar moment of inertia for a(circular area is
Tc
S. = ~ (22)
Li-fJ (23)
in
which
d
is the diameter of the area.
Eq. (22) is based on a number of assumptions as noted in the develop-
ment, but may be regarded as reliable for portions of straight circular
shafts or tubes at sections at least four diameters removed from any change
in
cross section if the material is uniform and not stressed above the pro-
portional limit, and if the shaft is in equilibrium.
33. Power Transmission by Torsional Members.—One of the principal
uses of shafts is to transmit power. A given shaft is limited to a maximum
amount of power depending upon the speed of rotation and the maximum
allowable torsional stress in the member.
The work done per revolution by a constant torque is, from the definition
of
work,
Wr = TO = 2TT (24)
and the work per min is
in
which
Hence,
Wm = 2irTN, (25)
N
is the rpm.
hp = 33^00 (25a)
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3 The horsepower may be expressed in terms of stress by
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Chap. 3
The horsepower may be expressed in terms of stress by substituting for
T from Eq. (21).
hp =
33,000c
(25b)
34. Stresses on Inclined Planes.—Eq. (22) gives the value of the shear-
ing stress at any point in a normal cross section of a circular torsional mem-
ber. The shearing stress on a longitudinal radial plane [the plane of Q3 and
Q^ in Fig. 36(.o)J has the same magnitude at the point. On other planes there
are induced stresses which may be more critical than the shearing stresses.
For example, when loaded in torsion, a brittle material will fail in tension
on an inclined plane rather than on a transverse plane on which the shear-
ing stress is a maximum.
Stresses on planes other than transverse normal planes may be de-
termined readily with the aid of a free-body diagram and the equations of
equilibrium. For example, to prove that the longitudinal shearing stress at a
point is equal to the torsional shearing stress, a differential rectangular ele-
ment similar to the one of Fig. 36(a) may be used. As shown in Fig. 37(a),
•SidI
di
(a)
w
Fig. 37
S,d/
(c)
the differential rectangle of width dy and length dl will be subjected to a
shearing force S,dy on the sides of length dy if the differential block is as-
sumed to be of unit thickness. An equal shearing force will be developed at
the opposite end of the block since the shaft is of constant cross section,
but the force will be acting in the opposite direction. Obviously the block
cannot be in equilibrium with the two forces acting as shown. There must be
developed shearing forces along the top and bottom to prevent rotation.
If the unit stress acting along the lower edge of the block is S',, the total
force developed will be S',dl, and an equal force will be developed along the
top edge of the block. The moment equation of equilibrium written with
respect to an axis perpendicular to the zy-plane gives
Art. 34 TORSION 87 2M = 0, S4y dl - S'4l dy = 0. (26)
Art. 34 TORSION 87
2M = 0,
S4y dl - S'4l dy = 0. (26)
Hence,
Ss = S'
(26a)
Therefore, the longitudinal shearing stress which is developed in a torsional
member is equal in magnitude to the torsional shearing stress in a transverse
plane at the point. If the member were made of a material which is weak in
shear longitudinally as, for example, timber with the grain running longi-
tudinally, failure might be expected to occur along a longitudinal plane.
The magnitudes of the stresses which are developed on inclined planes
may be determined with the aid of a free-body diagram as indicated in
Fig. 37(6). The free-body diagram represents a portion of the differential
block of Fig. 37(a). The relative magnitudes of dl and dy are so selected
that the inclined face makes the desired angle 9 with the horizontal. The
length of the inclined side is designated ds, and the block is assumed to
have a unit thickness.
Shearing forces are developed along the horizontal and vertical sides as
shown. The resultant force on the inclined face of the block may be re-
solved into a normal component and a shearing component, Snds and SQds,
respectively, with the normal component of stress designated as Sn and the
shearing component of stress designated by Sq. The magnitude of the
normal stress may be determined by writing the equation of equilibrium in
the n direction.
SFn = 0 = Snds — S*dy cos 6 - S3dl sin 6. (27)
However,
dl = ds cos 6, (28)
and
dy = ds sin 6. (28a)
Hence,
Sn = 2S. sin 6 cos 6 (29)
= S,sin20. (29a)
It is apparent from Eq. (29a) that Sn will be a maximum when 6 = 45°,
and under that condition it will be equal in magnitude to S,.
With the shearing stresses acting as shown in Fig. 37(6) and the plane
selected as indicated, the normal stress is compression. However, if the
shearing stresses are reversed or if the direction of the plane is as indicated in
Fig. 37 (c), the normal stress will be tension. If a member which is weak in
tension is loaded in torsion, it will fail along a plane of maximum tension
resulting in a spiral fracture similar to those observed in chalk or cast iron.
However, if the material is strong in shear and strong in tension but weak
in compression, it will fail along a plane at 90° with the plane of maximum
88 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3 tension. Thin-walled tubing, for example, when subjected to torsion
88 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3
tension. Thin-walled tubing, for example, when subjected to torsion will
frequently fail by buckling as indicated in Fig. 38.
(a)
Fig. 38. Failure of tubing loaded in torsion, (a) Buckling caused by compression
at 45,. (6) Buckling and tension.
35. Shearing Stresses in Noncircular Sections. — The evaluation of the
shearing stress in a circular or tubular torsional member is dependent on
the observation that a plane normal section before twisting remains plane
after twisting. In general, this assumption is not valid for cross sections
other than circular.* As a result, the evaluation of shearing stresses in
noncircular torsional members requires either an assumption of the distribu-
tion of strain (or stress) throughout the section or a determination of the
distribution by experimental procedures or by mathematical analysis be-
yond the scope of this text.
Eq. (22) may give results that are entirely misleading if applied to mem-
bers of noncircular cross section. It may be shown, for example, that the
shearing stress at the corner of a torsional member of rectangular section
(where c is a maximum) is zero (not a maximum) and that the maximum
shearing stress occurs at the center of the long side of the rectangle. The
strength and stiffness of a square torsional member are but slightly greater
than the strength and stiffness of the largest circular shaft which could be
turned from the square shaft. That is, the material at the corners of the
square shaft contributes but little to strength and stiffness.
36. Stress Concentration. — Discontinuities such as holes, notches,
grooves, keyways, and abrupt changes of cross section cause stress concen-
tration in torsional members just as they do in axially loaded members.
Stress concentration factors are determined experimentally or analytically,
and a few are indicated in Fig. 39. In general, the magnitude of the stress
concentration factor varies directly with the sharpness or abruptness of
the stress raiser.
* The warping of a rectangular section subjected to torsion may be demonstrated by
drawing a line around the outside of a "ruby" eraser to indicate a plane section. If the
eraser is then twisted about its longitudinal axis, the warping of the plane section is clear.
Fig. 39. Stress concentration factors for torsional members. 37. Couplings and Riveted or Bolted Fittings.—Torque
Fig. 39. Stress concentration factors for torsional members.
37. Couplings and Riveted or Bolted Fittings.—Torque may be trans-
mitted from one member to another by means of pulleys and belts, by gears,
by chain drives, or by a variety of riveted or bolted connections. The de-
sign of the latter is based on two assumptions: (1) that the average shearing
stress developed on each rivet (or bolt) is proportional to the distance of the
rivet from the center of twist, and (2) that the line of action of the resultant
force on the rivet is perpendicular to the radius from the center of twist.
These assumptions appear to be reasonable by comparison with the distri-
bution of stress in a circular torsional member.
The first assumption may be expressed in the same form as Eq. (18),
SP
S.
(18)
The location of the center of twist may be found by statics. For example,
the force on each rivet in the group shown in Fig. 40 may be resolved into
90 Chap. 3 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS x- and j/-components in convenient x and y directions.
90
Chap. 3
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
x- and j/-components in convenient x and y directions. If p is the distance
of any rivet from the center of twist and 6 is the angle which the resultant
force on the rivet makes with the x direction, the z-component of the force
developed on the rivet is
Fx = Spa cos 6.
(30)
0
0
0
L,
0
0
o
1
(aJ
From Eqs. (18) and (30)
in which
(b)
Fig. 40
c
Fx = —pa cos 6,
c
(30a)
a
is the area of the rivet, and
S, is the stress at a distance c from the center of twist.
From the equation of equilibrium of forces in the x direction,
S—pa cos 6 = 0.
(31)
However, S,/c is common to all rivets in the group, and
p
cos 6 = y, (32)
in which
y
is the ^-coordinate of the rivet with respect to axes through the
center of twist.
Therefore,
(33)
Art. 37 91 TORSION However, for 2cw/ to equal zero, y must be measured with
Art. 37
91
TORSION
However, for 2cw/ to equal zero, y must be measured with reference to an
z-axis through the centroid of the rivet areas.
Asimilar equation may be developed from the equation of equilibrium of
forces in the y direction, thus proving that the center of twist must lie at
the centroid of the group of rivets.
The relationship between the stress and the torque applied to the rivet
group may be determined from Eq. (18) and the moment equation of
equilibrium.
Illustrative Problem
Determine the maximum torque to which the fitting in Fig. 41 may be subjected
if the shearing stress in the rivets is not to exceed 10,000 psi.
la)
Fig. 41
Solution: The first step is to determine the location of the centroid of the rivet
group and thus establish the center of twist. The centroid is located on the axis of
symmetry, and its distance from the line AB is found by the principle of moments
0.0492 (2.5)
2 (0.1105) + 0.0492
0.455 in.
(a)
The distance of rivet C from the centroid is 2.045 in., and the distance of rivets A
and B from the centroid is
A= VI. 52 + 0.455" (b)
= 1.57 in.
Since rivet C is at the greatest distance from the centroid, it will develop the
maximum stress first, and, when the stress on it is 10,000 psi., the stress on each of
the other rivets will be, from Eq. (18),
92 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3 10,000(1.57) CA SA= "27645 cl = 7680 psi., and
92 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3
10,000(1.57) CA
SA= "27645 cl
= 7680 psi.,
and the force developed by each of the rivets A and B is
FA = FB = 7680 (0.1105) * '' > (d)
= 846 Ib,
while the force developed by rivet C is 492 Ib.
For equilibrium the total resisting moment is equal to the applied torque,
T
= 2 (846) 1.57 + 492 (2.045) J (e)
=
3668in-Ib.
If
the riveted or bolted fitting is subjected to a force (instead of a torque)
the force may be resolved, by methods of statics, into a force passing
through the centroid of the rivet group and a couple. The force developed
on each rivet by the resultant force acting through the centroid of the rivet
group may be determined by the methods outlined in Chap. 2, while the
force developed on each rivet by the torque may be found by the procedure
outlined in the preceding illustrative problem. The resultant force de-
veloped on any rivet is the resultant of these two component forces, and
from it the average shearing stress on the rivet may be evaluated.
38. Thin-walled Members in Torsion.—Eq. (22) applies directly to
circular tubes whether the walls are thick or thin, provided that the circular
wall boundaries are concentric. However, a relationship between the torque
and the stress in a thin-walled torsional member may be obtained even
though the outline of the member is not circular and even though the wall
thickness varies.
In the analysis of thin-walled members in torsion, it is convenient to use a
term called shear flow, which is defined as the product of the average shear-
ing stress on a transverse section at a point and the thickness of the wall at
that point. The shear flow may be interpreted as the magnitude of the
shearing force developed per unit length of circumference of tube wall.
In equation form,
q = S.t, (34)
in
which
q
is the shear flow,
S, is the average shearing stress across the wall at that point.
The magnitude of the shear flow may be shown to be equal at all sections
around the circumference of a thin-walled member. This may be proved by
considering the free-body diagram of an element (A BCD) of length y cut
from the tube shown in Fig. 42(a). The wall thickness along section AD is
Art. 38 93 TORSION (a) Fig. 42 £4 and the thickness along section BC is
Art. 38
93
TORSION
(a)
Fig. 42
£4 and the thickness along section BC is £3. If the tube is subjected to a
torque T, a shearing force FI will be developed on the front face (AB) of
the block. A shearing force Fz is developed on the opposite end of the ele-
ment, and Fs and ^4 denote the shearing forces developed on the sides of
the element. From the force equations of equilibrium, it is apparent that
FI = Ft and F3 = F4. However,
(35)
in which
83 is the magnitude of the stress on the longitudinal plane BC and
also the stress on the plane A B at point B,
and
(36)
in which
84 is the shearing stress on the plane AD and is equal to the
magnitude of the shearing stress on the plane A B at point A.
Since F3 is equal to
and
(37)
(37a)
The relationship between the shear flow in a thin-walled tube and the
resultant torque may be developed from the Principle of Moments with the
aid of the diagram of Fig. 42(6), which represents the cross section of a
thin-walled member, such as the one in Fig. 42(a), subjected to torque T.
The force dF denotes the shearing force which is developed on a differential
length ds of the cross section of the tube wall. It is apparent that
dF = S t ds.
(38)
94 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3 The moment of the force dF with respect to
94 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3
The moment of the force dF with respect to a convenient axis of moments
[a longitudinal axis through point 0 in Fig. 42(6)] is
dT = Stpds, (39)
in
which
p
is the moment arm of the force dF.
The total torque developed on the cross section will, therefore, be
r
T
= / Stpds, (39a)
J
0
in
which
I
is the length of the centerline of the tube wall.
However, the shear flow (q = St) is constant. Hence,
T
= St I pds. (39b)
It
will be noted, however, from Fig. 42(6) that, if lines are drawn from the
center of moments to the ends of the differential length ds, the enclosed
area dA is equal to %pds. Hence,
'A
T
= St I 2 dA, (39c)
•/.
or
T
= 2 StA, (39d)
in
which
A
is the area enclosed by the centerline of the wall of the tube.
The shearing stress at any point in the cross section is, from Eq. (39b),
S
= 2ff (396>
in
which
t
is the wall thickness of the section where the stress
is
being evaluated.
The stress is practically constant throughout the thickness, i.e., from the
inner wall to the outer. Eq. (39e) is particularly useful in evaluating the
stresses in thin-walled members, such as wings and other parts of aircraft,
which are subjected to torsional moments. It is, of course, invalid if the
thickness of the tube wall becomes relatively large although little error is
Art. 40 TORSION 95 introduced if the ratio of wall thickness to average diameter of
Art. 40 TORSION 95
introduced if the ratio of wall thickness to average diameter of tube is less
than one-tenth.
39. Localized Compression or Buckling.—Torsional members which are
of thin-walled construction are subject to failure by localized compression
or by buckling as well as to failure by torsional shear. As was pointed out
inArt. 34, compressive stresses are induced on inclined planes in a torsional
member and are a maximum on planes which make an angle of 45° with the
longitudinal axis of the member. Thus, a diagonal strip such as the one
shown in Fig. 43 is subjected to compressive forces at the ends. These corn-
Fig. 43
pressive forces will tend to cause buckling unless the thickness of the metal
is such that it will resist the lateral deflection which must accompany
buckling. The buckling tendency is aggravated by the fact that the strip
is initially bowed due to the curvature of the tube wall. While the evalua-
tion of the critical torque which will cause buckling in the thin-walled
section is beyond the scope of this text, it may be stated that the tendency
for buckling to occur is dependent on the relative thickness, length, and di-
ameter of the cross section, and on the modulus of elasticity of the material.
40. Stresses beyond the Proportional Limit.—The torsion formula,
Eq. (22), was derived on the basis of several assumptions, one of which was
that the stresses did not exceed the proportional limit of the material. In
determining the maximum resistance of circular members to torsion (which
is sometimes desirable for estimating the factor of safety with respect to
failure by fracture), it may be assumed that any diameter remains a di-
ameter for angles of twist to the ultimate. This assumption may be verified
experimentally. Since the diameter remains a straight line above the pro-
portional limit, the unit strains are still proportional to the distances from
the center of the shaft and the geometrical equations of Art. 31 are all
valid.
With the distribution of shearing strain known, the distribution of
shearing stress may be determined from the stress-strain relationships as
obtained from a stress-strain diagram of the material in shear.* For ex-
* An accurate stress-strain diagram of the material in shear may be obtained by testing
a tube in torsion or may be obtained from a test on a solid circular member by methods
of calculation which are beyond the scope of this text.
90 Chap. 3 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS ample, if the diagram has the shape indicated in
90
Chap. 3
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
ample, if the diagram has the shape indicated in Fig. 44(a), the strain
distribution is linear and the stress distribution throughout the cross sec-
tion of the shaft will be as indicated in Fig. 44(6). The stress-distribution
diagram has the same shape as the stress-strain diagram because the
abscissae in the distribution diagram are directly proportional to the
abscissae of the stress-strain diagram for all values of strain (and stress).
If the maximum value of the torque (at fracture) is substituted into the
torsion equation, Eq. (22), the resulting value of S, is known as the modulus
of rupture. The modulus of rupture is not the value of the maximum stress,
although it has the units of stress, but is rather the value which the stress
Shearing Strain
(a)
Fig. 44
would have if the stress-strain diagram were a straight line to the ultimate.
For ductile metals, the actual value of the maximum stress at fracture is
three-fourths of the modulus of rupture.
41. Helical Springs.—An axially loaded helical spring of constant cross
section is subjected primarily to torsional stress. This may be demon-
strated by referring to Fig. 45 which indicates a closely coiled helical spring
carrying an axial compressive load. In order to evaluate the forces acting
on any cross section, a free-body diagram is constructed with that cross
section as one of the free surfaces. A suitable free-body diagram in which
the rod is cut by a plane passing through the axis of the helix is shown in
Fig. 45(6). The next step is to apply the equations of equilibrium. Since the
summation of forces in the z direction equals zero, the external load P must
be resisted by an equal vertical shearing force V at the cut section. In ad-
dition, the summation of moments with respect to a y-axis must equal zero;
therefore, a counterclockwise couple (Pe) must be acting at the cut section
to resist the couple produced by the load and the shear. The other equations
of equilibrium are satisfied.
Since this same set of forces will exist on any free-body diagram of a
portion of the spring regardless of the number of coils included, it follows
that every section of the helical spring is subjected to a shearing force V
Art. 41 97 TORSION and a torque Pe. Therefore, the spring is in effect a
Art. 41
97
TORSION
and a torque Pe. Therefore, the spring is in effect a torsional member which
is coiled for convenience in handling and loading.
Fig. 45(c) represents a side view of the rod at the cut section. The shear-
ing force V, which balances the load, is vertical, but the vertical plane on
which it acts is not normal to the axis of the rod because of the inclination
of the rod. In order to evaluate the stresses developed by V, it should be
resolved into two forces, Q and N, as indicated in Fig. 45 (d), which develop
shear and compression on the cross section. If the inclination of the rod is
small, the force Q will be practically equal in magnitude to V and the com-
(a)
(c)
Fig. 45
pressive force N will be relatively small. Although the shearing stress due
to Q is not uniformly distributed over the cross section of the rod, it may
normally be considered so distributed with little error, because this stress is
small in comparison with the torsional shearing stress to which it must be
added algebraically.
The moment Pe of the forces in Fig. 45(6) also acts in a vertical plane
but may be resolved into two component moments, one in the plane of the
cross section of Fig. 45 (d), the other in a plane perpendicular to the cross
section. The first component, which for small angles of inclination of the rod
is virtually equal to Pe, develops torsional stress on the cross section. The
other component, which is relatively small, produces bending. The tor-
sional stress may be evaluated by the torsion formula, Eq. (22).
The deflection of a helical spring may be evaluated with sufficient ac-
98 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3 curacy for most engineering purposes by neglecting the effect
98 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3
curacy for most engineering purposes by neglecting the effect of the cross
shear and bending and equating the total work done by the load in de-
flecting the spring to the total work stored in the spring in torsion.
JPA= \TB, (40)
in which
Ais the deflection of the spring.
Since T = Pe,
A= Be. (41)
The angle of twist 6 may be evaluated from Eq. (15a) and the fact that
ya = S./G, giving
or
A= (42a)
in which
I
is the total length of rod in the active coils of the spring.
Illustrative Problem
Ahelical spring with an outside diam of 4-3/4 in. and a height of 12 in. consists of
ten active turns of 3/4-in. diam steel rod. If the maximum permissible torsional
shearing stress is 40,000 psi., determine
(a)
the maximum axial compressive load to which the spring may be subjected,
(b)
the deflection of the spring under the maximum load,
(c)
the total energy stored in the deflected spring,
(d)
the average shearing stress developed by the force in the plane of the cross
section, and
(e)
the average compressive stress on the cross section of the rod.
Solution: The angle of inclination a which the coils make with the horizontal
when the spring is unloaded may be determined by dividing the rise of the coils in
ten turns by the total length of rod.
Sin a = 1210-;(04)75 = 0.0895, (a)
from which
a
= 5°7'. (b)
For this small angle of inclination, the cosine (which is 0.996) may be assumed equal
to unity* and the component of torsional moment in the plane of the cross section
of the rod may be taken equal to the load times the radius of the helix.
(a)
The load may be evaluated by the relationship between the torque and stress.
* The cosine of the angle of inclination will be even nearer unity when the spring is
loaded, because of the compression of the helix.
Art. 42 TORSION 99 T = v- (c) (d) c and 9P _ 40,000x(0.375)< 2(0.375)
Art. 42 TORSION 99
T = v- (c)
(d)
c
and 9P _ 40,000x(0.375)<
2(0.375)
from which
P = 1660 lb. (e)
(b) The deflection may be evaluated from Eq. (41).
A = ed (f)
(g)
00
(i)
eS.l
Gc
2 (40,000) 10x(4)
12 (10)6 (0.375)
= 2.23 in. (j)
(c) The total energy stored in the spring may be evaluated as the average force
multiplied by the distance through which the force moves in deflecting the spring.
W = J (1660) 2.23 (k)
= 1850in-lb. (1)
(d) The average shearing stress due to the force V acting in the plane of the cross
section of the rod may be evaluated by assuming the stress to be uniformly distrib-
uted over the cross section.
a
1660 , .
S
= x(0.375)» (m)
=
3760 psi., (n)
which is less than 10 per cent of the assumed maximum stress, 40,000 psi. At one
point on the cross section, the maximum stress will be equal to the sum of the
torsional shearing stress and the stress due to the force V. The latter stress is not
actually uniformly distributed over the cross section, but that fact has a relatively
small effect upon the resultant stress.
(e) The compressive force acting on the cross section of the rod is equal to the
component of the load in the direction of the axis of the rod.
# = 1660 (0.0895) (0)
= 148 lb. (p)
Hence, the stress due to direct compression is
„ _148_ ( v
*° ~ x(0.375)2 W
= 335 psi., (r)
which is relatively small.
42. Statically Indeterminate Composite Torsion Members.—Shafts and
other torsional members are sometimes constructed of two materials or
100 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3 consist of two or more units among which the
100 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3
consist of two or more units among which the external torque is dis-
tributed. Fig. 46(a) illustrates a longitudinal section through a circular
shaft composed of two materials. Fig. 46(6) shows the cross section of a
thin-walled cellular member such as an airplane wing which is subjected to
torsional loading; it may be considered to consist of two thin-walled hollow
sections with a common member A B. If a free-body diagram is constructed
of a portion of the length of the composite shaft, Fig. 46(a), or the two-
(a) (b)
Fig. 46
celled unit of Fig. 46(6), it is apparent that one equation of equilibrium
(the moment equation of equilibrium with respect to a longitudinal axis)
may be written
T
= T! + TV (43)
in
which
T
is the external torque,
Ti is the torque developed in one of the units, and
Tz is the torque developed in the other unit.
However, before the stresses may be evaluated, the resisting torques TI
and Tz which each of the component parts develops must be determined.
Although other equations of equilibrium may be written, they will not be
found helpful. Hence, it is necessary to secure additional information from
some other source in order to determine the distribution of the external
torque between the component units of the member. This additional in-
formation may be obtained from geometrical considerations. If the com-
ponent parts of the member are rigidly attached at the ends, the angle of
twist of each of the parts must be the same.
6 = 0i = 02. (44)
Since the angle of twist, 6, may be expressed in terms of the torque in each
component by means of Eqs. (15a) and (22), Eq. (44) may be solved simul-
taneously with Eq. (43) for the two torques Ti and TV With these torques
known, the stresses in any portion of the component units may be evaluated
by the appropriate torque-stress equation, Eq. (22) or Eq. (39c).
43. Design Considerations.—Although the analysis of noncircular solid
cross sections subjected to torsion is not presented in this chapter, it may
Art. 43 TORSION 101 be shown that a circular cross section provides the most effective
Art. 43 TORSION 101
be shown that a circular cross section provides the most effective disposi-
tion of material for resisting torque. That is, a given cross-sectional area
will withstand the highest torque for a given maximum stress if it is circular.
However, the material at the center of a circular shaft is subjected to zero
stress and therefore is not effective in resisting torsion. The material at the
outside of the cross section is subjected to the highest stress and in ad-
dition has the greatest moment arm with respect to the longitudinal
centroidal axis. Hence it will develop a maximum torque. It follows, there-
fore, that the maximum torsional resistance is obtained with a given
amount of material, if that material is distributed in the form of a thin ring
at a maximum distance from the center of the member. This may be shown
numerically by applying the torsion formula to a cross section in the form
of a thin ring.
T
= —• (21)
c
However, if all the material is at approximately the same distance from the
centroid of the section,
J = A'c\ (45)
in which
A' is the cross-sectional area of the material.
Hence,
T = S.A'c. (46)
Eq. (46) shows that, for a given value of maximum stress and a given area,
the torque varies directly as the radius. However, there are certain practi-
cal limitations restricting the use of a thin-walled shaft of maximum di-
ameter. Space limitations, the possibility of attaching members such as
pulleys and gears to the shaft, and the possibility of buckling must all be
taken into consideration in design.
Stress concentration is present in practically every shaft and other
torsional member because of holes, keyways, splines, or other devices re-
quired for attaching gears, pulleys, hubs, and other fittings.
PROBLEMS
143. A 4-in. diam circular steel shaft is subjected to a torque which produces a
maximum unit shearing stress of 12,000 psi. at a typical cross section. De-
termine the torque transmitted
(a)
by the total cross section,
(b)
by the portion of the cross section between the circle having a radius of
1-1/4 in. and the circle having a radius of 1-3/8 in.
102 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3 144. A 4-in. diam circular steel shaft is subjected
102 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Chap. 3
144. A 4-in. diam circular steel shaft is subjected to a torque which produces a
maximum unit shearing stress of 10,000 psi.
(a)
Determine the torque transmitted by the entire cross section.
(b)
Determine the torque transmitted by a ring having a mean diam of 16 in.
and the same area as the original shaft for a maximum unit stress of 10,000
psi.
145. Outline a simple laboratory procedure by which the validity of the assumption
in Art. 31 may be checked.
146. A unit shearing stress of 8000 psi. is developed at the inside of a hollow steel
shaft having an inside diam of 4 in. and an outside diam of 6 in. Determine
(a) the maximum shearing stress developed on a cross section, (b) the total
torque transmitted by the cross section.
147. Determine the minimum outside diam of a hollow steel shaft having an inside
diam of 3 in. which will transmit the same torque as a 4-in. diam solid steel
shaft if both develop the same maximum stress of 10,000 psi. Compare the
weights of the two shafts and the angles of twist in a 6-ft length.
148. A certain shaft is to transmit a torque of 1000 ft-lb with a factor of safety of 2
with respect to failure by slip and to twist not more than 4.8° in a length of 8 ft.
Determine the minimum required diam of the shaft if it is made of (a) struc-
tural steel, (b) alloy steel SAE 2345, (c) aluminum alloy 24S-T.
149. A 4-ft length of a steel tube having an inside diam of 2 in. and an outside diam
of 2-1/4 in. is slipped over the end of a 3-ft length of a 2-in. diam steel rod and
attached by a fillet weld around the circumference to form a shaft 6 ft long.
Determine (a) the maximum torque to which the assembly may be subjected,
(b) the angle of twist in the 6-ft length.
150. Determine the minimum diam of a steel shaft 10 ft long which will transmit
a torque of 12,500 ft-lb with a maximum shearing stress of 12,000 psi. and a
maximum angle of twist of 3° in the 10-ft length.
151. Determine the minimum diam of a brass shaft which will meet the specifica-
tions indicated in Prob. 150.
152. A 17S-T aluminum alloy tube 6 ft long is to transmit a torque of 1600 in-lb
with a maximum shearing stress of 10,000 psi. and a maximum angle of twist
of 10°. If the outside diam of the tube is 2 in., determine the minimum wall
thickness required.
153. For what ratio of inside diam to outside diam of tube may the torque be com-
puted as the maximum stress times the area of cross section times the outside
radius with an error of less than 10 per cent? Is the error on the safe or unsafe
side?
154. A 3-in. by 1-1/2-in. solid circular steel shaft is loaded as shown in Fig. P-154.
Determine
(a)
the maximum shearing unit stress in the shaft and state where it occurs,
(b)
the angle of twist at the right end of the 3-in. portion of the shaft with
respect to its initial unstrained position.
Probs. 144-160 103 TORSION /5OO Coup/e 300 ft -to Coup/e 1 /h. (C ( \\7
Probs. 144-160
103
TORSION
/5OO
Coup/e
300 ft -to
Coup/e
1
/h.
(C
(
\\7
V
6ft
5ft
155.
P-154
The 4-in. diam shaft shown in Fig. P-155 consists of brass and steel sections
rigidly connected. Determine the maximum allowable torque which may be
applied as indicated if the unit shearing stresses in the brass and the steel are
not to exceed 7000 psi. and 10,000 psi., respectively, and the angle of twist at
the free end is not to exceed 0.05 rad.
n. d/'am -^ | 7"
(r
Stee/
I
Brass
A
>.*«
K. 3ft
5ft
D
P-155
156. A stepped steel shaft consists of a 4-ft length of 3-in. diam and a 3-ft length of
2-in. diam solid shafting. The maximum allowable shearing stress is 12,000
psi. and the maximum allowable angle of twist in the 7-ft length is 0.04 rad.
Determine the maximum torque which the shaft is permitted to transmit.
157. Determine the minimum permissible diam of a solid circular steel shaft 5 ft
long which is to transmit a torque of 3000 ft-Ib with a maximum allowable
shearing unit stress of 16,000 psi. and a maximum allowable angle of twist of
0.084 rad.
158. A 2-in. diam solid steel shaft 5 ft long is fixed at one end and is subjected to
two twisting moments of opposite sense. One twisting moment acts at the free
end and has a magnitude of 10,000 in-Ib. The other twisting moment acts 2 ft
from the free end and is of unknown magnitude. If the maximum shearing unit
stress in the shaft is 12,000 psi.,
(a)
determine the maximum shearing stress in the outer 24 in.,
(b)
determine the magnitude of the rotation of the free end when both tor-
sional loads are removed.
159.
Determine the horsepower which a 10-in. diam steel shaft will transmit at
200
rpm if the maximum shearing unit stress is 15,000 psi.
160.
The shaft of a Diesel engine is to transmit 360 hp at 240 rpm. Determine the
minimum diam of the shaft required if the shearing unit stress is not to exceed
12,000 psi.
104 Chap. 3 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 161. A steel shaft 20 ft long and 4
104
Chap. 3
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
161.
A steel shaft 20 ft long and 4 in. in diam must not twist more than 0.06 rad
and the maximum stress must not exceed 11,000 psi. Determine the maximum
power which this shaft will transmit at 270 rpm.
162.
A steel shaft 12 ft long is to transmit 1050 hp at 225 rpm without having the
angle of twist exceed 1.2° or having the shearing stress exceed 12,000 psi. What
minimum diam of steel shaft is required?
163.
Under certain operating conditions a steel shaft 30 in. in diam and 8 ft long
develops a maximum shearing unit stress of 12,000 psi. Determine the angle
of twist in a 6-ft length of the steel shaft if it is rotating at 240 rpm.
164.
The steel propeller shaft on a certain airplane is 16 ft long and is to transmit
1800 hp at 2400 rpm.
(a)
Determine the diam of steel shaft required if the shearing unit stress in the
shaft is not to exceed 12,000 psi.
(b)
Determine the displacement of a point on the tip of a 12-ft diam pro-
peller resulting from the twist in the shaft if the propeller is geared down
to 900 rpm.
165.
The rear axle in a certain automobile transmits 40 hp at 900 rpm.
(a)
Determine the minimum diam if the maximum unit shearing stress is not
to exceed 8000 psi.
(b)
Determine the angle of twist in a 3-ft length.
166.
A motor delivers 160 hp at 1800 rpm to a gear box which reduces the speed to
200 rpm to drive a crusher. If the maximum torsional stress in the steel shaft-
ing is not to exceed 15,000 psi., determine
(a)
the size of steel shafting required between the motor and gear box,
(b)
the size of steel shafting between gear box and crusher,
(c)
the total angle of twist in each steel shaft if each is 6 ft long. Neglect any
loss of power in the gear box.
167.
Determine the diam of steel shaft required for each of the portions indicated in
Fig. P-167 if the motor at the left end develops 40 hp and runs at 1800 rpm.
Neglect bending in the shaft, and use an allowable shearing stress of 24,000
psi. Determine the total angle of twist from the motor to pulley B.
tf fee/6
r
==
tQfy
30
1, 'f\.
4ft
=1
96
teeth
\_
=
"""' ffft
•I-
8ft
. *
->
P-167
168.
Explain why the tensile strength of a material may control the amount of
torque a shaft of the material will transmit.
169.
A plaster of Paris cylinder 2-1/2 in. in diam and 18 in. long was tested in
torsion. At a torque of 80.4 in-Ib it failed along a spiral making an angle of
Probs. 161-180 TORSION 105 45° with the longitudinal axis of the cylinder. Determine the tensile
Probs. 161-180 TORSION 105
45° with the longitudinal axis of the cylinder. Determine the tensile stress
developed at failure across the plane of fracture. The stress-strain diagram for
plaster of Paris is a straight line to the ultimate.
170. Atube with an outside diam of 3 in. and a wall thickness of 1/16 in. is sub-
jected to a torque of 600 ft-Ib. The tube has a spiral weld making an angle of
30° with a longitudinal axis of the shaft. Determine the normal stress and
shearing stress developed on the weld.
171. Asteel tube with an inside diam of 2 in. and a wall thickness of 1/4 in. is
fabricated with a spiral weld making an angle of 60° with the longitudinal axis
of the tube. If the maximum allowable shearing stress along the welded section
is 8000 psi., determine the maximum torque which the tube will transmit.
172. A Douglas fir torsion specimen, made by turning down a 20-in. length of the
material to a 2-in. diam in the center, failed by splitting longitudinally. Was
this reasonable, or did it indicate a defective specimen?
173. Show how the modulus of rigidity may be evaluated from a laboratory test of a
cylinder subjected to torsion.
174. Afillet with a radius of 1/16 in. is used at the section where a 1-1/2-in. shaft is
turned down to a 1-in. diam. Determine the maximum torsional stress de-
veloped in the shaft by a torque of 200 ft-Ib.
175. An 8-in. diam shaft is turned down to a 6-in. diam with a 1/4-in. radius fillet.
Determine the maximum torque which the shaft will be permitted to transmit
if the torsional stress is not to exceed 12,000 psi.
176. Determine the limiting radius of fillet which should be used at a section where
a 5-in. shaft is turned down to a diam of 4 in., if the maximum stress at the fillet
is not to exceed 12,000 psi. when the maximum stress in the 4-in. diam portion
is 8000 psi.
177. Two steel shafts 12 in. in diam were placed end to end and welded around the
outside with a bead 1/2 in. thick. Determine the maximum torque which the
resultant shaft will transmit if the shearing stress in the weld is not to exceed
6000 psi., and determine the maximum stress in one of the shafts at a distance
of 16 in. from the weld.
178. Two 30-in. diam shafts are connected by flanges which are bolted together
with sixteen 4-in. diam bolts located around the flanges at a distance of 18 in.
from the center. Determine the maximum torque which may be transmitted
through the coupling if the stress in the bolts is not to exceed 9000 psi.
179. Two 4-in. diam shafts are connected by a pair of flanges which are held to-
gether with 1/2-in. diam structural steel bolts. If the maximum shearing unit
stress in the shaft is 12,000 psi., determine the number of bolts required to
transmit the corresponding torque. The bolts are set on a bolt circle having a
diam of 6 in.
180. Determine the maximum torque which the connection indicated in Fig. P-180
will resist if the maximum shearing stress in the 1/2-in. rivets is not to excede
10,000 psi.
106 Chap. 4 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS •o -o -o P-180 181. How much will the
106
Chap. 4
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
•o
-o
-o
P-180
181. How much will the resistance of the joint of Fig. P-180 to torque be increased
by the addition of a fourth equally spaced rivet?
182. Aplate 8 in. wide and 1/2 in. thick is to be attached at right angles to a
second plate of the same dimensions by means of 1/2-in. rivets. Determine
the number of rivets required and a suitable pattern for them if the maximum
shearing stress at the rivets is not to exceed 10,000 psi. for a torque of 10,000
ft-Ib.
183. Determine the maximum shearing stress developed in the four 1-in. bolts of
the joint in Fig. P-183 when it is subjected to a torque of 16,000 ft-Ib.
0
0
^o
6/f?.
P-183
184. By what percentage will the resistance of the joint of Fig. P-183 be increased
by the addition of 1-in. bolts at Aand Bl
185. Each of the four rivets indicated in Fig. P-185 has a diam of 3/4 in. Determine
the shearing stress on rivet A.
Probs. 181-188 107 TORSION IO /O,OOO/t> 6/n. P-185 186. Determine the average unit shearing stress
Probs. 181-188
107
TORSION
IO
/O,OOO/t>
6/n.
P-185
186. Determine the average unit shearing stress on rivet A of Fig. P-186.
4 in. 4 in
P-186
187. A 6000-Ib load is to be applied to a plate which is attached to a vertical mem-
ber with 1-in. diam rivets as shown in Fig. P-187(a) or P-187(6). Which ar-
rangement would produce the greatest average shearing stress in any of the
rivets? Determine the value of the maximum unit shearing stress for this ar-
rangement.
188. Each of the rivets in the joint shown in Fig. P-188 has a diam of 1 in.
(a) Which of the three rivets develops the highest average shearing stress?
Why?
(b) Determine the average shearing stress in this rivet.
108 Chap. 3 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS /Oin. P-187 40OO/& P-188 189. The riveted joint shown
108
Chap. 3
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
/Oin.
P-187
40OO/&
P-188
189. The riveted joint shown in Fig. P-189 transmits the load P as indicated
through rivets 3/4 in. in diam. Determine the maximum value of P if the
average shearing unit stress in rivet A is not to exceed 12,000 psi.
Probs. 189-192 109 TORSION 4 in. -5 in. \ P O AO 0 0 0
Probs. 189-192
109
TORSION
4
in. -5 in. \ P
O
AO
0
0
0
0
P-189
190. A load P is applied to a plate which is riveted to a support with 1-in. diam
rivets as shown in Fig. P-190. Determine the maximum value of P if the
maximum allowable shearing unit stress in the rivets is 10,000 psi.
o
o
o
P-190
191. Two steel tubes 36 in. in diam by 1/16 in. thick are to be spliced by expanding
one tube slightly, slipping it over the end of the other, and riveting. Determine
the number of 1/4-in. diam rivets required to develop the full strength of the
tube if the allowable shearing stress in the tube and rivets is 9000 psi.
192. A sheet of aluminum alloy 24S-T is 8 ft long, 48 in. wide, and 0.051 in. thick.
It is to be fabricated into a tube 8 ft long by bending the strip and welding the
edges together. Determine
(a) the optimum cross-sectional dimensions for resistance to torque if the cross
section is to be rectangular,
(b) the optimum cross-sectional dimensions for resistance to torque if the
sheet may be bent to any shape,
(c) the maximum torque which the completed tube in (a) or (b) will develop
if the shearing stress is not to exceed 10,000 psi.
110 Chap. 3 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 193. Determine the optimum cross section for a rectangular
110
Chap. 3
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
193. Determine the optimum cross section for a rectangular tube having a wall
thickness of 1/8 in. and an inside area of 48 sq in. if one side of the tube must
be between 4 in. and 8 in. in length. Evaluate the maximum torque which the
cross section will develop for a maximum shearing stress of 8000 psi.
194. A rectangular tube has a wall thickness of 1/16 in. and an internal cross section
6 in. by 12 in. Determine the maximum torque which the tube will resist if the
shearing stress is not to exceed 6000 psi.
195. An aluminum alloy tube is 1/16 in. thick and has a rectangular cross section
with outside dimensions 4-1/16 in. by 6-1/16 in. If the tube is subjected to a
torque of 2500 ft-lb, determine the maximum force developed by each of the
four sides.
196.
The cross section of the wing of a certain airplane may be approximated as
indicated in Fig. P-196. Determine the maximum stress developed in the cross
section by a torque of 12,000 ft-lb.
a ore in.
~0040-ih
0.040//7.
0.030 m./
40//7.
P-196
197. Determine the maximum torque to which an elliptical tube with outside di-
mensions of 6 in. by 4 in. and wall thickness of 0.063 in. may be subjected if
the maximum stress is not to exceed 8000 psi.
198. A helical spring made of a 1-in. diam steel rod consists of fifteen turns with a
pitch of 3/4 in. on a 6-in. helix. Determine the maximum allowable load for the
spring if the allowable unit shearing stress is 8000 psi.
199. Determine the deflection of the spring in Prob. 198 when the maximum tor-
sional stress is 8000 psi. and evaluate the energy stored in the spring under
that condition.
200. A helical spring is made by winding 2.5 ft of 1/2-in. steel rod around a 3-1/2-in.
cylinder. Determine
(a) the torsional unit shearing stress produced by a load which stretches the
spring 0.3 in., neglecting the deflection due to direct shear, and
(b) the average magnitude of nontorsional shearing unit stress developed in
the spring when it is stretched 0.3 in.
201. A helical spring with a mean diam of 6 in. is made with a 1-in. diam steel rod.
If the spring carries an axial load of 600 lb, determine
(a)
the maximum unit shearing stress in the rod,
(b)
the deflection of the spring,
(c)
the total energy stored in the spring.
Probs. 193-209 111 TORSION 202. A spring with an external diam of 1 in. is
Probs. 193-209
111
TORSION
202. A spring with an external diam of 1 in. is formed from 1/16-in. diam steel rod.
If the unstretched length of the spring is 8 in. and it contains eighty turns, de-
termine the total elongation of the spring for a maximum stress of 20,000 psi.
What magnitude of load is required to produce this deflection?
203. A coiled spring having an inside diam of 3 in. and an outside diam of 3-1/2 in.
is subjected to a load of 2000 Ib. Determine the amount which the spring will
stretch in a length of 16 in.
204. If possible, design a spring to be wound from 1-in. diam rod if it is to have a
maximum deflection of 1/2 in. and a torsional stress not greater than 40,000
psi. when subjected to a load of 2000 Ib.
205. A hollow circular brass shaft with an outside diam of 4 in. and an inside diam
of 2 in. is rigidly attached outside of a 2-in. diam steel shaft for its entire
length. Determine the maximum shearing unit stress developed in each ma-
terial if the composite shaft is subjected to a torque of 10,000 ft-Ib.
206. An aluminum rod 1-1/4 in. in diam is used as a shaft. Determine the thickness
of h