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Submitted to: Prof. Ma.

Corazon Constantino

Submitted by: Group 3 of BSBA MM 3-2
Jhanel Aira Hipolito
James Jendrix Mendoza
Gladys Sardino
Angelie Anne Ybarzabal


Nature of Social Interaction

Language is a system of verbal
and non-verbal written symbols with
standardized meanings. There is
understanding if the communicating and
interacting parties have a shared
meaning or meanings attached to the
oral, written or sign symbols.

2 Types of Social Interaction

1. VERBAL LANGUAGE involves the use of words or sound symbols
Ex. For things, objects or ideas

2. NON-VERBAL LANGUAGE - involves the use of the written symbols
Ex. Use of alphabet, alibata, Sanskrit, hieroglyphics
- also involves the use of gestures, body movements,
facial expressions, pictures, drawings, letters, signs and
visual signals or mediums to convey a message to
another person or group.

Social interaction refers to the process by which people mutually or reciprocally
influence one anothers attitudes, feelings and actions.

3 Situations for Social Interaction:

1. Person-to-Person (P to P)
Ex. Interviewer to Interviewee; a fist fight between 2 persons
2. Person-to-Group (P to G)
Ex. Professor lecturing the class; an armed gunman against group of passengers
3. Group-to-Group (G to G)
Ex. Rock band performing before a crowd; warring NPA and AFP soldiers

Approaches to Social Interaction

A. Symbolic Interaction refers to the communication of thoughts and feelings between
individuals that occurs by means of symbols.

1. Definition of the Situation
- It refers to the sociological perspective that views the meaning the people attribute
to a social setting; a stage of mental examination and deliberation in which we size
up a situation so as to devise our course of action. This process is called negotiated

2. Dramaturgy
- It is a sociological perspective that views social interaction as resembling a
theatrical performance in which people stage their behaviour in such a way as to
elicit the responses they desire from other people.

Erving Goffman (sociologist)
-views life as a stage where every person is an actor and an audience at the same time in
the daily interaction.
-impression management (the manipulation of social impressions)
Ex. dressing up for job interviews, showing off during class recitation

3. Ethno Methodology
- It is a sociological perspective that studies the procedures people use to make sense
of their everyday lives and experiences.

4. Social Exchange
- It is a sociological perspective that portrays interaction as a more or less
straightforward and rationally calculated series of mutually beneficial transactions.

a. Functionalist View
- Human interaction involves little more than people acting out roles (parent, child,
worker, manager and priest) based on social script, much as theatrical actors take their
lines from a play.

The Nature of Social Process

Social Process refers to the recurrent and patterned interactions or responses of individuals to
one another which have attained stability. It is a repetitive form of social behavior that is
commonly found in social life.

2 Classification of Social Process

Social process is classified according to certain bases:
a. Based on formation
1.) Universal or basic processes
2.) Derived social processes

b. Based on unity or opposition
1.) Conjunctive social processes
2.) Disjunctive social processes

A. Based on formation

1. Basic or universal social processes- refers to patterned and recurrent responses observable
in all human societies.

There are three universal social processes: cooperation, competition, and conflict.

a. Cooperation. It involves two or more persons joining their intelligence, efforts, talents
and resources together to attain a goal which can be shared. It is a kind of conjoint action
or an alliance of persons or groups seeking some common goal or reward.
Ex. Business partnership

Types of Cooperation

1. Informal Cooperation. It is characterized as spontaneous and involves mutual give and
Ex. Conjoint efforts shown in primary groups and simple societies

2. Formal Cooperation. It is characterized as deliberate contractual nature and prescribes
the reciprocal rights and obligations of members.
Ex. Cooperative activity in large scale economic, governmental, and religious organizations;

3. Symbolic Cooperation. It is a situation where two or more persons live together
harmoniously and are supportive and interdependent, resulting mutual self-interest. It
involves interdependent activities, but the people involved may not be aware that their
activity is a form of cooperation.

Functions of Cooperation
Cooperation has various functions: (Panopio, 2004, from Lowry and Ranking, 1972)

1. It makes for social cohesion and integration among the members of a group.
2. It contributes to social stability and order.
3. It fosters consensus and compromise in various social issues.

b. Competition. It is form of impersonalized struggle or opposition to secure a reward or
goal which cannot be shared.
Ex. Sports fest, rivalry

Types of Competition

1. Personal Competition. it involves direct, face-to-face contact between opposing parties.
Example: Job applicants for the same position, students vying for honors

2. Impersonal Competition. it involves struggle between persons or groups not directly
aware of each other.
Example: Car sellers competing for customers

Functions of Competition

1. Competing individuals or groups try to outdo each other and thereby innovate ways to do
2. Competition can be a driving force to persons to develop their potentials to the fullest and
attain maximum efficiency and effectiveness.
3. Competition can develop productivity, creativity and ingenuity.
4. Competition of members of a society for certain goals and the competition for scarce
resources lead to variation or differentiation.

c. Conflict. It is a form of highly personalized and emotionalized struggle or opposition
between individuals or groups to attain scarce goals or values.
Example: Spontaneous fights or duels; group riots, violent strikes, rebellion, revolution or

Functions of Conflict

Conflicts, like wars, can bring about destruction of property, loss of human lives and untold
sufferings. However, it also serves other functions (Coser, 1964)

1. Conflicts may help establish unity and cohesion.
2. Internal conflict becomes a stabilizing and integrating mechanism in certain instances.
3. Conflicts provide an outlet for the expression of suppressed emotions and frustrations.
4. Competition and conflict promote social change.

2. Desired Social Process refers to secondary social processes that arise out of the basic social

The following are the derived social processes which arise out of the basic social processes:

a. Acculturation a group blends in and takes on some characteristics of another culture
called cultural borrowing or cultural imitation
Example: Christianization of Filipino; folk Catholicism; usage of Spanish surnames

b. Assimilation involves some kind of interpenetration or fusion of cultural elements
whereby persons or groups accept the cultural traits, attitudes, beliefs and sentiments of
another through direct, friendly and continuous contacts
Example: assimilation of Filipino immigrants to American way of Life

c. Amalgamation refers to some kind of biological fusion through intermarriage of
persons coming from different ethnic groups
Example: intermarriage of a Filipino with a Chinese

d. Differentiation refers to the creation of interests resulting in individuals or groups
needing or wanting different things or services rather than the same thing.
Example: an engineer and an architect involved in a building construction, adjacent stores
selling different goods.

e. Accommodation refers to the social process whereby competing or conflicting
individuals or groups thresh out difficulties in order to minimize conflict.

Types or Kinds of Accommodation

1.) Domination It is a processes that involves a dominant-subordinate relationship where
the stronger party imposes its will upon the weaker party.
Example: quarrel between a bigger bully and smaller boy.

2.) Truce or Pact-It is an agreement to cease hostilities or fighting for a certain period of
Examples : Pack of Biak-na-bato, Treaty of Paris

3.) Compromise It is a process of settling differences where opposing parties withdraw or
give up their demands to adjust their relationships.

4.) Mediation It is a form of settling disputes where a neutral third party intervenes and
gives suggestions or recommendation to warring nations of parties to stop their
Examples: An American envoy acting as mediator to warring Egypt and Israel.

5.) Conciliation - It is a accommodative processes where the third or neutral party can be
anybody to settle disputes and who may or may not give recommendations to settle the
Example: A bridge trying to reconcile quarrelling sweethearts or friends.

6.) Arbitration It is an accommodative social process where the neutral third party has legal
authority to decide on the conflict.
Example : Judge or labor arbiter

7.) Toleration It is a form of accommodation without formal agreement.
Example: Religious tolerance.

B. Based on Unity or Opposition

1.) Conjunctive social processes
- They refer to patterned forms of social interaction which lead to
unity,organization,cooperation and harmony.

2.) Disjunctive social processes
- They refer to patterned forms of social interactions which lead to
disunity,disorganization,division, and disharmony.


Socialization - process whereby the cultural heritage is socially transmitted from
one generation to another.

- refers to that lifelong processes of learning and relearning as people
move from different stages of growth and development, or from one
social group in another (Panopio, 1996)

- is the process by which we acquire those modes of thinking, feeling
and acting are necessary to participate effectively in the larger

- is the process by which we acquire social identities and internalized
the values and roles of our social world. (D. Light, 1995)


Personality is the organization of biological, psychological, social, cultural and moral factors
which underlie a persons behavior.
- Refers to the sum total of all the physical or biological, psychological
or mental, social or cultural, emotional, and spiritual traits of a person
which underlie his behavior and which makes him distinct, unique, or
different from all the others.


1.) Biological inheritance or heredity
Heredity refers to the physical and mental traits transmitted by the parents.

2.) Enviroment
Enviroment refers to the physical surrounding and likely:

a.) Geographic refers to nature and all natural resources.
b.) Cultural refers to the artificial or man-made environment.
c.) Social refers to the different social groups.


1. Freuds Theory of Socialization
- Sigmund Freud, a Viennese psychologist, holds that personality
consists of 3 major systems,namely:
1. ID reservoir of sexual and aggressive urges, centered on the
satisfaction of basic needs like food and sex
2. EGO rational part of the self that interprets information,
satisfying biological cravings
3. SUPEREGO conscience stands for the internalized ideas of right
and wrong, traditional values and morals of the society

2. Cultural Determinism Theory
- Held by anthropologists views culture and the cultural environment as
the main factor that determines human behavior
Example: personality of a modern Manileo is conditioned by the
advanced and modern culture of Manila, while the personality of a
probinsyano is conditioned by the traditional and conservative
culture of the place where he comes.

3. Symbolic Interactionism Theory
- That personality is the result of the interaction between individuals
mediated by symbols or language

4. Biological Determinism Theory
- Views that inherited biological structures as the main factor that
determines human behavior

5. Labeling Theory
- Viewed as the result of societys labeling on human behavior as either
good or bad

Functions of Socialization
1. Through the process of socialization, the
group transmits its values, customs an beliefs from one
generation to another

2. Enables the individual to grow and develop
into a socially functioning person

3. Means of social control by which members
are encouraged to conform to the ways of the group by
internalizing the groups norms and values

Agents of Socialization
1. Family
2. Peer Groups
3. Media
4. School
5. Workplace

Socialization: For Sex Roles

Sex general classification of human beings as males and females based on the differences of
their primary sex organs

Gender connotes the physical, social and cultural differences between males and females

Gender Identity conception that we have of ourselves as men or women

Gender Training- socialization for sex roles begins at birth

References: General Sociology Book, pg 81 to 138
(By: Omas-as, Capule Jr., Guimpatan, Simbajon, Morales and Fernandez)

Sociology, Culture and Family Planning, pg.86-96and 131-136
(By: San Juan, Teoso, Centeno and Anterola)

Foundation of Human Society, pg.85 to 105
(By: Guevarra, Alitagtagi, Santos, Ambida, Callag and De Guzman)