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Section A
[40 marks]
Answer all questions

1. (a) The following figure shows the principal energy levels of the hydrogen atom.



(i) The figure shows that as the quantum numbers of the energy level
increases, the separate lines of the energy levels becomes closer until
they converge, at n =
State the magnitude of the nuclear force towards the electron in the
hydrogen atom at this point.


....
[ 1 mark ]

(ii) Calculate the minimum energy required to ionise a hydrogen atom in its
ground state.






[1 mark ]

(iii) Calculate the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted if the
electron at n = 2

makes a transition to n = 4.









[ 2 marks ]



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(b) Hydrogen combines with chlorine to form hydrogen chloride. The mass
spectrum of hydrogen bromide is shown below.
Intensity

P
2












30 35 40 45 m/e

(i) Identify the ions that causes the peaks P
1
and P
3




(ii) Calculate the ratio of the peak heights, P
2
and P
4.
State one significance of this ratio value.





[ 3 marks ]
(c) The figure below shows the plot of pV/RT against pressure for hydrogen

pV/RT


1.0

Pressure/atm
(i) Give a reason why hydrogen gas deviates from the ideal behaviour at high
pressure.

.

.


100
0
50
P
1

P
3

P
4

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3
(ii) Unlike hydrogen gas, hydrogen chloride gas shows a very marked negative
deviation from ideal behaviour at medium pressure. Give two reasons.

1.
.

.
2.
.



[ 3 marks ]


2. Chlorine dioxide gas, ClO
2
, which is a reddish yellow gas. It is used for the
disinfection and the principal agent used in the decontamination of buildings in the
United states after the 2001 anthrax attack.
(a) Chlorine dioxide gas can be prepared in the laboratory by the following
reactions:

2AgClO
3
(s) + Cl
2
(g) 2AgCl (s) + 2ClO
2
(g) + O
2
(g); H = zero

[ H
f
(AgClO
2
) = -25kJ mol
-1
; H
f
(AgCl) = -127 kJ mol
-1
]

(i) Calculate the value of H
f
(ClO
2
)




(ii) From the value obtained in a (i) above; comment on the relative stability
of chlorine dioxide.

...

...
[ 3 marks ]
(b) Chlorine dioxide is a strong oxidizing agent in acidic solution. This is why it is
used as a bleaching agent.

ClO
3
(aq)

+ 4H
+
(aq) + 5e Cl
-
(aq) + 2H
2
O ; E

= + 1.50 V

Predict the reactions if any, of chlorine dioxide in acidic solution with
(i) aqueous iron (II)






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(ii) Aqueous hydrogen sulphide, H
2
S





[4 marks ]

(iii) Draw a labeled diagram to show how the redox potential of
E

(ClO
2
/ Cl
-
) might be measured in the laboratory.














[2 marks]
(c) Chlorine dioxide undergoes disproportionation in alkaline solution to give a
mixture of chlorate (III) and chlorate (V) ions.
Write an ionic equation for the reaction.

...
[ 1 mark ]

3. The first ionization energies of some Group 2 and group 3 elements are given as
follows.
Group 2
elements
Ionisation energy
(kJmol
-1
)
Group 13
elements
Ionisation energy
(kJmol
-1
)
Be 900 B 798
Mg 726 Al 575
Ca 592 Ga 575
Sr 546 In 556
Ba 502 Tl 589

(a)

Define the first ionization energy of an element.




[ 1 mark ]



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(b) The first ionization energy of the Group 2 elements decreases down the group.
State the 2 factors that contribute to the decrease in 1
st
ionization energy from
Be to Ba.

1. ..

2. ..
[2 marks]

(c) Explain why the 1
st
ionization energy of magnesium is higher than that of
aluminium.

...

...

...

[ 2 marks ]
(d) The 1
st
ionization energy of boron and barium do not show a marked
difference, however, barium compounds are ionic whereas boron compounds
are predominately covalent. Give an explanation for this observation.

...

.......

...

[ 2 marks ]
(e) Burning of magnesium in air produces magnesium oxide and a little
magnesium nitride
(i) Draw a Lewis structure for magnesium nitride.








(ii) When magnesium nitride is warmed with water, a gas that turns moist red
litmus paper blue is liberated.
Write a balanced equation for the reaction between magnesium nitride
and water.

..
[ 3 marks]



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4. An organic compound X of molar mass of 136.9g mol
-1
has the following
composition by mass:



(a) Determine the molecular formula of X.







[ 2 marks ]
(b) When X is boiled under reflux with aqueous sodium hydroxide, 2-methyl-1-
propanol is formed.

(i) Draw the structural formula of X.







(ii) State the mechanism of the reaction.

...
[ 2 marks ]

(c) When X is treated with an alcoholic solution of sodium hydroxide, an alkene Y
is formed. Y reacts with hydrogen bromide to form Z which is an isomer of X

(i) Y has four isomers. Give the structural formula for the isomer that
exhibits geometrical isomerism.





(ii) Draw the structural formula for Z









C, 35.2%; H, 6.5 %; Br, 58.3%
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(iii) State one isomer of alkene Y that produces carbon dioxide when heated
with concentrated acidified KMnO
4
? Give an equation for the reaction.

Isomer:


Equation:





[ 4 marks]

(d) Z reacts with aqueous sodium hydroxide to form an alcohol P.
Suggest a simple chemical test to differentiate between alcohol P and
2-methyl-1-propanol


....





[ 2 marks]























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SECTION B
(60 marks)

Answer any four questions.
6. (a) The following are all equilibrium processes. In each case, write a chemical
equation to show the equilibrium, and use Le Chateliers principle to explain the
observations described.

(i) When potassium nitrate dissolves in water, the temperature drops. If a
saturated solution of potassium nitrate at 100 C is cooled to room
temperature, crystals are formed.

(ii) When a small volume of a concentrated solution of sodium sulphate is added
to a saturated solution of calcium sulphate, a white precipitate is formed.

(iii) When brown NO
2
gas is cooled, colourless N
2
O
4
gas is formed. A gas
syringe is filled with NO
2
gas and the end sealed. When the gas is
compressed, the brown colour fades. Warming the syringe restores the
colour.

[ 8 marks ]
(b) The following reaction is used industrially to produce a combustible gas from coal.

H
2
O(g)

+ C (s) H
2
(g) + CO (g)

A mixture of powdered coal and steam at a pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of
1300 C was allowed to reach equilibrium. It was found that the total pressure had
increased to 1.9 atm but the remaining steam had a partial pressure of only 0.1 atm.

Use the data given to calculate the partial pressures of hydrogen and carbon
monoxide, and hence calculate a value for K
p
[ 3 marks ]


5. (a) What do you understand by the terms
(i) relative atomic mass
(ii) isotope [ 3 marks]
(b) The mass spectrum of ethanol contains peaks at m/e values of 15, 28, 31, 45
and 46. Account for the appearance of these peaks as fully as you can.
[ 5 marks]
(c) Explain clearly and concisely the meaning of each underline terms and
indicate the significance of each of the numerical values.
(i) The ionic product of water is equal to 1.0 x 10
-14
mol
2
dm
-6
at 25
0
C
and increases as the temperature increases
[ 4 marks]

(ii) The standard electrode potential of calcium (Ca
2+
/ Ca) is -2.87V
[ 3 marks]
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(c) Hydrangeas are flowering plants which commonly have pink flowers. They
produce blue flowers in soils which contain high concentrations of Mg
2+
(aq). The
pH of well limed soil is 9.0, whereas the pH of peat-based soil is 6.5. The
numerical value of the solubility product, K
sp
of magnesium hydroxide is 1.8 x 10
-
12

Deduce and explain which of these types of soil favours good cultivation of blue
hydrangeas.

[ 4 marks]


7. (a) A solid halide reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid to form HX gas which is
then oxidized to X
2
gas. The solid plays an important role in black-white
photography. Identify the solid halide. Explain your answer.

[5 marks]

(b) A coordination compound triamminetrichlorocobalt(III) exists as two isomers.

(i) What is the chemical formula of triamminetrichlorocobalt(III)?

(ii) Draw the structures of the two isomers and name them.
[5 marks]

(c) Explain the observations when an aqueous solution of silver nitrate is added to

(i) triamminetrichlorocobalt(III)


(ii) triamminedichlorocobalt(III) chloride
[5 marks]




8. (a) (i) Suggest reasons why magnesium gives the nitride, Mg
3
N
2
, in addition to its
oxide when burned in air.

(ii) A 1.00g sample of the powder obtained from burning magnesium in air was
boiled with water. The ammonia that was evolved neutralizes 12.00 cm
3
of
0.5 mol dm
-3
hydrochloric acid. Construct balanced equations for the reaction
of magnesium nitride with water.
Calculate the percentage of magnesium nitride in the 1.00g sample.

[ 6 marks]



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10

(b)
NaCl AlCl
3
CCl
4
SiCl
4

Describe the reaction, if any, of each of the four chlorides with water, stating the
appropriate pH of any solution formed, and writing balanced equation for any
reaction that takes place. Offer an explanation for any differences that occur in
their reactivity.

[6 marks ]

(c) Articles made from copper and its alloys can be cleaned of their oxides tarnish by
the use of metal polishes containing aqueous ammonia and an abrasive.

Assuming the tarnish copper contains copper(II) ions, suggest with an equation, how
the aqueous ammonia might react with the tarnish, and suggest the colour of the
resultant solution.
[ 3 marks ]


9. The amino acids tyrosine, lysine and glycine are constituents of many proteins.





















(a)
State the reagents and conditions you could use to break proteins down into amino
acids.

[ 2 marks ]

(b) Draw a ring around each chiral centre in the above molecules.
[ 2 marks]
(c)
In aqueous solution amino acids exist as zwitterions. Draw the zwitterionic
structure of glycine.
[ 1 mark ]


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(d)
For each of the following reactions, draw the structure of the organic compound
formed.
(i) glycine + excess NaOH(aq).
(ii) tyrosine + excess NaOH(aq)
(iii) lysine + excess HCl (aq)
(iv) tyrosine + excess Br2(aq)
[ 5 marks ]

(e)
Draw the structural formula of a tripeptide formed from all three of these amino
acids, showing clearly the peptide bonds.
[ 2 marks ]

(f)
The formula of part of the chain of a synthetic polyamide is shown below.





(i) Identify the repeat unit of the polymer by drawing square brackets around it on
the above formula.


(ii) Draw the structures of the two monomers from which the polymer could be
made.


(iii) Name the type of polymerisation of the polymer shown above.
[ 3 marks ]

10
This question is concerned with organochlorine compounds.
(a)
State the conditions needed to produce the two compounds A and B.










[ 2 marks ]
(b)
State the reagent needed to carry out the following reaction.




[ 1mark ]



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(c)
The three chloro-compounds A, B and C vary in their ease of hydrolysis.
(i) Arrange the reactivity of the above compounds in decreasing order
(ii) Suggest an explanation for these differences in reactivity
[ 3 marks ]

(d)

Draw the structural formulae of the organic products X, Y and Z of the following
reactions of compound C.



OH in NaOH (aq)







COCl


CH
3
NH
2





C




H
2
O











(e)
Compounds D and E are both ketones.
CH
3
CH
2
COCH
2
CH
3

D E







X
Y
Z
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
COCH
3




[ 3 marks ]
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13

(i) State which one of these compound reacts with alkaline aqueous iodine, and draw
the structural formulae of the products formed during this reactions.


[ 3 marks ]



(ii) The reduction of D with NaBH
4
produces just one alcohol, but a similar reduction
of E produces two isomers in equal amounts. Explain these observations, drawing
structures where appropriate.
[ 3 marks ]
























END OF QUESTION PAPER
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