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2
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Transformer Construction
Basic Component of single phase transformer
Laminated iron core
Primary winding
N
P
Secondary winding
N
S
Load Supply
4
5
6
Transformer
Construction of a small transformer a) Lamination b) Iron core
and winding
Iron core
Terminals
Secondary
winding
Insulation
7
Transformer
Configuration of single phase transformer
Primary
Winding
Secondary
Winding
Multi-layer
Laminated
Iron Core
X
1
X
2
H
1
H
2
Winding
Terminals
8
9
Transformer
Dry-type 3 phase
transformer

10
Transformer
Oil insulated type transformer with
cooling system
Winding
Iron core
behind the steel
bar
Radiator
Steel
tank
Insulation
Bushing
Metal bar
Exterior
porcelain tube
Interior
porcelain tube
Flange
Porcelain
transformer bushing

11
Transformer
High Voltage
Transformer with
Cooling System
Oil tank
Cooling
radiators
High voltage
bushing
Low voltage
bushing
12
Application of Transformer
13
Transformer Core Material
B(H) Magnetising Curve
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Magnetic Field Intensity, H (A-turn/m)
M
a
g
n
e
t
i
c

F
l
u
x

D
e
n
s
i
t
y
,

B

(
T
)

Cast Iron
Cast Steel
Ordinary Sheet Steel
Quality Sheet Steel
14
Transformer Magnetic Circuit
Transformer Polarity
0 5 10 15 20
100
0
100
V
p
t ( )
V
s
t ( )
t
milli s
0 5 10 15 20
100
0
100
V
p
t ( )
V
s
t ( )
t
milli s
H
1
H
2
X
2
X
1
V
p
V
s
H
1
H
2
X
2
X
1
V
p
V
s
(a)
(b)
15
Transformer Magnetic Circuit
Amperes Law


Flux Density


Flux

u
N
m
I
m
E
A
H N I
m m
=
H B =
A B = u
Magnetic Circuit
16
Voltage Induced in a Transformer
Voltage Induced



Modifying the above equation:



Voltage Induced

dt
d
N E
m
u
=
( ) ( )
dt
I d N A N I
dt
d
N A
dt
H d
N A
dt
A B d
N E
m m m m
m m m

2

= |
.
|

\
|
= = =
dt
I d
L E
m
=
17
Transformer Inductance and
Magnetic Energy
Inductance



Magnetic Energy


2
m
N A
L

=
2
2
m
I L
Energy =
18
Core measurement
w = 3in, h = w, a = 1in, b
= 1.5in
Im = 2A, Nm = 20, f =
60Hz,
Magnetic path length
and area
Lm = 2 (w + a) + 2 (h + a)
Acore = a b
Magnetic field intensity
u
m
w
h
a
a
a a
b
I
m
V
m
N
m
A
core
Rajah 13: Litar Magnetik
H
m
I
m
N
m

L
m
:=
H
m
98.425
A
m
=
Transformer Magnetic Circuit
Analysis
19
u
m
w
h
a
a
a a
b
I
m
V
m
N
m
A
core
Magnetic Circuit
Transformer Magnetic Circuit
Analysis
Magnetic flux density


free space or air permeability



Magnetic flux intensity (H)
B
m

o

r
H
m
:=

o
4 t 10
7

H
m
:=
H
m
98.425
A
m
=
20
Transformer Magnetic Circuit Analysis
Magnetic flux


Or



Magnetising sinusoidal current
u
m
B
m
A
core
:=
u
m

o

r

A
core
N
m

L
m
I
m
:=
I
mag
t ( ) 2 I
m
cos e t
( )
:=
u
m
w
h
a
a
a a
b
I
m
V
m
N
m
A
core
21
Transformer Magnetic Circuit Analysis
Magnetic Flux a function of time



Maximum Flux :




Flux a function of time :
u
max
2
o

r

A
core
N
m

L
m

\
|
|
.
I
m
:=
u
mag
t ( )
o

r

A
core
N
m

L
m
2 I
m
cos e t
( )

( )
:=
u
mag
t ( ) u
max
cos e t
( )
:=
22
Voltage Induced in a Transformer









RMS Voltage
E
rms
N
m
u
max
e
2
:=
E
ind
t ( ) N
m
t
u
mag
t ( )
d
d
:=
E
ind
t ( ) N
m
t
u
max
cos e t
( )

( )
d
d
:=
E
ind
t ( ) N
m
u
max
e sin e t
( )
:=
23
Voltage Induced in a Transformer
Voltage Induced



Voltage Induced :
E
rms
4.443f N
m
u
max
:=
E
ind
t ( ) L
ind
t
I
mag
t ( )
d
d

N
m
t
u
mag
t ( )
d
d
L
ind
t
I
mag
t ( )
d
d

24
Transformer Inductance



L
ind
N
m
u
mag
t ( )
I
mag
t ( )
L
ind
N
m
u
rms

I
m
L
ind
N
m
u
max
cos e t
( )

( )

2 I
m
cos e t
( )

L
ind
N
m
2
o

r

A
core
N
m

L
m

\
|
|
.
I
m

(
(

2 I
m

:=
L
ind

o

r

A
core
N
m
2

L
m
:=
25
26
27
Ideal Transformer
Relation between current that flows in the primary
winding, i
p
(t) and current that flows in the secondary
winding, i
s
(t):
a t i
t i
t i N t i N
S
P
S S P P
1
) (
) (
) ( ) (
=
=
a I
I
a
V
V
S
P
S
P
1
=
=
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
28
Transformer Impedance
Primary Impedance:

Primary Voltage:

Primary Current:

Primary impedance in
terms of secondary
impedance
P
P
L
I
V
Z = '
S P
aV V =
a
I
I
S
P
=
L L
S
S
S
S
P
P
L
Z a Z
I
V
a
a I
aV
I
V
Z
2
2
'
/
'
=
= = =
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
29
Example 1
A transformer coil possesses 4000 turns and
links an ac flux having a peak value of 2
mWb. If the frequency is 60 Hz, calculate
the effective value of the induced voltage E.

Ans: 2131V
30
Example 2
A coil having 90 turns is connected to a 120V,
60 Hz source. If the effective value of the
magnetizing current is 4 A, calculate the
following:
a. The peak value of flux
b. The peak value of the mmf
c. The inductive reactance of the coil
d. The inductance of the coil.