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Tuesday, November 17, 2009

Chemistry Test 2

VSEPR theory (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion)

1. Electron pairs in the valence shell of the central atom [atom with the
smallest electronegativity] repel each other and in order to minimize this
repulsion, they stay furthest apart from each other thus determining the
geometry of the molecule

Determining the shape

1. Calculate the number of electrons you are able to use
2. Complete the ligands
3. Complete the surrounding atoms
4. Put the remaining electrons on the central atom
5. Place in brackets
6. If it is a cation or an anion
a. Subtract or add an electron
b. State the charge above the brackets
7. If the central atom does not have its octet
completed, form double or triple bonds

B × 1 = 3 valence electrons Trigonal Planar
F × 3 = 21 valence electrons
+ 24 valence electrons


While B and Be bond, they are happy without a complete octet

Groups 5, 6 & 7 may exhibit an expanded octet.
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Intermolecular forces
Attractions between temporary dipoles of two different molecules

Electron AX Hybridization B.P. L.P. Molecular Angle Example

geometry geometry

Linear AX2 sp 2 0 Linear 180° CO2

Trigonal AX3 sp2 3 0 Trigonal 120° BF3

Planar Planar

2 1 Bent 120 SO2

Tetrahedral AX4 sp3 4 0 Tetrahedral 109.5 CH4

3 1 Trigonal 107° NH3


2 2 Bent (V- 104.5° H2O

shaped /

Trigonal AX5 dsp3 5 0 Trigonal 120° & PF5

bipyramidal Bipyramidal 90

4 1 See-saw <120° SF4

& <90°

3 2 T-shaped 90° ICl3

2 3 Linear 180 I3-

Octahedral AX6 d2sp3 6 0 Octahedral 90° SF6

5 1 Square 90° BrF4


4 2 Square 90° XeF4


London forces
Interactions between two temporary dipoles (instantaneous dipoles); they depend
on two factors. Intermolecular forces are weaker than chemical bonds.
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1. Molar Mass
The higher the Molar Mass, the bigger the London forces and higher the
boiling point. With increase in Molar Mass, there are more electrons, the
bigger the possible temporary dipoles and therefore the bigger the
dispersion forces resulting in a higher melting point
2. Molecular shape
The shapes of the molecules also matter. Long thin molecules can
develop to short fat ones containing the same number of electrons

Dipole – Dipole
Interactions between two permanent dipoles of different molecules

Hydrogen bonding
Interactions between H which is directly linked to F, O & N and the lone pair of
electrons with F, O & N of a different molecule.


Polar bonds
Although polar bonds are present in Trigonal
planar molecules, it is a symmetrical molecule so
the vectors are symmetrical and cancel
themselves. The bonds result in a non-polar
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IONIC 0.4 2.0
Tuesday, November 17, 2009

Sigma bonds (σ)
Covalent bonds that are formed by end-to-end overlap of atomic orbitals;
because of this, the electron density is greatest along the internuclear axis.

Pi bonds (п)
Covalent bonds that are formed by side-to-side [lateral] overlap of atomic
orbitals; because of this, the electron density is lowest along the internuclear
axis. Delocalization applies to pi bonds.

Element Hybridization Angle Shape

C sp3 109.5° Tetrahedral
C sp2 120° Trigonal planar
O sp3 104.5° Bent (v-shaped)

O has 34 bond sites

s 1 +bonds
Only single p32 = 1+=32=43sp3=
1 double bond = sp2 hybridization

When a particular molecule can be represented as several different Lewis
structures is generally not any of these, but a mixture of all of them. This can be
represented by either using delocalized electrons, or through resonance (where
Tuesday, November 17, 2009

each possible structure is drawn and the actual state resonates between them.)
The delocalization of pi electrons (which is effectively what happens) makes the
molecule more stable (as evidenced by a lower energy) and gives the bonds a
shorter length than would be expected.

Properties of resonance
1. Bonds are shorter than expected
2. Pi bonds moving (delocalization) enables more stability

Species to remember
2. NO3-
3. NO2-
4. CO2-
5. CH3COO-
6. C6H6
7. 03
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Ionic bonds
Transfer of an electron from a metal to a non-metal resulting in the formation of a
cation or anion. The electrostatic attraction between a cation and anion is called
and ionic bond.

Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn

+2 +2 +2 +2 +1 +2 +2 +2 +1 +2

+4 +2 +3 +2

+6 +3 Sn Pb N P S

+4 +2 +2 +3 +3 +4

+5 +4 +4 +5 +5 +6


Tuesday, November 17, 2009


CO32- → carbonate NO3- → nitrate O2- → oxide

C2O42- → oxalate NO2- → nitrite O22- → peroxide

H2C2O4 →oxalic acid HNO3→ nitric acid SO42- → sulfate

HCO3- → bicarbonate HNO2 → nitrous acid SO32- → sulfite

H3PO4 → phosphoric acid HSO3- → bisulfite

H3PO3- → phosphora OH- → hydroxide

Monatomic anions
H2O2 →hydrogen peroxide
Monatomic anions H2SO4 → sulfuric acid
always O2-in “ide”
H2SO3 → sulfurous acid
3- 2- -
P→P S Cl

Characteristics of ionic compounds

1. Soluble in water. “Like dissolves like”
2. Conductivity → ionic compounds are good conductors in molten or
aqueous state but not good conductor is solid state
3. High melting and boiling points →electrostatic attraction between cation
and anions
4. They are solids, having a lattice structure