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Chapter 12

Future direction
Technology is becoming an inevitable part of classroom instruction and teachers are encouraged to use
technology in their teaching. Integrating technology develops teaching and learning, and produces
positive outcomes, social interactions, changes in the teaching styles, and increased motivation.
Knowing the positive effect of integrating technology in the class, teaches have to be aware of the
educational needs before using any tech tool in the class. Improvements in educational technology
provide great opportunities to improve teaching and teaching in the higher education system. However,
there are challenges have to be considered when adopting different tech tools.
The first decade of e-learning was spent experiencing new tools to facilitate teaching and learning. In
that respect, technology was ahead of pedagogy. Later on, e-learning overhyped as new online
institutions thrived. A turning point in higher education came when blended learning was incorporated
in its instruction. This encouraged many higher Ed institutions to take e-learning to a higher level.
Garisson asserts that after years of research using community of inquiry theoretical framework,
researchers have developed relatively good understanding of the process of creating and sustaining
online blended communities of learners. The end of this decade was marked by the development of web
2.0 term. It also focused on the Web as a platform for collaboration.
The second decade will be the decade where we realize the potential of the Internet and
communication technology for a new teaching- learning model. Higher education will adopt more
blended learning approaches. As e-learning will be wildly adopted, engagement will take on a new and
richer meaning academically and socially. The second decade will mark the development of more
coherent communities that are developed for academic and social purpose. The Community of inquiry
framework has quickly evolved and became a guide for a wide range of research in e-learning in the last
There are three main principles that define the framework of the Community of Inquiry. The first
principle is the social presence. It is the ability of the learners to identity with the community,
communicate purposely in trusting environment, and develop interpersonal relationships by sharing
their experiences with others. Secondly, cognitive presence allows learners to construct and confirm
their beliefs through reflection and discussing issues with members of the community. The last principle
is t teaching practice and that is the design that helps and facilitates the development of the cognitive
and social processes in a meaningful way to help learners develop.
A valuable quantitative instrument has been created to measure the element of COI. This survey arises
from the needs to address limitations transcript analysis in terms of time and reliability. This survey
presents a shift in the COI research and opens possibilities for other studies across the disciplines,
technologies, demographic institutions, disciplinary differences, technologies, and direct instruction
versus collaborative learning. The COI has been used to understand the properties of face to face and
blended learning. It is suggested that one of the reasons COI developed and evolved is that is was
backed with methodology.
To sum up, the great potential of integrating technology in higher ed. is the resonation of community
and critical discourse. Technologies in higher ed. need to provide breadth of access and depth of
knowledge. ELearning had gained footprint in higher ed. because it adopted blended learning. Recently,
new technologies have reached the threshold of a new era that will reflect the pedagogical ideas and
technological possibilities.