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CHAPTER 6

b)

No. Meas.
3

No. meas. 10, bin width 2 mm

0
48.7 48.9 49.1 49.3 49.5 49.7 49.9 50.1 50.3 50.5 50.7

Length range - cm

6.1 a) Data arranged in bins with width 2mm


Bin
(cm)
48.9-49.09
49.1-49.29
49.3-49.49
49.5-49.69
49.4-49.89
49.9-50.09
50.1-50.29
50.3-50.49
50.5-50.69

Number of
Measurements
1
2
2
0
1
1
2
0
1

b)
No. Meas.
8

No of meas. 10, bin


width 2 in

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
48.1

Bin
(in)
48.1-50.0
50.1-52.0
52.1-54.0
54.1-56.0
56.1-58.0
58.1-60.0
60.1-62.0
62.1-64.0
64.1-66.0
68.1-70.0

Number of
Measurements
0
0
0
0
0
8
2
0
0
0

50.1

52.1

54.1

56.1

58.1

60.1

62.1

Length range - in

6.2 a)
Data arranged in bins with width 2in

6.1

64.1

66.1

68.1

6.2

6.3
3
Total no. meas. = 12

No.

Bin width 5 psi

Meas.

0
80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

Pressure range - psi

Bin
80-84.9
85-89.9
90-94.9
95-99.9
100-104.9
105-109.9
110-114.9
115-119.9
120-124.9

No.
0
1
2
0
2
2
3
1
0

No of meas. 12, bin width 0.5 bar

No.
Meas.
4

0
8

8.5

9.5

10

Pressure range - bar

6.4
Bin
8-8.49
8.5-8.99
9-9.49
9.5-9.99
10-10.49
10.5-10.99

No.
0
3
3
4
2
0

6.3

10.5

11

6.5

Using the data from problem 6.1:


Mean:
n
x1 x 2 x n
x
i
n
i 1 n
49.3 50.1 48.9 49.2 49.3 50.5 49.9 49.2 49.8 50.2
x
10

x 49.6cm

Median:
Arranging data in ascending order:
48.9, 49.2, 49.2, 49.3, 49.3, 49.8, 49.9, 50.1, 50.2, 50.5
Median

49.3 49.8
49.6cm
2

Standard Deviation:
S

( x i x )2
i 1 ( n 1)
n

(49.3 49.64)2 (50.1 49.64 )2 (48.9 49.64)2


(10 1)
(10 1)
(10 1)

S 0.53 cm

Modes: 49.2cm, 49.3cm

6.4

1
2

6.6

Using the data from problem 6.2:


Mean:
n
x x2 xn
x
x 1
i
n
i 1 n
59.3 60.0 58.8 59.1 59.2 60.4 59.8 59.3 59.8 60.3
x
10
x 59.6in

Median:
Arranging data in ascending order:
58.8, 59.1, 59.2, 59.3, 59.3, 59.8, 59.8, 60.0, 60.3, 60.4
Median

59.3 59.8
59.6in
2

Standard Deviation:
S

i 1

( xi x ) 2
( n 1)

(58.8.1 59.6) 2 (59.1 59.6) 2 (59.2 59.6) 2


(10 1)
(10 1)
(10 1)

S 0.54in

Modes: 59.3in,59.8in

6.5

1
2

6.7
x

110 104 106 94 92 89 100 114 120 108 110 115


12

x 105 psi

Median:
Arranging data in ascending order
89, 92, 94, 100, 104, 106, 108, 110, 110, 114, 115, 120
Median

106 108
2

Median 107
Standard Deviation:
S

( x i x )2

i 1 ( n 1)
n

(110 105.2) 2 (104 105.2)2 (106 105.2) 2


(12 1)
(12 1)
(12 1)

S 9.7 psi (10psi )

Mode:
110psi

6.6

1
2

6.8
x

9.5 9.3 9.4 8.9 8.8 8.7 9.0 9.8 10.2 10 9.5 9.9
12

x 9.4bar

Median:
Arranging data in ascending order
8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 9.0, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.5, 9.8, 9.9, 10.0, 10.2
Median

9.4 9.5
2

Median 9.45

Standard Deviation:
S

( x i x )2

i 1 ( n 1)
n

(8.7 9.4) 2

(8.8 9.4) 2
(8.9 9.4) 2
S


(
12

1
)
(
12

1
)
(
12

1
)

1
2

S 0.50bar 1bar

Mode:
9.5bar

6.9 Probability of having a 6 and a 3 in tossing two fair dice:


P (6 and 3) 2

1 1 2

0.056
6 6 36

5.6%

There are two ways of getting a 6 and a 3 - 6,3 and 3,6


6.10 Probability of having a 4 and a 2 in tossing two fair dice:
P (64and 2) 2

1 1
2

0.056 5.6%
6 6 36

There are two ways of getting a 4 and a 2 - 4,2 and 2,4


6.11

Probability of an undergraduate electrical engineering student to be a


woman:
P 0.15 0.8 0.120

12%

6.7

6.12

Probability of an undergraduate biology student to be a woman:


P 0.55 0.85 0.468 46.8%

6.13

Probability of all three components being defective:


P 0.03 0.03 0.03 27 10 6 or 0.0027%

6.14

Probability of all three components being defective:


P 0.02 0.02 4 10 4 or 0.04%

6.15 Binomial distribution


all 5 > 12 oz.; p=0.99, n=5, r=5

n 5 5!
1
r 5 5!0

P (5) 1 0.99 5 (1 0.99 ) 0 0.951

all 5 < 12 oz.; p=0.99, n=5, r=0

n 5 5!
1
r 0 0!5

P(0) 1 0.99 0 (1 0.99) 5 10 5

6.16 Binomial distribution


6.8

all 5 > 8 oz.; p=0.98, n=5, r=5

n 5 5!
1
r 5 5!0

P (5) 1 0.98 5 (1 0.98) 0 0.904

all 5 < 12 oz.; p=0.98, n=5, r=0

n 5 5!
1
r 0 0!5

P (0) 1 0.98 0 (1 0.98) 5 3.2 10 9

6.17 Binomial distribution


all 6 > 3000 hours; p=0.9, n=6, r = 6

6.9

n 6 6!
1
r 6 6!0

P (6 ) 1 0.9 6 (1 0.9) 0 0.531

6.10

6.18 Binomial distribution


all 6 > 3600 hours; p=0.95, n=6, r = 6

n 6 6!
1
r 6 6!0

P (6) 1 0.95 6 (1 0.95) 0 0.735

6.19 Binomial distribution


Success is failure before 1000 hours. We want probability of 1 or 2 failures.
p=0.2, n=2, r=1 and r=2

2 2!
2
1 1!

2 2!
1
2 2!0

P (1) 2 0.21 (1 0.2)1 0.32

P (2) 1 0.2 2 (1 0.2)0 0.04

The probability of 1 or 2 is then P(1)+P(2) = 0.36

6.11

6.20

Probability distribution function:


3x 2
35
0

f ( x)

2 x3

(a) f(x) satisfies the requirement of a probability distribution function


because:
f (x) 0

P ( x )

f ( x )dx f ( x )dx f ( x )dx f ( x )dx

3x
x
dx
35
35
2

27
8

1

35
35

(b) Expected (mean) value of x:

xf ( x )dx

3x 2
dx
35

3x
3 x4
dx

35
4 35
2

3
81 16
140

1393
.

(c) Variance of population:



2

(x )

f ( x )dx

3x 2
(x )
dx
35
2
2

( x 2 2x 2 )

2
3

3x 2
dx
35

3x 4
3x 3
3x 2
3
dx 2
dx 2
dx
x5
35
35
35
5 35
2
2

3
3 5 25 194
. 2.774
5 35

1666
.

6.12

3
2

2 2 2

6.21

Probability distribution function:


f ( x)

x3
1 x 3
20

(a) f(x) satisfies the requirement of a probability distribution function


because:
f ( x) 0 x

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx f ( x)dx f ( x)dx

P( x )

1 x

20 dx 4 20

1
(81 1) 1
80

(b) Expected (mean) value of x:

xf ( x)dx x

1x

x3
dx
20

5 3

20 dx 5 20

1
243 1
100

2.42

(c) Variance of population:


2

(x )

f ( x ) dx

(x

)2

x3
dx
20

(x 2 2
x 2)

3
x5
x4
dx 2
dx
20
1 20
6

1 x

[
20 6

2 x

x3
dx
20

x3
dx
20

x4
4

]
1

1 1
2 2.42
( 2.42) 2
[ (729 1)
( 243 1)
(81 1)]
20 6
5
4
1

[121.333 234.256 117 .128]


20
0.210

0.458

6.13

6.22

Probability of the following cases of problem 6.20:


0

(a) for x 0

P ( x 0)

f ( x )dx

f ( x )dx

3x 2
x3
1
dx

0.0286 or 2.86%
35
35 0 35

Cumulative distribution of random variable x:


x

f ( x )dx

0dx 0

x 2

3x 2
x3
8
dx

2 35
35 35

2 x 3

3x 2
35 dx 1
2

f ( x )dx

3x 2
x3
8
dx

0.2286 or 22.86%
35
35 2 35

(b) for 0 x 1 P (0 x 1)

F( x )

6.23

3 x

F(-2) = 0 , F(0) = 0.229 and F(3) = 1

6.14

6.24

Binomial distribution can be used because of the satisfactory/ unsatisfactory


outcome of the process.
n r
n r
p (1 p )
r

P (r )

In this case:

n
n!

r !( n r )!
r

p=0.95
n=4

(a) All four parts be satisfactory:


4
P (4) (0.95)4 (1 0.95)0
4
1 0.8145 1 0.8145 or 8145%
.

(b) For at least two parts to be satisfactory, we should


calculate the probability that 2,3 and 4 parts be satisfactory:
4
2
2
( 0.95 ) (1 0.95)
2

P( 2)

4
4!
6

( 3 !)(1!)
2

6 0.9025 0.0025
0.0135
4
3
1
( 0.95) (1 0.95)
3

P( 3)

4
4!
4

(3 !)(1!)
3

4 0.8574 0.05
0.1715

Probability of having at least two satisfactory parts:


P (2) P (3) P (4)

0.0135 0.1715 0.8145 0.9995

6.25

or

99.95%

We want the probability that at most 2 computers will fail. The is the
probability that 0, 1 or 2 failures. Define success as a computer failure. Then
p=0.1. Then we want the probability that 0, 1 or 2 will fail.
20
0
20
0.1 (1 0.1) 0.121577
0

P (0)

20
1
19
0.1 (1 0.1) 0.27017
1

P (1)

20
2
18
0.1 (1 0.1) 0.28518
2

P (2)

P(2 or less) = .121577 + 0.27017 + 0.28518 = 0.677

6.15

6.26

Define success = failure. P = 0.1


We want the probability that 2, 3, 4, or 5 will fail.
P(2-5) = P(2)+P(3)+P(4)+P(5)
for example:
20
2
18
( 0.1) (1 0.1) 0.2852;
2

20
20 !
190


2! 18 !
2

P ( 2)

20
3
17
(0.1) (1 0.1) .1901;
2

P ( 3)

20
20 !
1140


3 ! 17 !
3

20
4
16
(0.1) (1 0.1) 0.098;
4

P ( 4)

20
20 !
4845


4 ! 16 !
4

20
5
158
0.032;
(0.1) (1 0.1)
5

P ( 5)

20
20 !
15504


5 ! 15!
5

P(2-5) = 0.2852+.1901+.098+.032 = 0.597


6.27

(a) For all 6 parts to be satisfactory, using binomial distribution:


6
6
0
( 0.95) (1 0.95)
6

P( 6)

0.7351

6
6!
1

6! 0!
6

73.51%

(b) For at least two parts to be satisfactory, we should find the sum of
probabilities for 2,3,4,5 and 6 parts to be satisfactory:
P (number of successes 2) 1 P (0) P (1)
6
0
6
( 0.95) (1 0.95)
0

P (0)

6
6!
1

0! 6!
0

156
. 10 8
6
1
5
(0.95) (1 0.95)
1

P (1)

6
6!
6

1! 5 !
1

6 0.95 (3.15 10 7 ) 178


. 10 6
so P (# of success 2) 100%

6.16

6.28

Probability of one or more power failure = 0.05


Probability of no power failure (success) = 0.95
Binomial distribution will be used here:
n r
n r
p (1 p )
r

n
n!

r !( n r )!
r

P (r )

a- No power failure in three months: n=3, r=3


3
3
0
(0.95 ) (1 0.95) 0.857
3

P(3)

85.7%

b- Exactly one month with power failure in four months: n=4, r=3
4
3
1
( 0.95) (1 0.95)
3

P( 3)

4 0.8574 0.05 0.1715

4
4!
4

3 !(4 3)!
3
17.15%

c- At least one power failure in the nest five months: n=5


5
0
5
7
(0.95 ) ( 0.05) 3.125 10
0

P ( 0)

5
1
4
5
( 0.95 ) ( 0.05 ) 2.969 10
1

5
5!
5

1! 4 !
1

5
2
3
.
10 3
( 0.95 ) (0.05) 1128
2

5
5!
10

2! 3 !
2

5
3
2
(0.95 ) ( 0.05) 0.0214
3

5
5!
10

3 ! 2!
3

5
4
1
(0.95 ) ( 0.05) 0.2036
4

5
5!
5

4 ! 1!
4

P (1)

P ( 2)

P ( 3)
P( 4)
4

P(i ) 0.226

Chance of at least on power failure in 5 months.

i 0

6.29

Binomial distribution can be used:


success = a failure n=16 r=0 p=0.01
n r
n r
p (1 p )
r

P (r )

n
n!

r !( n r )!
r

16
0
16
(0.01) (0.99)
0

P (r 0)

P (r 0) 0.85

16
16 !
1


0 ! 16!
0

85% chance of no failures

6.17

6.30

Binomial distribution

(a) p=0.05, n=100, r = 2, 5, 10

n 10 10!
4950
r 2 !98
n 10 0!
7528 0
r 5 !95
n 10 10! 13
1.73x0
r 10 !90

P ( 2) 4950 0.05 2 (1 .05) 98 0.081

P (2) 75287520 0.05 5 (1 .05)95 0.180

P (2) 1.731x1013 0.05 10 (1 .05 )90 0.0167

Note: One cannot normally compute 100! with a hand calculator it is a very large number. However
100!/(2!98!) can be rewritten 100x99x98!/(2!98!) =100x99/2!, which can be readily computed.

(b) We want the probability of 0 or 1 failing to be 0.99. i.e. P(1)+P(2)=0.99


6.18

n 10 10!
1
r 0 0!1

n 10 10!
10
r 1 1!9

P (0) P (1) 1 p 0 (1 p )10 10 p 1 (1 p ) 9 0.99

This must be solved by trial and error for p. Using a spreadsheet, the answer is
p=0.0155
6.31

Binomial distribution

(a) p=0.03, n=100, r = 1, 4, 15

n 10 10 !
10
r 1 !9

P (1) 100 0.031 (1 .03) 99 0.147

6.19

n 10 10!
3921 5
r 4 !96
n 10 10! 17
2.5310
r 15 !85

P (4) 3921225 0.03 4 (1 .03) 96 0.171

P (15) 2.533 x1017 0.0315 (1 .03) 85 2.729 10 7

Note: One cannot normally compute 100! with a hand calculator it is a very large number. However
100!/(1!99!) can be rewritten 100x99x98!/(1!99!) =100/1!, which can be readily computed.

(b) We want the probability of 0 or 1 failing to be 0.99. i.e. P(1)+P(2)=0.99

n 10 10!
1
r 0 0!1

n 10 10!
10
r 1 1!9

P (0) P (1) 1 p 0 (1 p )10 10 p1 (1 p ) 9 0.99

6.20

This must be solved by trial and error for p. Using a spreadsheet, the answer is
p=0.0155
6.32 We are looking at the probability that more than 175 passengers will show up. This
can be solved as a binomial distribution problem. Consider success that a passenger
shows up, so p=0.95. We then want more than 175 successes out of 180 trials.

n180 !18079 16! 6


42.9710
r176 !4 176!xx 4
n180 !18079 1!
95,860
17 6!3 17!xxr 3
6.21

n 180 ! 180 79 !
160
178 !2 178!xxr 2
n180 ! 18079!
180
1 79 !1 79!xxr 1
n180 180!
1
r 180 180!x
P (176 ) 42.297 10 6 x 0.95176 (1 0.95) 4 0.03174
P (177 ) 955860 x 0.95177 (1 0.95) 3 0.01363
P (178 ) 16110 x 0.95 178 (1 0.95 ) 2 0.004363

6.22

P (179 ) 180 x 0.95179 (1 0.95 )1 0.0009263


P (180) 1x 0.95180 (1 0.95 )0 0.00009778

P(r>175) = P(176)+ P(177)+ P(178)+ P(179)+ P(180) =


0.03174+0.01363+0.004363+0.0009263+0.00009778 = 0.0508

6.23

6.33 We are looking for the probability that there will 5 or less defective components.
Consider success to be a defective component then p = 0.05, n=55 and r = 0,1,2,3,4,5

r=0:

r=1:

r=2:

r=3:

r=4:

5 5!5
1
0 0! 5!5
5 5!
5
1 1!54!
5 5!
1485
2 2!53!
5 5!
26 35
3 3!52
5 5!
34105
4 4!51

P (0) 1x 0.05 0 (1 .05 ) 55 0.0595

P (1) 55 x 0.051 (1 .05) 54 0.1725

P ( 2) 1485 x 0.05 2 (1 .05 ) 53 0.2449

P (3) 26235 x 0.05 3 (1 .05) 52 0.2277

P (0) 341055 x 0.05 4 (1 .05 ) 51 0.1558

6.24

r=5:

5 5!
3478 61
5 5! 0

P (5) 3478761x 0.05 5 (1 .05 )50 0.0836

So the probability of 5 or less defective components is


0.0595+0.1725+0.2449+0.2277+0.1558+0.0836 = 0.944. This is the probability that
there are 50 or more good components.
6.34 This is a Poisson distribution problem. = 40/8 = 5 visits/hour. The probability of
more than 5 visits in an hour is 1 [P(5)+P(4)+ P(3)+P(2)+P(1)+P(0)].
P (0) e 5 5 0 / 0! 6.74 x10 3

P (1) e 5 5 1 / 1! .03369 P ( 2) e 5 5 2 / 2! 0.0842

P (3) e 5 5 3 / 3! 0.1404 P ( 4) e 5 5 4 / 4! 0.1755 P (5) e 5 5 5 / 5! 0.1755

So P(x>5) = 1 ( 6.74 x10 3 0.03369 0.0842 0.1404 0.1755 0.1755 ) =0.384. The
probability that there will be more than 5 visits in an hour is 0.384
6.35 This can be solved as either a binomial distribution (p=0.001, n=4, r=1) or as a
Poisson distribution. For the poisson distibution, the expected occurrence () will be
4/1000 = 0.004. We are then looking for the probability of x = 1.
P (1) e 0.004 .004 1 / 1! 3.984 x10 3 .
6.36 This is a Poisson distribution. The expected number of crashes, , is (1/3)5=1.666.
Then, P (0) e 1.666 1.666 0 / 0! 0.189
6.37 This is a Poisson distribution problem although it can be done as a binomial
distribution. The expected frequency () of defects will be (1/50)x10 = 0.2 for the typical
10 m2 kitchen. The probability of 1 or more defects is 1-P(0).
P (0 ) e 0.2 0.2 0 / 0! 0.818 P(x1) = 1-0.818 = 0.182. If solved as a binomial
distribution , p= 0.02, n=10. For r = 0,

1 0 ! 0 10
1 (0)1xP .2(1.02) 0.81
0 !10

. So P(x1) = 1-0.818 = 0.182

6.38 Poisson distribution. The fact that a bulb has failed does not affect the probability of
other failures. We need to know what the probability of two or more failures during the
day. The probability of 2 or more is:
P(x2) = 1 P(0) P(1). = 2.
P (0) e x / x! e 2 2 0 / 0! 0.13533

6.25

P (1) e x / x! e 2 21 / 1! 0.2707

P(x2) = 1 0.1355 0.2707 = 0.5938


6.39 Poisson distribution. The expected number of failures in 50 calls will be (5/100)x50
= 2.5.
(a) The probability of exactly 5 failures is:
P (5) e x / x! e 2.5 2.5 5 / 5! 0.0668

(b) P(5 or less) = P(0)+P(1)+P(2)+P(3)+P(4)+p(5) Similar to part (a)


P(5 or less) = 0.08208+0.2052+0.2565+0.2137+0.1336+.0668 = 0.958
(c) P(more than 5) = 1 P(5 or less) = 1 0.958 =0.042
6.40 Poisson distribution. The average value of customers in that 1 hour is 20 = .
(a) P (25) e 20 20 25 / 25! 0.0446
(b)P(20 to 25) = P(20)+ P(21)+ P(22)+ P(23)+ P(24)+
P(25)=0.0888+0.0846+0.0769+0.0669+.0557 = 0.417558
10
(c)P(10 or less) = i 0 P ( i ) = 0.010812
(d) P(x>10) = 1 P(x10) = 1 0.010812 = 0.989
6.41 Poisson distribution. =3 for 1 sheet
(a) P (25) e 3 310 / 10! 0.00081
(b) P(0) = 0.049787
(c) =3/6 = 0.5 for a single board. P (25 ) e 0.5 0.51 / 1! 0.3033
(d) P(more than 1) = 1 P(1) P(0) = 1 0.3033 - 0.6065 = 0.0902
6.42 For P(1or more) = 0.01, P(0) = 0.99 = e 0 0! Solving for we get = 0.01
defects per board or 0.06 defects per sheet.

6.26

6.43
The area from 100 to 100.5 is 0.2. From Table 6.3, z =
0.52
0.52

20%

20%

110 .5 100
, 0.96

Probability of error greater than 0.75 Volts:


z

100.75 100
0.78125
0.96

99.5

100

100.5

28.26%

100

From the normal distribution curve(Table 6.3) for


z = 0.7812 P(z) = 0.2826

for error greater than 100.75 or less than 99.25 (1000.75) we will have:
P ( z ) 2 (0.5 0.2826) 0.4348

43.48%

6.44
The area from 110 to 110.5 is 0.25. From Table 6.3, z =
0.67
0.67

110.5 110
, 0.75

Probability of error greater than 1 Volts:


z

111 110
1.33
0.75

From the normal distribution curve(Table 6.3) for


z = 1.33 P(z) = 0.4082
for error greater than 111 or less than 109 (1101)
we will have:
P ( z ) 2 (0.5 0.4082) 0.1836 18.36%

6.27

100.75

6.45
6.827 6.832
0.5
0.01

a) z1

From Table 6.3 area = 0.1915


100(0.1915)(2)
= 38 readings within 0.5 cm
6.812 6.832
2
0.01

b) z1

From Table 6.3 area = 0.4772


100(0.4772)(2)
= 95 readings within 2 cm
6.782 6.832
5
0.01

c) z1

From Table 6.3 area = 0.5


100(0.5)(2)
= 100 readings within 5 cm
d) z1

6.831 6.832
0.1
0.01

From Table 6.3 area = 0.0398


100(0.0398)(2)
= 8 readings within 10 cm

6.28

6.46
a) z1

7.76 7.75
1 .0
0.01

From Table 6.3 area = 0.3413


20(0.3413)(2)
= 14 readings within 1 cm
7.77 7.75
2
0.01

b) z1

From Table 6.3 area = 0.4772


20(0.4772)(2)
= 19 readings within 2 cm
7.80 7.75
5
0.01

c) z1

From Table 6.3 area = 0.5


20(0.5)(2)
= 20 readings within 5 cm
d) z1

7.85 7.75
10
0.01

From Table 6.3 area = 0.5


20(0.5)(2)
= 20 readings within 10 cm

6.29

6.47 (a) The average is 71.3, the median is 70 and S = 12.62


(b) The grades according to the criterion will be:
score grade
95 A
86 B+
83 B+
79 B
79 B
78 B
75 B70 C+
70 C+
68 C+
63 C
63 C
55 C
55 C50 D

(c) There are 15 students and the division will be:


grade
A
AB+
B
BC+
C
CD
F

no. of
students
0.342
0.66
1.3785
2.247
2.8725
2.8725
2.247
1.3785
0.66
0.342

Of course, the number of students with each grade is an integer. If we round off, we will
only get 14 students total so some judgement is required for the additional student.

6.30

40%

10%

6.48
a)

From Table 6.3 for area0.4; z = 1.28


1.28

x 10000
500

x = 9,360 hrs
b)

z1

7000 10000
6 area 0.5( fromTable 6.3)
500

z2

10000 10000
0 area 0
500

0.5 0 0.5
50% or1000 bulbs will fail

6.49 Normal distribution problem.


9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

(a) The probability of the weight being less than 7.9 is


the area under the curve to the left of x = 7.9. For this
value of x, z ( x ) / (7.9 8.05) / .05 3.0 . From
the nomral distribution table, for z = 3.0, the area under
the curve (from the mean to the value of interest) is
0.4987. The area to the left of x = 7.9 is thus 0.5 0.4987 = 0.0013. So 0.13% of the
cans will be rejected.
(b) For this case, z ( x ) / (7.9 8.00) / .05 2.0 . For this value of z, the area
under the normal distribution curve from the mean to x=7.9 is 0.4772. So the area to the
left of 7.9 is 0.5 0.4772 = 0.0228. 2.28% of the cans will be rejected.
(c) for this case, z ( x ) / (7.9 8.05) / .03 5 The table does not give a value for
z this high but for 4.9, it is given as 0.5. So the area to the left of 7.9 is 0.5 0.5 = 0. For
this z value the number of rejected cans is negligible. (actually 3x10 -5%.
)x
f(

7 .85

7.9

7.95

8.0 5

8.1

8.15

8.2

8.25

6.50 (a) A 2 tolerance means that values greater than z = 2 or less than z =-2. For z =
2.0, the value from the normal distribution table is 0.4772 . The right hand tail area (for
z>2) is 0.5 0.4772 = 0.0228 The left hand tail has the same area. The probability of
rejection is then 2x0.0228 = 0.0456 or 4.56%.
(b) This part is best solved using the binomial distribution. For 2 rejections, we define
success as a rejection. Then for 2 rejections, r = 2, n=20 and p = 0.056. The probability
6.31

of 2 rejected parts is then 0.1705. Similarly, for r = 4 and r = 10 we get 0.0099 and
4.5x10-9 respectively.

6.51
0.2 inches
x 7.25 ft 87 inches
d x x 0.3 acceptable
d
0.3
z

15
.

0.2
From Table 6.3, A 0.4332

P d 0.3 2 0.4332 0.8664

From Table 6.3

% rejection = 100(1-0.8664) = 13.36%


To reduce the rejection rate to 3%
1-P = 0.03 P = 0.97 z(for P/2 = 0.485) = 2.17
z

0.3
0.14 inch
2.17

This means that the manufacturer has to cut the columns close to the standard size.
6.52

x 10.500 inches
0.005 inches

10.500

10.520 10.500 0.020

4
0.005
0.005
P ( x 10.520) 0.5 0.5 1 100% U sin gTable 6.3

a) z

10.485 10.500
3
0.005
10.515 10.500
z2
3
0.005

b) z1

From Table 6.3, A = 0.4987

P (10.485 x 10.515) 2 0.4987 0.9974 99.87% From Table 6.3

c) From Table 6.3,

z 2.5,P ( x 2.5 x x 2.5 ) 2 0.4938 0.9876 98.76%

6.32

10.520

P (rejection ) 1 0.9876 0.012

6.53

x 25.00cm

0.02cm

25.02 25.00 0.02

1
0.02
0.02
P ( x 25.02) 0.5000 0.3413 0.8413 84.13%

a) z

Using Table 6.3

24.95 25.00
2 .5
0.02
25.05 25.00
z2
2.5
0.02

b) z1

From Table 6.3, A = 0.4938

P(24.95 x 25.05) 2 0.4938 0.9876 98.76% From Table 6.3

c) From Table 6.3,

z 2 P ( x 2 x x 2 ) 2 0.4772 0.9544 95.44%

P (rejection ) 1 0.9544 0.046

6.54
40%

10%

50,000

a) = 5000
From table 6.3 for area = 0.40

z 1.28

x 50,000
128
.

5000

x = 43,600 miles

6.33

b) z1

60,000 50,000
2
5000

area = 0.4772

50,000

z2

70,000 50,000
4
5000

60,000

70,000

area = 0.5

0.5-0.4772 = 0.0228
(100,000 tires)(0.0228) = 2280 tires fail between 60,000 to 70,000 miles

c)

20,000 50,000
6
5000

No tires expected to have life less than 20,000


d) Major assumption: Life span of tire follow normal distribution.

40%

10%

6.55
= 160 hrs
For A = 0.4, z 1.28
x 3600
128
.
160
x 3395.2

Recommend replacing bulbs after 3395 hours.


6.56 x 6.686 lb, S 0.0486 lb, estimate of x S / n 0.0486 / 10 0.01536 lb
6.57a Confidence level: 95%
1- = 0.95 = 0.05
0.5 - /2 = 0.475

z = 1.96 (Table 6.3)

6.34


n
2
(196
. )( 2)
30
40
30 0.620 mph with confidence of 95%
x z

6.57b For a large sample, n>30, x z / 2 / n


For 90, 95, and 99% confidence levels, x/2 = 1.64, 1.96, and 2.58 respectively.
For 90% confidence level, the confidence interval is 1.64x0.2/(40)1/2 = 0.052 oz. For
95% and 99% confidence levels, the intervals are 0.061 oz and 0.082 oz.
6.58 In this case the sample size is small, less than 30, so we must use the tdistribution. The interval on the mean is given by: x t / 2S / n . The sample size is
20 so the degrees of freedom is 19. From the t-distribution table, the values of t for =
19 and the confidence levels of 90%, 95% and 99% (/2 = 0.05, 0.025 and 0.005) are
1.729, 2.093, and 2.861. For 90% confidence level, the confidence interval is
1.729x0.2/(20)1/2 = 0.0773 oz. For 95% and 99% confidence levels, the intervals are
0.0936 oz and 0.128 oz.
6.59 (a) The mean is 16.042 oz. and the sample standard deviation is 0.079 oz. The
standard deviation of the mean is 0.07941/(12) 1/2 = 0.0229 oz.
(b) This is a t-distribution problem with = 12-1 = 11 and /2 = 0.025. From the tdistribution table, t has a value of 2.201. The confidence interval on the mean is then
t/2S/(n)1/2 = 2.201x0.0229 = 0.0504 oz.

6.35

6.60

Find 95% confidence interval on the mean


x 50,000 miles
S 5000 miles
n 100

1- = 0.95 = 0.05
0.5-/2 = 0.475
z = 1.96 (From Table 6.3)
x z
2

50,000 196
. ( 5000 /
50,000 980 miles

100)

6.36

6.61

n 10 VCRs
x 1500 hours
S 150 hours
0.05

Find the 95% confidence interval on the mean of the life of the VCRs.

n 1 9
a)
. (FromTable 66. )
t 2262
0025
2
.
2
x t (S
2

n)

1500 2.262(150
1500 107 hours

10 )

Confidence interval on the mean is 107 hours


b) For 95% confidence interval on the mean of 50 hrs:

t S 50 hrs

n
2

( 0.025)
2

Assuming S =150 hrs will remain the same (in reality should be recalculated and
it may change), using Table 6.6 we find n by trial and error.
n
15
20
25
36

2.145
2.093
2.064
2

So 36 systems should be tested.

t S
2
n

(hrs )

83
70
62
50

t 2 is an approximate value for n > 30, in which case the t-distribution


2

approaches normal distribution.

6.37

6.62

For this problem, we need to find a one-sided confidence interval of the form
x t

S
n

t-distribution
(a) x = 41.25x106, S = 0.30x106, n=10. For 99% confidence level, = 0.01 and = 10
1 = 9 from Table t = 2.821. The tolerance interval is then:
x t

S
n

41.25x10 6 2.821

0.3 x10 6
10

40.982 10 6

41.0x106 falls into this interval so the manufacturer cannot be confident that the average
strength exceeds this limit.
(b) If we change n to 20, then = 20 1 =19 and t = 2.539.
41.25x10 6 2.539

0.3 x10 6

20

41.080 10 6

Now the manufacturer can be confident the mean exceeds 41.0x10 6 psi.

6.38

6.63

n 10
x 910%
.
S 0.8%
0.05

n 1 9
0.025 t 2 2.262 ( From Table 6.6)

x t S
2

91 2.262 0.8

n
10

910
. 0.57
Cut confidence interval by one half > 0.57/2 = 0.285
Assuming that n > 30, and S to remain the same:

z
2
z 0.025

0.285
n
1.96

( S )

S 0.8

z 2

0.285

n 30

20 more motors should be tested.

6.39

6.64

n8
x 88.5%
S 0.5%

0.05
n 1 7
0.025 t 2 2.365 ( FromTable 6.6)

x t S
2

88.5 2.365 0.5

88.5 0.42
Cut confidence interval by one half > 0.42/2 = 0.21
Assuming that n > 30, and S to remain the same:

z
2
z 0.025

0.21
n
1.960

( S )

S 0. 5

z 2

0.21

n 30

22 more motors should be tested.

6.40

6.65

Given: Confidence level = 99%


Sheight = 2.44 in.
Shand = 0.34 in.

Find: N

Soln.: Assuming N > 30


0.01
2 0.005

0.5 2 0.495

From Table 6.3

z 2.575

For height: the confidence interval:


z 2

1 in,
n

2.575

2.44
n

1 n 40

For sleeve length:


z 2

0.4 in,
n

2.575

0.34
0.2 n 18
n

In order to satisfy both conditions, 40 members should be chosen.


6.66

n 15
x 25 ppm

Find the 95% confidence interval.

S 3 ppm

0.05 n 1 14

2 0.025
2
14
, 0.025 26.119 ( FromTable 6.7 )
2
14
,1.025 5.6287

( n 1) S 2
2
14
,.025

14 32
( n 1) S 2
14 32
4.82;

22.17
2
26.119
14
5.6287
,1.025

4.82 2 22.17 or 2.20 4.71 for 95% confidencelevel

6.41

6.67

The distribution governing the time interval between the arrival successive cars is
give to be
f(t,) = e-t
Where

1 1

(a)
P (t 6) 1 e ( 6 ) 1 e

6
8

0.5276

(b)
P(t 15) 1 P(t 15) 1 (1 e

(c)

15
8

) 0.1534

In order to have only two arrivals in 10 minutes, if the interval between the first
1

two arrivals is t, mins, the interval between the next arrival should be greater than (10-t )
Thus,
1

P[no more than 2 arrivals] = P[0t 10 and t (10-t )]


10
10
1
f (t1 ) P (t 2 (10 t1 ) dt1 e t1 (e (10t1 ) ) dt1
0
0

1 10
1 810
e dt1 e 10 1.25e 1.25 0.3581

8
0
10

6.68 We are given that TBF has an exponential distribution with = 450 hours.
Therefore

1
1

450

(a)
P ( failure 300hours ) 1 e

( 300 )

1 e

300
450

0.4856

(b)
P ( failure 500hours ) e ( 500 ) 1 e

(c)

500
450

0.3292

P[300 failuretim e 600] P[ failure 600] P[ failure 300]

[1 e

600
450

] [1 e

300
450

] 0.7364 0.4866 0.2498

6.42

6.43

6.69 Let the pollution level, X, be in ppm. If we define y = log(X), then y is N(,),
where = 1.9031 and = 1.3010
Note: Here we have used y = log(X) rather than y = ln(X)
(a)

P[ X 90] P[ y log(90)] P[Y 1.9542]

We now convert this problem to a standard normal distribution,


P[ y 1.9542] P[ Z

1.9542 1.9031
] P[ Z 0.393]
1.3010

Using the standard normal distribution in Table 6.3,


P[ X 90] P[ Z 0.393] 0.5 0.1528 0.3472

(b)

P[ X 20] P[ y log(20)] P[Y 1.3010]


1.3010 1.9031
P[ Z
] P[ Z 0.4628]
1.3010
0.5 0.1782 0.3218

(c)
If the mean pollutant level is reduced to 40 ppm, then the new value of = log(40
= 1.6021
P[ X 20] P[ y log(20)] P[Y 1.3010]
1.3010 1.6021
P[ Z
] P[ Z 0.2304]
1.3010
0.5 0.0915 0.4085

6.44

6.70 Let X be the time taken to fix the software bug. X has a mean of 200 mins, a
standard deviation of 30 mins. If y = log(X) is N(,) with = log(200) = 2.3010, =
log(30) = 1.4771
(a)

P[ X 500] P[ y log(500)] P[Y 2.6990]

We now convert this problem to a standard normal distribution,


P[ y 2.6990] P[ Z

2.6990 2.3010
] P[ Z 0.2694]
1.4771

P[ X 500] P[ Z 0.2694] 0.5 0.1062 0.3938

(b)

P[100 X 200] P[2.000 y 2.3010]

2 2.3010
2.3010 2.3010
Z
] P[0.2038 Z 0]
1.4771
1.4771
0.0808

P[

(c)

P[ X 50] P[ y log(50)] P[ y 1.6990]


1.6990 2.3010
P[ Z
] P[ Z 0.4076]
1.4771
0.5 0.1582 0.3418

6.71
Chi-squared distribution.
S = 0,002 in., n = 10, = n 1 = 9. 95% confidence level: = 1-0.95 = 0.05.
/2 = 0.025, 1-/2 = 0.975. From Table 6.7, 2/2 = 19.023, 21-/2 = 2.704.
(n 1)S 2
(n 1)S 2
(10 1)0.002 2
(10 1)0.002 2
2
2

2 / 2
12 / 2
19.023
2.704
6
2
5
or 0.00137 0.00364
1.89 10 1.33 10
6.72
Chi squared distribution.
S = 5500, n = 8, = 7. = 1-0.99 = 0.01, /2 = 0.005, 1-/2 = 0.995.
2/2 = 20.278, 21-/2 = 0.9893.
(n 1)S 2
(n 1)S 2
(8 1)5500 2
(8 1)5500 2
2
2

2 / 2
12 / 2
20.278
0.9893
2
6
10442351 214.0 10 or 3231 14360

6.45

6.73
Chi squared distribution.
S = 10, n = 12, = 11. = 1-0.99 = 0.01, /2 = 0.005, 1-/2 = 0.995.
2/2 = 26.757, 21-/2 = 2.6032.
(n 1)S 2
(n 1)S 2
(12 1)10 2
(12 1)10 2
2
2

2 / 2
12 / 2
26.757
2.6032
2
41.11 422.5 or 6.41 20.55
We cannot be 99% confident that the standard deviation is less 15 mA.

6.74
There is an error in the problem. The required variance should be 0.0004 mm 2. (not m2).
(a) Chi squared distribution.
S = 0.01, n = 10, = 9. = 1-0.95 = 0.05, /2 = 0.025, 1-/2 = 0.975.
2/2 = 19.023, 21-/2 = 2.7004.
(n 1)S 2
(n 1)S 2
2

2 / 2
12 / 2

(10 1)0.012
(10 1)0.012
2
19.023
2.7004

4.73 10 5 2 3.333 10 4 or 6.88 10 3 0.018

(b) The maximum of the confidence interval is less than the desired variance so the part
is acceptable.
(c) S = 0.01, n = 5, = 4. = 1-0.95 = 0.05, /2 = 0.025, 1-/2 = 0.975.
2/2 = 11.143, 21-/2 = 0.4844.
(n 1)S 2
(n 1)S 2
(5 1)0.012
(5 1)0.012
2
2

2 / 2
12 / 2
11 .143
0.4844
5
2
4
3.590 10 8.258 10
The upper end of the confidence interval exceeds the allowable so the part is not
acceptable.

6.46

6.75 There is an error in the problem. The required variance should be 0.0004 mm 2.
(not m2).
(a) Chi squared distribution.
S = 0.01, n = 10, = 9. = 1-0.99 = 0.01, /2 = 0.005, 1-/2 = 0.995.
2/2 = 23.589, 21-/2 = 1.7349.
(n 1)S 2
(n 1)S 2
(10 1)0.012
(10 1)0.012
2

2
2
2
/ 2
1 / 2
23.589
1.7349
5
2
4
3.81 10 5.188 10

(b) The maximum of the confidence interval is greater than the desired variance so the
part is not acceptable.
6.76 There is an error in the problem. The required variance should be 0.0004 mm 2.
(not m2).
(a) Chi squared distribution.
S = 0.01, = 1-0.99 = 0.01, /2 = 0.005, 1-/2 = 0.995.
(n 1)S 2
(n 1)S 2
2

2 / 2
12 / 2
We need to determine n so that the maximum of the confidence interval is 0.0004. We
are told that n = 10 was too small so n must be larger. The following calculations were
performed on a spreadsheet program.
n
11
12
13
14

nu
10
11
12
13

chisq
2.155845
2.603202
3.073785
3.565042

upper lim
0.000463855
0.000422557
0.000390398
0.000364652

It can be concluded that 13 measurements will make the part acceptable.

6.47

6.77

Data from problem one arranged in ascending order:


48.9, 49.2, 49.2, 49.3 ,49.3, 49.8, 49.9, 50.1, 50.2, 50.5
x 49.64
S

xi

n 1

0.530

xi x
Low po int

48.9 49.64 0.74

High po int

50.5 49.64 0.86

From the Table 6.8:


n = 10 = 1.798
S = (0.530)(1.798) = 0.95294
Since S > deviations, then:
No data should be required.
6.78

From problem 6.4:


x 105.2
S 9.71

n = 12 = 1.829 (Table 6.8)


1 Pl arg est P 120 105.2 14.8
2 Psmallest P 89 105.2 16.2
S (9.71)(1829
.
) 17.76

Neither 1 or 2 exceeds S so No points rejected

6.48

6.79
x

xx

( x x) 2

y y

( y y) 2

20
30
40
50

1.02
1.53
2.05
2.55

-33.5714
-23.5714
-13.5714
-3.5714

1127.04
555.611
184.183
12.7549

-1.5271
-1.0171
-0.4971
0.0029

51.2669
23.9745
6.7463
-0.01036

60
75
100

3.07
3.56
4.05

6.4286
21.4286
46.4286

41.3269
459.185
2155.61

0.5229
1.0129
1.5029

2.3320
1.0345
0.25711
-6
8.4110
0.27342
1.0260
2.2587

7.1717

176.8214

4535.71

( x x)( y y)

3.3615
21.7050
69.7775

x 53.5714
y 2.5471
rxy
rxy

(x

(x

x )( y i y )

x )2 ( y i y )2

12

176.8214

435.71 7.1717

12

rxy 0.9804

This value of rxy which is close to 1 shows a strong linear relationship.

6.49

6.80 (a)

x y
n x x
x y x x y
b
n x x

n xi y i

xi

yi

(xi)

20
30
40
50
60
75
100

1.02
1.53
2.05
2.55
3.07
3.56
4.05

400
900
1600
2500
3600
5625
10000

375

17.83

24,625

(yi)

xiyi

1.0404
2.3409
4.2025
6.5025
9.4249
12.6736
16.4025

20.4
45.9
82.0
127.5
184.2
267.0
405

52.5873

1132

7(1132) ( 375)(17.83)
0.0398
7( 24625) ( 375) 2
( 24625)(17.83) ( 375)(1132)
b
0.4587
7( 24625) ( 375 ) 2

y 3.898 10 2 x 0.4587
y V( mV)
x T(C)

(b)

4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5

Best Fit
Line

2
Output - mV
1.5
1
20

40

60
80
Temperature - C

6.50

100

6.51

6.81
(a)
xi(t)

yi(t)

( x i x)

( x i x) 2

( y i y)

( y i y) 2

0.0000
0.1000
0.2000
0.3000
0.4000
0.5000

4.98
1.84
0.68
0.25
0.09
0.03

-0.2500
-0.1500
-0.0500
0.0500
0.1500
0.2500

0.0625
0.0225
0.0025
0.0025
0.0225
0.0625

3.6683
0.5283
-0.6317
-1.0617
-1.2217
-1.2817

13.4567
0.2791
0.3990
1.1271
1.4925
1.6427

-0.9171
-0.0793
0.0316
-0.0531
-0.1833
-0.3204

=18.3971

=-1.5215

=0.1750

( y i y)( x i x )

x 0.25 sec.
y

rxy

rxy

13117
.
Volts

(x

(x

x )( y i y )

x )2 ( y i y )2

15215
.

0.1750 18.397

12

12

0.848

Note: The relationship between Voltage and time is not linear!


(b)
xi(t)

yi(lnV)

( x i x)

0.0000
0.1000
0.2000
0.3000
0.4000
0.5000

1.6054
0.6098
-0.3857
-1.3863
-2.4079
-3.5066

-0.2500
-0.1500
-0.0500
0.0500
0.1500
0.2500

( x i x) 2
0.0625
0.0225
0.0025
0.0025
0.0225
0.0625

( y i y)
2.5173
1.5216
0.5262
-0.4744
-1.4961
-2.5947

=0.1750

( y i y) 2
6.3368
2.3154
0.2769
0.2251
2.2382
6.7324

=18.124

( y i y)( x i x )
-0.6293
-0.2282
-0.0263
-0.0237
-0.2244
-0.6487

=-1.780

x 0.25
y 0.912

rxy
rxy

(x

(x

x )( y i y )

x )2 ( y i y )2

1780
.

0.175 18.124

12

12

0.99984 , showing a closer linear relationship between

ln(V) and than between V and t.

6.52

6.82
For the best fit line, the equ. is reading=1.0525weight-1.1661
For the forced zero, reading=0.9987weight.

40
reading

30
20

y = 1.0525x - 1.1661
y = 0.9987x

10
0
-10 0

10

20
weight - lb

6.53

30

40

6.83
DelP
1.96
4.2
4.9
5.48
5.91
7.3
7.73
9
9.9

Sy.x=
rsquared=

DelP - in H2O

Voltage
0.31
0.65
0.75
0.85
0.91
1.12
1.19
1.38
1.52

0.022862 [Excel function:(steyx(yrange,xrange)]


0.99988 [Excel function: rsq(yrange,xrange)]

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

y = 6.5606x - 0.0629

0.5

1.5

Voltage

6.84 For the data given in Problem 6.79, we first compute the following quantities,
using x = T and y = V

375, xi 2 24265, yi 17.86, xi yi 1133 .9, yi 52.7712


2

We can now compute the slope, a, and the intercept, b, as


n xi yi xi y i 7 1133 .9 375 17.86
a

0.0390
7 24625 (375) 2
n xi 2 ( xi )2

n xi 2 yi ( xi )( xi y i )
n xi ( xi )
2

14590
0.4590
31750

Therefore the best fit is V = 0.0390T + 0.4590

/2,n-2

(a)

The two-sided 95% confidence interval implies /2 = 0.025 so that t

2.571, the standard error,


S yx

( y

Yi ) 2
0.2394
n2
i

The 95% two-sided confidence interval for a is


S yx t
,n 2
0.2394 2.571
2
(a
) 0.0390
0.0390 0.0089
2
24625 7 (53.17) 2
xi 2 n x
or (0.0302 a 0.0479)
Similarly the 95% confidence interval for the intercept, b, is

6.54

0.025,5

=t

b S yx t
2

( xi ) 2
1
2
n n ( xi 2 n x 2 )

, n 2

1
375 2
2
7 7 ( 24625 7 53.17 2 )
0.4595 0.5284 (0.0688,0.9879)

0.4595 2.571 0.2394

(b)

When T = 70 C, V = aT + b = 3.1929V

The 95% two-sided prediction interval for the above V is


y * S yx t 0.025,5

n 1
( x * x) 2

n
xi 2 n x 2 where

x* = 70 and y* = 3.1929V
o

Therefore the 95% prediction interval for V at T = 70 C is


7 1
(70 53.57) 2
3.1929 0.2394 2.571

7
24625 7 53.212
3.1929 0.6739 (2.5191,3.8668)

(c)

The upper limit of V at T = 70 C at 95% confidence level involves a one-sided

prediction interval with = 0.05.

,n-2

At = 0.05, t

0.05,5

=t

= 2.015

Thus, the upper limit will be


7 1
(70 53.57) 2
3.1929 0.2394 2.051

7
24625 7 53.212
3.1929 0.5281 3.7211volts

6.85 Based on the given data, we compute the following quantities, where x = T oF and
y = in ksi.

9000, xi 2 8180000, y i 314.8, xi y i 182970, y i 10348


2

6.55

(a)

The independent variable is the temperature, T F, and the dependent variable is

the tensile strength, (ksi). The coefficients of the linear regression model are
a

12 182970 9000 314.8


0.0372
12 818 10 4 (9000) 2

818 10 4 314.8 9000 182.97 10 3


b
54.099
12 818 10 4 (9000) 2

Therefore the linear regression model for the data is


= -0.0372T + 54.099

(b)

When the temperature is T = 670 F, the expected is

exp

= -0.0372x670+54.099 = 29.2056 ksi.

For a 90% two-sided confidence interval, /2 = 0.05, n = 12.


/2,n-2

From the tables, t

0.05,10

=t

= 1.812
o

The confidence interval for strength, , at T = 670 F is

exp S yx t
2

,n 2

n 1
( x * x) 2

n
xi 2 n x 2 where

x* = 670 and
S yx

( y

Yi ) 2
115 .6

3.34
n2
10
i

Therefore, 90% confidence interval for at T = 670 F is


13
(670 750) 2
( 29.2056 3.34 1.812

)
12 818 10 4 12 750 2
( 29.2056 6.3153) ( 22.89,35.52) ksi

(c)

The expected loss of strength for each 100 F increase is

= a x 100 = -0.0372 x 100 = -3.72 ksi


The 95% confidence interval for this change in strength is 100 x (95% confidence
interval for a)
6.56

The 95% confidence interval for the slope parameter, a, is


S yx t
,n 2
3.34 2.228
s
a
0.0372
818 10 4 12 750 2
xi 2 n x
0.0372 0.0062 (0.0434,0.0309)

Therefore, 95% confidence interval for change in strength for a 100 F change is =
(-4.34, -3.09) ksi
o

(d)

At T = 550 F, the expected tensile strength is

= a x 550 + b = -0.0372 + 550 + 54.09 = 33.641 ksi


The one-sided 95% confidence level for the strength is
(ax * b) S yx t
2

,n 2

n 1
( x * x) 2


n
xi 2 n x 2
where

x* = 550, = 0.05, n = 12
,n-2

From the tables, t

0.05,10

=t

= 1.812

Then,
0.0372 550 54.099 3.34 1.812

12 1
(550 750)

12
818 10 4 12 750 2

= 33.641-0.0051 = 33.6359 ksi


o

Therefore, theh minimum strength at T = 550 F at a 95% confidence level is


min

= 33.6359 ksi

6.57

6.86
a) Best fit line for t and V
2

xi (t)

yi (V)

xi
0
0.01
0.04
0.09
0.16
0.25

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

4.98
1.84
0.68
0.25
0.09
0.03

yi
24.800
3.3856
0.4624
0.0625
0.0081
0.0009

xiyi
0
0.184
0.136
0.075
0.036
0.015

. 0.55 7.87 28.720 0.446


15

x y
n x x

n xi y i

6( 0.446) (15
. )(7.87)
8.694
6(0.55) (15
. )2

x y x x y
b
n x x
2

(0.55)(7.87) (15
. )(0.446 )
3.485
6( 0.55) (15
. )2

The best fit line is therefore: y = -8.694x + 3.485


Best fit line for t and lnV
xi

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

xi
0
0.01
0.04
0.09
0.16
0.25

.
15

0.55

yi

xiyi

1.6054
0.60977
-0.38566
-1.3863
-2.4079
3.5066

yi
2.5774
0.37181
0.14874
1.9218
5.7982
12.2959

0
0.060977
-0.077132
-0.41589
-0.96316
-1.7533

5.47129

.
231139

.
31485

6.58

x y
n x x

n xi y i

6( 3.1485) (15
. )( 5.47129)
10.175
6(0.55) (15
. )2

x y x x y
b
n x x
2

(0.55)( 5.47129) (15


. )( 3.1485)
16319
.
6(0.55) (15
. )2

Best fit line is therefore: y = -10.175x + 1.6319


b)

Standard error of the estimate for T vs V


S y .x

2
i

b y i a x i y i
n2

( 28.720) ( 3.485)(7.87) ( 8.694 )( 0.446)

62

11369
.

12

S y .x
S y .x

Standard error of the estimate for T vs ln(V)


Sy .x

.
)( 5.47129 ) ( 10.175)( 3.1485)
( 23.1139) (16319

62

12

Sy .x 0.0378

The standard error for (T vs ln(V)) is much less than for (t vs V) therefore there is
less data scatter around this best fit curve.

6.59

6.87
DelP
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.12
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.25
Sy.x=

Q
2
2.35
2.7
3.12
3.5
3.72
3.85
4.1
4.35
4.45

ln(DelP)
-2.99573
-2.65926
-2.40795
-2.12026
-1.89712
-1.77196
-1.66073
-1.56065
-1.46968
-1.38629

0.105469 Sy.x=

ln(Q)
0.693147
0.854415
0.993252
1.137833
1.252763
1.313724
1.348073
1.410987
1.470176
1.492904

pred(lnQ)
0.693541
0.862349
0.988434
1.132764
1.244715
1.307509
1.363311
1.413523
1.459164
1.500996

e
0.000394
0.007934
-0.00482
-0.00507
-0.00805
-0.00621
0.015238
0.002536
-0.01101
0.008092

e/Sy.x
0.04402
0.886565
-0.53839
-0.56645
-0.89932
-0.69442
1.702752
0.283388
-1.23055
0.904233

log10(DelP)
-1.30103
-1.15490196
-1.04575749
-0.92081875
-0.82390874
-0.76955108
-0.7212464
-0.67778071
-0.63827216
-0.60205999

log10(Q)
0.30103
0.371068
0.431364
0.494155
0.544068
0.570543
0.585461
0.612784
0.638489
0.64836

0.008949

y = 0.5017x + 2.1965

5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

1.6
1.4

y = 12.179x + 1.5506

1.2
1

ln(Q)

Q-cfm

Excel Sx.y function is STEYX(yrange,xrange)

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

-4

-3

DelP- psi

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

-0.5

2
1
e/Sx.y

log10(Q)

-1

-1

ln(DelP)

y = 0.5017x + 0.9539

-1.5

-2

0
-1

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

-2

log10(DelP)

DelP

The ln(Q) vs ln(DelP) is clearly the better fit than the straight day (Q vs. DelP). The fit
with log10 is different but is equivalent to the ln fit and is just as good. The standardized
residuals were computed for the ln regression analysis. The value of the standardized
residual at DelP = 0.19 is 1.702 and this point is suspect although it is not clearly an
outlier.

6.60

6.88
Data
T
90
90
90
90
90
120
120
120
120
120

rpm
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000

Use the regression function in Excel under Tools/Data Analysis/regression


Regression Parameters
Meas Q
rpm
T
rpmsq
rpmxT
pred Q pred-meas
0.5
2000
90 4000000
180000 0.499563 -0.00044
0.85
3000
90 9000000
270000 0.855213 0.005213
1.13
4000
90 16000000
360000 1.124443 -0.00556
1.31
5000
90 25000000
450000 1.307253 -0.00275
1.4
6000
90 36000000
540000 1.403643 0.003643
0.5
2000
120 4000000
240000 0.495564 -0.00444
0.86
3000
120 9000000
360000 0.866214 0.006214
1.15
4000
120 16000000
480000 1.150444 0.000444
1.35
5000
120 25000000
600000 1.348254 -0.00175
1.46
6000
120 36000000
720000 1.459644 -0.00036

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.99993859
R Square 0.99987718
Adjusted R Square
0.99977892
Standard Error
0.00530498
Observations
10
ANOVA
df
Regression
Residual
Total

SS
MS
4 1.145549 0.286387
5 0.000141 2.81E-05
9 1.14569

F
Significance F
10176.2 5.85E-10

CoefficientsStandard Error t Stat


-0.369 0.038255 -9.64585
Intercept
X Variable 1 0.000526714 1.16E-05 45.38555
X Variable 2 -0.001133333 0.000336 -3.37787
X Variable 3 -4.32143E-08
1E-09 -43.1045
5E-07 7.91E-08 6.322548
X Variable 4
The regression equation is:

P-value Lower 95%Upper 95%Lower 95.0%


Upper 95.0%
0.000203 -0.46734 -0.27066 -0.46734 -0.27066
9.81E-08 0.000497 0.000557 0.000497 0.000557
0.01972
-0.002 -0.00027
-0.002 -0.00027
1.27E-07 -4.6E-08 -4.1E-08 -4.6E-08 -4.1E-08
0.001459 2.97E-07 7.03E-07 2.97E-07 7.03E-07

Q = -0.369+0.0005267T-4.3214E-8rpmsq+5E-7rpmxT

Q - l/s

2nd order fit


4
3
2
1
0

y = -0.0236x2 + 0.9779x - 2.5974

V - m/s

6.61

6.89
V
4
5
6
7
8

Use the plotting and trendline functions in Excel


Q
0.94
1.69
2.44
3.08
3.72

This data is non-linear and the 2nd order fit is superior. Note the points at the ends the
linear fit is above them and the 2nd order passes through them.

Q - l/s

linear fit
4
3
2
1
0

y = 0.695x - 1.796
4

V - m/s

6.62

6.90
Velocity
0.07
0.08
0.11
0.135
0.145
0.185
0.19
0.22
0.24
0.285
0.295

Use the plotting and trendline functions


of Excel

0.4

y = 0.0373x + 0.11x + 0.0698

0.3
Velocity

Voltage
0.01
0.115
0.29
0.48
0.59
0.81
0.88
1.02
1.12
1.325
1.4

0.2
0.1
0
0

0.5

1.5

Voltage

T
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

sigma
41.5
40.3
39.2
37.8
35
32.5
28.5
23
16
9.5
6.5
5

sigma

6.91
(a)
50
40
30
20
10
0

y = 1E-10x4 - 4E-07x3 + 0.0003x2 - 0.1061x + 53.842

500

1000

1500

Temp

(b) Due to the S shape of the curve, at least a 3 rd order curve will be required.
(c) The 4th order curve fit is shown.

6.63

6.92
Let L1 be the length of the shelves and L2 be the length between sides of the cabinet.
The clearance between the two is = L2 L1. We want to be 99% confident that is
greater than equal to zero.
S SL22 SL21 0.06 2 0.03 2 0.067

Assume large sample size for the standard deviations so we can use the normal
distribution. We want to be sure that 99% of the shelves will not be too long. Using Table
6.3, For 99% confidence level, A = 0.49 and z =2.33
.This value of z corresponds to

zS 2.33 0.067 0.156 in

The longest the nominal length the shelves can be is 24 0.156 = 23.844 in long. Note:
We did not concern ourselves with how short the shelves can be.

6.64

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