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Proceedings of a First National Workshop

Organic Farming
12-14 June 2006 (Baishakh 28-30, 2063)
Kirtipur, Kathmandu

Jointly Organized by
Directorate of Agriculture Extension,
Directorate of Vegetable Development, and
District Agricultural Development Office, Kathmandu

Published by
Directorate of Agriculture Extension
Hariharbhawan, Lalitpur

It is our pleasure to publish the proceeding as an output of historic important "First
National Workshop on Organic Farming" organized jointly by Directorate of Agriculture
Extension, Directorate of Vegetable Development and District Agricultural Development
Office, Kathmandu from June 12 to 14, 2006 (Baishakh 28-30, 2063) at Kirtipur. The
workshop was attended by the Agricultural Officers, working under the umbrella of MoAC,
officers from other government agencies, representatives from NGOs, private sector, traders
and farmer. The workshop has been accepted as an important platform for interacting, and
analyzing on present status of organic agriculture in Nepal and defining the future
strategies for its development.
At present Nepalese agriculture has to address several issues and challenges emerging
around mainly due to the changing context. One of the emerging areas is the organic
farming. Aiming to address this issue, papers on several thematic areas were presented in
the workshop by experienced resource person. Total 21 working papers within six thematic
areas related to organic farming were presented. The thematic areas of the workshop were :
(i) Status and Opportunity of Organic Farming (ii) Production Techniques, (iii) Soil fertility
management (iv) Pest Management (v) Inspection, Certification and Standardization; and (vi)
Policies and Strategies. Presented followed by group discussion has undoubtedly drawn out
some practical suggestions which further enriched the workshop in accomplishing the
Conventional agriculture system has accepted the higher use of agro-chemicals and
chemical fertilizers in our agricultural practices in order to increase the crop production
and productivity. Knowingly and unknowingly, several agro-chemicals and nitrogenous
fertilizers have been used by farmers beyond the discipline of recommendations made by
concerned agencies which have accelerated the anima and human health hazards. Side by
side the consumers' level of awareness towards the harmful effects of agro-chemicals has
also been increasing day be day. At this critical moment we are in the process of preparing
organic farming policy and guidelines in Nepal. Taking these issues in considerations, the
view points expressed in the forum have been accommodated in the proceedings. We hope it
will be useful to policy makers, planners and also to implementers.
In this regard, we would like to extend our sincere thanks and gratitude to Mr. Ganesh
Kumar K.C., Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, who gave invaluable
directives to retune organic agriculture system in Nepal. We extend our sincere thanks to
Dr. Deep Bahadur Swar, Director General, Department of Agriculture for his support in
making the workshop a success and brining the proceedings in this form. We are highly
thankful to co-organizers of the workshop for their effort and support. We also extend our
thanks to NIPM Program for their support in providing the bags for the participants. Last but
not the least we also feel privileged to express our gratefulness to all participants, paper
writers, reporters, steering team, organizing team and finally the editorial team for their active
participation and cooperation towards the successful accomplishment of the workshop.
Thanks are also extended to all of my staffs who have contributed in the successful
implementation of the workshop and publication of the proceedings. The workshop and the
proceeding publication would have not been successful without their support.

- Prabin Lal Shrestha
Acting Program Director
Table of Contents

First National Workshop on Organic Farming
Background 1
Objectives 1
Machanism of the workshop 1
Highlights of Inaugural Session 3

Theme Session
An Idea on Organic Agriculture System in Nepal - Ganesh Kumar KC 10
Concept, Status, Prospects and Opportunities of Organic Farming in Nepal - S.B. Aryal 27
Agricultural Extension in Promoting Organic Farming - Prabin Lal Shrestha, Kishor Pant 35
Technological Development in Organic Vegetable - Mr. Bashu Subedi, Mr. Hom Raj Regmi 43
Prospect, Challenges and Opportunity of Organic Tea - Dilli R. Baskota 49
Prospect, Challenges and Opportunity of organic Coffee - Prachanda Man Shrestha 53
Prospect, Challenges and Opportunity of Organic Honey - Dr. Suroj Pokhrel 66
Organic Based Farming for Organic Aquaculture - Rama Nanda Mishra, Gagan BN Pradhan 76
Community level Organic Vegetable Production Program - Dila Ram Bhandari 82
Organic Livestock Farming : An opportunity - Dr. Dinesh Prasad Parajuli 96
Organic Fertilization : Method of Soil - S.L. Chaudhary, S.N. Mandal and C.P. Risal 103
Waste A Source of Organic Fertilizer - Shriju Pradhan Tuladhar 116
Role of Vermicomposting in Organic - Prof. Dr. Ananda Shova Tamrakar, Kishor Maharjan 121
Organic Farming, Its Role in Soil Fertility, Effect on Crop Production,
Constraints and Future Strategy - Shanti Bhattarai, Kedar Bhudhathoki and Dil P. Sherchan 131
Pest Management in Organic Farming through - Raju R Pandey and Ram B Paneru 138
Use of Botanicals in Organic Agriculture - Bhola Kumar Shrestha 144
Institutional Structure for Organic Agriculture in Nepal - Maheswar Ghimire 153
Standardization, Inspection and Certification of Organic - Prem Bahadur Thapa 159
Roles of Farmers, NGOs and Private Traders in Marketing of - Rajendra P. Shrestha 166
Policies and Strategies of Nepal Government to Promote Organic
Farming in the Context of Nepal's Membership to WTO - Krishna Prasad Pant, Ph.D. 170

Appendix I : Expected number of participants 179
Appendix II : List of Participants / List of Invitees 184
Appendix III : Working Groups / Group Name List 185
Appendix IV : Topic outlines 188
Appendix V : Program Schedules 192

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1. Background
Organic farming in Nepalese context is not an uncommon word itself. Over a century,
resource poor farmers are doing such practices in traditional way which is similar to
organic farming. These farmers' knowledge and skills about organic farming would be
positive point for promoting organic farming in Nepal. Besides, the ecological advantages
have proved that Nepal has potential to produce quality organic fruits, vegetables, tea,
coffee, cardamom, vegetable seeds, mushroom, honey and medicinal plants & herbs.
In the past, the conventional agricultural practices focused on short-term productivity goal
and paid little attention to available local resources both natural and human endowments.
Agricultural practices focused on short-term productivity required more external inputs
resulting into the use of intensive chemical inputs in agriculture. In-judicial use of
chemicals like chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc. resulted in the environmental pollution
and showed adverse effect in the health of animals and human beings. Realizing these facts,
there have been growing concerns about importance of organic farming in our country.
Many other countries irrespective of their stage of development have already shown their
concerns on the importance of organic farming. As a consequence, farming system
paradigms have shifted from increased production and productivity to sustainability and
eco-friendly production system.
There are some pioneer examples of organic farming and organic products that are booming
in domestic and international markets such as tea, coffee, honey, gingers and medicinal
Keeping these realities in view and to trace out the path for the future action the workshop
was jointly organised by Directorate of Agricultural Extension, Directorate of Vegetable
Development and District Agriculture Development Office, Kathmandu from June 12 to
June 14, 2006 at Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.

2. Objectives
The overall objective of the workshop was to promote organic agriculture. However, the
workshop had expected to meet following specific objectives.
1. To make general consensus on the concept of organic farming and organic products.
2. To suggest appropriate norms and standards for organic farming and organic products.
3. To suggest policies related to standardization and certification of organic products.
4. Sharing, exchanging and disseminating information and practices of organic farming.
5. To assess the socio- economic dimension of organic farming and its sustainability.

3. Mechanism of the workshop
The Directorate of Agricultural Extension had to organise a two days National
Workshop on Organic Farming in the fiscal year. The Directorate of Vegetable
Development and District Agricultural Development Office, Kathmandu also had to
organize similar workshops in the same year. Therefore the Department of Agriculture

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with consultation with all these concerning agencies decided to organise the First
National Workshop on Organic Farming jointly from June 12 -14, 2006. Leading role
for organising the workshop was given to the Directorate of Agricultural Extension. A
workshop organising committee was formed under the chairmanship of Dr. Deep
Bahadur Swar, Director General, Department of Agriculture. The committee was
responsible for the management of workshop activities. It had decided that the
workshop would be participated by selected farmers representatives, traders,
processors, NGOs, INGOs, CBOs, planners, researchers and extension workers etc. A
series of meetings were organised to decide the theme papers and the name of the
participating organizations and the participants. It was decided that the number of the
papers to be presented in the workshop would be 21 which cover major areas of
organic farming. All the procedures of the workshop were discussed and finalized.
Selection of the workshop venue was done and all the arrangements were made in
advance so that the workshop would run smoothly. The workshop was started and
finished in time.

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The inaugural session was chaired by Dr. Deep Bahadur Swar, Director General, Department
of Agriculture. Mr. Ganesh Kumar KC, Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives,
was the chief guest of the session. In the beginning of the session Mr. Prabin Lal Shrestha,
Acting Program Director, Directorate of Agricultural Extension, extended warm welcome to
the guests and participants. He also highlighted on the objective, importance and modality of
the workshop. The Chief Guest and honorable Secretary, MOAC, Mr. Ganesh Kumar K.C.
formally inaugurated the session with a traditional lamp set on blaze.
After inauguration of the workshop, the honourable guests espressed their views on the
workshop. In this connection Dr. Dalaram Pradhan, DG, Department of Livestock Services,
expressing his views, explained that the workshop was organized in time. He further
emphasized that since per capita pesticide consumption of Nepal is very low, our farming is
organic. He stressed that regular and timely supply of the input and increasing production
has been the challenges. He also reminded that since Nepalese Agriculture is impossible
without integrating livestock in the system, it is very important to incorporate livestock as
well in this process. He appreciated the timely initiation and wished for the success of the
Resident Representative, FAO, Mr. Kazuyuki Tsurumi, laid emphasis on organic production
together with good collaboration with post harvest activities ant marketing system. He also
highlighted on the need of consumer awareness. He requested the forum to discuss if
organic farming can feed the growing population and also on the cost benefit aspect of
traditional versus organic farming.
Mr. Ganesh Kumar K.C; chief guest and Honorable Secretary, MOAC, in his inaugural
speech stated that the terminology may be new, but organic farming is not a new concept to
us since more than eighty percent of Nepalese Agriculture is organic by default and this is a
good prospect for organic farming in Nepal. He also mentioned that even in the pretext of
need for optimizing the production, experiences of sustainability of other countries is
encouraging. He however emphasized on the need for setting our own norms, standards
and also developing production guarantee system/group certification system during the
conversion period and also prepare the empirical evidences. He also added that national
policy should emphasize in indicating the possible area and identifying list of the
commodity that can be promoted as organic and urged the participants to come up with a
vision and necessary suggestions. He expected that the outcome of the workshop would be
fruitful towards formulating eleventh five years plan. Acknowledging the efforts of the
organizers he extended thanks to all of them.
Mr. Chutraj Gurung, Senior Vegetable Development Officer, Directorate of Vegetable
Development, offered the vote of thanks to the honorable guests and the participants. He
also extended the vote of thanks to all the organizations and the individuals who have
contributed for the success of the workshop.
The closing remarks were given by Chairperson and the Director General, Department of
Agriculture Dr. Deep Bahadur Swar. In his remarks he reviewed the transformation of our
traditional farming towards conventional agriculture and stressed the importance of organic
farming for the sustainable agriculture and the environmental protection. Emphasizing on
the need of organic farming and sustainable agriculture he highlighted the quotation of an

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environmentalist Only if, when the last tree will die, the last river will be poisoned and the
last fish will be caught, we will realize that we cannot eat money. He also reviewed the
recent plan and policies that have given due importance to the organic farming. He further
stated that although organic efforts have been sporadic, but the time has come to realize its
need, importance and opportunities and challenges. He also hoped that this workshop
would come up with definite recommendations and guidelines to the Government of Nepal.
He requested the participants to participate freely and frankly in different aspect of organic
farming and come up with concrete policy recommendations and suggestions towards its
successful implementation. He also assured the participants to incorporate those
recommendations while formulating the eleventh five-year plan document.

Paper presentation sessions
After the inaugural session the paper presentation sessions were started. Two papers were
presented in the Key Note Session. Rest all the papers were presented in the general
sessions. The list of the papers and the writers is given in the appendixes.

Group Work
The workshop was planned in a way to get concrete suggestions for the development of
organic farming in Nepal in the days to come. It was expected that the group works and the
group suggestions would be of great value in this connection. The groups and their
assignments were designed accordingly. For this purpose four groups were formed as
follow :

Group Tasks assigned for the Groups
A. Defining organic farming and organic products in Nepalese Context.
B. Role of different stakeholders in promoting organic farming in Nepal.
C. Standardization and certification of organic products in Nepal.
D. Research and Extension for promoting organic farming in Nepal.

Recmmendations made by the groups:
GROUP A : Defining organic Farming and organic products in Nepalese Context.
Defining Organic Farming
Farming without using synthetic products
Farming without damaging environment/human health/ecosystem
Defining Organic Product
The product which is produced without using chemical fertilizers and pesticides
Use local bio- pesticides and bio-fertilizers

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Technological Practices
Sustainable soil management
Locally available organic resources management
Crop rotation
Integration of livestock
Green manuring
Use trap plant and border plant
Promotion and conservation of pesticidal and green manuring plants
Conserve biodiversity
Use of bio-pesticides
Constraints Related to Promotion
Lack of organic matters availability
Lack of recommended package of practices
High cost
No marketing net work
Yield is low
Lack of awareness/understanding
High certification cost
Lack of national organic standard
Domestic consumption
Develop pesticides free zone area
Develop use of chemical fertilizer standard
Develop organic pocket in identified commodity
Follow international standard
Institutional Arrangement
DOA - Department of Agriculture
PPD - Plant Protection Directorate
SMD - Soil Management Directorate
AED - Agricultural Extension Directorate
ABMPD - Agri-Business and Market Promotion Directorate
Farmer representative
NGO/INGO representative ministry level
Gender equity and environment division of MoAC
Representative of planning commission
Representative of DOA
Representative of DOLS
Food research and technology department
NARC - National Agriculture Research Council
NGO/INGO representative

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Representative of ministry of commerce
Industrial commerce federation

GROUP B: Role of different stakeholders in promoting organic farming in Nepal
Identification of Key Stakeholders Involved in Promoting Organic Farming
NGOs / INGOs / CBOs:
Role of different stakeholders:
The individual and collective roles
Policy Formulation (Organic standard, Zoning etc)
Capacity building
Code of conduct
Producers/Entrepreneurs' role
Participation in technology development/verification
Production/Business plan
Social mobilization
Support in capacity building
Traders' role
Fair trade, Business transparency
Social responsibilities
Inspectors' role
Inputs in OS development
Inter-Linkage Mechanism
National Coordination Committee (MoAC)

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Present Issues/Constraints
Research Priority
Lack of knowledge
Organic market outlets
Inputs availability
Financial arrangement
Processing and handling centres
Coffee plantation in community forestry
Future Strategy
National Organic Agriculture Program
Different policies for large and small farmers
Organic zonation
Infrastructures for bio-fertilizers, certification system

GROUP C : Standardization and certification of Organic farming in Nepal
Declaration of organic pocket based on potentiality demand and market of the
Dissemination of importance of organic farming in order to create awareness among
the people.
Formation of coordination body and by involving MoAC, NARC and DOA and other
concern agencies to look and coordinate the agencies involved in promoting organic
farming in Nepal.
Working Policy
Development and dissemination of technological packages based on indigenous
knowledge, skills and practices of organic farming.
Prohibition of use of GMO on organic production.
Use of FFS tool to educate farmers for organic production.
Identification and promotion of exportable organic commodities.
Provision of crop insurance for organic production.
Development and verification technology suitable for organic farming.
Accountability and regularization of funds provided by donors for promoting of
organic farming in Nepal.
Formation of national standards based on international and local standards
developed by different agencies.
Formation of natial standard committee for promotion of organic farming in Nepal.

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Institutional Organogram for National Organic Agriculture Program (NOAP)

GROUP D : Research and Extension for Promoting Organic farming
Possible Areas of Research for Organic Farming
Soil Fertility
Post Harvest
Seed source
Research by agro-ecological region,
Product identification- Vegetable and other exportable crops (Coffee, Tea, Spices,
Fruits etc.)
Identification, Documentation and Technical Verification of Existing Technologies on
Pest and Nutrient Management.
Potential botanicals/Bio pesticides/Bio-fertilizers
Market research
Explore domestic & international markets.
Production economics.
of Nepal
Ministry of
Agriculture and
Accreditation Committee
(Formed as per the
recommendation of NSC)
Processors and
added Operators

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Niche market identification_ quality, quantity, price
Market advocacy of organic products.
Role of Agricultural Extension
Organic farming as a mandatory program in DADOs. ( eg, training, demonstration,
awareness on consumer/producer level)
Research on organic agri. as a component (thematic area) of NARDF/NARC.
Human resource development/capacity building.
Networking of organic growers group, cooperatives, and association.
Inspection, certification of organic products should be initially fall under the role of
DADO in district level
FTF/ FFS approach.
Six monthly coordination meeting at different levels including RD and DADO.
A functional coordination committee from MoAC-RD -DADO to coordinate all
stakeholders at respective levels

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An Idea on Organic Agriculture System in Nepal
- Ganesh Kumar KC

1. Introduction :
Climate change, soil erosion, bio-diversity loss, decrease in water resources, misuse or over
use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals, and the resultant high
production cost have posed challenges in agriculture development in the 21st century.
Food security for all cannot be ensured unless these challenges are managed in time. Even
the rate of productivity growth observed in the irrigated land during previous decades has
recently been weakening (IRRI's report). On other hand, population migration from rural to
urban areas is also increasing rapidly causing over exploitation of limited natural resources.
Uncontrolled urbanization due to rapidly increasing population has put stress on the land
availability for cultivation. Cultivable land is increasingly being put to other uses such as
road, settlement and other infra-structures development leading to land fragmentations as
well. To face the emerging adverse situation, various studies recommend Organic Farming
as the appropriate alternative for the years to come.
History of Nepalese agriculture development and the research indicate that the organic
farming has been the integral part of agriculture system in this country for eon.
Sustainable soil and nutrients management research studies have shown that there is the
higher sustainability potential in organic Agric-system than in fossil energy based modern
agriculture. However, production of adequate and nutritive hygienic food products, using all
the available modern inputs and technology, is the demand of the population. Organic
agriculture system is remarkably helpful in maintaining and improving the soil fertility.
Organic Farming also discourages the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other
hormones in crop production as well as the heavy usage of antibiotics in animal husbandry.
This ultimately enhances biodiversity, soil biological activities and sustainability. Healthier
cropping pattern is widely disseminated among the farmers through the adoption of bio-
fertilizer, green manure, off-farm organic wastes and biological methods of pest control.
These are cost responsive technologies and can be effective agricultural approaches in rural
poverty alleviation and environmental balance effort. Theoretically, organic agriculture
system enhances low external input supply agriculture (LEISA) which decreases the over
dependence on external production inputs in one hand and helps farmers to review and
create independent environment themselves on the other.
Organic farming can be the answer to the challenges of modern day agriculture in the 21st
centuries. Nepalese agriculture may move well ahead if it can blend the strength of today's
youths with ancestral progressive lining of cultural and traditional traits of inherited
agriculture maintaining self reliance on food availability which certainly is the only one & a
major concern of governmental, non governmental and all organizations involved in the
issue of natural resource conservation and rural development. In real sense, organic
farming spiritually demands for sustainable use of biodiversities for future world.
Organic farming is a life style and also a dignity of majority Nepalese farmers. It is one of
the valuable property inherited from generation to generation. The production outputs from

Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives

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traditional farming alone could not fully satisfy the ever increasing demand for food
commodities of the country and hence the gradual amendment has been incorporated. But
unfortunately, during the era of green revolution, haphazard application of higher doses of
chemical fertilizers and agro chemicals to produce more food has contributed not only to
the uncertainties and environmental pollution, resurgence of new plant pests, forest area
degradation, flooding, erosion, drought and floods but also decline in overall productivity of
major food commodities. The marginalized and poor farmers are the ones who would be the
first victims of the adverse effect created by the modern agriculture especially in the
developing countries.
Modern agriculture, no doubt, gives immediate benefit in short term but leads to damage of
the essential natural food system and biodiversity. Like in other developing countries,
Nepalese agricultural system also adopted different external technologies; but mainly due to
the dominance of the traditional thinking and limited investment, commercialization of
agriculture has not been satisfactory. Because of weaker commercialization, most important
commodities are produced at 20-30 percent higher per unit cost of cultivation in Nepal as
compared to other countries. Consequently, Nepalese agro products are facing difficulties in
international as well as national competitive markets. In view of these the attention of
scientists, planners, politicians, industrialists etc have been attracted towards organic
farming for which there are consumers who are ready to pay higher price for organic
products. However, it is not to be forgotten that adoption of organic agriculture does not
means escape away from modern agricultural system.

2. Basic principles of organic farming :
Ecosystem conservation is the very essence of organic farming which means understanding
the values of the environment of the living and nonliving bodies interacting to one another.
The need fulfillment processes of living beings represent the series of phenomena in nature,
which is really essential to maintain the ecosystem. Organic farming basically embraces
and maintains the speed by identifying and materializing the fundamental processes of
2.1 Towards the resolution of problems stemming from conventional agriculture
Following are the alternatives in solving the problems popped from conventional agriculture:
Improve the status of soil and water conservation.
Reduce the use of chemical fertilizer and harmful pesticides
Reduce the pollution caused by chemical fertilizers & pesticides use.
Implement income generating and production activities to strengthen food security.
Discourage the heavy use of single varieties in the process of commercialization.
Decrease the messy use of natural resources.
Adopt the cropping cycle based on use of organic matter.
Prohibit chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
Appropriate habitat plays important role in balancing natural ecosystem; hence, do
not limit organic farming in crop cultivation but also arrange for organic feed,
grazing in livestock sector as well.
Prepare technical inventory to verify various steps to be adopted for organic farming.
Identify location specific technology for various locations/region and the status of
natural resources in situ.

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Clarify the activities for production and post production.
Must ensure the adoption of the basic norms of Organic Guarantee System (OGS)
prior to the certification for declaring the area as chemical free
For small farmers Internal Control System in order to execute the OGS can be

3. Status of Organic farming :
More than 70% crop cultivation in Nepal is almost free from the use of chemical fertilizer
and pesticide. This lends vast opportunity for promotion of organic products. In this
situation, special agricultural commodities suited to the climates of mountains, hills and
terai need to be identified with their production zones declared. For this, first of all,
arrangements should be made for organic agriculture database within the country as well
as Organic Guarantee System based on adequate human resources such as service
providers and their capacity/expertise aimed at expansion of the market potential for sale of
organic products. It should be followed by development of "Nepalese Standard for Organic
Production" methodology based on the IFOAM standard.
Besides, attention needs to be paid especially to the followings as incorporated in the Tenth
Plan towards expansion of organic farming system :
Avoid the use of GMO & LMO in organic areas. If at all needs to be used then have
Provision of preclearance system from concerned authority.
Conserve and commercialize the indigenous commodities, medicinal plants and their
cultivation (forests, gittha, bhyakur, kandamul, wild mushroom, bhirmauri etc)
Conserve soil and ground water sources and use water judiciously.
Increase the use of renewable commodities.
Improve coordination and connection between animal husbandry & organic

4. Organic farming strategy:
4.1 Concepts
Promote organic farming as an important component of agri-extension program.
Maintain uniformity in organic farming related technical and financial guidelines for
government organization, NGOs, and farmer groups.
Formulate budget and programs for national organic farming including the budget
allocated by NGO/INGOs.
Prepare Organic Farming Data base System
Support in facilitating the freight and forwarding developing Cold chain in
production to marketing system
Develop organic farming unit separately in all relevant Departments and concerned
agencies under MoAC. Focus research or studies on horticulture, plant protection,
crop/soil science, irrigation, sericulture/apiculture and animal production and
Integrated Pest Management.
Organize an Organic Farming Coordination and Monitoring unit under the
coordinatorship of NPC member (Agriculture).

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- Lead role to be taken jointly by Crop Development Directorate, Soil Development
Directorate, Plant Protection Directorate of DOA and Animal Production
Directorate of DOLS.
- Organic farming related policy formulation, guidelines preparation and market
management related activities are to be designed and developed by the advisory
committee formed at MoAC.
- Form an Organic Farming Sub-committee at regional & district levels as a
sideline working committee within existing DADCs.
- Assign the role of monitoring of organic farming related activities at the district
to the District Agriculture Coordination Committee.
- Form a special "Research Subject Selection Committee" at NARC in order to
mainstream the unanswered subjects of organic farming taking market
potentials into consideration.

4.2 Region, district, crop/commodities selection.
Keeping in view of available human and, financial resources and potentiality of the area
select the location and crop. Then formulate 3-4 yrs crop development programs.
Prioritization criteria for area selection:
Area where chemical fertilizer as well as pesticide use is low, and is suitable for
production of exportable agricultural commodities.
Area suitable for crop diversification and increase or decrease of the cropping
Area with ample availability of natural/organic manure and water resources.
Area with potential for promotion of horticulture, sericulture, animal husbandry,
cheese production, apiculture etc.
Presence of farming community who are aware of the importance of Organic
Farming and willing to pursue it.
Possibility of mobilizing farmers involved in organic farming for market management
according to cooperative principles through organic farmers groups.
Area with physical facilities/local institutions necessary for export potentials.
Possibility of developing minimum of a 500 ropanies (25 hectares) organic farming
pocket area
Give a picture of organic farmer groups and their experience. Then gradual
transformation of the farmers group into cooperatives giving priorities to special
market management.
Provision of concessional credit facility from cooperative
Management of improved quality seed, manures, bio-fertilizers & irrigation by
cooperative federation and, based on that, guarantee the loan from cooperative bank.
Marketing arrangements through cooperatives and arrangement of revolving fund
where there will be support from the government as well.
Poultry and Animal husbandry are highly essential for organic farming and these
occupations should be accepted as an income generating activity for majority of the
small farmers.
Farmers should agree to produce compost and manure for themselves.

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Each village and regional communities should be alerted on conservation,
utilization and enhancement of biodiversity based on location specific identities.
Provision of government owned forest areas including other fallow areas for
establishment of Agri-horti-silvi-pastoral production system.
Promotion of vermi-culture to convert selected kitchen and household wastes into
valuable vermi-compost.
Special attention to water resources conservation and rain water harvesting and use
as well as soil conservation.
Support for rain water harvesting in every households of target areas
Arrangement for publicity and diffusion of the theme 'living soil is the basic
requirement of organic farming" as a the principle motto
Provision of making saplings available at nominal price for "on farm tree production
Timely management of critical inputs.
Development of necessary physical infrastructures for grading, processing, storage
and value addition.
Support in establishing biogas plant, solar dryer, and wind mills
Establishment of group wise certification system for export promotion of organic
farm products as well as establishment of Internal Control System for Small Holder
Certification making record keeping compulsory to support certification process.
Support for soil testing and irrigation management from government during the
conversion period in the form of conversion grant or organic input subsidy.
Support in preparing the inspection modality by government as per the interest of
the importing countries.

4.3 Market management:
Establishment of market stalls and cold storage for organic products.
Provision of subsidy for transport of the exportable Agri-commodities from
production pockets to collection centers.
Priority to honey, herbs, silk, ginger, fresh vegetable, mushroom, NTFP production
in first stage.
Provision of organic food production exhibition, food festivals etc.
Budgetary support by GO and I/NGOs both for establishing the pesticide/chemical
analysis laboratory.
Provision of regular interaction programs involving producers, consumers and traders.
Study of additional market for Nepali Coffee as it is a high land specialty coffee

4.4 Study trial
Necessary trial, study, and recommendation of appropriate production packages
based on the climatic differences of different agro-climatic zone.
Include organic farming in the syllabus of IAAS in collaboration with European and
American Universities which have been conducting Organic Agriculture Programmes.
Give priorities for organic farming in term paper and thesis topics of B.Sc.Ag. and
M.Sc.Ag. level of IAAS.

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Focus especially on drought resistant, insect/pest resistant & adverse climatic
conditions favoring high yielding varieties. Likewise, incorporate special research
and development programs on botanicals, bio-pesticides and fertilizers.
Organize financial resources by NGOs/INGO/GOs all for organic farming researches.
Coordination committee should play special role in local seed preservation.
Conduct awareness raising, dissemination and propaganda related activities using
radio, TV, Newspapers, posters, pamphlets, hand bills, video films etc.
Disseminate organic foods while distributing the food aid program especially in
children food programmes.
Provision of eco-tourism in areas having better organic farming activities.
Conservation of traditional farming system and maintenance of natural history of
Promote the concept of organic/bio-village.

5. National Standards of Organic Agriculture
At present there are some voluntarily self declared organic production farm which can be
used as resource centers for seed production for further expansion (see annex-1). Organic
Agriculture Standard is in process of approval. (Annex-4).

6. Trade aspects of organic product:
Producer and processors should be provided all the required facilities and welfare
activities in expansion and enhancing organic farming.
The organic products of small-scale producers and processors having necessary
certification should get appropriate price. Government agency should support in
group certification for small farmers cooperatives.
Transparency should be maintained in price determination process.
Production price should be logically fixed based on the cost of cultivation and
environmental cost.
In case of the involvement of middle-traders, it should be ensured that the major
share of the profit goes to the primary producers rather than middlemen.
An Organic Product Trading entity should be encouraged to set aside -- as part of its
Corporate Social Responsibility -- some portion of profit for soci-economic, cultural
and environment development of the area where organic products are grown.

6.1 Farmers right in small scale production and processing:
The indigenous knowledge and skill owned and used for eon by the indigenous people
should be protected and not be influenced negatively after it is used for commercial
purpose. While protecting such rights, the practice of deforestation should be discouraged.

6.2 Labeling
To initiate the work towards certification system the label of "Organic Product" can
be used only for those commodities which fulfills the basic principles of Organic
Farming guidelines and standard. However, its certification system must be
approved immediately at least for high value commodities for export.
The label should include the complete name and address of producer, processor and
certifying agencies in the label.

( 16 )
If some mixed products are not of organic origin, the certifying authority, before
allowing the label of 'organic product' to such commodity, may assign an
appropriate label without prejudice to the "Basic Concept of Organic Product".
The organic standard, processing date, product's serial number should be clearly
printed and kept in visible style before sending to the market.
If the organic product is in the process of transformation, the symbol (label) of
"primary product under process of transformation" should apply.

6.3 Certification mechanism.
It is appropriate to develop group product certification system which may encourage
the small farmers to go for certification as it minimizes the certification cost.
Provide necessary subsidy from the government for few years, but this attempt will
be started after the detailed study on whether the record keeping system of organic
product is done systematically and effectively.
Prepare Do's & Don'ts guideline in words and figures for creating awareness among
the organic farmers prior to enforcement of certification system
National standard of organic farming will be developed which will be based on
IFOAM standard. Based on IFOAM Standard and depending on the market potential,
other standards such as USNOP, JAS, and EU 2092/91 will also be applied.
For delivering the technical services in organic farming, farmer groups will be formed
by the technicians of I/NGOs/GOs.
Based on IFOAM guidance, Nepalese participatory guidance system (PGS) of organic
farming should be prepared.
The Organic Farming Inspection License holder's Association will be formed and
The chemical residue analysis laboratory will be established.
The provision of necessary research, technology development & improvement
mechanism will be developed to facilitate organic agriculture. Field-to-table concept
will be adopted while dealing the farmers demand and production site selection.
Private entrepreneurs will be encouraged providing them business friendly
environment for organic product processing.
Verification / validation system will be developed in order to guarantee the products
before adopting a full fledged organic products certification system. In order to
maintain the national organic certification system following issues of organic
farmers will be duly addressed first:
- The appropriate marketing system of organic product has not been developed
within the country. Many people do not know about organic products. Hence,
special extension program should be conducted for awareness raising.
- Provide subsidy during the conversion period and also for group certification.
- Strictly maintain the data documentation system to achieve necessary basic
organic quality which is supportive for certification. For this, every step of
farming system will be recorded and certified by authorized technicians.
- In this way, farmers will be empowered gradually in reaching export level and
then equivalency approval action will be followed as per the European, American
and Japanese standard. Prior to the equivalency approval system approval of the
interest and need of importing country will be duly responded.

( 17 )
7. Recommendations :
7.1 Policy
Promote agricultural production and trade emphasizing integrated organic farming
Declare Organic Agriculture Zones taking into consideration the specialties of a
particular location, district and region; and launch publicity and extension of
integrated organic farming system.
Appoint institution for coordination of organic agriculture at Ministry of Agriculture
and Cooperatives and the departments under it.
Establish an organic farming coordination committee involving governmental and
non governmental agencies.

7.2 Working policy
Prepare Organic farming technology package and disseminate it.
Encourage the maximum use of indigenous, revised and updated knowledge and
skills based on local technologies.
Prohibition of use of GMO in organic production region / area.
Formation and mobilization of small farmers group for organic farming based on
farmer's field school approach.
Provide special support to promote traditional cultivation methods including FYM
Conduct organic seed production programs with special priority. Open pollinated
vegetable seed in highland regions will be emphasized.
Provision of making common consensus between NARC, DOA and Plant Quarantine
Unit before import and use of GMO seed.
Have a special provision of micro credit for small farmers involved in organic farming.
Encourage and empower women farmers' groups for organic seed production,
organic manure, and bio-pesticide production, as well as organic products
processing and marketing.
Arrange special provision for local market and promote organic product export.
Establish and mobilize organic farmers' forum.
Prepare national organic farming policy and strategy, guidelines, rules, regulations
and certification mechanism.
Arrange for establishment of cold storage with the joint efforts of public and private
sectors in order to facilitate the freight forwarding service that is connected to export.

8. Conclusion :
In the context of sustainable food production and safe environment conservation, the
available empirical evidences clearly compels us to go for organic farming for the benefit of
whole mankind. At present also approximately 22.81 million hectares of cultivable land is
covered by organic farming which resembles trading worth about 3900 billion US $.
Nepalese farmers, agriculture traders and exporters, policy makers, and technocrats should
put all efforts to materialize the benefit in favor of the country in time, which may really
promote and contribute to the economic progress of majority of Nepalese farmers as well as
farming system improvement based on natural principles and energy sources.

( 18 )
Annex -1
Soil fertility Management tools and technology
S.N. Name of commodities Description for use
1 Chemical fertilizer restricted to use
2 Commodities produced in own farm -
2.1 Dung, urine, slurry can be used
2.2 Fermented poultry manure ,,
2.3 Vermin compost ,,
2.4 Plant residues, leaves ,,
2.5 Green manure ,,
2.6 Biodynamic mixture ,,
2.7 Azola ,,
2.8 Groundnut seed coat and similar products. ,,
2.9 sugarcane residues, straw for mulch ,,
2.10 Organic products manure from kitchen waste ,,
2.11 Organic mushroom production wastages
can be used after well
2.12 Latrine wastages (at best 4-5 months composting) ,, ,,

Other types of farms products
S.N. Name of commodities Description for use
Only if organic products are used in
preparing it, if not do not use the FYM
2 Slurry as above
3 compost & urine ,,
Straw, mustard cake, mulching
5 other sources for organic matters -
Bio-fertilizer, rhizobium,
can be used after proper screening
(if not GMO)
7 Saw dust ,,
Industrial and textile factory wastages
only if harmful chemicals are not used
can be used carefully
9 Blood meal, meat meal, bone meal ,, ,,
10 Chemical having fishery by products -
11 Mineral salts
can be sued without affecting the
12 Gypsum use very lower than recommendation
13 Lime stone ,, ,,
14 Magnesium ,, ,,
15 Rock dust ,, ,,

( 19 )
In the organic manure all items mentioned above, if having some elements like Nitrogen in
excess amount can not be used. Likewise micronutrients supplement should be given from
own farm organic sources. If needed to use from out side the farm or from unknown place
then use following the recommendations of certifying agencies.
While using natural organic products collected, attention must be given to check it's
natural sources and if it is going to destroy the natural balance then restrict the collection
and use. Certifying agency can study such cases seriously and be affirmative towards
maintaining the natural balance.

Annex - 2
Insect Disease Management
S.N. Equipment Remarks
1. Chemical pesticides x Not permitted for use
2. Scented materials Dangerous to the balance of ecology.
3. Machinery trap
4. Chromatic trap
5. Plant pesticides + May have negative effect.
6. Silicate
7. Propolis
8. Plant & animal extruded oil + May have negative effect.
9. Bentoneite
10. Soft soap
11. Gilitine
12. Biodynamic mixture
13. Harmful of parasites +
may have effect to the permanent insect or
14. Micro organism Restriction to the use of imported one, if GMO.
15. Sulpher + May have negative effect.
16. Copper salt + ,, ,,
17. Potassium paramagnet + ,, ,,
18. Caustic soda + Compositional imbalance
19. Light mineral oil + May have effect.
20. Natural nematicides + use cautiously.
21. Natural mulching materials

Note :
Permitted for use
+ use with caution
x Not permitted for use

( 20 )
Annex - 3
Livestock medicines and drugs can be cautiously used during the transformation period.
But the records about the used medicine or chemical should be kept strictly in the farms.
Medicines and chemicals that can be used :
- All types of medicines prepared from:
- Homeopathic, anthropomorphic materials and all the medicines prepared from
natural resources.
- Acupuncture is allowed.
- Tincher & antiseptics prepared from natural resources.
- Certified ayurvedic medicines.

Minerals :
- Calcium
- Calcium gluconate
- Calcium chloride
- Calcium phosphate
- Magnesium phosphate
- Calcium magnesium mixture
- Natural iron solution eg. Sipno
- Medicinal plants eg. oil seed, mustard leaf.
- Castor oil.

( 21 )
Annex - 4
Following standards of organic agriculture are proposed for
implementation for the time being
1. Seed should be obtained from organic source.
2. If not possible, seed from inorganic source can be used if it is not chemical treated.
However, the system of chemical free declaration by the seed supplier must be
3. Seed treatment can be done by using the materials accepted for organic agriculture
(listed in annex 2)
4 During initial stage priority should be given to the quality products. As far as
possible improved organic seed should be exchanged with organic seed produced at
local level.

Crop variety
1) Use of local variety preferably locally improved crop varieties as far as possible.
2) The use of hybrid varieties can be accepted on the consultation and approval of
inspector, only if open pollinated local or improved varieties are not available or they
are not useful due to the lack of desired genetic characters. But more than 40% of
the total cultivated land should not be covered by hybrid seed.
3) Genetically modified varieties should not be used.
4) In first year organic producer can use the seed treated by chemicals. But the
information should be given to the certified agency and the consumers.

Cropping pattern
Should be based on the crop certified by authorized agency for complete organic seeds.
1) One of the important principles of organic agriculture is mixed cropping. So it
should be directed towards the mixed cropping pattern.
2) At least two crop varieties should be cultivated in each 500 Sq. m. of area.
3) At least three seasons crop rotation should be planned.
4) Once in every four seasons leguminous crop should be cultivated as a main crop.
Roots of leguminous crop should be left in the soil during harvesting.
5) In case of Perennial crops intercropping crops, land type and relevant issues must
be planned in advance and documented.

Land use
1) Complete land use plan should be prepared on the basis of land structure, micro
climate, social & economic and the market availability.
2) Out of the total area, 1% & 10 % should be allocated respectively for the watershed
and natural herbs and plants.
3) In lands having more than 20% slope, seasonal crops are not encouraged to cultivate.
If these are needed to be planted effective erosion control activities should be followed.
4) Deforestation should be discouraged for organic farming.

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Conversion Period
1. If organic farming is done in barren land collecting naturally available seeds and
other agricultural inputs fulfilling all basic requirements, then the production of
very first year can be certified as Organic.
2. If the producer can proof that for more than 3 years the land is free of chemicals use
then the products can be declared as Organic. But it must be declared in advance
and certified by the Inspector.
3. The certifying agency can fix the conversion period based on the type of land and its
cultivation history.
4. Usually the conversion period must be minimum of 3 years and is not usually
required for more than 3 years except in case as mentioned above (1&2).
5. At least once in a year the certifying agency must supervise and monitor the field
and report.
6. In case of 3 years conversion period requirement, the certifying agency, after proper
inspection of the product, may assign organic symbol of conversion period for the
product of the second or the third year.

Land parcel
1. The organic farming plot should be minimum of 1000 sq. meter (2 Ropani).
2. The distance between the organic plot and chemical plot should be more than 4
meter along (to be called as buffer zone) with the provision of Hedge row.
3. The products of this buffer zone will not be entitled for organic symbol.
4. Depending upon the type of the crop or the height the hedge row should be managed.
At least drainage of 1.5 deep must be there on the upper slope of the plot.

Fertilizer management
1. Prior to the initiation of Organic Farming the soil condition must be analyzed and
nutrients management plan should be developed accordingly.
2. Use of FYM must be made obligatory. However, while using the manures and
fertilizer prepared from Industrial areas or from commercial animal farm it must be
certified by the concerned authority.
3. Integrated Nutrient Management approach must be adopted.
4. Farm waste and plants remains should not be burnt in the field itself. To manage
the insect and disease and weed pest alternative approach of the pest management
be applied. Cultivate leguminous crops compulsorily.
5. Use of heavy machinery and equipments for cultural operations should be at the
minimum. The moisture condition of the soil must be considered at all times while
preparing the land for plantation. Better avoid field preparation during the months
of March - April.
6. The pH of the soil must be balanced using the natural products only.
7. The best suitable Soil must have the following level of the nutrients:
o Organic Matter - 5-20%
o Available Nitrogen - 0.2% - 0.4% Available
o Phosphorus - 150 kg per hectare
o Potash - 125 kg per hectare.
o pH of the soil should be in the range of 5.5 - 6.5

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o However to balance the nutrients availability the EM, Rhizobium, Trichoderma
like micro organism can be supplemented .However these products should not
be polluted with GMO.
8. Prior to the initiation of organic farming if the soil condition is too much deteriorated
some chemical fertilizer can be used under the strict supervision of the inspector or
the certifying agency.
9. Appropriate technology for soil conservation, seepage, and nutrients vaporization
must be applied. The manures prepared from the industrial waste as well as plants
used from general areas must be certified before using it in the organic field.
10. While composting, C/N ratio must be maintained.

Plant protection
1. Integrated Pest management approach should be adopted to manage the harmful
pests. In no circumstance the chemical pesticide is used. The botanicals can be
used but no pesticide should be applied during the flowering and pollination stage of
the plants.
2. In case of epidemics the safe pesticide can be used to save the crops under the
guidance of the certifying agency. If pests symptoms crosses the EIL, it should be
reported to the certifying body immediately.
3. Any plant products to be used for mulching can be used even if it is from the
chemical treated farm. But see the possibility of disease transmission.
4. The machinery and equipments used to spray chemicals must be properly washed
before using it in organic field
5. Augment the population of natural enemies of the pest in and around the field.
6. Arkhul, Khiro can be used for the mulching. But should not be used in root crops.
7. Mechanical method of pest control can be used including the light trap, and
pheromones traps.
8. Except GMO all other microorganism can be used for the pest management.
9. In mushroom production rice husk from the chemical used field cannot be used.

1. The water from deep well should be analyzed for its content and use for irrigation
only if found potable. The water quality standard must be of WHO standard. Flood
irrigation cannot be used.
2. While using the water coming through others field must be cautiously watched that
it is not mixed with chemicals. Both the producer and inspector must be alerted in
such cases.
3. Water from any source should not be used unless the laboratory report shows the
water to be safe for irrigation.

Wild Production
1. Wild products can be collected only from chemical free areas .Always leave at least
10 percent of the population of the collected product in situ for further propagation.
2. The collections must be properly identified and make sure that these are free from
any chemical contamination.
3. The collector should not go more than 300 meter away from the field site.

( 24 )
Commodity Seed Storage
1. The organic and non organic products must be labeled, packed, separately till it
reaches the consumer.
2. The storage container or the room should never be treated with any chemical.
3. Physical traps and lure material can be used but these should not contaminate the
4. No additive should be used in order to off time ripening for any purpose. It should
be let take its own natural course.

1. The animals or bird must be of organic origin to call as organic products.
2. In case of the livestock brought from non organic area for organic production only
after undergoing following conversion period its products can be labeled as Organic
Milk.60 days
3. The feed and fodder to be used as organic livestock must have 60 percent roughage
from the organic source. To the extent possible everyday the animals must get at
least 1 hour roaming in open place for grazing or stretch. If no open place available
for this purpose it should be done even in or within the compound.
4. Both the producer and inspector must keep motto in mind that "no cruelty to
5. For the animals health care no antibiotics be used. Apply sanitation and hygiene as
preventive method for treatment. However, vaccination can be used
6. Products from GMOs and Embryo transplantation cannot be recognized as organic

Processing and care
1. Processing include boiling, baking, stemming, cooking, mixing, hauling, grinding,
granulating, roasting, frying, pickling etc.
2. Processors include:Mill (own or rented), pack maker, packager, retailer, wholesaler,
importer and exporter
3. Transport and caretaking : Those who handle drying in the shaded place,
transportation, storage, grading, packing and guarding are the caretaking and
transporting agencies
4. Raw materials include all material for processing except additives.
5. Mixed material: additives which are mixed with main products till the end of the
processing falls under mixer group.
6. Additives are any preservatives used to keep the quality of the processed product
The quality of the products include nutrients content, odor, color, make etc. The
certifying agency can undertake and provide organic inspection, certification and
related consultation and other services to rice mill, flour mill, beaten rice mill, fruits
and vegetable processing center, packing site, wholesaler and retailer
godawn/storage, transportation and packaging activities.
All processing plant areas should be pollution free based on the organic principle
and the owner must obey the norms of the organic farming.

( 25 )
The certifier should inspect these areas as well.
Processing should be done without compromising its original quality .
The use of the additive should be minimal.
Care should be taken no mixing with chemical used products or adulteration
takes places during transportation, and packing.
The packing material should be environmental friendly.
All processors must have due license or permit from the Government of Nepal. If
the processing item falls under special category then special inspection system
be developed.
The main products must be organics and it should not be mixed with any
unwanted material.
The processed products must have 95% original raw material. Materials used for
processing should not exceed 5%. The weight of the main product itself should
be 50 percent in addition to salt, water, and mineral. While other materials
should weigh not more than 50%.
The water to be used in the processing plant should meet the WHO standard of
water quality. Permission must be taken from the concerned agencies if the
water use in the processing is more than 50%.
No other additive and chemicals other than mentioned in the annex 2 can be used.
All equipments and tools should be properly cleaned before using for the

1. Give priority to packaging material made of natural products, like Jute sacks, wood
box, paper bags etc rather than plastics material and these materials should not be
treated with any chemicals.
2. If the bags are reused then it must be carefully cleaned and dried before reusing it.
The material standard must be of Food grade.

1. Organic products must be labeled properly and kept separately. If at all the organics
and non organics products are to be kept in the same store house then minimize the
chances of impinging.
2. While cleaning the storage and taking measures for control, following must be
o Refrigeration along with temperature devices.
o Ice made out of quality water following the standard set by WHO.
o However if the organic and non organics products are packed separately then it
can be transported in the same vehicle or other means of transportation.
3. While cleaning the utensils and equipments rack, table, chairs and boxes, use only
the materials given in the Annex-2
4. No chemicals can be used in the storage. If some lures or like chemical is to be used
for trapping then take permission of the concerned agencies or use it as per the
instruction of the inspector.
5. Processed products should be kept appropriately so that no disease or insects pest
dare attack or infest it.

( 26 )
6. To the extent possible organic and non organics should be kept separately.
7. Air tight packaging also can be used.
8. Carbon dioxide packaging also can be done.
9. But the radiation technology cannot be applied.
10. In special condition following technology can be adopted.
Refrigeration along with temperature devices.
Ice made out of quality water following the standard set by WHO.
However if the organic and non organics products are packed separately then it
can be transported in the same vehicle or other means of transportation.

Annex 5
General Information
About 18 million ha. of which
- 7.7 million ha. in Australia
- 4.2 million in Europe
- 3.7 million in L. America.
- 1.3 million in North America.
- 94000 ha in Asia
- 41000 ha in India
- 600 800 ha in Nepal
(FAO, Env. and Natural resource service 4)
In Nepal mostly in vegetable (maize/rice) about 1500 household engaged into
Nepalese O.A.P. are non certified one :

( 27 )
- S.B. Aryal
The use of chemicals yield immediate gains in terms of increased production, which can
raise the productivity levels, but the excessive use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers over
a long periods results in poor health of soil, humans, animals and environment. Despite
high consumer prices, demand for organic food is in upward swing, all over the world.
Organic farming is practiced in approximately more than 100 countries throughout the
world on half a million farms.
Nepal is rich in its natural resources with a lot of diversity making it in international
market for a wide range of Agro- commodities. There are ample opportunities to increase
area under organic farming of exportable commodities like Tea, Coffee, Large Cardamom,
Ginger, Fresh vegetable etc.
Promotion of organic farming in Nepal mainly depends on
Appropriate conversion method of conventional farming in to an organic farming
Establishment of national certification program
Government support

Introduction :
The use of chemical yield immediate gains in term of increased production which can raise
the productivity levels, but the excessive use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers over a
long periods results in poor health of soil, humans, animals and environment. The
accumulated effect, ultimately led to a fall in crop yields and puts sustainability at stake.
Adverse effects of inorganic farming are as follows:
High Concentration of nitrates (Chemical / Pesticides) in soil cause environmental
hazards and health Problem.
Resistance development in Pathogen
Destruction of soil structure, soil texture, aeration and water holding capacity.
Indiscriminate killing of useful insects, micro-organisms and predators.

The effects of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, fungicides etc on human beings are as follows:
Cancer due to Nitrate concentration in ground water
Abnormal cardiac function by pesticides
Arsenic diseases by pesticides
Internal ulcer by pesticides
Blue eye disease in children by pesticides.
Headache, Nausea and vomiting by pesticides
Throat, skin and eye irritation.
Department of Agriculture, Nepal has initiated the application of chemical pesticides for
crop protection since 1960s and stored products of pesticides increased steadily since then.
More than 76 metric- tones of obsolete pesticides are lying in the different warehouses of
Nepal. Nepal currently uses about 55 tones of active ingredients (2001), but the amount of

Deputy Director, Department of Agriculture

( 28 )
pesticide ingredients unused each year and after use of container and its volume is not
known. In Nepal, there are no facilities for the disposal of obsolete pesticides in an
environmental sound manner.
Indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizer over a long period results in depletion of organic
matter content and plant nutrients in the soil. So the farmers are now compelled to use
more and more chemical fertilizer and other inputs. The law of diminishing return will set in
and these are indications of significant changes in the natural resource base e.g. falling
ground water table, water logging, degradation of soil quality (loss of organic carbon and
deficiency of micro and secondary nutrients like Zink, Manganese, Iron, Sulphur etc.) and
severe soil erosion. Most of the organic matter releases minerals four times faster under
tropical condition than in temperate conditions and unless supplemented in every cropping
season, the organic carbon content of the soil decreases fast. Most of the soils under the dry
farming system contain less than 0.5 percent organic carbon. Unless it is raised to 0.9 to
1.0 percent, productivity of these lands can not be optimized.
Organic source of Nitrogen also improve soil structure and soil bioactivity that is not
directly improved by mineral sources of Nitrogen, the productivity of the crop for each
Kilogram of Nitrogen may be better with organic sources of Nitrogen than with mineral
sources of Nitrogen alone.

Concept of Organic Farming:
Organic Farming is defined as production system, which avoids the use of synthetically
compounded fertilizers, pesticides, and growth regulators to the maximum extent feasible.
The basic rules of organic production are that natural inputs are approved and synthetic
inputs are prohibited. But there are some exceptions;
Natural inputs harmful to human health or the environment are prohibited (e.g. Arsenic)
Synthetic inputs determined to be essential with organic farming philosophy are allowed
(e.g. insect pheromones)
The most important aspects in organic farming is that seed / planting materials to be used
should be from plants grown under organic farming for at least one generation, or in the
case of perennial crops, two growing seasons.

Organic farming is designed to;
Produce food of high quality in sufficient quantity
Enhance biological biodiversity within the whole system
Increase soil biological activity
Maintain long term soil fertility
Recycle wastes of plant / animal origin in order to return nutrients to soil
Rely on renewable sources in locally organized agricultural system
Develop a valuable and sustainable eco-system
Maintain the genetic diversity of the production system
Progress towards an entire production, processing and distribution chain that is
socially acceptable, environmental friendly and economical viable.
Thus organic farming is a holistic approach for preserving soil health, human health
and environmental health.

( 29 )
All farm produce that went through the stringent practice of organic farming, after
scrutiny is certified as organically produced products and are termed as organic

Component of organic farming
Organic Manures
FYM, compost
Animal manure
Poultry Manure
Town and city compost

Concentrate organic Manure
Vermi- compost
Oil cake
Meat meal
Bone meal
Fish meal
Blood meal
Animal Urine

Green Manuring
Legume and non- legume crops
Green leaves manure
Blue green algae

Azotobacter, a plant growth promoting and preferably rhizosphere colonizing
bacteria, fixes 20-30 Kilogram Nitrogen per hectare.
Rhizobium : Fixes 50-200 Kilogram Nitrogen per hectare
Azospirillum : An Associative Nitrogen fixing bacteria. Fixes 50 Kilogram Nitrogen
per hectare
Phosphofix : Solubilise unavailable forms of phosphate to soluble form

Beaveria bassiana (entomopathogenic fungus)
Metarhizium anisopliae (ento-mopathogenic fungus)
Bacillus thurengenisis

Bio fungicides
Trichoderma viridi
Pseudomonas (also plant growth promoter)

Botanical Pesticides
Neem formulation (Neem Kernel extract, Neem cake extract, Neem oil extract
Ginger, garlic and chilly extract
Ginger with other plant extracts in Cow urine
Tobacco (Surti) and soap solution (control Aphids)

Trap crops
Marigold (control Nematode)

( 30 )
Organic Farming: International Scenario
Despite high consumer prices, demand for organic food is in upward swing, all over
the world. Farmers and scientists are conceding that agro chemicals are devasting the
soil, water and biodiversity and creating health hazards by their toxic residues in food.
Organic farming is practiced in approximately more than 100 countries throughout
the world on half a million farms
24 million hectare now under organic management, generating US dollar 25 billion
Australia leads (10 million hectare) followed by Argentina (3 million hectare)
Europe has more than 5.5 million hectares
North America has nearly 1.5 million hectares
94,000 hectare land in India under organic farming
600-800 hectare in Nepal

Status of Organic Farming in Nepal:
A. Government Policy and Strategy:
i. Tenth Plan (2059 2064) :
+ =--= +==+ -=- |++- = =- (Integrated Pest Management IPM) +
=--+- +-=+ +-:- =-+ = +:+ == = =+- + =+- (Organic Farming)
=: =: :- c
(To minimise the use of chemical pesticide, management system of Integrated Pest
Management, will be promoted and also emphasis will be given to promote organic farming
based on use of organic manure).

ii. National Agricultural Policy , 2061:
+:+ - (Organic Farming) =: +=-- =- c +:+ - = + -- -+=
=- =+- += =+- + -- -+ =--- +=-+- + == =- +-=:- c
(Emphasis will be given for the promotion of organic farming. Support will be provided for
quality certifications for export oriented products produced from organic farming)

B. Vegetable Production:
The demand of organically produced fresh vegetable is increasing in Nepal, mainly in urban
areas. Organic vegetable farming has been started in few districts of Nepal.
Kathamanud valley, Bara, Dang etc. In Kavresthali area of Kathamandu, Panchakenya
Agriculture Cooperative has produced 96 metric tones of fresh vegetable from 20 hectares of
land in 2003 (2061). The produce was marketed to local markets and in one permanent
marketing stall at Balaju.
At present, in organic vegetable farming, farmers are not using inorganic fertilizers and
chemicals, but seed / seedlings are purchased directly from market, which may not be
organically produced, and the products are not certified. The certification program does not
exist in Nepal. Major constraints facing organic vegetable production are;
Poor compost quality
Pest and disease problems
Reduced production

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Aesthetically unappealing produce
No organic premium
Exact data of area and production of organic produced vegetable is not available due
to absence of National Organic Policy.

C. Tea and Coffee Production:
Tea was grown in 15012 hectares and production was 11651.21 metric tones in 2061-62
(2004-2005). It is estimated that 50% Area in Dhankuta and Most of the area in Panchthar
and Terathum district are under organic farming. Thus during Fiscal Year 2061-62 (2004-
2005), 230.23 metric tonnes Organic Tea was produced from 1065 hectare of land in Nepal.
Coffee was grown in 1078 hectare and production was 249.79 mt. from 321.55 hectare
productive area during Fiscal Year 2061-62 (2004-2005). It is believed that 100 percent
area under organic farming (source: Fruit Development Directorate).
At present, Export Parties are hiring international certification Agencies to certify Tea and
Coffee Produced in Nepal.
As mentioned in National Agriculture Policy 2061, DOA Fruit Development Directorate has
paid Rs. 3, 00,000 to International Certification Agency (NASAA, Australia) for certification
charge. (Coffee produced by Coffee Cooperative Association, Gulmi) in this Fiscal Year 2062-
63 (2005-2006).

Prospects and Opportunities of Organic Farming in Nepal:
1. The country is rich in its natural resources with a lot of diversity making it in the
International markets for a wide range of Agro-commodities. There existing
tremendous scope of Biotechnological applications in the country's agriculture.
2. The average fertilizer consumption in Nepal is very low and it was 26 Kg. per hectare
in 2002, where as in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Shri-Lanka average
consumption is 166.20 Kg., 107.4 Kg. 136.2 Kg. and 276.8 Kg. respectively (SAIC,
2004). A similar pattern is observed in case of chemical; pesticide (142 gm in Nepal).
At present, high amount of chemical Fertilizers, Fungicides and Insecticides are used
in commercial production irrigated area mainly in Terai and mid hill regions. Fresh
vegetables, Potato, Rice and Wheat are major fertilizer consumption crops in these
In un-irrigated areas, mainly in high hills, mid hill and few areas in Terai, farming
practices are still largely "organic by default" but the productivity is far below. These
"traditional farming" practices can be converted with less effort to organic farming,
with the introduction of;
Improved composting techniques
Nitrogen fixing legumes crops
Bio fertilizer and bio-pesticides etc.
3. As in India and other developing countries, there is no Government subsidy in
fertilizers, So, the farmers of Nepal, has to pay high price to buy fertilizers, and
availability is also mostly uncertain. Thus Nepalese farmers can not apply
recommended amount of fertilizers which has resulted in low productivity as compare
to other developing countries. The average productivity of Paddy, Maize, Wheat, Potato,

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and Vegetable was respectively 2.85, 1.91, 2.08, 11.49 and 10.92 Metric tines during
2003/2004 (MOAC, 2004).
There is enough opportunity to convert these inorganic farming practices gradually to
organic farming, which will be economically viable, socially accepted and
environmentally friendly.
4. At Present, Government is providing 100 percent subsidy on transportation cost of
chemical fertilizers from Road head to district Headquarters in Remote districts of
Nepal. In this Fiscal Year 2062-63 (2005-2006) Rs. 49,455 thousand has been
allocated for transportation subsidy in 26 districts. This big amount can be easily
diverted for the promotion of organic farming.
5. The major organic products sold in global market include dried fruits, nuts Tea, Coffee,
Vegetable and Spice etc.
At Present Nepal is exporting mainly large cardamom, Ginger, Organically produced
Tea, and Coffee beans and off- Season fresh vegetable to India, Bangladesh and
overseas countries. 5851.705 Metric tones large cardamom, 16772.931 Metric tones
Ginger were exported during 2003-2004 (2060-61). Similarly 71.590 Metric tones
green bean Coffee (2004-2005) and 984.22 Metric tones Tea (2004) was exported.
(Source: National Spice Development Programme, Khumaltar and Fruit Development
Directorate, Kirtipur). Another major export commodity is fresh vegetable. At present
Nepal is exporting fresh vegetable to Tibet, Bangladesh and Arabian Countries.
Thus there is ample opportunities to increase area under organic farming of
exportable commodities like Tea, Coffee, Large cardamom, Ginger, Fresh vegetable etc.

Organic Farming in Nepal: Future Thinking
1. Conversion of a conventional farming into an Organic farming:
Although the use of chemicals yield immediate gain in terms of increased production, which
can raise the productivity level for few years, however the negative accumulated effect
ultimately led to a fall in crop yield, after some periods. Use of organic manures definitely
increases the soil condition, but it contains very low plant nutrients (NPK), which are not
enough to raise the productivity. So the appropriate Bio-fertilizers and Bio- pesticides
should be included in the farming process.
The methodology to use bio-fertilizers without significantly compromising the yield is an
important process as the primary aim is to increase quality along with maintaining the
The conversion of a conventional farm into an organic farm needs at least three years. If a
whole farm is not converted at one time, it may be done progressively from the start of
conversion. The fertility and biological activity of the soil should be maintained or increased
by cultivation of legumes, green manuring or deep rooting plants in an appropriate multi-
annual rotation program.

Conversion Stage:
Year 1: 75 % Chemical fertilizer + Bio-fertilizers + 3 Metric tones FYM /Vermi-compost.
Year 2: 50 % Chemical fertilizer +Bio-fertilizers + 6 Metric tones FYM / Vermi-compost.
Year 3: 25% Chemical fertilizer + Bio fertilizer + 9 Metric tones FYM / Vermi-compost.

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Year 4 : No Chemical fertilizer + Bio fertilizer + 11 Metric tones FYM / Vermi-compost.
Use of Bio-pesticides should replace the chemical pesticides from the very 1st year
because of their residual nature. Area where crop production is "default organic"
organic farming can be practiced in the 1st year.

2. Development of a National Certification Program:
Since the organic farming is a "process certification" and not "product certification" so the
role of certification agencies is most critical. Many countries are in process of developing
their own "organic food" standards and regulation. The U.S.A. and European Union have
already announced comprehensive National organic programs. Japan, Canada, Australia
have national standards for organic products in practice. Since early nineties, Thailand,
South Korea, Philippines, India, Mexico have established credible organic certifying
In Nepal, Government has to arrange the formation of local certification agencies, details of
which could be obtained from any of the international certifying agency.
It will be the responsibility of the Government to apply for certification and obtain required
certification before the produce is directed for domestic and export markets. In any case, it
is necessary to guarantee that produce adhere to official standards.
Since organically growth foods do not look any different from a non-organic variety, a
crucial part of the movement is to build confidence in customers that foods claimed to have
been organically grown are indeed the products of organic farming.

3. Government Support:
A long-term project on organic farming should be launched for selective crops and in
selective areas, which can be replicated later throughout the country. In the first phase,
cash crops like fresh vegetable, Tea, Coffee, Large Cardamom, Ginger etc. should be
included for domestic and export market.
In order to develop an effective organic agro-industry in Nepal, government, NGO/INGO
must work together to;
Provide farmers with technical training in organic production and post harvest
Establishment of model farms
Provide Incentive (subsidy) to resource poor farmers especially for bio-fertilizers and
Provide marketing or Buy backs arrangement
Create domestic markets for organic producers by raising public awareness as to the
benefits of organic agriculture
Promote organic farmer cooperatives to increase organic production to levels needed
to export
Develop strong technical linkages with neighboring countries to transfer organic
farming technologies
Organize Regional / National workshop on organic farmer at least once a year, to
exchange the experiences.

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RONAST : Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology
HOPTA : Himalayan Orthodox Tea producer Association
NOSB : National Organic Standard Board
CWDS : Community Welfare Development Society
NPG : National Perma Culture Group
SECARD : Society for Environment Conservation and Agricultural Research and
Development, Nepal
ECOS CENTER : Ecological Services Center
COPP : Coffee Promotion Project
HCPCL : High land Coffee Promotion Company Ltd.
SSMP : Sustainable Soil Management Project
NGOs : Non- Governmental Organizations
NARC : Nepal Agricultural Research Council
AEC : Agro- Enterprises Center
NOSB : National Organic Standard Board

Budathoki, K etal. 2004. Organic fresh vegetable production. Paper presented at workshop
on sustainable Agriculture Development. May 11, 2004.Kritipur, Nepal
International Panacea Limited (IPL). 2004.Boosting Neplease Agri-based income. Paper
presented at Workshop on Sustainable Agriculture Development. May 11, 2004. Kritipur
K.C. Ganesh.2004. IPM and Biopesticide for organic farming. Paper presented at Workshop
on sustainable Agriculture Development .May 11, 2004.Kritipur Nepal
MC Clintock, Nathan.C., 2005.Going Organic. Paper presented at workshop on organic
farming. July 27, 2005. Kritipur, Nepal
Ministry of Population and Environment /UNIDO. June 2004. Proceeding of inception
workshop (Jan 14-15, 2004). Pp220
SAIC. December 2004. Statistical Bulletin SAARC Agriculture Data .2004. Bangladesh

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Agricultural Extension in Promoting Organic Farming in Nepal
- Prabin Lal Shrestha*
- Kishor Pant**

A few decade before the chemicals were not used by the farmers in agricultural crop
production and storage in Nepal. Instead, they were using the local organic manures and
organic pesticides. The farming of those days would be considered as the organic farming.
With the introduction of the high yielding varieties and the improved agric technologies
import and use of the chemical fertilizers and pesticides started in Nepal. Production of
more food was a challenge that time for the food security. After more than three decades the
government realised the fact that non-organic agriculture is not environment friendly. The
non-organic products are harmful to human and animal health. So the government's thrust
now is to promote the organic farming. The organic farming is a holistic production system
which avoids or largely excludes the use of chemical pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers,
growth regulators, livestock additives as routine drugs.
Organic farming is becoming more and more popular these days. Most of the high hill
farmers and large number of mid hill farmers do not use chemicals even today. There is a
big number of farmers with small land holdings in Nepal. So they can provide necessary
labour for organic farming. Because of the global trend in increased promotional activities
in organic farming Nepal can be benefited from the export of the organic agric. products.
Lack of adequate research and extension activities, organic inputs, government policies and
programs can be taken as the present constraints. Main issues in organic farming today in
Nepal are the issue of certification of the products, lack of production and marketing
Agric. extension may have a number of roles for the promotion of the system. Awareness
programs for the consumers, social mobilisation through the farmer groups, different
extension methods such as demonstrations, field visits, workshops, trainings, farmers' field
schools etc and development of linkages among the stakeholders so on and so forth.

1. Introduction
Agricultural sector still remains one of the major contributors in the Nepalese economy. It
contributes 38.8% to the national GDP and provides employments to 65.7% of the total
population (MoAC, 2004). Its' topographical variation enables the cultivation of varieties of
cereal crops, fruits, spices and vegetables etc.
Organic farming is one of the important farming systems practiced today. In general,
organic farming is a sustainable farming system which insisted to the production of healthy
crops in the environment friendly conditions. It avoids the use of synthetic chemicals on the
farm. Defining Organic farming some times connotes with other eco- friendly farming
system such as biological farming, Perma- culture, natural farming, regenerative farming,
ecological farming, integrated intensive farming, etc. which are based on principle of
harmony with nature. The only distinguishing feature of organic farming is the certification
of products by authorized agencies.

Acting Program Director, Directorate of Agricultural Extension
Agri. Extension Officer, Directorate of Agricultural Extension

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The primary goal of organic agriculture is to optimize the health and productivity of
interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people. The soil is of central
importance in organic farming. In reality, organic farming is a consistent system approach
based on the perception that tomorrows ecology is more important than todays economy.
Thus, organic farming is a holistic production system which avoids or largely excludes the
use of chemical pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, growth regulator, and other chemicals.
Organics also prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - or genetic

2. Importance of Organic Farming
In general, the importance of organic farming can be viewed from different perspectives,
which are discussed below.
2.1 Environmentally Safe
In organic farming, farmers largely avoid use of synthetic chemicals (fertilizers and
pesticides) and rely on natural pest controls, manuring and cultural practices which help to
reduce different forms of environmental pollutions. Reductions in the use of these toxic
synthetic chemicals also help to improved human and livestock health and other beneficial
2.2. More sustainable
In organic production system farmers are less dependent on external inputs (e.g. pesticides,
fertilizers, credit etc.). They manage sound production system based on locally available
resources which are economically and ecologically viable. This implies a sustainable
management of natural resources; soil water and bio- diversity.
2.3. Food security.
Food security is not necessarily achieved through food self-sufficiency. Organic agriculture
can contribute to local food security in several ways. Consumers demand for organically
produced food sometimes provide impressive premiums and new export opportunities to
2.4. Source of employments
Studies indicated that organic agriculture requires significantly greater labor input than
conventional farming's. However, when labor is not a constraint organic agriculture can
employ underemployed labor.
2.5. Sources of Nutrition
It has been shown in a number of studies that organic food contains more vitamins,
nutrients and cancer-fighting antioxidants than non-organic foods. Organic foods have far
less residues of pesticides, growth promoters, antibiotics and other chemicals. It tastes
better than the inorganic products.
2.6. Enhances Biodiversities conservation
Organic farming helps to preserve biodiversity. Many indigenous food crops which are
under utilized and have a great value can be reintroduced through crop diversification. It
contributes to whole farm health, provides conservation of important genotypes, and creates
habitats for beneficial species

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2.7. Profitable
Organic farmers can manage to reduce production costs by avoiding expensive cost of
agrochemicals. Even if the organic crop yields are lower the overall economic yields of the
farm will be competitive since organic system benefit from market premiums (fair prices)
and sometimes lowered input costs.

3. Organic Farming in Nepal
Organic farming in Nepalese context is not an uncommon word itself. Over a century,
resource poor farmers have been doing such practices in traditional way which is similar to
organic farming. However, they did not know that their practices were known as organic.
The cultivation practices of organic farming have no differences with that of traditional
system. However, it does not mean that products are sold as organic. Organic product
should meet certain standards certified by the authorised agencies. The traditional farming
knowledge and skills of the farmers would be the positive point for promoting organic
farming in Nepal.
Today, farmers are growing different organic crops either individually or collectively through
farmers groups or cooperatives. The major organic products of Nepal are tea, coffee, large
cardamom, gingers, vegetables, honey and herbs (medicinal plants). However, data related
to area coverage of commodities, production certification procedures and market situation
of these organic products are limited.
There are some pioneer examples of organic farming and organic products that are booming
in domestic and international markets such as tea, coffee, honey, gingers and medicinal
herbs. The Kanchenjunga Tea State at Ranitar in Panchthar is one of the pioneer example
of organic enterprise that is booming. It is one of the Nepali organic agricultural enterprises
to achieve the EU standard organic certificate in 1997. Coffee production is another
example of organic product that is booming in international markets. According to the
COPP report 2004, about 33.6Mt. of green beans were consumed in the domestic market
and 37.9 MT. were exported international markets in 2004.
The production of organic vegetables is taking momentum but productions are confined to
vicinity of major cities such as Bhaktapur (Dadhikot), Kathmandu (Kavresthali, Thankot
and Sundarijal), Kavrepalanchok (Sangha), Kaski (Bharatphokhari and Hemja) and Chitwan
(Fulbari) etc.
The 10th plan and agricultural policy 2061 spelt out the government policies on promotion
of organic farming in Nepal. But policy did not explain procedural mechanism for promotion
of organic farming in Nepal. However, government has taken some initiatives. Government
has endorsed and implemented some Acts and Regulation such as Pesticides ACT (1991)
and Pesticide Regulation (1994), Environment Protection Act and Environmental Protection
Regulation (1997).
Besides this, there have been some initiatives in organic farming taken by governmental
and non-governmental institutions (NGOs) and Private agencies such as DOA, RONAST,
NARC, IAAS, SSMP, CEAPRED, ECOCENTER, LIBERD, Kathmandu Metropolis, Tea and
Coffee Development Board, Nepal Perma-culture Group, HOPTA, AEC etc.
Norms, standards, inspection and certification system in organic agriculture have not been
established at government level in the country yet. The producers and the traders
themselves manage for all those requirements. Some initiatives have taken by private
traders and NGOs in inspection and certification of organic products

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4. Opportunities
4.1 Ecological and geographical advantages: The country has diverse ecological and
climatic conditions which is supportive in cultivation of diversified crops. Most of the
farmers in the high hills and majority of them in the mid hills do not use the
chemicals in their farming.
4.2 There are a large number of small farmers in Nepal. So, there will not be the labor
problem. The farmers themselves could fulfill the labor demand.
4.3 The world trend is towards the organic farming. Many positive actions have been
taken globally for the development of organic farming. So, there is a good scope for
organic products in the future.
4.4 Consumers and the farmers are becoming more and more aware of organic products
from environment and health point of view. They have learnt that organic products are
safe to the health and environment.
4.5 Nepal, as a member of WTO, can have good opportunities in the global markets. Good
quality organic agricultural products can be marketed globally.
4.6 Nepalese farmers are equipped with the indigenous knowledge of farming organically.
The indigenous knowledge can be utilized in the organic farming today.
4.7 Local inputs are largely used in organic farming. Therefore the farmers need not
depend on the external inputs most of the time.

5. Constraints
5.1 Lack of adequate information on different aspects such as advantages of organic
farming and the organic products, crop and area on organic cultivation, technology,
marketing, suppliers of inputs etc.
5.2 Lack of adequate technology.
5.3 Lack of organic inputs such as seeds, bio-fertilizers and bio pesticides.
5.4 Lack of government initiatives, policies and assistance. The norms and standards on
inspection and certification in organic agriculture have not been established yet at
government level.
5.5 The organic farming is the labor intensive farming. So, in the urban areas where the
scarcity of labor exist the cost of cultivation may be high.
5.6 The belief of people that - organic agriculture is not a feasible option to improve food
5.7 Awareness : There is lack of consumers and the producers awareness in the organic
farming and the organic products.

6. Issues
There is no doubt that organic agriculture is more sustainable and low inputs farming but
there are still several issues that have to be addressed
- Low yield
- Lack of appropriate technology
- Lack of marketing system

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7. Role of extension in the promotion of organic farming
Agricultural extension has been considered as one of the important component of
agricultural development. Extension has vital role to play in the promotion of organic
farming. In the past, the government's policy was to increase agricultural production so,
agricultural extension activities were more focused to production objectives. However, more
recently, food security, environment and biodiversity conservation, social inclusion and
equity, market information and poverty alleviation became part of the agenda of the
organizations involved in extension services. Extensions involves offering advice, helping
farmers analyzing problems and identify opportunities, sharing information, supporting
group formation and facilitating collective action (Garforth 1997).
The level of technology generation and dissemination on organic farming is not significant,
in Nepal, even today. NGOs and private service providers fulfil the technological need of the
farmers to some extent. The extension services provided by government agencies are very
limited and are confined to awareness and training programs only. Furthermore,
institutional supports for promotion of organic farming are also limited. Professional
institutions have not been functionally established to assist farmers in the production,
post-production and marketing processes.
Therefore analyzing the present status different extension activities could be implemented
for the promotion of organic farming in Nepal. Among them the important ones are
discussed below.
7.1 Social mobilization through consumer and farmer groups
Social mobilization is important for raising awareness among the people on the benefit of
organic farming. Formation and mobilization of consumer, producer and the marketing
groups/ associations could play a major role in social mobilization. These groups can play
vital roles in;
- These groups in association with the public/private agencies or independently can
play important roles in creating awareness among the people on the importance of
organic farming and the organic products.
- The farmer groups will test the available technologies and disseminate them if they
will be beneficial for them.
- People involved in the marketing groups could promote marketing of the organic
products. The groups could assist the authorities in the process of crop inspection,
monitoring and so on.
The extension organizations will play the role of the facilitators to assist these groups.
7.2. Educational Activities:
- Educational activities are very important part of extension. The educational activities
include different extension methods such as field trainings, workshops,
demonstrations, field visits, tours etc. To educate the producer and consumers in the
production and consumption of organic products and their effect on health,
environmental and economic aspects different extension methods could be applied.
- Preparation of educational materials for organic farming (Bulletins, Pamphlets,
Booklets, Posters).
7.3. Linkages
Improved technology based on research findings is an essential tool for assisting the
farmers. Farmers can upgrade their farming practices and farm management and

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marketing techniques for better production and price. It is the responsibility of extension to
assist the farmers in delivering them the improved agricultural technologies. The extension
workers work in the close contact with the farmers. They used to be aware of the problems
faced by the farmers. The extension workers also used to have contacts with the research
organizations. Because the extension personnel have to work in close contacts both with
the farmers and the researchers, they can develop linkage between the farmers and
research. They will deliver the findings of research / improved technologies to the farmers
and feed back the problems of the farmers to research. Furthermore, there are a number of
NGOs, CBOs and other private sectors which are involved in agriculture development
activities in the country. The extension personnel can coordinate these organizations for the
benefit of the farmers.
7.4. Up scaling the technical skill of the clients
Development of organic farming and other farming largely depends on the technical skills of
the farmers and other personnel involved in the farming. So, extension can play an
important role in imparting technical and managerial skills to the clients. Following
activities could be implemented in this direction.
Technical training on organic production techniques for farmers
Establishment of experimental plots (Demonstration)
Training on post harvest handling
Training and capacity building program for field level extension worker.
7.5. Farmer to farmer extension programs.
It has been experienced that the farmer to farmer extensions programs are more effective.
Considering the fact extension will have the role of promoting the farmer to farmer
extension programs. In this program the experienced leader farmers share their experiences
with other farmers and discuss the problems. A number of activities can be conducted as
the farmer to farmer extension. A few important ones are discussed below.
Establishment of Farmers Field Schools (FFS): Farmers share their experiences and
information among themselves and the extension personnel facilitate them Farmers, apart
from the farming technologies, learn many things such as group behavior, record keeping,
presentation skills etc. from the FFS.
Farmer field visits: A group of farmers visit the field of the leader/progressive farmer. They
observe the activities of the leader/progressive farmer. The progressive farmer explain the
activities he/she has undertaken and then discuss with the farmer visitors on different
problems. They exchange experiences and information among themselves.
7.6. Facilitate the inspection and certification of organic product at field level.
The field level inspection of the organic farming at regular basis is very important. It is
considered as the base for the certification process. The regular inspection help avoid the
unfair practices in organic farming. Extension can play an important role in facilitating the
inspection and certification of organic products at the field level.
7.7. Dissemination of information
Dissemination of different information is very important for the development of organic
farming. Extension is responsible for the dissemination of information. Extension will
disseminate different information as described below.

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Dissemination of technical information about organic agricultural practices such as
agronomic practices and use bio fertilizer, bio-pesticides etc.
Market information on demand and supply, market price, consumer preferences etc.
Information on global and local market opportunities for organic produces and price
7.8. Market Linkage
The marketing of organic products through farmer associations is important to establish
direct contacts with buyers. It will help small farmers to obtain better prices of their
products Extension can play the key role in linking the farmers with the markets.
7.9. Promotion and documentation of the indigenous knowledge and skill
It has been accepted that indigenous Nepalese farming are closely related to the organic
farming practices. There the farming practices adopted by traditional farmers need to be
promoted and these practices also need to be documented for the future. Extension can
play the role for these activities.
7.10. On farm Research
Conduct on farm research on organic farm practices in farmers' field in collaboration with
research institutions in order to build confidence on organic practices.
7.11. Advisory services
Extension can play key role on providing advisory services to the clients. Advisory services may
include all the aspects of organic farming, marketing of the products, processing and so on.

8. Suggestions
8.1. Due attention should be paid on establishment of appropriate institutions (National
Organic Standard Board) and formulation of suitable laws dealing with production and
marketing of organic products both in domestic and international markets. Establishment
of such institution help comply the regulations on organic production as well as in
international negotiations with governments to open up access to foreign markets.
8.2. National organic products standard and certification program should be developed for
the certification of the organic products.
8.3. Education: There are limited courses and activities on organic farming at universities
and training institutions. As the consequences, extension services have usually faced
problems of trained professionals on organic agriculture. Thus, incorporation of
courses related to organic production is necessary in the education programs of
universities and training institutions for developing professionals in this field.
8.4. Research
Although there is growing concern about importance of organic farming, there have
been limited researches on organic farming. Most of the studies are concentrated only
with soil fertility status. Therefore it is suggested to conduct research on;
Scientific validation of traditional farming practices that could increased land
productivity and resource sustainability.
Organic farming as one of the major components of farming system.
Selection of suitable crops for organic farming
8.5. Selection of organic production pockets and commodities should be done for
promoting organic farming in Nepal.

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AEC Agro- Enterprises Cente
CBOs Community Based Organizations
COPP Coffee Promotion Project
EU European Union
GDP Gross Domestic Products
NGOs Non- Governmental Organizations
NOSB National Organic Standard Board
NPG National Perma Culture Group
NARC Nepal Agricultural Research Council
NOSB National Organic Standard Board
WTO World Trade Organizations

Annual report 2004, Coffee promotion project, Helvatas- Nepal.
Annual report, Plant Protection Directorate 2002. Harihar Bhawan, Lalitpur, Nepal.
FAO Report (1998). FAO/ IFOAM meeting on organic agriculture, FAO, Rome.19-20 march
George Kuepper and Lance Gegner 2004. Organic production overview, fundamentals of
sustainable. http:/ www. Attar.org/attar.pub./PDF/ organic crop.pdf.
Gartforth, C. (1997). Supporting Sustainable Agriculture through Extension in Asia.ODI
Natural Resource Perspective.No.21.June
Institute of science society (ISIS) report. www.i.sis.org.uk/organic agriculture.php.
Marattha, S.P. and R.D. Yadav 2001. A report on survey of pesticide application and
consumption practices at Siraha, HMG/N, RAD. DADO, Siraha, Nepal.
Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives.2004. Agriculture Diary, Agriculture Information
and Communication Center, Harihar Bhawan, Lalitpur.
Nadia Scialabba, opportunities and constraints of organic agriculture, A Sociological
analysis, FAO.Rome. http:// www.fao.org/ organicag.
Organic food production, Alternative farming system information center. www.nal.usda.
Palikhe B.R. 2002. Pesticide and environment. HMG/N, MOAC, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Plant Protection Directorate, 2003. Integrated Pest Management Through Farmer Field
Schools. Proceedings of a workshop Kathmandu, Nepal 25-26 July 2002, organized by
National IPM Program in Cooperation with the FAO Program for Community IPM in Asia.
HMG/N, MOAC, DOA, PPD, Harihar Bhawan, and Lalitpur, Nepal, 2003.
Organic farming in Asia and Pacific. www.fao.org./DOCREP/004/ Ad452E/ad452 e4y.htm.
Sharma, A.K.2001. A hand book of organic farming. AgriBios, India

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Technological Development in Organic Vegetable Production System in Nepal
- Mr. Bashu Subedi, Mr. Hom Raj Regmi

Organic agriculture defined
Organic agriculture is a term used to include all systems of agriculture that support the
healthy and life supporting production of food through environmentally and socially sound
production methods. It adheres to globally accepted life supporting principles, which are
implemented in the local economic, geo-climatic, and cultural settings. Organic farming
promotes health in the farmer, the food, and the environment. It uses methods that respect
and uphold the natural capacity of plants, animals, and the landscape.
The basic rules of organic production are that natural inputs are approved and synthetic
inputs are prohibited. Organic agriculture is best known as a farming method where no
synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are used. However, this description does not mention the
essence of this form of agriculture, which is the holistic management of the farming system.
According to the definition of the Codex Alimentarius (FAO), "organic agriculture is a
holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem
health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It emphasizes the
use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs, taking into
account that regional conditions require locally adapted systems. This is accomplished by
using, where possible, agronomic, biological and mechanical methods, as opposed to using
synthetic materials, to fulfill any specific function within the system." (Sharma, 2001).

The basics of organic agriculture
The explicit goal of organic agriculture is to contribute to the enhancement of sustainability.
The use of crop rotations, organic manure and mulches improves soil structure and
encourages the development of a vigorous population of soil microorganisms. Mixed and
relay cropping provides a more continuous soil cover and thus a shorter period when the
soil is fully exposed to the erosive power of the rain, wind and sun. Terracing to conserve
moisture, and soil are used in appropriate situations and particular attention is paid in
irrigated areas to on-farm water management. Properly managed organic farming reduces or
eliminates water pollution and helps conserve water and soil on the farm.

Principles of Organic Vegetable Production
Organic vegetable farming system also follows the basic principles of organic agriculture.
However, the working principles could be summarized as below;
Insect Pest Management: Organic vegetable farming rely on natural pest controls (e.g.
biological control, plants with pest control properties) rather than synthetic pesticides
which, when misused, are known to kill beneficial organisms (e.g. natural parasites of pests,
bees, earthworms), cause pest resistance, and often pollute water and land. Reduction in
the use of toxic synthetic pesticides, which the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates
to poison three million people each year, should lead to improved health of farm families.
Soil Nutrient and Biological Activities Management: Organic vegetable farming aims to make the
maximum use of the recyclable fertility in on-farm crop residues (straws, stovers and other non-
edible parts) either directly as compost and mulch or through livestock as farmyard manure.

VDD, Khumaltar

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Eliminating the use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer greatly lowers the risks of nitrogen
contamination of water. Crop rotation is a widely used method of fertility maintenance and pest
and disease control, which is used in large- and small-scale farming in both developed and
developing countries, especially under intensification. Fodder legumes are well-known fertility-
building crops and are grown on vast areas in sub-tropical Asia and in semi-arid regions for the
dual purpose of feeding livestock and adding nitrogen to the farm fertility cycle. Grain legumes
may also produce a reasonable crop without nitrogenous fertilizer. Leguminous crops in
rotations add various amounts of nitrogen to the overall farm system through biological
fixation; other nitrogen-fixing plants such as Azolla may also be used.
Integration of legumes and organic soil amendments: Biological nitrogen fixation is a
powerful technique but it often requires some addition of minerals to the soil, especially
phosphorus. Most certification programmes restrict the use of mineral fertilizers, which
may be necessary to supplement the organic manure produced on the farm. Natural and
organic fertilizers from outside the farm are used (e.g. rock phosphate, potash, guano,
seaweed, slaughterhouse by-products, ground limestone, seaweed, wood-ash). While most
certification programmes prohibit the use of sewage sludge and night soil they are still used
in some places. However, sludge may contain many contaminants including heavy metals,
which can have a deleterious and cumulative effect on the soil, while night soil contains
human pathogens and must be carefully composted before use.
Crop Rotations: Crop rotations encourage a diversity of food crops, fodder and under-
utilized plants; this, in addition to improving overall farm production and fertility may
assist the on-farm conservation of plant genetic resources. Integrating livestock into the
system adds income through organic meat, eggs and dairy products, as well as draught
animal power. Tree crops and on-farm forestry integrated into the system provide shade
and windbreaks while providing food, income, fuel and wood. Integrated agri-aquaculture
may also be found within diverse organic agricultural systems. Economic objectives are not
the only motivation of organic farmers; their intent is often to optimize land, animal, and
plant interactions, preserve natural nutrient and energy flows, and enhance biodiversity, all
of which contribute to the overall objective of sustainable agriculture to preserve natural
resources and ecosystems for future generations.
Biological diversity: Biological diversity is another central principle of the organic vegetable
production system. Natural diversity promotes balance in plant and animal systems, allows
for healthy, synergistic relationships and thus reduces the need for external inputs.
Diversity includes varied crops, livestock breeds, rotation cycles, pest management
strategies, and the allowance for natural habitat for wild species.
Resources sufficiency: Local and regional resources self-sufficiency is another foundation of
sustainable agriculture. Organic agriculture, which is more of a closed system of agriculture,
dramatically reduces external inputs such as chemosynthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and
pharmaceuticals. Materials and resources are to be re-cycled within the farm and the
immediate surroundings to prevent costly and wasteful transportation and processing costs

Mandatory in organic vegetable farming
Organic farming is one of several approaches to sustainable agriculture. Indeed, many of
the techniques used in organic vegetable farming - such as inter-cropping, mulching, and
integration of crops and livestock - are practised under various agricultural systems. What
makes organic agriculture unique is that, under various laws and certification programmes,

( 45 )
almost all synthetic inputs are prohibited and "soil building" crop rotations are mandatory.
Properly managed, organic farming reduces or eliminates water pollution and helps
conserve water and soil on the farm.

Success of organic vegetable farming
In general organic vegetable production systems rely on local soil fertility as the key to
successful production. Thus health and life of the soil remain one of the key focuses of
organic farming. Soil fertility practices balance physical, chemical, and biological
characteristics of the soil through such methods as crop rotations, livestock grazing, cover
crops, intercropping, green manures, recycling of plant and animal wastes, tillage, and
occasional application of essential mineral nutrients.
Animals in the organic system are to be treated kindly, with proper consideration to their health
and behavioral requirements. Organic feed, natural grazing conditions, comfortable housing,
and the absence of fear in any form are the necessary requirements. Organic productions
systems emphasize maintaining the integrity and nutritional value of the food throughout the
process from planting to consumption. Finally organic systems develop and adapt new
technologies with careful consideration to their long-range ecological and social conditions.

Available Improved Technologies in Organic Vegetable production System
In Nepal the area under organic production system is far low as compared to other
countries. However, many organizations have been involved in this sector since a long time.
The recent agriculture policy (2062) also realizes the importance of organic agriculture and
put emphasis on it. Different international certifying bodies already certify some tea and
coffee orchards. In organic vegetable production system, scattered information is available
and there is very few research works on it. However, organic vegetable production
technologies are available in Nepal, which is capable to satisfy the organic vegetable
production principles. These available improved technologies can be summarized as below.

Plant nutrient sources and their management as substitute for inorganic inputs
Improvement and maintenance of soil physical, chemical and biological properties are the
key features in successful organic vegetable production system. In this regard, technologies
are available to organically enrich the soil nutrient sources, which are available to the plant
growth and development. These technologies are;
Improvement of traditional cattle compost (FYM) (Suvedi and Suvedi, 2048, Suvedi
et al., 2050, Misra, and Roy, 2003)
Concentrated organic fertilizers-EM Bokashi, Oil cake, Fish bi-products, bone and
meat meal, Cattle urine etc.
Local liquid fertilizers (Jhol mal, giti mal, sangini mal etc)
Crop bi-products-rice bran, wheat bran, grain legume bran etc.
Bio fertilizers-Nitrogen fixing bacteria, phosphorus and potash solublizing bacteria,
Mycorryhzea (Arya, 2002) etc.
Bio growth promoters-Pseudomonas bacteria
Organic Insect Pest Management (OPM) Technologies

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Insect pest management is crucial in organic vegetable production system. Various options
are available there in organic pest management approach. Above all, cultural practices and
biological pest controls are the essence of organic pest management practices. Cultural
approach encompasses field and water sanitation, crop rotation, mixed cropping etc.
Biological control gives major thrust on biocontrol agents. These biocontrol agents are
insects, fungus, bacteria, virus etc. The available biocontrol agents are;
Trichoderma- This fungus is effective against soil born diseases like root rot, foot rot,
and damping off.
Metrazime: This green fungus is effective against white grub which is one of the
devastating insect of mid hill bariland production domain.
Bouveria basiana: This fungus is effective against diamond back moth of cabbage.
Pseudomonas: This bacterium can be used against many foliar diseases and it also
acts as a growth promoter.
Bacillus subtalis: This bacterium can control blights of potato and tomato effectively.
Bacillus thrungenesis: This is well known bacteria against larvae of different
Pasturia penetrans: Nematode can be controlled effectively by this bacterium. Again
it is very easy to recycle this bacterium in further use (Dufor, Earles, Kuepper and
Greer, 1998).
NPV: This virus is effective against the helicoverpa.
Apart from these biocontrol agents, there are many insects predators and parasites that
have been found effective to control many harmful insects of vegetable crops.
Similarly, some non-biological control measures of some of the diseases are there. Use of
baking soda (Kuepper, Thomas and Earles, 2001) against downy mildew of cucurbits and
rose, spraying of compost tea against late blight of tomato and potato (Diver, S., 1998) are
some of the examples and are available in country.
These listed technologies are available in Nepal, however, strong research is needed to verify
and confirm their effectiveness in temporal and spatial dimensions.

Productivity Enhancement Technologies
Increased productivity of the crops is the main debatable issues and concerns over the
organic production system. However, there are several technologies and practices being
adopted which are capable to boost up productivity. In relation to vegetable production,
plastic house vegetable farming is one of the eminent technologies by which productivity
could be achieved by 3-4 folds more than open field condition (Regmi, 2062). Similarly, use
of concentrated organic fertilizers, mixed cropping with legumes is others, which are
capable to supply required amount of nutrients by the vegetable crops. Mixed and relay
cropping also enhance land use ratio and hence land productivity.

Resource Conservation Technologies
These are the technologies that directly or indirectly support the organic vegetable farming.
Some of these are; rain water harvest, plastic house farming, vermi-composting, FYM
improvement, SALT (Regmi and Singh, 2005) etc.

Farm Biodiversity Enrichment Technologies

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In organic vegetable farming, local resources have been widely used. Again this is a complex
process of production rather than simple as in inorganic farming practices. Integration of
livestock, mixed and relay cropping, SALT, use of forest resources are all widen the farm
biodiversity. This biodiversity in flora and fauna certainly helps to maintain in ecological
balance of the vicinity.

Soil biodynamic
Living and active soil is another key factor in organic vegetable production system. Use of
effective microorganisms, bio-fertilizers helps to increase the population of beneficial soil
microbes. They also dominate the activities of harmful soil microbes and converts neutral
microbes in to the beneficial ones (Higa, 1994). So, soil always is in the state of living and
dynamic form which is necessary for productivity increment.

Farmers widely adopted practices in organic vegetable farming
As discussed above, there are many technologies which are either available in Nepal or being
practiced by the vegetable growers. Some of the farmers adopted technologies are as follows.
Soil and Plant nutrient management: Improvement of traditional FYM, collection and use of
cattle urine, local liquid fertilizers (Tea compost, Jhol mal, Giti mal, Sangini mal etc), use of
green manures (asuro, titepati etc).
Organic Pest Management: Use of neem extract, use of tobacco and soap extract, crop rotation,
mixed cropping, use of tea compost, spraying of cattle urine, spraying of sangini mal etc.

Resource conservation: Rainwater harvest (Palpa)
Productivity enhancement technology: Plastic house vegetable farming (Kaski).
Apart from these there are other technologies and practices used by the farmers of different
locations. These technologies and practices should be documented, verified and

Future Research and extension needs in organic vegetable farming
To promote organic vegetable production system, there must be strong research and
extension base in technology invention, verification and upscaling respectively. In this
connection, following points should be considered for research and extension of organic
vegetable farming.

Research networking
Establishment of organic farming research group and network under national research system
Research work on;
Organic seed production system,
Organic soil and plant nutrient management,
Organic pest management,
Organic post harvest handling system
Organic produce marketing system should be immediately initiated
Develop model for organic certification scheme
Extension and development networking

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Establishment of National Organic Agriculture Authority
Delineation of organic farming zones/areas for both domestic and export market
Establishment of national organic standards and certification scheme
Establishment of National network for organic agriculture promotion
Train human resources for the promotion of organic agriculture
Policy clarification on organic agriculture

Arya, Prem Singh, 2002. A Text Book of Vegetable Culture, Kalyani Publisher, India
Diver, S., 1998. Compost Teas for Plant Disease Control, http://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-
Dufor, R., R. Earles, G. Kuepper and L. Greer, 1998. Alternative Nematode Control
Higa, T. and J. F. Parr, 1994. Beneficial and Effective Microorganisms: For a Sustainable
Agriculture and Environment. International Nature Farming Research Center, Atami, Japan.
Jaising, R., 2005. This is Organic Agriculture, Jain Brothers, New Delhi
Kuepper, G., R. Thomas and R. Earles, 2001. Use of Baking Soda as a Fungicide,
Misra, R.V. and R. N. Roy, 2003. On-farm Composting Methods, FAO, Rome www.fao.org
Nature Farming. http://www.moa.or.jp
Regmi, H.N and D. Singh, 2005. Horticulture Science (A competition Guide), Lalitpur
Regmi, H.N. 2062. Organic Agriculture, Kathmandu
Regmi, H.N. 2062. Plastic Gharma Tarkari Kheti, Kathmandu
Regmi, H.N. and D. Singh, 2005. Resource Mapping: A Tool for the Promotion of
Sustainable Organic Agriculture. Paper presented at National Seminar on Organic
Agriculture and Food Security in Nepal, Nepal Permaculture Group, 13-15 December 2005,
Hotel Malla, Kathmandu, Nepal
Sharma, A.K., 2001. A Hand Book of Organic Farming, Agro bios (India)
Sharma, G., 2005. Organic Agriculture in Nepal. An analysis in to Status, Policy,
Technology and Psychology. Paper presented at National Seminar on Organic Agriculture
and Food Security in Nepal, Nepal Permaculture Group, 13-15 December 2005, Hotel Malla,
Kathmandu, Nepal
Weber, G., K.D. Subedi and B. Bajracharya, 2000. Legume Integration in to Hill Farming
System, Decission Support Guide. Sustainable Soil management Program (SSM-P), Lalitpur
=, +==, =- ==, -= - =, ==-=- =-:= - += +-=, -
=s== - +=+=== =-+-, -== +--+, = ~=-+- +=+= == =-+-
--==, ==-+

( 49 )
- Dilli R. Baskota

Tea qualifies a organic or Biotea only when active use of environment friendly technique
are adapted and approved by inspection authority as per EU regulations.
Organic farming system basically focuses on utilization of local resources as far as possible.
As Organic Agriculture respects law of nature, increasing numbers of health and
environment conscious consumer are looking for chemical free cup. Therefore organic tea
production may play a vital role in the economy of the developing country in the long run.

Scenario of World Tea:
The total tea production in the world is 3.2 billion tons. India was the largest tea producing
country in the world. China had taken a lead by producing 835 tons in 2004.

Table 1 : Glance of Tea Production in World
Conventional Organic
India: 820,000 tons 3,500 tons
China: 835,000 tons 8,000-10,000 tons
Srilanka: 288,000 tons 1% of total production
World: 3,200,000 tons ---
(Source: FAO Website)

Organic Tea Production and Productivity:
There are several doubts in the mind of not only farmers but also the scientist too that
whether it is possible to supply the minimum required nutrients to crop only through
organic sources and even if possible how are we going to mobilize that much of organic
matter. Good compost with all the micronutrients is the key to increase productivity. Well
decomposed organic matter and farm yard manure applied at the right soil moisture
condition would not only improve soil texture but also provide necessary resistance to the
crop against pest and diseases.
Darjeeling tea industry began in 1852. Nearly for a century tea was grown without chemical
fertilizer and pesticides .The total production was 10,123 m Kgs from 18,605 Ha in 1960,
while in 1994 though the plantation increases to 20,100 Ha the crop was only 10,752 m
kgs. Thus the logical conclusion would be that use of massive chemical fertilizer in
Darjeeling didnt effect towards increasing the crop. Makaibari Tea Estate always claims
that its production is 15%higher compare to other tea estate in Darjeeling .A study
conducted in Srilanka also confirmed that although there is slightly low in productivity,
profit is three times higher from organic garden (Needwood Tea Estate).
Therefore Nepal should learn from the neighbor and focus on organic production with clear-
cut policy in the days to come.

Kanchanjangha Tea Estate, Panchthar

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Table 2. Effect of different organic manures on yields
Manures Un pruning Section
Concentrated organic 3tons / Ha 2,292 kgs
Organic Manure (FYM) @ 10tons/Ha 2,172 kgs
Green manure (Mulch) @ 10 tons/Ha 2,204 kgs
Conventional Fertilizer NPK 130:40:130kg/Ha 2,308 kgs
(Source by: TRA Johrat)
Market Situation of Organic Tea:
It is noticed that the there is a steady growth of organic tea market specially in EU, USA
and Japan. The growth rate of demand for the organic tea is very encouraging ie.29% in the
USA. Although there is no accurate data, the growth rate in EU countries is definitely a
double digit. Previously the organic products were only sold in health food shops but now-a-
days big supermarket chains have started allocating space for organic food, where tea is
one of the major items from the third world.

Situation in Nepal:
Although Tea plantation was started in 1863 in Ilam, the industry could not move forward
for a century. In 1965 Nepal Tea Development Corporation was formed and some gardens
were established in government sector. In 1982 HMG/Nepal declared the five districts of
eastern Nepal as Tea Zone providing various facilities. Introduction of small farmers scheme
with such facilities had lured many farmers to plant tea. The soil of the plantation area was
very fertile. But this is the bitter fact that most of the Indian Experts hired by National Tea
Development Corporation never cared for the soil condition and recommended high dose of
chemicals and pesticides that caused not only degradation of soil but also farmers were
habituated to use such chemicals. In 1990 renowned gardens of adjoining Darjeeling were
switched to organic production due to high demand of organic tea in Europe. But the
farmers in Nepal were in dilemma as mostly they were advised by the experts from
Darjeeling to use chemicals and pesticides. Farmers are still applying pesticides like
monocrotophos, which are banned in EU. This year also few samples of Nepal Teas were
rejected due to the pesticides residues in tea.
On the other hand farmers practicing organic tea production are also selling at the same
price, as there is no factory that pays premium price for organic. However the situation in
Panchthar is different. Kanchanjangha Tea Estate, the first certified tea garden in Nepal has
been extending its services to the area farmers and other sick gardens. With the technical
support of KTE, a group consisting 189 farmers and three gardens were already certified
organic and 197 farmers are under process. Farmers are getting better price compared to
Ilam. In Dhankuta, Gurase Tea Estate is also certified organic and educating its area
farmers to adopt organic system of production.

Table 3.Tea Production In Nepal
Total Production 11.61 m.kg
Orthodox Production 1.55 m.kg (organic productio: 0.058 m kg)
CTC Production 10.06 m kg
Plantation Area 16,385 Ha. ( 6,689 ha Orthodox)
Share of Small holders 70%
No of small holders 6,942 (6,093 Hills)
No of factory 23 (14 Orthodox)
(Source by: NTCBD)

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Why Organic In Nepal:
Nepal is considered one of the exotic country because of its diverse geo climatic conditions.
There is still a belief among western consumer that Nepal is close to the nature. The major
tea area is in the foothills of Mt. Kanchenjunga believed to be the treasure of bio diversity.
In addition Nepal has the highest animal population per family in the South Asian country.
It is very common that every Nepali family keeps few chickens, a pair of bull, one or two
cows or buffaloes. Ilam the largest tea-producing district in Nepal is famous for milk
production. Therefore going organic is not difficult in Nepal compare to any other countries
in the world. In Panchthar mostly plantation exist in mid part, as upper part is forest from
where the topsoil of the plantation is being fed naturally. In some of the garden organic
matter content is very high i.e. 7.9%.

Table 4. Organic Production In Nepal
Production Productivity
Total Production 58,000 kg -
Kanchanjangha T. E. 28,000 kg 561.5 p/h
Guranse T.E. 30,000 kg young tea
Small holders (Kolbung, SumbeK, Manglebare Ilam) 658 p/h
(Source by: personal research)

Exclusivity in Nepal Organic Tea:
It has been noticed that organic tea producers have started some social projects such as
Cow Bank Project, scholarship programme to the children of field workers. The cow bank
project has not only supplied the nutrient to the plantation but also raise the income of
field workers.
Fair Trade Market:
One of the organic tea producing company has been successful to achieve the FLO
certification. FLO sales not only fetch premium (extra price) but also support the producers in
skill development and assure regular business. As the premium received from sale is used to
improve quality of life of the worker such activities help to minimize the conflicts between the
worker and the processing unit and the management. In addition it is noticed that it build up
the cordial relation between the processor and the green leaf producers small farmer.
Quality Aspects
Nepal Organic Tea possesses some unique character in its preliminary testing report.
Linalool, a component in tea that is responsible for aroma is much higher compared to
Darjeeling and Ilam tea. Likewise caffeine percent is noticed lower than the conventional tea.

Nepal is always considered closer to the nature because of its unique location and huge bio
diversity therefore Organic Tea production may be a sustainable hard currency earning
commodity if following steps are considered seriously and execute jointly by Govt., private
and donor community.
Soil fertility and pest management is very vital in organic tea production system.
Organic Tea farm have been using horn dust, oil cake, farmyard manure as input.
Further research is needed for proper dose per bush for sustainable productivity.

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Plantation of Bakina, Asuro and Lemongrass are the current practice for natural pest
Scientific research is extremely needed to see if such practices are helpful. Similarly
research is needed to preserve the bio diversity or to preserve the predators.
Organic farming is considered suitable for intercropping. Therefore tea friendly crops
should be identified to plant as inter crop inside the garden. As the tea market have
also demanded additives tea, vacancies can be filled up with other plants such as
lemongrass, chamomile etc. so that it helps to create market of inferior quality tea.
Organic tea consumers are exceptionally conscious in quality and other aspect. Some
preliminary researches have indicated that Nepal Organic Tea has some unique
properties such as linalool. In addition caffeine is found comparatively lower than other
conventional teas. Accurate findings from depth research in this regard could be good
selling points in international niche market.
Quality Assurance System in Production Unit:
Food safety, food hygiene and sanitation are very important for organic product
especially for the products from developing countries. Introduction of Good Agriculture
Practice, Standard Operation Procedures, and Quality Assurance System such as
HACCP should be mandatory for organic processing factories to build up buyers
confidence as well as to meet the WTOs SPS/TBT rules.
Market Promotion:
Nepal tea is hardly known to the rest of the world. Therefore promotional activities
should be strategically conducted mobilizing Nepal Embassies, Consulates, NRN and
Friends of Nepal. Promotional activities will certainly boost sales and help to fetch
premium price. Fair trade Organization should be mobilized as far as possible.
Promotional activities need to be conducted in trekking routes so that trekkers return
with a positive impression about Nepal Tea.
The major challenge for organic sector is certification of small growers worldwide. In
Nepalese contest, situation is even worst. In the beginning Nepali farmers hardly can
afford the certification cost. Therefore the govt. especially MOAC should take initiation
to communicate with USDA-NOP to create certification body in Nepal as soon as
possible. Nepal Standard should be developed focusing on the specialty of traditional
agriculture practices. IFOAM, apex body of organic agriculture movement have
developed certain basic criteria for production of organic tea as:
o Clone should be collected from local variety, which can resist pest and disease.
o The plantation should not disturb the rights of the local people and preserved the
soil structure and bio diversity of the area.
o Local resources should be mobilized as far as possible.
o Production system must respect the declaration of UN Human Rights.
o In brief organic tea not only provide employment at grassroots specially to
uneducated women it could be one of the major exportable product from Nepal if we
could promote it jointly (government, international agencies/donor and private) by
formulating a policy and action plan keeping small farmers at the center.

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- Prachanda Man Shrestha*

With the development in organic sector, organic market grew consistently, supply lagged
behind, and resulting price premiums provided an incentive to cheat. In reaction, organic
regulations were developed to protect honest organic producers and consumers against
misleading organic claims. As a rule, a product cannot be sold as organic, until and unless
the product is certified by an accredited certifying body.
Currently organic agriculture sector is the fastest growing food sector. Organic agriculture
is practiced in approximately 110 countries with more than 26 million hectares organically
managed. In Asia, the area under organic management is comparatively small but
increasing rapidly. About 52 countries in the world are producing coffee. However, the bulk
of coffee is produced in Latin America, in particular Brazil.
Though coffee was introduced in Nepal in 1938, coffee was realized by the farmers as an
income generating crop after a long time. There has been a sharp increase in number of
coffee producers (12000 in 2005) and area (1078 Ha in 2005) under coffee. Though coffee
produced in Nepal is organic by default, there are chances of contamination, specifically in
the areas where commercial fruits and vegetables are produced with use of external inputs.
With the shift from dry to wet processing, the quality of Nepali coffee has increased and
subsequently export has increased (38mt. in 2004 to 66mt. in 2005).
Though the requirement of the majority of the coffee processor/traders is organic, certified
organic is grown only by about 1000 farmers in Gulmi and Arghakhanchi. To, introduce
Nepali coffee as a specialty coffee in the international market; group certification needs to
be initiated to maintain the organic standard and improve the quality of coffee. There is a
potential for conversion of Nepali coffee to organic production system with intensive
dissemination of knowledge and training and demonstration on use of organic inputs
prepared from locally available resources.
Main bottle neck in the development of coffee is the lack of research and development.
However, Coffee Farmer Field School (FFS/C) could be used a means of participatory
technology selection and dissemination. Immediate need is a network of stakeholders
planning to promote organic agriculture in Nepal.

1. Background
Conventional agriculture is focused on achieving maximum yields of a specific crop based
on a rather simple understanding that crop yields are increased by nutrient inputs and they
get reduced through pests, diseases and weeds, which therefore must be combated. Over
the last few decades, the focus in agriculture shifted from mainly subsistence agriculture to
market production. Due to reduced fallow periods, overgrazing or exploitative cultivation,
many traditionally farmed areas face severe degradation. At the same time, higher yielding
crop varieties have been introduced which are more prone to diseases.

Team Leader, Coffee Promotion Project, Helvetas Nepal.

( 54 )
It must be acknowledged that with the help of Green Revolution technologies crop yield
increased tremendously, especially in the temperate zones. Several southern countries also
experience the Green revolution as a success story. However, the success of the Green
Revolution in the south was unevenly spread: while technology brought considerable yield
increase in fertile river plains or irrigated land, it rather failed on marginal soils, which
constitute the major part of the land in the tropics. As the fertile lands usually belong to the
wealthier farmers, marginal farmers did not benefit greatly from the new technologies. One
reason for its failure in marginal lands is the low efficiency of fertilizer application on
tropical soils: Unlike soils in temperate regions, many tropical soils do not retain chemical
fertilizers well. The nutrients are easily washed out from the soil or evaporate as gas. The
major part of the applied fertilizer may subsequently be lost (UNCTAD 2003).
Organic farming tries to meet the increased need of the growing population while not
risking the long-term productivity of the farmland. Organic agriculture is a holistic way of
farming; besides production of high quality product, an important aim is the conservation
of the natural resources fertile soil, clean water and rich biodiversity. (Eyhorn et. al. 2002).
Organic farming is already practiced in many developing countries. Two studies by the
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in Latin America and Asia have
examined the potential of organic agriculture for reducing poverty. Both studies have
revealed that farmers were always able to increase their income. Depending on their initial
situation, they could either reduce production costs or increase yields. In addition, they
benefited from higher prices for organic products. IFAD's studies have also shown that the
adoption of organic farming has positive effects on ecology, although to date only few
research projects have investigated this aspect: organic agriculture leads to an increase in
animal and plant species, can help to improve soil fertility, and uses less water than
conventional agriculture. Organic farming has therefore led to considerable success
particularly in areas with difficult agroecological conditions.
Extreme weather fluctuations present a growing threat to agriculture. Organic systems
appear to be more stable and resilient in response to climate disruption based on
comparisons with their conventional counterparts under stress conditions such as severe
drought and flooding. In 1993, conventional rice in Japan was nearly wiped out by an
unusually cold summer while organic farmers yielded 60-80 percent of the annual average.
The better composition of water-stable aggregates in organic soils and reduced soil
compaction result in the favorable performance of organic systems under both flood and
drought conditions. (FAO 2002).
These results show that organic agriculture does have a potential to reduce poverty. It
creates opportunities to increase income and reduce risks by enhancing ecological stability.
In addition, it contributes to diversifying agricultural production. However, successful
adoption of organic production is not easy to carry through. Most importantly, farmers
need advice on organic cultivation technologies, but they also need access to market
information and marketing know-how. Finally, they often depend on financial support
during the phase of transition, which usually takes about three years.
The evaluation of a Swiss-supported organic cotton programme in Mali, Kyrgyzstan and
Burkina Faso has reached similar conclusions. Like the IFAD studies, it also puts
particular emphasis on the importance of strong producers' associations. This type of
cooperation allows farmers to professionally organize and coordinate the marketing of their

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products. Moreover, it gives them the opportunity to exchange experiences and secure
quality control.
Organic production is not merely concerned with a product, but also with the whole system
used to produce and deliver the product to the ultimate consumer. According to IFOAM
organic agriculture is a whole system approach based upon a set of processes resulting in a
sustainable ecosystem, safe food, good nutrition, animal welfare and social justice. Organic
production therefore is more than a system of production that includes or excludes certain
inputs (IFOAM 2005).
Coffee in Nepal is predominantly grown by resource poor small farmers under marginal
upland condition. Requirements of majority of the processor/traders also is organically
grown coffee (without use of chemicals under shade condition). These situations point
toward need of putting thrust on organic coffee production. This is also in line with Coffee
Policy of HMG Nepal which has recognized coffee as a potential income generating crop and
has emphasized the importance of organic coffee production.

2. Development and Status of Organic Agriculture
Although one could argue that organic agriculture has been practiced for thousands of
years in all parts of the world, "certified organic" finds its origin in Europe. In 1920s, the
teaching of Rudolf Steiner inspired people to practice what is now commonly known as
biodynamic agriculture.
In the 1950s, as more and more information about food and related matters became
available, there was greater apprehension on the part of the consumers. Whereas,
previously, consumers concerns had extended only as far as the visibles underweight
contents, size variations, misleading labeling and poor quality they now embraced a fear
of the invisibles such as microorganisms, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants
and food additives, as well as broader interest into the way products were grown and
processed. In response to these fears and interests, food packaging materials displayed
more and more information.
In the 1960s, ecological or organic agriculture became popular and a consumer base
started to build up. The development of organic agriculture was undoubtedly influenced by
Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring, which in 1962 exposed the hazards of pesticide DDT
and had a great impact on the wider public awareness of the negative aspects of intensive
agriculture methods in general, and dangers of uncontrolled pesticide use in particular.
(FAO 2003).
As the organic sector developed, organic
farmer associations wrote their own standards,
more to communicate what they had learned
than to codify what constitute organic farming.
On-site inspection did not commence until the
mid-1970s, and farmers associations
subsequently developed their own certification
systems serving their own members. In this
time, these certification units became more
independent to avoid conflicts of interests and
to increase confidence among the growing
group of consumers.
0.4 0.7
Oceania Europe Latin America North America Africa Asia




2002 (Total: 17.5 m ha) 2005 (Total: 26.4 m ha)
Figure 1: Worldwide Estimated Land Area under
Organic Managemet

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International Federation for Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) was founded in 1972 in
Bonn, Germany and formulated the first version of the IFOAM Basic Standards (IBS) in
1980. IBS serves as a guideline, on the basis of which public and private standard-setting
bodies can develop more specific organic standards. While the organic market grew
consistently, supply lagged behind, and the resulting price premiums provided an incentive
to cheat. In reaction, many countries developed national organic regulations to be able to
protect honest organic producers and consumers against misleading organic claims. The
first organic regulations were adopted in the United States of America (the States of Oregon,
1974 and California, 1979). In Europe, France was the first country to adopt an organic
regulation in 1985. EU Regulation 2092/91, covering the labeling of organic foods, was
adopted in 1991. Other national standards important for international trade are the
Japanese Agriculture Standard (JAS) organic standards for plant products (2000) standards
of the US National Organic Program (NOP) developed in 2002. With a view to harmonization,
Codex formulated guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and marketing of
organically produced foods, adapted in 1999. The guidelines were revised in 2001 to include
provision for livestock and livestock products. The Codex guidelines are voluntary; member
countries can choose to what extent they follow them (FAO 2003).
The organic agriculture sector currently is the fastest growing food sector. Organic
agriculture has developed rapidly world wide during the last few years and the agricultural
lands and farm continues to grow. It has been estimated that organic agriculture is
practiced in approximately 110 countries of the world. According to a survey of organic
farming world wide, more than 26 million hectares are currently managed organically as
compared to 17.5 million hectares in 2002. In total, Oceania holds 43 percent of the world's
organic land, followed by Europe (23.8 percent)
and Latin America (23.5 percent) (Figure 1).
Countries with greatest organic agriculture are
Australia (11.3 million hectare), Argentina (2.8
million hectares) and Italy (more than 1 million
hectares) (Figure 2). As most of the organic
land in Australia and Argentina is extensive
grazing land, the global area dedicated to
arable land is probably less than half (Willer,
Helga & Yssefi, Minou 2005).
In Asia, the area under organic management is
comparatively small, but increasing rapidly. Among the more significant countries
producing organic products are China, Bangladesh, India and Indonesia as well as
Kazakhstan and Japan (Figure 3). Area under organic management in Nepal is only 45
hectares which seems to be under estimation of the actual area under organic management.
The market of organic agriculture products is also increasing, not only in Europe and North
America (which are the major markets) but also in many other countries, including several
developing countries. In 2003, the market value of organic products worldwide reached 25
billion US$, the largest share of organic products being marketed in Europe and North
America. In upcoming years, ongoing growth of the market and organic land area is
expected, also due to an increased support of governments and development organizations.
The market of organic agriculture products is also increasing, not only in Europe and North
America (which are the major markets) but also in many other countries, including several
developing countries.
40.0 36.9
15.2 13.9
6.9 6.5 5.6 3.5 2.8 2.0 1.9
. o
i L



Figure 3: Estimated Area under Organic Management in Asia

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Global Scenario of Coffee Production and Marketing
Coffee is indigenous to Africa, with Arabica
coffee reportedly originating from Ethiopia and
Robusta from the Atlantic Coast (Kouilou
region and in and around Angola) and the
Great Lakes region, and today is widely grown
throughout the tropics. It is second to oil as
the most valuable item of international trade,
and provides employment to over twenty
million people in some of the poorest countries
in the world. The top coffee producing
countries in the world are Brazil, Colombia,
India, Indonesia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam. However, there are over 70 countries in
the world that produce coffee and smaller coffee-producing countries may produce gourmet
coffee, which is highly valued by coffee lovers
in the world (Ring Surf 2003-2004). It has
been estimated that 52 countries in the world
are producing coffee. Information presented
in Figure 4 shows that the world production
of coffee in the year 2000/01 was 112 million
bags i.e. 6.7 million tons (69 million bags
Arabica + 43 million bags Robusta) as
compared to 99 million bags i.e. 5.9 million
tons (65 million bags Arabica + 35 million
bags Robusta) in 1996/97. The bulk of
worlds coffee, however, is produced in Latin
America and in particular Brazil, which has dominated world production since 1840. Brazil
is the worlds largest grower and seller of coffee. Vietnam, which expanded its production
rapidly through the 1990s, now holds the number two position, bringing Columbia into
third place and Indonesia into fourth (ITC 2002).
In case of Arabica coffee, Figure 5 shows that in the year 2000/01, South America produced
39 million bags, North America (including Mexico and Guatemala) 20 million bags, Africa 6
million bags and Asia and Pacific 4 million bags. In Asia and Pacific, India and Papua New
Guinea are the biggest producers of Arabica coffee with 2000/01 production of 2 and 1
million bags respectively. Production of Arabica coffee in Asia and Pacific is steadily growing
from 3.7 million bags in 1996/97 to 4.4 million bags in 2001/01 (ITC 2002).
The market share of organic products in
Western countries range between 0.5% and
3% for food generally, but varies widely for
different product groups. For instance, baby
food in Germany and Denmark is reportedly
more than 50% organic, and organic diary
products are best sellers as well, sometimes
with a market share of 25%. Western annual
growth rates for organic products as a whole
range from 10% to as high as 40%. This
34 35
1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01


Arabica Robusta Total
Figure 4: World Production of Coffee by Type, 1996/97 - 2000/01
North America,
19.9, 29%
South America,
38.6, 56%
Africa, 5.9, 9%
Asia and Pacific,
4.4, 6%
Figure 5: Production of Arabica Coffee by Continent, 2000/01
Total Production of Arabica Coffee: 69 million bags
49 48
23 22 22
15 15
9 7 7
/ L



Total Estimated Consumption: 700,000 Bags of Coffee
Figure 6: Estimated Consumption of Organic Copffee in
2002/03 in Major Consumer Countries

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means that within five years, the market share in some countries might reach 10%. The
market for organic coffee is difficult to estimate. However, in 2001/02 trade sources
estimated world production of organic coffee at some 48,000 tons i.e. 800,000 bags.
Different trade sources have varying views on growth prospects for organic coffee sales.
Estimated consumption of organic coffee in 2002/03 presented in major consumer
countries presented in Figure 6 shows that the total estimation of 700,000 bags is less than
the production in 2001/02.

3. Production, processing and marketing of coffee in Nepal
After the introduction of coffee in Nepal by the Monk Hira Giri in Aanpchaur, Gulmi in 1938
AD, the crop remained unnoticed as a curiosity crop until 1970s. In late seventies,
expansion of coffee as commercial crop to some extent took place when HMG imported
coffee seed from India for distribution. The major shift to commercial coffee production took
place in mid eighteens when the coffee producers were able to sell coffee after the
establishment of Nepal Coffee Company (NeCCo) in Manigram, Rupandehi district, in
1983/84 who collected dry cherry from the coffee producers and processed the coffee for
domestic market. Until early 2000, coffee producers were not very sure of coffee being a
source of income or income generating crop due to the market problem. However, after the
year 2002, substantial increase in the export and also increase in domestic market
consumption to some extent motivated coffee producers to consider coffee as a major
income generating crop.
Nepalese coffee is readily accepted as a specialty coffee in specific international markets.
However, the challenge is to improve the quality of coffee and produce coffee in a
sustainable way.

3.1 Area and Production of Coffee in Nepal
Coffee is presently known to be grown in
about forty districts in Nepal. However, the
coffee growing districts in Eastern
Development Region (EDR) are not very
suitable for coffee due to higher rainfall and
probability of higher incidence of diseases
and pests. Since coffee producers do not use
chemical pest control measures, incidence of
any disease in the eastern region could
spread the diseases to other parts of the
country too. Besides, EDR is the tea
producing area and expansion of coffee in EDR will have to compete with tea for available
resources and market. The districts in far-west and mid-west development regions have low
potential for coffee production due to the frequent drought problem. The major coffee
growing districts where substantial amount of coffee being traded lie in Central and
Western Development Regions namely Gulmi, Palpa, Arghakhanchi, Baglung, Syangja,
Parbat, Kaski, Lamjung, Gorkha and Tanahu in the Western Region and Lalitpur,
Sindhupalchowk, Kavre, Dhading and Ramechhap in Central Development Region.
According to information available, number of coffee producers has increased from 1,984 in
the year 1996 to 12,000 in 2005 (Figure 7). Similarly Figure 8 shows that the area under
2993 2822 2751 2723 2590
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005



Figure 7: No of Coffee Producers in Nepal

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coffee increased from 220 Ha in 1996 to 1078 Ha in 2005 and the production of dry cherry
increased from 29 Mt in 1996 to 250 Mt in 2005 (NTCDB 2003 and MoAC 2005)
Initially, coffee was planted as a contour
plant for soil erosion control and other
environmental protection practices. So the
farmers regard coffee as an easy crop to grow,
and agronomically less demanding. Usually
no chemical fertilizers and insecticides/
pesticides are applied. However, in those
areas where infrastructure (roads,
communication and other services) is well
developed farmers might be using some
external inputs like chemical fertilizer and
pesticide in companion/inter crops specially in vegetables and fruits where commercial
production of these crops exist. In Nepal, the majority of coffee producers are resource poor
smallholder farmers. Coffee is predominantly planted in upland area as an additional/extra
crop without disturbing the existing cropping system and on steep hillsides where other
crops do not perform well under low input and low management conditions. There are few
farmers who have started planting coffee under shade in larger number replacing the maize
crop. The coffee production management system in Nepal can be categories according to the
Coffee produced with commercial fruits and vegetables with significant amount of
external inputs.
Coffee produced with fodder, firewood and other fruit trees with fewer amounts of
external inputs.
Coffee produced in kitchen garden and terrace risers and field boundary with very
less or no external inputs.
Coffee produced in marginal areas and forest with no external inputs.
Except for coffee produced with commercial fruits and vegetables in the areas near by
markets and district Head Quarters, the rest of the coffee production management system
could be converted into true organic coffee with simple intervention of organic soil fertility
and moisture management, shade management, and production and use of cattle urine
based organic insecticide/pesticide. This has been demonstrated through the coffee farmer
field schools implemented since the year 2003 in eight districts of Nepal. However, for the
coffee to be exported as organic, there is a need of piloting the implementation of Internal
Control System (ICS) for group certification to evaluate the feasibility of sustainable ICS
under Nepalese condition.

3.2 Coffee Processing in Nepal
Quality of coffee produced not only depends on the coffee production management, but also
post-harvest processing management at village and processors (central) level. Preparing the
harvested coffee cherries for market requires that the cherries be processed to separate the
beans from the fruit. Coffee is processed mainly by either the wet or the dry method to
produce green beans. Until the year 2001, dry processing of coffee was predominantly
practiced in Nepal where cherries are harvested and dried at the farm level enabling the
producers to store the dry cherry for longer time without deteriorating the quality. The
272 277
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Area in Ha Production in Mt (DC)
Figure 8: Area and Production of Coffee in Nepal

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processors/traders procure the dry cherries from the producers and process (drying,
hulling and sorting) the dry cherry to produce green beans for international market and
roast and grind the beans for domestic market.
In the wet processing, the coffee is pulped, fermented, washed and dried to produce dry
parchment at the village level. Dry parchment is collected and transported to the central
processing centre. Then the processors hull the parchment to produce green beans.
Though wet processing was introduced in Nepal in 1999, by AEC and subsequently by
GARDP in Gulmi and Arghakhanchi, wet processing was not adopted at the village level due
to a number of problems: 1) preference for dry processing which involved less hassles, 2)
lack of technical know-how specifically proper way of fermentation 3) lack of systematic
plan for running pulping centers and 4) Lack of demand for wet processed coffee (CoPP
2004). However, Plantec Nepal Incorporated (Plantec) initiated wet processing within its own
estate and exported wet processed
green beans in 2002. Until the
year 2003 i.e. the harvest season
of 2002/03, dry processing was
predominantly practiced at village
level. After the promotion of wet
processing by CoPP, Helvetas in
collaboration with Nepal Tree Crop Global Development Alliance, Winrock International in
2003, and initiation of wet processing at village level in 2004 i.e. 2003/04 harvest season,
the coffee producers have been able to sell the fresh cherry immediately after harvest on an
attractive price and coffee producers have realized the importance of coffee as a income
generating crop. Presently, wet processing has been accepted and adopted by the farmers,
pulper operators and processor/traders in Nepal. Wet processing has not only done value
addition at the village level but also improved the quality of coffee exported in the
international market (Lama, P.K. 2005). The shift from dry processing to wet processing has
also increased the income of farmers when same amount of coffee is sold as fresh cherry to
pulper operators instead of drying the fresh cherry to produce dry cherry (Shrestha 2005).
Estimation of dry and wet processed green beans marketed in 2004 and 2005 (Table 1)
shows that the production of wet processed green beans has more than doubled from 2004
(27% of total green bean marketed) to 2005 (58% of total). The trend on increase in amount
of wet processed green beans will be continued until the international buyers are interested
on it and continuous effort will be done to improve the quality of coffee at village and
processor level.
To further improve the quality of coffee, study on wet processing needs to be done and the
technology used at present should be improved. Monitoring of the pulping centers are also
essential to provide on the spot technical assistance and collect information on collection of
fresh cherry and production and sale of dry parchment. Testing of different types of pulpers
in 2004 and 2005 has shown that drum pulper is appropriate for pulping bigger amount of
fresh cherry (CoPP 2004 and 2005).

3.3 Coffee marketing in Nepal
In Nepal, coffee is predominantly consumed in the form of imported instant coffee, which is
easy to prepare. The consumption of Nepali/filter coffee in Nepalese society is so far limited
to elite groups. The domestic Nepali/filter coffee market relies on the tourists, expatriates
Table 1. Dry vs. Wet Processing of Green Beans Marketed in the
Years 2004 and 2005
Dry Processed Wet Processed Total
Mt % Mt % Mt %
2004 52.5 73 19.1 27 71.6 100
2005 43.3 42 60.1 58 103.4 100

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and higher income Nepalese. The present situation of the domestic market is not stable,
and it is highly dependent on the number of tourists visiting Nepal. The sale of Nepali coffee
varies proportionately with the increase or decrease in the number of incoming tourists.
Estimated sale of coffee in the domestic and
international market in 2004 and 2005 (Figure
9) shows that consumption of Nepali coffee in
domestic market was 37 mt (36% of total) in
2005 as compared to 34 mt (47% of total) in
the year 2004. Biggest importer of Nepali coffee
is Japan which imported 36 mt of green beans
in 2005. The trend of export of Nepali coffee to
international market is very encouraging.
Export of Nepali Coffee almost doubled from 38
Mt. in 2004 to 66 Mt. in 2005. With the
increase in export of washed coffee (19 Mt in 2004 to 51 Mt in 2005) and the trend of
increase in number of pulping centers (68 in 2004, 131 in 2005 and estimated 213 in 2006)
shows the need of serious monitoring of the pulping centers to produce quality parchment
at the village level so that the quality of coffee going to the domestic as well as international
market does not deteriorate (CoPP 2005).
Though quality of coffee produced in Nepal has potential both for domestic and
international market, there is still much has to be done to upgrade and bring consistency in
the quality of coffee. Nepal can not compete with other coffee producing countries by
producing regular coffee. Nepal is producing limited quantity of high quality specialty coffee
and regular coffee produced else where are cheaper as compared to Nepalese coffee. Target
of the Nepal should be the niche market by producing better quality coffee. Research and
analysis done by Mr. Daniel Giovannucci for The Nepal Tree Crop Global Development
Alliance, Winrock International recommended to focus on quality and consistency than
volume of production with greater attention on productivity ( Giovannucci 2005).
Targeted market and requirements of coffee production and processing of the major
processor/traders in Nepal shows that Arabica coffee grown with shade under organic
management system and processed with wet processing system need to be the focus to
develop coffee sub-sector.

4. Scope for organic coffee production in Nepal
Western countries have developed extensive legislation for organic products. The conditions
that must be met before coffee may be marketed as organic are both comprehensive and
well defined. No coffee may be brought to the marketplace and labeled organic unless it is
proved to conform to the regulations. In other words, coffee can be marketed as organic
only when it is certified as such by a recognized organization or certifier, based on regular
inspection of all stages of production, processing, transporting and roasting of the coffee.
Growing any organic product, including organic coffee, is more than just leaving out
fertilizers and other agro-chemicals. Coffee produced in this way should instead be called
'natural' coffee and, to the surprise of many, the industry looks upon this as non-
sustainable production. This is because, in the long run, the soil will be depleted by
natural production, which is often referred to also as 'passive cultivation' or 'organic by




Japan USA Europe Other countries
Figure 9: Comparision of Coffee Sales in 2004 and 2005
2004 (72 Mt.) 2005 (103 Mt)

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For production of organic coffees i.e. to achieve sustainable production, a high level of
technology is not required, but a commitment to improve the productivity and quality of
coffee through use of locally available resources at right time is required. In organic coffee
production, agronomic practices like soil conservation, composting, manual weeding,
recycling of organic wastes, shade management, etc., form the essential requirements,
which demands larger amount of labor. The principle of sustainable agriculture is that a
value corresponding to that harvested should be returned to the soil. All possible methods
have to be used to enhance the fertility of the soil. This is why passive production of coffee,
even when no chemicals are used, is viewed as non-sustainable and not as organic. As the
demand for animal manure is high, appropriate measures like sufficient live stock with
fodder and forage crops is essential which again demands greater labor requirement. Thus
labor is an important investment in organic coffee production.
In a case study conducted in Mexico, it is reported that Organic coffee estates use 82% of
total production costs towards labor as against 85% in traditional estates and 44% in
intensively cultivated coffee estates. The net return for the organic farm is appropriately 10
percent lower compared to intensively cultivated estate and approximately 80 percent
higher than in traditional coffee growing. The price of organic coffee is reported to be
double that of conventional coffees.
Experience of conversion of coffee plantations to organic management system showed that
traditionally cultivated plantations with low to medium yield levels (i.e., above 250-400
kg/acre0 can be easily converted to organic without any significant yield reduction.
However, when the intensively managed estates with high yield levels (i.e., above 500
kg/acre) are converted, there will be substantial yield reduction, up to 30% in the initial 3
to 4 years, followed by yield stabilization in the next 2 to 3 years. If managed systematically,
these plantations would reach original high productivity level within 6-7 years. (CCRI 2000)
Concept of organic coffee production was introduced in Madan Pokhara, Palpa in 1997 AD.
Thereafter the coffee producer groups and their association adopted and promoted the
organic coffee production concept. The coffee producers from that time have consistently
avoiding the use of external inputs including chemical fertilizers and insecticides/pesticides
in coffee plant. CoPP Helvetas has been promoting simple technologies of improving the
available farm yard manure, production of compost using biomass and collection of urine
for application and use in production of organic fertilizer and/or pesticide. Any coffee
producer, using unacceptable chemical inputs in coffee plants are penalized by relinquishes
his/her membership from the association. Nepal's coffee production practices, though
claimed as organic by default, are not fully organic but more closer and oriented to organic
production than inorganic, which facilitates the adoption and conversion from current
practices to fully organic state.
Coffee production in Nepal offers a great scope for production of organic coffee, as the
conditions in this country are favorable for organic coffee production. Some of the natural
advantages in Nepal are:
Coffee is mainly cultivated under shade trees of diversified nature under upland rain-fed
condition. Growing under shade has several advantages. Shade trees provide a natural
habitat for vast population of birds and natural enemies of insect pests/ diseases, help in
reducing the soil erosion, contribute towards the fertility of coffee soils by recycling
nutrients in the form of leaf litter and finally protect the coffee bushes from vagaries of

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Traditional farming practices such as use of farm yard manure, composting, manual
weeding etc., are typical practice of the resource poor small farmers.
Availability of sufficient labor (family) for labor intensive operations like digging hole,
manuring, planting, picking, drying, etc.
The coffee production system in Nepal is environment friendly with use of locally available
resources and no use of external inputs/chemicals.
In addition to this, not only the guiding principle of coffee producers organization is to grow
organic coffee, but also the requirement of the majority of the coffee processor/trader is
coffee produced under organic management system even if not certified. The focus of HMG
Nepals Coffee Policy on organic coffee production has added impetus towards the organic
coffee production in Nepal.
Due to the growing condition and location of the coffee growing areas (remote in majority of
the cases) coffee produced in Nepal is organic though not certified except for areas in
market centers and district headquarters/municipalities where commercial vegetable and
fruit production is practiced. This could be the reason, though not permissible, the
processor/traders sale Nepali coffee as organic coffee in the domestic market. It is also true
that there is a better potential for production of organic coffee in Nepal. However, the
concept of organic coffee production is yet to be thoroughly understood by the producers
and processors/traders. Major constrains of organic coffee production in Nepal are as
Lack of proper understanding of organic standard and regulation
Lack of research and extension support services
Poor production and on-farm post-harvest quality management practices
Lack of high yielding varieties and high quality seeds/planting materials
Existing higher price of fresh/dry cherry as compared to international market ; and
big range of price of dry parchment
Absence of minimum quality standard and quality control measures
Unfair competition among processor/traders and lack of transparent market system
Coffee presently sold in international market is on the basis of personal relation, not
on a competitive basis on quality and consistency of taste.
Inconsistency in taste of coffee
Lack of knowledge and experience on Group Certification/Internal Control System
Lack of National Program on Organic Production.
With the introduction of Internal Control System for Group Certification by District
Cooperative Federation, Gulmi and initiation of Internal Control System by CoPP Helvetas
through DCPA.NGO, the feasibility of sustainable Group Certification will be evaluated
under Nepalese condition. However, there is a need for sustained efforts from all the
concerned so as promote the concept of organic coffee production in Nepal.

5. Conclussion and recommendation
Coffee has been recognized as income generating crop which is also a source of foreign
currency income and import substitution. Coffee has been able to increase the income of
resource poor small farmers supplementing to the food and nutrition security. However
there are problems which need to be addressed to develop coffee sub-sector as a whole.
Stakeholders need to have coordination and collaboration through a national level

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networking to support production, processing and marketing of coffee in a sustainable and
environment friendly way.
Lack of research on organic coffee production and processing is one of the major
bottlenecks for the development of coffee sub-sector. Participatory technology selection and
dissemination needs to be done to improve the productivity and quality of organic products
including coffee.
Coffee policy puts emphasis on production of organic policy. There should be a movement
towards organic agriculture in Nepal. Strict regulations should be implemented to identify
organic management system.
One of the reasons of sale of Nepali coffee in the international market is the location of
production area and the coffee produced by resource poor small farmers. Organic
certification could be expensive so sustainability of the organic certification without donor
support should be studied and attempt should also be made to certify Nepali coffee as Fare
Trade Coffee.
International coffee experts have recommended to further separating the coffee according to
the altitude, coffee grown between 800 to 1100 masl and above 1100 masl. According to Mr.
George Willekis of Holland Coffee Inc. coffee grown above 1100 masl could fetch additional
premium (Willekis 2004). Based on the expert advice, to improve the quality and
consistency in the taste of coffee there by creating a reputation of Nepalese coffee, coffee
produced in Nepal should be collected on the basis of two ranges of altitude and market
should be explored for these.
According to the processor/traders, wet processed coffee of Nepal has been recognized by
international buyers of Japan and Europe as a high quality coffee with potential for further
improvement. Study should be done and attempts should be made to further improve the
quality of coffee not only by improving the production management system at the producer
level but also wet processing at the village and central level.
Minimum quality standard of coffee is not defined for Nepalese coffee. Attempts should be
done to define the quality and institutionalize the quality monitoring system.
Lack of coordination among traders result in collection of low quality coffee to sustain the
coffee sub-sector and create a reputation of Nepali coffee in the international Market,
traders should be organized and coordinate with each other for collection of coffee.
Coffee promotion activities need to be concentrated in Central and Western Development
Regions in the pocket areas suitable for high quality coffee production. Coffee area
expansion specifically in the Eastern Development Region should be discouraged to avoid
competition with tea and also avoid possibility disease epidemics.

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6. References
CCRI (Central Coffee Research Institute). 2000. Package of Practices for Organic Coffee,
Coffee Research Station, Chikmagalur, India. pp 8.
CoPP (Coffee Promotion Project). 2004. Annual Report 2004. Introduction and testing of
pulpers, pp 20.
CoPP. 2005. Annual Report 2005. Pulper improvement.
CoPP. 2005 Report of Study on Coffee Production, Promotion and Certification in Nepal.
Study done by Mr. Maheshwar Ghimire and Mr. Bhola Shrestha. May 2005.
Eyhorn, Frank; Heeb, Marlene & Weidman, Gilles. 2002. IFOAM Training Manual for
Agriculture in the Tropics. IFOAM Germany, FiBL Switzerland, CABI Bioscience UK, Agrecol
Afrique Senegal, Agrecol Andes Bolivia and INDOCERT India. Oct. 2002. pp 14.
FAO. 2002. Organic Agriculture, Environment and Food Security. Edited by Nadia El-Hage
Scialabba and Caroline Hattman. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Rome. pp 9.
FAO. 2003. Environmental and Social Standards, Certification and Labeling for Cash
Crops, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Prepared by Cora
Dankers with contributions from Pascal Liu.
Giovannucci, Daniel. 2005. A Summary of Trends in International Market for Organic
Coffee and Nepals Potential Options. Research and Analysis Conducted for Winrock
International Institute for Agricultural Development & The Nepal Tree Crop Global
Development Alliance, April 2005.
IFOAM (International Federation for Organic Agriculture Movement). 2005. The IFOAM
Norms for Organic Production and Processing. Germany. Version 2005.
Lama, P. K., 2005. Feed back on quality of wet processed coffee from the Japanese buyer to
Everest Coffee Mill.
MoAC. 2005. Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture 2004/05. Ministry of
Agriculture and Cooperatives, Agribusiness Promotion and Statistics Division, Singha
Durbar, Nepal.
NTCDB. 2003. Tea-A-Tea. Smarika. National Tea and Coffee Development Board, 2060. pp
NTCDB. 2005. Tea-A-Tea. Smarika. National Tea and Coffee Development Board, 2060. pp
Willer, Helga and Yssefi, Minou. 2005. The World of Organic Agriculture: Statistics and
Emerging Trends 2005. International Federation for Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM),
Bonn Germany.

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- Dr. Suroj Pokhrel
1. Introduction
Bees may be designated as organic livestock and products obtained from them can be sold,
labeled or represented as organically produced, if managed in accordance with organic
standards for at least 60 days prior to the collection of organic apiculture products.
Organic honey is regulated by strict set of guidelines, which covers not only the origin of honey,
but also the siting of the apiaries and the management practices adopted. The standards
indicate that the apiaries must be on land that is certified as organic and be such that within a
radius of 4 miles from the apiary site, nectar and pollen sources consist essentially of organic
crops sustainably grown with out chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, antibiotics, hormones and so
on) or from uncultivated areas. Also enough distance must be maintained from non agricultural
production sources that may lead to contamination, for example from urban centers,
motorways, industrial areas, waste dumps, waste incinerators. Husbandry management should
be as per the guideline developed. Production of organic honey is difficult because bee move
everywhere, it is time consuming and costlier however, organic honey is highly demanded
across the world and get 30% higher premium price then the other. It is not only safe to eat,
but also helps keep our planet healthy. Organic beekeepers sustain the natural life cycle of bees
by safeguarding their natural habitat, and nourishing them as nature intended. And because
certifying a hive as organic is costly, they don't exterminate the bees at the end of the season-a
common practice in conventional beekeeping.

2. Organic apiculture standard (UK, USA, EU)
2.1 Source of organic standards
Crop grown without chemical fertilizers, pesticides, antibiotics, synthetic hormones
and other prohibited substances
Crop not genetically modified (GM)
Natural pasture from non-agriculture source
Ensure enough natural nectar, honeydew and pollen sources
Access to non-contaminated source of water

2.2 Apiary/factory site standards
Two miles away from sanitary landfill, incinerator, power plant and golf course
Two miles away from town or city, or other sources of contamination
The minimum distance may be increased if deemed necessary, on a case by case

2.3 Hive characteristics
Use of pressure treated lumber for hive construction is not usually allowed
The hives must be made basically of natural materials (wood) presenting no risk of
The cycling of hives between conventional and organic management not allowed
Hive painting with chemicals and lead based materials not permitted

( 67 )
Plastic foundation and combs may be used if dipped in organic beeswax but it is
restricted in UK
Use of queen excluder is necessary

2.4 Colonies health and hygiene standards
The use of hardy breeds that adapt well to the local conditions (A. mellifera in
Europe) permitted
Regular cleaning and disinfection of equipment needed
Avoiding the presence of pests, parasites or diseases needed
Isolation and treatment of the infested colonies needed
Use of wet comb (extracted, but wet with honey) from conventional hives is prohibited.
Exchange of equipments from conventional apiary/colony prohibited
Bottom boards may be scraped routinely to control wax moths
Colonies infected with American Foulbrood must be destroyed

2.5 Pest and disease management
Use of prohibited pesticides for the prevention or control of pests or parasites not
Using antibiotics, sulfa products or any drug normally not allowed
Phytotherapeutic and homeopathic products shall be used in case treatment needed
Bio control and physical control of pest and disease recommended eg super-super
technique, trapping, queen control etc against brood mite suggested
Without prejudice to the principle formic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid,
menthol, thymol, eucalyptol or camphor can be used on mite infestation
The colonies treated with allopathic products must be placed in isolation apiaries
and all the wax must be replaced with in the conversion period (1 year) however,
should declare to the inspection body or authority before the products are marketed.
Destruction of equipment and bees contaminated with severe disease or pests is

2.6 Avoiding the contamination
Use of foundation wax not contaminated with diseases, pests, chemicals and other
volatile substances
Destruction of contaminated materials and combs
Regular renewal of beeswax
Proper apiary and processing site selection
Use stainless still equipments, tolls, machinery and utensils on harvesting,
processing and storage
The protecting materials for frames, hives and combs must be organic
Physical treatments of hives such as steam or direct flame are permitted.
Refrigeration of bee wax against moth recommended
Chemicals are permitted for cleaning and disinfecting materials, buildings,
equipment, utensils
Site should allow straight line flight to pasture for reducing contamination.
Adding water to honey to decrease viscosity is prohibited.
Any adulteration is not allowed.

( 68 )
2.7 Feeding standards
Hives must be left with reserves of honey and pollen sufficient to survive for the dearth
Feeding permitted only between the last honey harvest and before 30 days before
Feeding must be with written justification and approved from certification agent
Feed should be derived from organic honey or organic sugar syrup, but non-organic
honey or sugar syrup is prohibited

2.8 Queen management and colony division
Regular renewal of queen bees needed (yearly)
Colony division permitted only from the colony adopted organically
Nucleus colony from package bees, swarmed capture with out comb recommended
Wing clipping of queen is not permitted.
The replacement of the queen bees involving the killing of the old queen is permitted.

2.9 Method of honey handling
All equipments, including containers and lines used to transport and/or store honey,
must be completely emptied and cleaned prior to processing organic honey.
Equipment which comes in contact with honey must be made of stainless steel,
glass, or other food grade materials.
Using high pressure honey filtration is not allowed.
Heating apiculture products using kerosene heaters or any heating system which
introduces petroleum fumes into the room is not allowed.
Over heating (> 600 C) and prolong storage prohibited (which increases HMF).

2.10 Husbandry management practices
Colony should be divided from the apiary under the organic standard however, the
captured swarm or package bee are permitted.
The destruction of bees in the combs as a method associated with the harvesting of
bee-keeping products is prohibited.
The practice of destroying the male brood is permitted which reduce mite infestation
Harvesting of immature honey is prohibited.
Migration of the colonies to the registered area permitted
The use of combs, which contain broods, is prohibited for honey extraction.
The beeswax for new foundations must come from organic production if not
available it can be come from the cap.
Honey should be harvested only from the supers

2.11 Harvesting standards
Accepted methods for removing bees from the honey supers during harvesting
o Bee escapes with a natural smoke
o Bee brush and transfer boxes
o Forced-air bee blower.
The use of "fume boards" with non-compliant or unregistered repellents of any kind during
harvesting is prohibited. Examples of these prohibited products include butyric anhydride
(Bee Go and Honey Robber) or benzaldehyde.

( 69 )
2.12 Conversion period
The period from provisions laid down to product sale should be at least one year.
During the conversion period the wax has to be replaced with the organic one.

2.13 Beekeepers comply
All beekeepers in the same area must comply with the requirements of this regulation.

3. Present situation of Nepalese apiculture
3.1 Organic honey standards not fixed
3.2 Licensing, registration and certification procedures absence
3.3 Meliso-palonology procedures absence
3.4 Residual test service not easily available
3.5 Adulteration and contamination sometime reported
3.6 Pest prevention method (N=65, cerana 36, mellifera 29) adopted

Table 4 : Management practices of brood mite adopted by beekeepers in Chitwan, 2004





Respondents adopting management practices (%)

West East Bht Total
- - - -
- - - -
2 g/time 2-5 min. -
2.8 (1) - 7.7 (1)
6.9 (2) 4.6 (3)
1-4 stripe
30 days 1-2
4-10 ml
7 days 3
3-4 g
7 days 3
23.1 (3)

7.7 (5)
- 21 days once Autumn - 15.4 (2)
9.2 (6)

Figures in parentheses are the respondent numbers; Percentage and number exceeded due to multiple
methods used
Not permitted in USA, ** permitted in USA, *** prohibited across the world

Table 5 : Use of antibiotics by the beekeepers in Chitwan, 2004
Management practice
Respondents (%)
West East Bharatpur Total
Antibiotic feeding*** 00 (0) 12.5 (1) - - 3.4 (1) 1.5 (1)
Figures in parentheses are the respondent numbers
*** prohibited, however, conditional use of oxytetracycline against AFB in USA is permitted

3.6 Husbandry adopted
Hill migrations are on Neplease butter tree, Butdhagero and Nizer, all are wild flora
Terai migrations are on Mustard, Buckwhet, Padke, Shisoo, Gumpate, Eucalyptus
and Rudilo and bee poisoning is common only on Mustard
60% of the beekeepers harvesting honey from brood chambers

( 70 )
Honey extractors and the utensils are not stainless steel.
Only few beekeepers used queen excluders
100% farmers reused the built combs (NRs 50/piece)
Siting is not ensured however majority are in rural areas
Colony divisions with brood frames from the mother colony is common
Foundation combs/sugar used not known organic
Room storage of hive for longer period and over heating increased Hydroxymethyl
flural (>60 mg/kg) and Diastase activities (>8)
Male brood controlling method not adopted
100 % of the farmers routinely cleaned the bottom board

Bee poisoning
Table 6: Common pesticides and their uses on bee crops in Chitwan, 2004
Respondents (%)
Treated crops Dose Freq
Hills Terai
Bavistin 2.8 (1) - Vegetables 2 g/lit 1
Carbofuran - 17.2 (5) Mustard, Maize, Rice 30 kg/ha 1
Cypermethrin 19.4 (7) -
Mustard, Mandarin orange,
2 ml/lit 2
Deltamethrin 25.0 (9) 13.8 (4)
Mustard, Mandarin orange,
Vegetable, Rice
1 ml/lit 1-4
Dichlorvos 5.6 (2) 6.9 (2) Vegetable, Mustard 2 ml/lit 2
Dimethoate 25.0 (9) 3.4 (1) Mustard, Mandarin orange, Rice 2 ml/lit 2-3
D-M,45 13.9 (5) - Mustard, Mandarin orange, Bean 3 g/lit 2-3
Endosulfan 5.6 (2) 65.5 (19) Mustard, Vegetable, Rice 2 ml/lit 2-4
Methyl parathion 25.0 (9) 27.6 (8)
Mustard, Mandarin orange,
Vegetable, Rice
2 ml/lit 2-3
Not known 5.6 (2) 31.0 (9) Mustard, Citrus, Vegetables 2 ml/lit 2-4
Phorate - 3.4 (1) Rice 30 kg/ha 1
Stampade - 10.3 (3) Mustard, Maize, Rice 2 ml/lit 2-3

Figures in parentheses are the respondent numbers.

Table 7: Ecological problems on beekeeping in Chitwan, 2004
Respondent (%)
Hill West East Bharatpur Total
Poisoning : High 16.6 (6) 12.5 (1) 38.5 (5) 12.5 (1) 24.1 (7) 20.0 (13)
Medium 19.5 (7) 36.5 (3) 61.5 (8) 87.5 (7) 62.0 (18) 38.5 (25)
Low 55.6 (20) 50.0 (4) - - 13.8 (4) 36.9 (24)
Total 91.7 (33) 100.0 (8) 100.0 (13) 100.0 (8) 100 (29) 95.4 (62)
No problem 8.3 (3) - - - - 4.6 (3)
Pasture lacking
19.4 (7) 37.5 (5) 30.8 (8) 50.0 (4) 37.9 (11) 27.7 (18)

Figures in parentheses are the respondent numbers

( 71 )
3.10 Bee flora found Pasture survey and mapping absence
Table 8: Beekeepers' average area under bee crops in Chitwan, 2004
Bee crops
Crop duration
Average land size (ha/household and


West East Bht Total
Mustard, Brassica
esculentum Moench.
Oct Dec Feb
Citrus, Citrus
reticulata Balanco
*(Tree No.)
June Mar Nov
- - - -
Maize, Zea mays L.
Litchi, Litchi
chinensis Sonner
(Tree No)*
June Apr June 2 (1) 2 (3) 1 (2) 3 (3) 2 (8)
Spongegourd, Luffa
cylindrica (L.) Roem.
(Plant No.)*
3 (12) 4 (8) 3 (10) 5 (5) 4 (23)
Sesame, Sesamum
orientale L.
Mar May June
Nizer, Guizotia
abyssinica (L.) Cass.
Aug Sept Oct

Helianthus annuus L.
Sep Feb Apr - -
Figures in parenthesis are the respondent numbers
* Crops usually spread with pesticides,

Table 9 : Description of the bee flora in Chitawan, 2004
S.N. Flora Type No. flora %
1 Natural
Weeds in crop land* 3.1 (7)
Forest plants 41.3 (93)
Sub total 44.4 (100)
2 Cultivated
Pesticide using* 19.1 (43)
Pesticide not using* 36.5 (82)
Sub total 55.6(125)
Grand Total 100 (225)

*Chemical fertilizer may be used
Figure in parenthesis is the actual number

( 72 )
3.11 Potentiality of uni-floral honey production
Table10. Source of uni-floral honey production in Terai, Chitwan, 2004
Flora Percentage
Mustard, Brassica spp.*** 39
Buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. 18
Rudilo, Pogostemon glaber Benth. 15
Gumpate, Leucas lanata Benth. 9
Sishoo, Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. 5
Chiuri, Bassia butyracea Roxb. 3
Padke, Albizia julibrissin Durazz. 2
Eucalyptus Eucalyptus spp. 2
Litchi, Litchi chinensis Sonner * 2
Others 5
Total 100

4. Procedure of organic honey production
4.1 Developing an organic apiculture plan in accordance with the provisions
4.2 Seeking the international state membership for organic honey and follow the
Quality Assurance International, USA
NOSB Organic Apiculture Standards UK
Soil Association Certification (SA Cert) - UK5
Organic Farmers and Growers Ltd (OF&G) - UK2
The Scottish Organic Producers Association (SOPA) - UK3
The Organic Food Federation (OFF) - UK4
Demeter (BDAA) - UK 6
The Irish Organic Farmers and Growers (IOFGA) - UK7
Food Certification (Scotland) Ltd
Organic Trust Ltd - UK9
CMi Certification - UK10 etc
4.3 Or setting the national apiculture standards of organic honey based on Food Act.
4.4 Develop the product registration scheme for producers, manufacturers and processors
with national authority
4.5 Approved certification bodies and the procedure which includes:
Source certification according to crop forest maps
Apiary/factory site certification
Husbandry management certification
Colony health and hygiene certification (ecotype, queen renewal, pest disease
prevention/control, drone control etc)
Feeding justification and management
Declaration on organic crop pest control techniques
Declaration on bee pest control techniques

( 73 )
Table 1: Pesticide permitted against bee pest (UK)
SN Chemicals Origin Methods
1 Acetic acid S For apicultural use to disinfect empty combs which have
been exposed to European foulbrood, Nosema, or the
protozoan-caused Amoeba Disease.
2 Carbon dioxide S For apicultural use to control wax moth.
3 Essential oils N For apicultural use to control tracheal mites including:
menthol, cinnamon, eucalyptus, spearmint, wintergreen,
thyme, and camphor. These materials may be used after the
last honey harvest of the season and must be discontinued 30
days before the addition of honey supers.
4 Folic acid S For apicultural use to control Varroa mites. This material may
be used after the last honey harvest of the season and must be
discontinued 30 days before the addition of honey supers.
5 Formic acid S For apicultural use to control Varroa mites in UK but not
permitted by EPA in USA
6 Lactic acid N S For apicultural use to control Varroa mites. This material may
be used after the last honey harvest of the season and must be
discontinued 30 days before the addition of honey supers.
7 Oxytetracyline
S Permitted only for treatment of American foulbrood (AFB) in
apiaries in which the disease has been diagnosed; beekeepers
may not make routine, prophylactic applications of oxytetracyline
in apiaries in which there has been no confirmation of the
presence of AFB. It should be ended at least 30 days before
supering (but it is questionable in many instances)
8 Vegetable
N For apicultural use to control tracheal mites. This material
may be used after the last honey harvest of the season and
must be discontinued 30 days before the addition of honey
supers. But it should be from the organic sources.
9 Menthol

Allowed against Tracheal mites Acarapsis woodi

Traceability certificate
Table 2: Traceability standards (UK and USA)
SN Chemicals Tolerable limits
1 Perizin Upto 100g/Kg permitted in USA and UK
2 Apivarol 100 g/Kg in USA and 200g/Kg in UK
3 Acid < 50 mg/Kg in USA and < 40 mg/Kg in UK
4 Hydroxymethylflural < 60 mg/Kg in USA and < 40 mg/Kg in UK
5 Diastase activity < 8
6 Insecticides Not permitted
7 Antibiotics Normally not permitted
8 Fungicides Not permitted
9 Metals Not permitted
10 Fertilizers and hormones Not permitted
11 Foreign materials < 0.1%

( 74 )
Meliso-palonology analysis procedure (typical composition)
Table 3: Meliso-palonology standards (UK and USA)
SN Constituents Average Range
1 Fructose/Glucose Ratio 1.23 0.76 - 1.86
2 Fructose, % 38.38 30.91 - 44.26
3 Glucose, % 30.31 22.89 - 40.75
4 Minerals (Ash), % 0.169 0.020 - 1.028
5 Moisture, % 17.2 13.4 - 22.9
6 Reducing Sugars, % 76.75 61.39 - 83.72
7 Sucrose, % 1.31 0.25 - 7.57
8 PH 3.91 3.42 - 6.10
9 Total Acidity, meq/kg. 29.12 8.68 - 59.49
10 True Protein, mg/100g. 168.6 57.7 - 567

4.6 Labeling and record keeping
Any honey heated to over 110 degrees F must not be labeled "raw" honey because of heat
denaturing of enzymes.
The labeling of organic honey grade or color shall comply with organic standards. Organic
honey labeled must be uni-floral.
Yard records of all inputs must be maintained, including dates and amounts of materials
applied. A detailed production log with an apiary yard location system must be maintained
in an auditable format.

4.7 Punishment procedures
Registration and license scheme should be applied
Violations to the rules shall allow the punishment and withdrawal of the products
from the market

5. Potentiality (strength) and suggestion
Commercialization of beekeeping in Terai
Majority Apiary sites are in organic sites which absent in Europe and USA
Major part of Nepalese honey is organic (56% Rudilo, Gunpate, Chiuri, Padke,
Sishoo, Eucalyptus and buckwheat)
Honey processing plant established recently in 2006
Demand of stainless honey extractor and queen excluder in Terai is increasing
Organic honey, propolish is highly demanded hive product for which many phone
calls, email messages have been receiving from across the world with 30 % premium
Preventive methods of brood mite control initiated: Super-super technique queen
control, wired bottom board
Selection of ecotypes, establishing meliso lab demanded
HMG/N should established organic food honey registration/ certification authority
with suitable legislation procedures

( 75 )
Pasture survey mapping and migration according to the carrying capacity needed
Advance training, awareness and campaigning needed from extension site to carry
out the organic husbandry practices
Use of chemical pesticides on crop protection should replaced with non chemical one

6. References
Farrar, C. L. 2006. Caution In The Use of Chemicals, Drugs, and Antibiotics. On line
communication (http://www.beesource.com/pov/usda/abjmay1960.htm)
James A. Riddle. 1999-2001. Organic Apiculture Standards On line communication (Bee
Organic Trade Association. 2006. Privacy Policy. On line communication
Postmes T, Van Den Bogaard AE, Hazen M. 1993. Honey for wounds, ulcers and skin graft
preservation. Lancet. 341(8847):756-57.
White, J. W. Jr. 1980. Detection of Honey Adulteration by Carbohydrate Analysis, Jour.
Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 63 (1) 11-18.
White, J. W. Jr. and Rudyj, O. N. 1978. The Protein Content of Honey. Jour. Apicul. Res.,
17 (4) 234-38.
White, J. W., Jr. et al. 1962. Composition of American Honeys. On line communication
(www.thesynergycompany.com/pages/healing-honey.html Web: http://www.qai-inc.com)
White, J. W., Jr. et al. 1962. Composition of American Honeys. Tech. Bull. 1261,
Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C.

( 76 )
- Rama Nanda Mishra
- Gagan BN Pradhan*
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector. According to FAO statistics, Aquacultures
contribution to global supplies of fish, crustacean and mollusks and continues to grow,
increasing from 3.9 % of total production by weight in 1970 to 27.3% in 2000. World wide,
the sector has increased at an average compounded rate of 9.2% per year since 1970,
compared to 1.4% for capture fisheries and 2.5% for terrestrial farmed meat production
To meet the demand of rapidly growing population fishing pressure increased resulting in
stock depletion in many water bodies and caused diminishing fishing harvests which paved
the way for the development of commercial Aquaculture. Intensification in aquaculture has
promoted the use of inorganic chemical and drugs. The increased use of these substances
has adverse effect on human health as well as on environment. There is a growing concern
to produce fish in way which is safer for human and environment. In this regard the
concept of Organic aqua culture is most recent one. Organic aquaculture has attracted
the attention of researchers, planners, environmentalists as well as consumers but it is very
much a challenging job.

Organic production in Aquaculture:
Organic in the context of food production connotes standards and certification - a variable
claim for production processes and production practices - as well as more elusive
characteristics such as consumer expectation for food quality and safety and general
environmental, social and economic benefits for farmers and for society.
The variety of species produced in Aquacultural systems and vast difference in cultural
requirements add to the complexity of defining this sector. Some species and some
production systems may prove quite difficult to be adopted in a traditional "organic system".
Traditional organic farming systems "rely on ecologically based practices, such as cultural
and biological pest management and virtually exclude the use of synthetic chemicals in
crop production and prohibit the use of antibiotics and hormones in livestock production.
Sustainability, environmental stewardship and holistic integrated approaches to production
are hall marks of organic systems.
Interpreting practices and standards developed for terrestrial species to the practices and
standards relevant to aquatic species remains a major challenge for organic aquaculture.
How can aquatic operations comply with the requirement for an organic system plan, for
obtaining acceptable stock, for implementing healthcare monitoring and management, for
maintaining prescribed "living condition" for development and acceptance of allowed and
prohibited substances lists, for organic feed requirements, for controlled post harvest
processing, for nutrient management and for required animal identification and record
keeping ?
The most immediate ditterent to production of organic fish is providing organically
produced feed, especially for species requiring significant proportions of animal based

Senior Fisheries Development Officers

( 77 )
protein. Where will in come from? Can wild caught fish and fish by-products be utilized as
organic feed source for farmed species? Should emphasis be placed on farming low trophic

International organic Aquaculture standards:
Today organic aquaculture production takes place primarily in Europe where certified
organic salmon, carp and trout are grown and sold. Certified organic mussels, Tiger Shrimp,
White Shrimp and Tilapia are also cultured in such diverse places as Vietnam, Peru,
Equador, Chile, Newzealand and Israel. Standard and certification procedures are set by
just a few certification agencies. Universal acceptance of any standards does not currently
exist. The key to the growth and development of organic aquaculture lies in resolving a
number of issues that currently stand in the way of instituting internationally accepted
certification standards.
Several countries and international organization have addressed or mandated standard for
organic aquaculture. In the 2002 food and agriculture organization (FAO) document organic
Agriculture, Environment and food security has cited 20 - 25 private and non-private
certifying bodies for aquaculture with diverse set of standards which vary considerably
from country to country, certifier to certifier and species to species. The FAOs food
standards body has not yet made recommendation for aquaculture.
The International federation of organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) is another
International body attempting to create guideline that will normalize organic production &
certification world wide. IFOAM's guidelines for aquaculture, currently is in draft form.

International Market:
There is increasing demand for organic products particularly in Europe and America.
Consumer and market studies have confirmed & growing demand for organic fish and
related food products in America. Organic fish are sold at natural product supermarkets,
conventional super markets, club stores and even in farmers market.
In a FAO report from 2002, Brister and Tacon attempted to approximate the current
international production for organic aquaculture. It was estimated that total production in
2000 was only 5000 mtonnes primarily from European Countries. Based on current
estimates of certified organic aquaculture production and an anticipated compound annual
growth rate of 30% from 2001 to 2010, 20% from 2011 to 2020 and 10% from 2021 to 2030,
it is estimated that production will increase 240 fold from 5,000 mtonnes in 2000 to 1.2
million tones by 2030. Such a production of certified aquatic products would be equivalent
to 0.6% of total estimated aquaculture production in 2030. In Nepal there is no record of
organic fish production & marketing till now.

Fish production in Nepal:
Fish is produced from capture as well as culture fisheries. Total annual fish production in
Nepal was 42463 mtons in 2005 out of which 53% i.e. 22480 mton was produced from
Aquaculture. Aquaculture production is mainly from ponds and Ghols which is less than
1% of the existing water resources of Nepal.

( 78 )
Production & Productivity from Aquaculture:
Water Bodies Area (ha.) Fish Production(mt.) Productivity(mt./ha.)
Ponds 6220 20213 3.25
Paddy Fields 277 111 0.400
Cage fish culture 1206 (36000m3) 216 0.18 (6 kg./m3)
Enclosure 100 130 1.3
Ghols 1400 1778 1.27
Total: 9203 22480 Contributes 53%

Water resources of Nepal:
Resource Details Area (ha.) Estimated Area (ha.) Coverage(Percent)
Natural Waters: Rivers 395000 48.25
Lakes 5000 0.61
Reservoirs 1500 0.18
Swamps/ghols 12500 1.53
Paddy fields 398000 48.61
Ponds 6500 0.82
Total: 818500 100.00

Existing Technology for fish culture :
Carps are the major cultured species. 7 species of carps 4 exotic and 3 indigenous are
recommended for poly culture in ponds, Ghols and pens. Filter feeding carps are being
cultured in cages in lakes and reservoirs. Common carp is the recommended species for
Rice fish culture. Carps are grown mainly in southern part of the country with warm
climate. Technology for trout culture in raceways has been developed for cold water areas
but still awaits mass adoption.

Recommended inputs in various types of Aquaculture

Production System
Fish Seed
1. Pond Culture
1.1 General 7000 500 - - - 0.8 1.5
1.2 Semi Intensive 10000 500 220 345 - 1.5 3
1.3 Intensive 15000 500 220 345 2850 > 3
1.4 Commercial - - - - - -
1.4.1 Polyculture 8000* 500 220 345 2850 4 5
1.4.2 Polyculture with IMC 7000* 500 220 345 2850 4 5
1.4.3 Integrated 8000* 500 220 345 2850 4 5
1.5 Intensive (Pocket) 8000* 500 220 345 6662 3.5 4
2 Rice Fish Culture 5000 - - - - 0.3 0.5
3 Other Water Areas 7000 - - - - -
4 Cage Fish Culture - -
4.1 General 10/cum.* - - - - -
4.2 Commercial 20/cum.* - - - - -
5 Enclosure Culture 7000* - - - - -

* Fingerlings

( 79 )
Basis of fish production:
Every water body has its capacity to produce fish which can be increased through
management. In a stagnant and controlled water body, 50 200 kg. fish/ha. can be
produced without management which can be increased to 800 1500 kg./ha. by stock
management. It can be further increased to 3000 9000 kg. by proper fertilization regime
along with stock management and with the addition of feed it can reach up to 15,000
kg/ha.. It can be even further increased through the use of aeration & balanced feed.

Organic basis of fish production:
Fish can be produced at an increased productivity level by using organic based material.
40-50 kg of organic manure helps to produce a kg of fish, it needs 30-40 kg of grass to
produce one kg. of fish where as only 3 kg. of grain produces the same amount of fish. The
waste of one buffalo produces 100 kg. of fish, a pig waste can help to produce 64 kg. of fish,
a cow can contribute in 50 kg. of fish production, a human can add 37.5 kg. of fish, a Goat
can produce 12 kg. of fish, a duck adds 3 kg. of fish and a chicken can contribute in 1.5 kg.
of fish production per annum but it can be only achieved through efficient use of the wastes.
An efficient waste fed pond can support growth of 30 kg. fish/ha./day .Which comes to 6 m
tons for 200 days culture period and 9 m. tons for 300 days culture period.

Integrated fish farming for organic fish production:
Integrated fish farming is a diversified and co-coordinated way of farming or producing
agricultural items in the fish farms with fish as the main product. The item produced are to
be used either as source of feeds and fertilizers, source of additional income or both. The
wise integration of these items in a fish farm promotes full utilization of its land area and
recycling of wastes and by-products, minimizes the operational expanses on feeds and
fertilizer, improves the living conditions of the worker due to increased income level & helps
in maintaining balanced ecosystem. There are several models of integrated fish farming.
with poultry (Chicken, duck)
with livestock (pig, cow, buffalo, goat etc.)
with Fodder (Napier, Sudan, Berseem etc.)
with Horticulture (Banana and tender leaved vegetables)
with Crops (Wheat, Maize, barley etc.)
with Mulberry
Rice fish culture
Integration may be complete or partial, single commodity to complex with many
commodities but all integrated. For organic production none of the production item in
integrated system should receives drugs & chemicals of in organic nature.
In fish cum poultry/livestock model animal excreta is utilized as organic fertilizer for fish
farming with poly-culture technique. Ponds receiving manure has to receive one of the
following amount as base manure.
Chicken 600-750 kg./ha.
Duck 1800-2250 kg./ha.

( 80 )
Pig 3000 3750 kg./ha.
Cow 4500-6000 kg./ha.
additional amount of manure required can be calculated using following formula
M = WR/r
M = Amount of manure applied per day (dry wt. kg./ ha.)
W = existing wt. of fish
R = Ratio of manure applied (Chicken 3.5, Duck 4, Pig 5, Cow 6-7)
r = ratio of dry matter in manure (Chicken 55%, Duck 35-45%,
Pig 15-20%, Cow 12-15%)
Pond silt can be used to produce grains, fodder, fruits & vegetable without using chemical

Opportunities in Nepal:
Nepal has vast water resource of which only 1%is exploited for aquaculture so far
therefore there is scope for expansion. Present culture technique adopted in Nepal is
more suited for organic farming. For example poly culture of carps, Integrated fish
farming, cage fish culture and rice fish farming.
The major aquaculture production sites are ponds & Ghols (marginal swamps) where
organic farming can be easily carried.
There are 3 species of native carps which completely utilizes all the niches in ponds and
Ghols when in poly culture.
Extensive method of cage fish culture with carps can reduce pollution in lakes and
Organic fish fetches very good price due to consumer awareness and export potential.
The technique of IPM and ICM is gaining popularity amongst farmers therefore organic
farming can get popular with little effort.
The existing productivity level can easily be reached by using inputs of only organic origin.

There are quite a few challenges in organic aquaculture. Few among them are;
Not all aquaculture sites have independent water source. Instead they are dependent on
run-offs or common resources which are contaminated with drugs and chemicals used
to protect the crops or effluents released by factories or domestic sewages.
The integration of fish with Pig, Duck & banana were quite common a decade age but
has decreased drastically due to unsustainable technique.
Lack of study on drugs and chemicals of organic origin in treating diseases and
parasites in case of its out break.
There are no seed certification processes resulting in uncontrolled & unregulated seed
sources. Thereby contaminating the natural habitats as well as cultured environment
with fishes of unknown origin.
Lack of organic source of feed to formulate balanced diet for fish which are primarily
cultured on artificial feed.
The greatest challenge is the level of farmers to understand the organic production &
follow the production process so as their product can complete in world market.

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In order to be successful in organic fish production in Nepal decide the culture sites
suitable for it and discourage discharge of sewage or affluent in any water body
without proper treatment & at the same time aware the farmers about negative
consequences of using chemicals, drugs, antibiotics and hormones in their
Reestablish the technique of integration by developing sustainable package and
encourage farmers to adopt it through incentives.
Carryout study programmes to control various diseases and parasites by using
materials of organic origin. Learn from China and test it here.
Seed certification through seed act must come to effect and strict trans-boundary
movement measures be adopted.
Organic source of raw material must be searched in order to prepare balanced diet
which will increase species diversity in marketing product.
Carryout effective mass campaign about benefits of organic farming.
Set national standards in line with International standards.
Formulate guide lines for site, culture condition, origin of stock, use of chemicals for
disease and parasite control, water testing parameters, Inspection, record keeping
and certification.

Even though Nepal has a vast potential for organic fish production but has very little scope
to export into good international market due to species produced. Therefore, the organic
fish produced will have to rely mainly on domestic and Indian market. Therefore the scale of
production should be determined only after proper market survey.

Integrated fish farming in China. NACA Technical manual 7. NACA, Bangkok, Thailand,
A Guide to warm Water Aquaculture by David little and James Muir. Institute of
Aquaculture, Scotland, 1987.
Organic Aquaculture, AFSIC Notes #5, Compiled by Stephanie Boehmer, Mary Gold,
Stephanie Hanser, Bill Thomas and Ann Yoeng, Alternative farming System Information
Centre, National Agricultural Library, U.S. Department of Agriculture, January 2005.
The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2002, by U. Wijkstram, A. Gumy and R.
Grainger, Rome, Italy, FAO, 2002
Organic Aquaculture: Current Standards and Future prospects, Chapter 6 by Abbort G.J.
Tacon and Deborah J. Brister. Organic Aquaculture, Environment and food security. FAO,
Rome, Italy 2002.
DOFD annual report 2005. Directorate of Fisheries, Government of Nepal.2005.
Proceeding of the national symposium on the role of fisheries and Aquaculture in the
Economic development of Rural Nepal. NEFIS, 1996, Kathmandu.

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- Dila Ram Bhandari*
The conventional system made farmers dependent on production inputs of multinational
companies such as hybrid seed, fertilizer, fuel, machines and plant protection chemicals. As
a result it replaced locally available indigenous technologies and skills. The environmental
structures became imbalanced and many of the agriculture biodiversities were lost due to
intensive use of these modern inputs. To over come this, organic farming is an excellent
alternative. Therefore, District Agriculture Development Office (DADO), Kathmandu focusing
on organic farming in its program. This report has 4 parts. Part I is general overview of
commercialization vegetable productions in Kathmandu district describing vegetable species,
plant nutrient management, pest management and problems in existing production. Part
deals with present emerging issues and concern on organic products, Initiation of organic
farming, objectives, activities and co-ordination among stakeholders. Part III of the report
consists of comparative analysis of yield and price of organic green pea with that of
conventional green pea from farmer's perspective as well as DADO perspective along with
quality issue. Lastly, part IV deals with achievements of organic farming activities, impacts
at different levels. It also includes suggestions on technical issues, marketing, institutional
management of organic farming. Future strategies of Kathmandu district are also briefly
presented in this part.

Present day agriculture is the result of two centuries of scientific and technological
discoveries. During this time chemistry has created fertilizers for plant nutrition and
pesticides for plant protection against pests. Biology (genetics, physiology) has enabled an
improvement in the productive capacity of plants and animals. Similarly mechanization has
reduced human efforts and increased human working capacity.
The green revolution of agriculture in sixties was based on introduction of high yielding
varieties of improved and hybrid crops, crop intensification, promotion of single crop
species in large area, off-season vegetable and fruits production. The productivity of land
has increased with crop management practices which include maximum use of irrigation
water, application of synthetic chemical fertilizer and pesticides, modern agriculture
implements. Thus the maximum production has been achieved to meet the food demand of
increasing world population. However, majority of the farmers in the developing countries
couldnt use expensive inputs (seed, fertilizer, fuel, machines and plant protection
chemicals) due to high cost and high management practices. Thus their production
remained stagnate even declined. The conventional system also made farmers dependent on
production inputs of multinational companies.
Nepal has about 40 years experience towards commercialization of agriculture. In the
process of commercialization farmers used pesticides for soil treatment, seed treatment,
crop production, and in storage against pests. Similarly, consumption of chemical fertilizer
is increasing in commercial production pocket particularly in the vicinity of cities and town.

Senior Agriculture Development Officer, District Agriculture Development Office, Kathmandu

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Consequently the environmental structures became imbalanced and many of the
agricultural biodiversities were lost. It is also proved that synthetic agro- chemicals have
adversely affected human health, animal health and soil environment.
The tenth plan document has endorsed the promotion of organic farming in Nepal. Emphasis
was given with the recently formulated National Agriculture Strategy, 2061 for preserving soil
health, human health and environmental quality along with the increasing demand of organic
products in national and international market. Based on these policies, District Agriculture
Development Office (DADO), Kathmandu is among the first government organization to take
the lead towards mainstreaming organic farming in its programs from 2002.
This paper aims at sharing the three years experience of DADO, Kathmandu which covers
formulation and implementation of the program, partnership development, challenges and
various other issues associated with organic farming that might be relevant for the success
of the program in the long run.

Commercialization of Vegetable production in Kathmandu district
The cropping patterns under lowland ecosystem are Rice Wheat, Rice- Field pea, Rice-
winter vegetables, Rice- Potato, Rice- Potato-Potato, Rice- Potato- Wheat, Rice- Tomato,
Rice- Cauliflower, Cabbage. Maize - Wheat and Maize- winter vegetables are dominant
patterns in upland ecosystem. There has been increasing trend of shifting from subsistence
farming to commercial farming and switching towards high value crops such as off season
vegetables and potatoes. Few years back, the area under off- season vegetable cultivation,
number of farmers engaged in this enterprise and numbers of vegetable traders have been
sharply increased due to high comparative advantages. It is also observed that rural youths
are found engaged in vegetable farming. People from outside the valley have rented several
hectares of land for commercial fresh vegetable production. Some of the farmers groups
have started taking land in lease for vegetable farming. Thus the area under cereal crops
has been decreasing while the area under potato and vegetable cultivation is increasing
rapidly (DADO, Annual report, 2005). As a result the import of fresh vegetables from India
is also reduced. This can be proved from the fact that several a week long "Nepal band" did
not create green vegetables crises in Kathmandu valley although price some what increased.
The Kathmandu district annually produced about 36,360 mt. of green vegetables in 3,230
hectares of land (MoAC, 2004/05).
Most of the commercial farmers grow improved and hybrid varieties of vegetables and few of
them are local. Mostly open pollinated varieties of Nepal and hybrids from India and aboard
are planted. The varieties of some common vegetable species such as field pea (sikkim local,
arkle), cauliflower (Kathmandu local, snow crown, silver cup 60, snowmistic, kibojiant),
cabbage (kk cross, green crown, green coronet, green cross, goldenekar), rayo (marpha rayo,
khumal chaudapat, khumal rato pat), cucumber (Bhaktpur local, kusale, poinset, Japnese
long green), radish (40 days, mino early, all season, tokinashi), beans (Chaumase, Ghyu
simi), coriander (Local), Garlic, onion, carrot, bean, squash, turnip, tomato, mustard leaf,
potato, brinjal, chilli, pumpkin, aquash, lettuce, broccauli, spinach, chayote, green soybean
have been commercially cultivated by the farmers in Kathmandu district.

Farmers practices on plant nutrient management in vegetable production
The FYM production is decreasing and the use of chemical fertilizer is increasing. Farmers
use compost with the application rate of 5 to 10 mt. per hectare. However, the quality of

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compost is questionable i.e. composts are not properly decomposed. Thus the most of the
farmers in Kathmandu depends on chemical fertilizer for potato and vegetable production.
Farmers give highest priority for Urea followed by DAP and Potash. They apply urea, DAP and
Murate of potash in potato at the rate of 12-15 kg, 6-8 kg, and 2- 4 kg / ropani, respectively
(DADO, Kathmandu, 2059/60). The crops like cauliflower, cabbage and tomato shows similar
fertilizer consumption trend or above rates. Spraying of urea as top dressing is very common
in leafy vegetables. Commercial growers say that the recommended rate of chemical fertilizer
in potato and vegetables can not produce satisfactory yield. Therefore farmer increased the
amount of inorganic fertilizer. However, the unbalance use of chemical fertilizer over a long
period have started showing the declining crop response and impaired soil fertility,
particularly in commercial pocket. Farmers massively used multiplex as micronutrient spray
of 5-6 times in summer potato. The other micro nutrients and hormone such as Vegimax,
Atonic, Miraculon are used in winter potato. The application rate depends on technical advice
of private Agrovet dealer. The increasing number of fertilizer dealers as shown in table 1
reaveled that the use of chemical fertilizers is increasing in Kathmandu district

Farmers practices on plant protection management in vegetable production
The use of pesticides is still not to a level of other countries but the increased trend gives
alarming message in pockets where the cultivation of commercial have gained significant
coverage. Farmers prefer to apply toxic and highly persistent pesticides because they want to
see the immediate action. Particularly off-season vegetables, potato, tomato, cauliflower,
cabbage, cucumber, squash, paddy, maize are prime commodities for pesticides consumption.
Most of the farmers they prefer Metacid, Rogor, Furaden, Phorate, Cypermethrin, Thiodan,
Nuvan, Decis, for insects control while Indofil/Dithane M-45, Krinoksil gold, Bevistin,
Hinosan used for fungal disease control. The pesticides suchs as Celphos, Malathion, and
Metacid are commonly used in storage.
The application rate of pesticides ranges from 5-12 times in potato and vegetables
depending on severity of infection. Farmers use pesticides in potato storage from Baisakh
(April) to Bhadra (August) against potato tuber moth which produce major toxic in potato
consumption. Pesticides are applied to crops by foliar spraying, seed treatment in storage,
soil incorporation (granular, dust, liquid formulations). It is very common that farmers sell
their vegetables in Kalimati market and with the money earned they purchase pesticides
while returning their home. There are many indicators that pesticides use has been
increasing in the past several years in Kathmandu district of which the number of
pesticides dealers are given below (Table-1).
Table - 1. The increasing trend of fertilizer and pesticide dealers in Kathmandu district
Fiscal year Fertilizer dealers Pesticide dealers
1999/20 167 17
2000/01 200 27
2001/02 219 42
2002/03 288 59
2003/04 305 74
2004/05 337 90
Source; DADO, Kathmandu, 2005

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Major problems in commercialization of vegetables production
1. Soil fertility degradation
Limiting the organic manure in the soil, the organic carbon content of the Kathmandu soils
is depleted. Decline in soil organic matter, reduced the soil biodiversity. Due to increased
and unbalanced use of chemical fertilizer, farmers have experienced degrading soil health.
Farmers belief that chemical fertilizer makes the soil rukho or hard. The soil PH ranges
from 3.0 -5.0. Soil organic matter percentage is 1.5 to 3. Nitrogen in soil is low, Phosphorus
is high and Potash is medium. Therefore the overall effect on soil fertility has been the
imbalance in their physical, chemical and biological properties.

2. Insect pest and disease problems
Farmers were unable to manage their crop pests even applying high amount with high dose
of pesticides. Farmer's experiences indicated that the number of pests increases in a
geometrical trend as the initiation of improved agriculture practices. Unbalanced use of
fertilizer and pesticides has made vegetables production more prone to pests and heavily
dependent on pesticides. Thus commercial farming systems build up soil pathogen and
insect in the soil.
Vegetable growers faced major of problems cut worm, red ant white grub, cabbage butterfly,
dimond back moth, tomato fruit borer, potato tuber moth, leaf eating caterpillar, aphid etc.
Similarly major fungal diseases in nurseries are damping-off (Pythium/Fusarium),
Sclerotinia rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).
The major diseases on cauliflower, mustard leaf are alternaria leaf spot, stalk rot, downey
mildew. The common diseases in cucumber are powdery mildew, downey mildew and
cucumber mosaic. Powdery mildew, mosaic attack on fieldpea. The emerging new disease
clubroot is very common in cruciferae family (Cauliflower, cabbage, rayo, radish, mustard,
broccauli). The severity of bacterial wilt is very high in potato, tomato and brinjal.

3. Un affordable price of agrochemicals
Increasing prices of chemical fertilizer and pesticides is becoming harder for rural farmers
to afford. The price of commonly used urea, DAP and Murate of potash was Rs. 5.6, 12.5,
8.5 per kg in 1994/95 which increased to Rs.15.5, 20.86, 14.33 in 2004/05 (MoAC
2004/05), respectively. This increase is 177 % in Urea, 67% in DAP and 69% in Murate of
potash. But the retail price in local market is even higher than this. Increasing prices of
pesticides and chemical fertilizers increases cost of production and reduces quality of
produce. Similarly improved and hybrid seeds are becoming more expensive every year.

Initiation of Organic farming in Kathmandu district
Since vegetable and potato cultivation area in Kathmandu district is increasing, there has
been simultaneous growth in the pest and diseases infestation and subsequent high
demand in the use of synthetic agro-chemicals. Experiences showed that the recommended
doses (quantity and number of application) of pesticides were ineffective in controlling
insects and diseases in the commercial pockets. So farmers have been using higher doses of
synthetic pesticides to control pests. The common practices of commercial growers are they
spray high toxic chemicals in the evening before selling them to market the next morning. It
was also observed that producer farmers apply chemicals even the day and hours before
harvest of the produce. Blind recommendation of agrochemicals by Agrovet is serious

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emerging issues. Therefore farmers' pressure in District Agriculture Development Office
(DADO) is increasing for technical advice to protect their crop against pests. Hazardous
effects of synthetic pesticides on human, animal health, environment, soil degradation,
yield reduction, and financial expenses have been reportedly noticed.
These days vegetables consumption pattern is in increasing trend for better health.
Increasing change in dietary habits, major food safety concerns and greater personal health
awareness have led to greater consumer interest in consumption of organic vegetables.
Diplomatic institutions are here in Kathmandu and their priority is to consume organic
vegetables. Demand for organically grown foods is growing rapidly in global market with
increase in health consciousness. Nepal has obtained the membership of World Trade
Organization (WTO), which creates opportunity to export organic vegetables in the
International market. So from producers, consumers and environmental point of view,
DADO, Kathmandu felt the need to initiate the organic movement and formulated the
pesticide free/organic vegetable production project.
DADO, Kathmandu started pesticide free/organic vegetable production project with the
following objectives:
Major objective
The long- term objective is to export organic vegetables in international (United Arab
Emirate and Gulf countries) market.
Specific objectives
To produce pesticide free (Organic) vegetables in Kathmandu district so as to
generate income of the farmers.
To improve capabilities, practices or technologies on organic farming.
To create awareness among consumers through different communication media.
To make available fresh organic vegetable in different departmental stores and hotels.
To establish organic vegetable shop in the marketing network.

Activities of organic production
DADO has formulated different activities for the promotion of organic vegetable farming
techniques that minimize dependency on conventional farming. Emphasis should be given
on minimum use of external inputs. The activities launched in organic production within 3
years period are as fallows.
Creating awareness on pesticides act. 2048 and pesticide regulation, 2050 at
different levels.
Organize training on organic farming principles especially on IPM and IPNS.
Conducting demonstration on use of bio- pesticides and bio- fertilizers, EM, quality
compost making, vermi-compost, bokasi etc.
Demonstration of organic crop planning throughout the year.
District level organic farming training and Service center level training.
Interdistrict farmers tour among organic growers to familiarize with organic farming.
Farmers and traders interaction workshop with respect to organic products.
Interaction with "District Agriculture Development Committee" members to create
awareness on organic farming.
Creation of awareness among consumers and producers through mass media such
pamphlets, leaflets, booklets, national news paper (daily, weekly) about organic farming.

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Many documentary films were produced in co-ordination with Agriculture Information
and Communication Center, MoAC and broadcasted on Nepal Television, Metro TV.
Advocating organic farming in the workshops, seminars and talk programs.

Implementation of the Program in Project Site Kavresthali VDC
Site selection: This project launched for the first time in Kavresthali VDC (lies north west,
about 10 KM from Balaju By-pass) in the year 2002.
Farmers group mobilization: Of the several farmers group, Panchakanya Farmers Group (Male)
of Kavresthali VDC ward 8 expressed their keen interest on organic farming. Since the male
members of the group were not able to afford the time, with the members consent, the group
was reformulated and named as Panchakanya Women Farmers Group. The new members
constituted the female representative of their respective family. Series of interaction was
conducted with this group for the motivation and commitment to initiate the program.
Demarcation of the area: After several months of interaction with the farmers, the women
group finally decided to demarcate the area.. The Panchakanya Women Group had already
declared their 10 ha area of land as pesticide free zone which was published in a national
daily news paper "Rajdhani" on August 10, 2003.
Cooperative Formation: To strengthen the group and to expand their scope, the farmers group
was institutionalized as Panchakanya Agriculture Cooperative Ltd. in 2004. It has 25 women
shareholders with more than 150 growers and a share capital of NRS. 25000.00. Each share
holder deposits NRS. 100.00 per month for the establishment of revolving fund. This small
money is utilized to provide services to the farmers such as quality seed buying, collection and
distribution. Although number of direct female beneficiaries are 25 and male beneficiaries are
10, number of indirect female and male beneficiaries are 125 and 50 respectively.
Vegetable Species in Project Area: They started production in 10 hectares of land with green
pea as the main crop followed by cauliflower, cabbage, radish, mustard leaf, broad bean,
onion, garlic, potato, rayo etc without using pesticide.

Infrastructural development in Kavresthali organic pocket
Construction of 1 km fair weather agricultural road with the cooperation of Regional
Agricultural Directorate (RAD), District Development Committee (DDC), Village Development
Committee (VDC), Kavresthali and the Panchakanya Agriculture Cooperative )PAC)s begun
in 2004 and was completed in 2005.
Small irrigation program (surface irrigation) has also been diverted to the organic area.
Construction of collection center has been initiated (may be completed within 2006) in co-
ordination with Market Development Directorate, Harhar Bhawan.

Coordination among stakeholders
With the limited resources of DADO, right from its inception, has been constantly seeking
the support from other line agencies towards promotion of organic agriculture. The
following organization played major role in support of organic farming in the district.
District Development Committee (DDC) and Village Development Committee (VDC) gave due
attention in organizing training and awareness creation.
A five day intensive, on the spot training was organized in Kavresthali by American
Volunteer Mr. Nathan C. McClintock (organic expert) through Farmers-to-Farmers Program
of Winrock International, an INGO, 2005, July.

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Kathmandu Metropolitan city has also provided training on vermin-compost to the
technicians and also to the farmers.
District Agriculture Development Office (DADO) has also linkages with private
entrepreneurs dealing with bio- fertilizer and bio- pesticides.
DADO has constant linkages with Horticulture Research Division, NARC for technical

Farmers perspective in yield and price of organic production
Farmers produced organic vegetable species such as green pea, cauliflower, broccauli,
cabbage, tomato, potato, onion, garlic, leafy vegetables, broad bean, beans etc. Among these,
a detail of green pea is given below.

Yield trend of organic green pea
Farmers complained that the productivity is not satisfactory as compared to chemical
production. The average yield of green pea in kavresthali project site was 6.0 mt per hectare
before intervention of organic farming. But the average yield was reduced to 4.50 mt/ha
(which is about 25%) in the first year under organic management. The yield further
decreased to 3.50 mt/ha (which is about 22%) in second year. But in the third year the
yield remained same as that of second yea (fig. 1). Farmers said that the average number of
picking of green pea per season in three years reduced from 6 to 4 (reduction by 33%).
Farmers used to apply Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 6kg / ropani as basal dose and then
additional 10 kg urea / ropani during the first earthing up 30 days later as top dressing.
The reduced production was due to complete avoidance of the chemical fertilizer and
inability to apply required amount of organic manure in the soil. The other reason could be
of powdery mildew at later stage of the crop growth which used to be controlled by applying
kerathane fungicide. Although the yield decreased, pests problems also correspondingly
decreased. No defined organic production technology was found and they had to take
experimental risk themselves. Since yield didnt decrease in third year, farmers say they are
hopeful that yield will increase in successive years as expected 4.0 mt /ha in fourth year.
The yield trend of green pea is given in figure 1.
4 3.5
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Fiscal year

Before intervension During intervension Expected yield

Source: DADO, Kathmandu, 2005
Fig. 1. Yield trend of organic green pea in different years

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Price trend of organic green pea
Farmers found marketing as the major constraint since consumers are not aware of the
importance of organic production. They were not been able to sell their whole production as
organic products. The price of organic green pea was comparatively lower due to less
attractive appearance which made of less preferred among consumers. Thus the average
price of organic green pea was Rs.8.0/kg as compared to Rs. 14.0/kg of the conventional
production in the first year. Organic products were paid near to conventional products in
the second year due to increasing awareness on the importance of organic product. It was
average of Rs. 15.0/kg for organic compared to Rs.16.0 for inorganic products. But in the
third year some volume sold to Bhatbhateni supermarket and in front of Department of
Agriculture and other important selective areas of the city, they got premium price upto Rs.
30.0/kg. Thus the average price of total organic green pea was Rs.23.0 as compared to
Rs.20.0/kg of conventional (fig.2). From the third year some consumers were contacted
Panchakanya Agriculture Cooperative Limited in their field for organic green pea and also
other organic vegetables at premium price. This encouraged them to continue organic
production despite of its many problems. Therefore the price problems encountered during
the early stage has improved.
Average price trend of green pea in different years
2003 2004 2005
Fiscal years
Inorganic green pea Organic green pea

Source: DADO, Kathmandu, 2005
Fig. 2. Comparative price trend of organic green pea and conventional green pea

DADO perspective in yield and price of organic products
Farmers wouldnt easily switch from chemical to compost production because they seem to
be very luxuries in chemical farming. The lower production for the initial period discouraged
the cooperative and many members were not convinced of its sustainability. The lower
production and low price was a major setback for the members with small land holding. No
consistencies in the organic production technologies generated were found. It was difficult
for DADO to recommend farmers of certain technologies on the basis of crop species. Many
farmers are still not sure about the technical parameters of organic farming system. The
conversion period of organic farming is at least about 3 years. Therefore the reduction in

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yield is normal unless soil builds up optimum level of organic matter in it. If application of
fertilizer is abruptly stopped yield is found to decrease drastically. So use of chemical
fertilizers should be gradually decreased.
There lacks an organized networking among organic growers, traders and the relevant
stakeholders for organic marketing. The reliability of the organic produce was always
questionable among consumers due to lack of labeling from quality assurance organization.
The professionals working at DADO are not much specialized about overall development of
organic farming. It may take some time to build up capabilities in this area. However, the
participant farmers have demonstrated their confidence in the success of program despite
of its early reduction in the yield.

Quality assurance perspective
Cooperative farmers faced the problems to sell their vegetables as organic. To overcome this
problem, DADO, KTM for the first time initiated itself informal labeling on organic green pea
packets though its not mandate. The sample of labeling is given below.

Achievements on organic farming
A total of 325 farmers (first year 25, second year 75 and third year 225) have been trained to
date and some of them have even served as the resource person during organic farming training.
Farmers themselves practiced the use of livestock Urine, Tobacco leaf, Titepati, Bakaino
(local species) to control aphids and other insects under pest management.
Farmers have adopted improvement management technique to improve compost quality.
Farmers involved on continuous research and identification of pesticidal plants for
preparation of natural pesticides.
The inter cropping of tomato and marigold has been practiced by organic growers in
Kavresthali to prevent pests problems in tomato crop.
The crop byproducts in organic farm can be feed to the animals with out any risk.
Farmers happily informed that the incidence of diseases on rice was less as compared to
neighboring field.
With the involvement in organic agriculture, approximately NRs. 1,00,000.00 have been
saved annually from the purchase of chemical fertilizer and pesticides.
The Cooperative has participated in organic product exhibition in Agro. Expo. 2003
organized in Birendra International Conference Hall, Baneswar.
The Cooperative participated in organic product exhibition on world Environment Day,
2005 and 2006, DADO shared the experience of Kavresthali.
Consumers have started to ask with vegetable sellers whether chemical fertilizer and
pesticides have been used or not.
= += =-= + =
=- =+= -= - + =
+=+ =-+ -= = +-
=++ +=+= + =-+ = =, +~-=
+-++ =-== = + - + +s=:

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Consumers have started to ask with vegetable sellers whether chemical fertilizer and
pesticides have been used or not.
DADAO uplifted farmers' consciousness of gaining organic vegetable technology generated
through Horticulture Research Division, NARC.
The tenth plan document and National Agriculture Strategy, 2061 has been translated in to

Impact of organic farming activities
The following impacts have been observed during three years period of organic farming in
Kathmandu district.
Area expansion: Growing interest in the program and its benefits and the continuous effort
of DADO has led to area expansion and three more groups have joined the organic
movement in Kavresthali. Besides, Kavresthali pocket, DADO has initiated organic vegetable
production program in Lapsiphedi VDC. There a Prangarik Tarakari Utpadan Krisak
Samuha has been formed This group has already started growing organic vegetables from
2005 winter. Similarly another Talku VDC has been identified and similar programs have
been launched to those areas as well.
Consumer awareness: Most of the consumers came to know that what organic vegetables
are. This period awareness has been created among consumers so that the demand will be
better in coming year.
Politicians commitment: Local politicians are also much aware on organic farming and they
are on the way to promote it in their respective areas.
Line agencies: The NGOs, INGOs and private sectors have been empowered to uplift
organic activities in their command areas and sharing hands with DADO, Kathmandu.
Interaction with ministers: Agriculture and Cooperative Ministers (Dr. Prakash Chandra
Lohani, Mr. Ksher Bahadur Bista) supported and further directed for the promotion of
organic farming
Village Development Committee commitment: VDCs convinced on financial support in their
respective area to conduct 2 days training cum workshop for creating awareness on organic
farming. As a result a total of 250 farmers in 11 VDCs have been trained. It is continued in
other VDCs.
Private entrepreneurs encouraged: Some of the private entrepreneurs have initiated organic
compost production activities in Kathmandu consulting with DADO, Kathmandu.
Advocating at national level: The importance of organic farming in the context of Nepal has
also realized by policy makers (the DOA, MoAC, and Planning Commission). This workshop
is one of them.

Suggestions for Organic farming development
The following are the recommendations for the further development of the organic program.
1. Technical /financial management
It is important to consider the profitability of the enterprise as a whole instead of focusing
on the price premium for organic products.
At the present context in Nepal, price premium may not be easily realized from the domestic
market. The profits can be augmented through cheap input such as vermicompost.

( 92 )
Farmers need to be trained in the area of record keeping so that they are able to determine
the profitability of the enterprise. This will be further helpful in the organic certification
Farmers need to commercialize their organic nursery for healthy seedlings production.
Organize organic farmer's field school
Soft loans and subsidy should be provided to the growers at least during the
conversion/gestation period.

2. Marketing Management
Information relating to consumers willingness to buy and pay premium price for organic
product at the household and institutional level will be an important first step.
Subsequently, understanding of the food supply chain, particularly fresh vegetable, within
the valley as well as urban centers outside the valley is needed to develop marketing
infrastructure for the organic program.
Encourage private entrepreneurs to initiate organic restaurant and hotels especially
in Kathmandu market for tourist attraction.
Price information system of organic product should be channelized.
Create public awareness especially among women consumers.
Create favourable environment for private entrepreneurs to enter organic product
DADO should design organic fair trade demonstration +=+ == +-
Farmers need to certify their organic vegetable products in order to tap the
international market.

3. Institutional management
Organic agriculture requires time and well trained extension workers. Since organic
farming is a new practice it needs competent and reliable management.
Organize organic farmers association from local to national level.
Establish organic collection markets in Kathmandu capital.
NARC should give due consideration to develop organic package of practices on crop
DoA should prepare technical and financial norms for organic technology
MoA & C need to develop a national policy on organic farming and certification
MoA& C should establish the laboratory for pesticide residue analysis
Establish linkages between domestic and international market (Eg. Salt Tradinig

4. Quality Management
Support in transferring knowledge and techniques for quality control of organic vegetable
products for the domestic and export markets.
Vegetable packaging and marketing principles.
Help to prepare a system for monitoring impact of support and progress of the organic

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Organic agriculture is not just another alternative but the only alternative to mitigate the
hazardous effect of synthetic agrochemicals on human health, animal health and on
environment. In organic farming system, pests control strategies are largely preventive
rather than reactive. Organic materials such as FYM, compost, poultry manure,
vermicompost, green manure and crop residue can substitute for inorganic fertilizer to
maintain the environmental quality. The organic agriculture provides new market
opportunities. Developed countries have already taken initiations in this field and different
standards have been set by different countries for organic production. Nepal too needs to
develop national policies and programs and set its own standards for organic products to
promote organic farming. Therefore organic agriculture should be an integral part of
national agricultural system.

Future Strategy of DADO, Kathmandu for organic farming promotion
1. Model organic district
Kathmandu DADO has taken concept of developing model organic district in the country. In
this regards, it has started its program from Thali gaun of Kavresthali in 2060/61. Now it
has been expanded to other two VDCs namely Lapsiphedi and Talku dudechaur and similar
programs have been launched in other VDCs too. The model of organic district concept is
figured below.


ali VDC




( 94 )
2. Chemical fertilizer replacement strategy
Fertilizers and nutrients consumption in Kathmandu district, 2060/61
Total fertilizers
Aerage nutrient
Total nutrients consumption (metric ton)
Annual monthly Daily
3338 57 1903 159 5.3
Source : Bhandari, 2062, DADO, KTM
Nutrient balanced sheet for Kathmandu district
City wastage
e wastage
from wastage
Nutrients from
requirement of
300 207 103 5.4 5.3 + 0.1
Source: Bhandari, 2062, DADO, KTM, preliminary estimate

3. Resource management
The three institutions DADO, DDC and Metropolitan city KTM should work together to
transfer city waste into the form of vermicompost/compost for agricultural production of
Kathmandu district The responsibilities area shared as below.
Metropolitan city KTM will prepare vermicompost/compost from biodegradable city
wastage as per farmers need.
DDC should allocate budget for 25% subsidy on the price of compost produced by
Metropolitan city.
DADO would manage compost distribution mechanism in the farmer's field.
In the long run when organic farming becomes well established, this subsidy can be

This report was a collaborative effort of DADO, KTM staff. It would have been impossible to
produce this paper without the encouragement and support of Director General, DoA,
Regional Agriculture Director, RAD (central region) and other senior level management staff
of DoA. I would like to thank subject matter specialists Mr. Sarad Chandra Shrestha,
Extension Officer, Mrs. Sabnam Shivakoti, Planning Officer, Mr. Keshab Adhikary,
Horticulture Development Officer, Mr. Deepak Adhikary, Plant Protection Officer for their
integrated hard working in organic farming project. Iam grateful to field staff working at
different Service Center level for their support to disseminate organic farming activities in
rural areas. Iam thankful to administrative staff for creating favorable environment in this
matter. Thanks are also due to other involved members who directly or indirectly supported
to make this program successful.

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+ + -+= +=+= - =+=+ |+ ~=+, ----, =+-+ +s=:
+ -+= +=+= - -=: +--+, -- = + - + +s=:
~-:, :==, +=+ -+ - =-=+- -=- +-:-, +-+ -+, --
~-:, :==, -- -+ ==-+ - +== -=- +~-=+ =-= ++-+
=~+-, +s=: -+= =, =-= -+= ==-, +s=:
~-:, :==, ====+ =-== +=+ -, +s=: =+=+=: +=+ + +
-= =++ -+, --- -
~-:, :== ---, =t +=+ - +-+, +--+ =-= + -+= +===,
=--= +s=:
~-:, :== --, =s +=+ +, +--+ + ==- - == +, -- ~--,
==-+ ++- += ---
MoAC, 2005. Statistical Injformation on Nepalese Agriculture. Agri- Business
Promotion and Stations Division, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Shivakoti, S. and S. C. Shrestha. Towards organic agriculture. An experience from
Kathmandu district. Paper presented on organic farming workshop organized by
Nepal Permaculture Group from 13-15 Dec. 2005.

( 96 )
- Dr. Dinesh Prasad Parajuli

Livestock faming in general involves the keeping of animals to produce milk, meat, egg, and
wool for human consumption; to obtained manure for plants and draught power for
agricultural practices, which inevitably differs from natural environment in which they have
evolved. However, the objective of organic farming is development of sustainable agriculture
to produce high quality food from the animal in an environmentally friendly manner within
a complete inner farm nutrient cycle. Organic farming also aimed at enhancing animal
welfare. There is a popular consumer belief that the description "organic means healthy,
nutritious, natural and welfare friendly". A majority of consumer's expectation is organic
food tastes better and is more nutritious. Therefore, organic livestock production is growing
rapidly throughout the world especially in western countries, and sales are anticipated to
increase dramatically in the coming years. In order to obtain organic production, one of the
important practices is the integration of livestock with crop production to take different
advantages like nutrient recycling etc.

Integration of Livestock and Crop in Organic Farming:
Organic farming largely excludes synthetic inputs- pesticides, herbicides and fertilizer,
growth promoters and genetically modified organisms (GMO's). This system focuses on
biological processes such as composting and other measures to maintain soil fertility,
natural pest control and diversifying crops and livestock. Organic agriculture gives priority
to long -term ecological health, such as biological diversity and soil quality, contrasting with
conventional farming, which concentrates on short -term productivity gains.
Integration of crops and livestock is often considered as a step towards sustainable
agricultural production because of the associated intensified organic matter and nutrient
cycling. Residues of the different crops represent the main on -farm source of organic
matter and nutrients. Management of crops residues in such regions is closely related to
their utilization in animal feeding.
An advantage of integration of livestock and crops is the added value derived from crop
residues (especially those of legumes) in terms of animal products and incomes. However, to
maintain the system in the long term it is necessary that nutrients should be added either
directly transferring manure in the field or through manuring contracts with pastoralists.
Most livestock products in mixed farming systems are derived from animals that are fed on
local resources such as pastures, crop residues, fodder trees and shrubs: and by products
from village industries such as oil cakes, bran, broken rice etc. After the harvest a part of
the crop residues like straw, stubble and ratton tends to be freely accessible to all livestock.
Livestock can enhance farm output by intensifying recycling of nutrient s their by utilizing
in straws, crop residues, fodder etc and in turn produce dung and urine as a soil nutrient.
The use of these resources saves money and residues waste by recycling products within
the farming system.

Senior Livestock Development Officer, Department of Livestock Services, Hariharbhawan

( 97 )
The use of dung and urine excreted by cattle, pigs, chickens and other animals for crops is
an established tradition in our farming system. Dung and urine contain several nutrients
such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and the solid fraction contains organic matter
that is important to maintain soil structure and fertility.
The amount and quality of urine and dung produced depends on the type of animal, its size
and the type of feed as well as on the management of the farmers. One large animal of 300
kg live weight has a feed intake that averages 2.5 per cent dry matter of its live weight
within an average digestibility of 55 percent, the animal will produce 1232 kg of dung every
years. Similarly, a small ruminants weighing about 35 kg has a feed requirements of 3.5
percent dry matter daily of its live weight, consume 320 kg dry matter. The average
digestibility of the feed estimated at 60 percent. Hence, one small ruminant produces
around 128 kg of dry matter faces per year. Based on this observation converting all age
groups of large ruminants into livestock unit, cattle and buffalo produce around 8894
thousand-mt dung per year. Similarly, total small ruminants (sheep and goat) produce
around 564 thousand mt dung. Thus the total production of dung by the ruminants in
Nepal is around 9458 thousand mt. the nitrogen that can be obtained from the total decal
material of the ruminants is estimated to be around 216 thousand mt. However pool
livestock management systems do not hemp to increase the quantity of fecal material.
Hunch (1986) in his report mentioned that 46% of manure is lost in grazing away from the
farm, it has been estimated that even if the animal numbers in the hills of Nepal were
halved, manure production would remain almost what it is at present, provided that it was
collected and utilized properly. Therefore stall-feeding could result in full collection of dung.
The nutrient content and dry matter percentage of manure varies according to the quality of
feed and method of handling and storage. Dry matter content of cow dung on lush pasture can
be less than 15 percent but in sheep and goat on dry forage it can be higher than 50 percent.
The amount and proportion of nitrogen excreted depend on animal diet. The urine and solid
dung of animals fed highly digestible diets with a lot of protein contain much more nitrogen
and, therefore, are more susceptible to nitrogen losses than excreta from diets containing
greater amounts of roughage.

Nutrient contents of manure (percentage) :
Organic fertilizer N P K Dry matter
Fresh manure
Cattle 1.4-2.8 0.5-1.01 0.5-0.6 15.25
Sheep 2.2-3.7 0.25-1.87 0.88-1.25 50.75
Source: Based on a compilation by Defoer et al (2000).
Much of the urine nitrogen is lost via ammonia volatilisation. Where animal management
tend towards increased stall-feeding, the composting of fresh manure will have to play a
greater role in minimizing nutrient losses. Pits or heaps that capture feed refusals, manure
and urine and household waste need to be designed to minimize nutrient losses.
In various systems big ruminants like cattle, buffalo and small ruminants like sheep and
goat are kept overnight in pens in the compound throughout the year, and the manure they
Produce is transported to the fields during the dry season. However, droppings from small
ruminants are sometimes used separately because manure from small ruminants takes

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longer to have an effect on crop yields than cow dung, but once it has started the effect
lasts for several years. Mixing with low quality biomass, i.e. with straws, leftover grasses,
livestock bedding materials and dry leaves, can reduce the nitrogen losses from the dung.
The greener leaves still contain much nitrogen themselves and they are less capable of
capturing surplus nitrogen from urine and dung.

Possible areas of integration of livestock in organic farming:
1. Grass land farming system:
With the steady increase in demand for food products, the tendency of people grew towards
the cultivation of best land for the cultivation of cereal crops and use whatever land
remained for the production of fodder. However, the surprisingly of a system of farming,
which utilizes forage in the production of livestock, as compared with other cereal crops, in
coming to be more generally recognized. Such system of farming helps to maintain soil
productivity. Therefore in order to obtain sustainable growth of agriculture production,
grassland farming is considered to be a good culture wherein crop and livestock production
are built around the grassland areas. The grassland areas include land devoted to the
culture of forage grasses and legumes grown alone or in combination, where farming takes
into account of soils, plants, animal and their interrelationship.
The grassland agriculture differs from other types of farming chiefly with respect to the
emphasis placed on grasses and legumes. The benefits of the system are as follow:
Feed for livestock: Forage produces best and cheapest summer and winter feed for livestock.
With an increasing number of forage species and strains, "all year green forage production"
can be made to meet the demand of ever increasing number of livestock. In such farming,
there is always a reserve of forage at hand at all times in the form of unused pasturage, of
hay of grass silage. Such reserve will bridge such emergencies as a severe winter, a late
spring, a summer drought or a partial crop failure. This is one of the keys to successful
grassland livestock management.
Manuring the soil: The pasture crop and harvested crops absorbs the soil nutrients and
that is utilized by the livestock for its body growth and a high quality sod is one that results
from the growth of a grass legume combination. Legume adds nitrogen to the soil through
the process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is a direct source of plant food for later
grain crop. Grasses and legume add organic matter to soil. Legumes are tap rooted and
decay rather quickly and the sod effect is from the fibrous grass roots, which are capable of
sponging up nitrogen furnished by legumes. This may increase the yield of crop per unit of
land, which follows on rotation. But legume crops that are grown in the field need to be
inoculated with commercial preparation of rhizobia to ensure maximum yield and high
quality. The amount of nitrogen fixed by annual legume crops is often 50-100 lbs per acre
per year. The amount of nitrogen fixed by a perennial legume is possibly higher.
Best drainage for soil: A high quality grass legume sod provides better soil drainage.
Legume penetrates the sub-soil and improves the drainage, but the fibrous grass root
literally permeates the plow layer and gradually diminishes in quantity with depth.
Therefore, adequate use of forages is the key to improve soil tilts and internal drainage.

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2. Use of agro forestry system
In this system food crops are grown in alleys formed by hedgerows of trees and shrubs,
preferably legumes. For this purpose, fast-growing species Leucaena leucocephala and
Gliricidia sepium can be used. The hedgerows are pruned regularly to obtain fodder for
livestock and some fuel wood mulch. Since the root of the plant penetrates deeper into the
soil, it recycles nutrients leached to deeper soil levels. The alley cropping system can sustain
or even improve soil fertility and crop production. Alley cropping is being developed with
different tree species and crops focusing of several uses of the by-products from the trees.

3. Use of drought power:
The use of drought power enables the farmers to integrate livestock and crop production
and permits the exploitation of the potential of cattle kept on subsistence farms. Experience
shows that there is direct relationship between the level of energy use, human, animal or
fossil, and level of production per unit of land. In fossil energy driven system, the relatively
high-energy use explains the relatively high productivity. However, there are organic
integrated systems in which virtually no fossil energy is used, which in terms of overall
production, are at least as productive as modern system, but have less negative impact on
environment and may be socially more acceptable (Durno et al 1992).

4. Integrated Livestock Production System:
Integrated farming system: The integration of livestock, fish and crops has proved to be a
sustainable system. Environmentally sound integration is ensured in these system:
livestock droppings and feed wastes can be poured directly into the pond, where they
produce zooplankton and bacteria that are protein rich feed for fish. Livestock manure can
also be used to fertilize grass, which also constitute feed for fish. Vegetables can be irrigated
from the fishponds, and their residue and by-products can be used for feeding livestock.
Feed for the Fish: Livestock excreta can also be fed to the fish in mixed form with some
organic ingredients like soybean meal, rice bran, mustard oil cake, ground nut cake etc.
According to Saha and Ray (1998), the diet with 29% poultry litter performed better than
the fish meal based control diet in terms of growth. Singh et. al. (2004) reported that 30%
poultry litter can be included in the complete diet of omnivorous / herbivorous fish. Poultry
manure meal can safely and economically used to substitute 20% of soybean protein in the
diet containing 30% protein without significant retardation of growth.
In-situ manuring: The dung and urine produced in the stall is transferred to cultivated land,
and this requires a long time, apart from human labor. There is also a loss of nutrient and
its quality decreased. Therefore in-situ manuring, i.e. by tethering animals directly in the
fields, is an important strategy developed by mountain farmers over the ages, in which
ruminants' play a crucial role.
The contribution of the migratory flocks of sheep on the agricultural system is the
replenishing of soil fertility in agricultural fields. Subedi et al. (1990) reported an
incremental maize yield of 29% due to in situ manuring over the conventional application
as manure. It was estimate that on an average one flock could earn US $ 3.0 (Rs 225.0) per
night from in situ manuring in the Sikles village of Kaski district.
Weed control: livestock can be used for grazing underneath the orchard. While grazing, the
livestock graze the weeds and at the same time provide organic manure. Weeds of the
cultivated land are an important source of feed for livestock during the rainy season. Most

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of the time weeds are collected from the cultivated field and carried home to feed livestock
some aquatic animals like grass carp and silver carp fish are very efficient for weed control
in drains, canals and rice field.

5. Pest control:
Research has shown that pest control cal be achieved without pesticides, reversing crop loses.
For example in east Africa, maize and sorghum face two major pests- stem borer and Striga, a
parasitic plant. Field margins were planted with "trap crops" that attract stem borer such as
Napier grass. Pests are lured away from the crop into a trap- the grass produces a sticky
substance that kills stem borer larvae. The crops are inter-planted with molasses grass
(Desmodium uncinatum) and two legumes: silver leaf and green leaf, which is a good fodder for
livestock. The legume binds nitrogen enriching the soil and Desmodium also repeals striga.

Scope of Organic Livestock Production:
In the context of Nepal, the productivity of native livestock is poor. Therefore to increase the
productivity the system of cross breeding of native livestock with the exotic breed is in
increasing trend. These crossbred livestock are fed with different inorganic nutrients,
growth promoters like antibiotics as feed additives. Beside this, large amount of drugs are
used for the treatment of sick animals and insecticides are sued for controlling external
parasites. The livestock product obtained from such a farming practice may contain the
residue of chemicals, and have unnatural taste and may gradually harm the human body.
Therefore keeping in mind the consequences of residue in livestock products, the
consumers are being attracted towards the organic livestock product; hence its demand is
increasing day by day.
The organic livestock production practice all over the country is not possible. Thus, country
can be divided into different geographical zones and potential zone can be identified for
specific products. Some of the products that can initially be identified for the organic
production are yak cheese, local chicken etc.
So far farmers belonging to near by urban areas are able to use the production inputs like
pesticides, fertilizer etc, but the majority of farmer who live in the remote areas use only the
organic inputs in their farming practice, hence they harvest all the organic products. The
only thing that is locking is its certification. So there is a high possibility of inclining
farmers towards the use of only organic inputs to produce organic farm products. This may
be achieved through better advice regarding the value of organic farming, massive training
program and building linkage with market. Since the price of the organic food is much more
higher that the conventional product, farmers can fetch better price in the market. But the
farmers should be ensured that they could get the certification of their farm product easily.
National Agriculture policy 2061 of Nepal has mentioned about the promotion of organic
agriculture farming and included the certification of agriculture products that can be
exported. There it in a high time to develop national standard of organic livestock
production and to adopt production practices accordingly.

Organic livestock production technology:
Organic principles strive to enhance the naturalness of the lives of the stock, and the
harmony between individuals in the flock or herd and the physical, climatic and human
environments in which they are kept.

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Organic livestock health and performance are optimized by careful attention to the basic
principles of livestock husbandry, such as selection appropriate breeds, appropriate
management practices and nutrition, and avoidance of overstocking. Young-stock receive
an adequate supply of colostrums at birth and should remain with their mothers for as long
as possible thereafter. Stress should be minimized at all times. Use of herbal medicines for
the treatment of the sick animals is essential. Organic inputs can be use even for the
control of external parasites. For example, the extract obtained at third day from the
mixture of tobacco leaves, titepati leaves, salt and water at a ratio of 1:1:0.33:10 Part was
very much effective for killing the external parasites including the ticks of cattle at livestock
Development Farm, Jiri. However, various standards guidelines for management practices
need to be developed for implementation.

Issues on Organic Livestock Farming:
Organic farming is a legally defined and regularly police quality assurance system.
Therefore, there needs to identify best practices in organic livestock production and
marketing, animal health and welfare in organic production systems and facilitating trade
in organic livestock products. Before starting the organic livestock production, the following
important policy issues concerning organic livestock and animal husbandry need to be
Livestock standards and regulations
Meeting organic livestock standards at international level / WTO standard.
Livestock breeding strategies.
Prevention and treatment of diseases
Trends and opportunities in organic livestock production
Consumer demand
Markets - market structure and analysis; quality assurance; processing and
Price comparisons
Economic studies
Establishing niches market for increasing profits
Barriers to organic livestock production.
Animal health and food safety in organic livestock production systems
Inspection and certification systems for animal health and welfare
Farm level practices on animal health and quality aspects of organic livestock
Parasite control with minimal medicine inputs

Organic livestock production has made significant advances over the last several years in
Europe and America. Organic livestock production practices needs to deal with complex
regulatory frameworks and secure high levels of health and welfare. Organic livestock
farming meets the demand of increasing number of consumer's who are really searching for
organic livestock products. In the same time organic farming reduces the environmental
pollution and natural losses on the farm level markedly. However, to meet the set objectives

( 102 )
organic livestock production system needs to deal with set standard and should address
high level of animal health and quality aspects. In addition organic livestock management
practices that has been accumulated in both ways i.e. indigenous knowledge as well as
scientifically proven technology. This system cannot be adopted in the whole country,
therefore zoning of the country for organic farming for specific may be helpful.

Durno, J. Moeliono, I. and Prasertcharoensuk, R (1992). Sustainable agriculture for
Low lands. Resource book. Bangkok: South-East Asian Sustainable Agriculture Network.
E.O.Heady (1953). What is grassland farming? Forages. The source of grassland agriculture.
The lowa State College Press, Lowa, USA.
Heuch, J.H.T. ( 1986). The quality of compost applied to farmers field and its relevance to
forest management in the mid-hills of Nepal. LAC Technical Paper 11/86. Lumle agriculture
Centre, Kaski, Nepal.
http://www.fao.org//doctep//004/y0501 e 80.htm: Mixed crop livestock farming.
Parajuli, D.P. (2005). Integration of livestock production and environment protection.
Agriculture and environment. MOAC, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu.
Subedi, K.D., Hoshi, K.D. and Dhital, B.K. (1990). In-situ manuring by sheep proved better
than the application of sheep manure. Prabidhi Sangalo. LAC, Kaski, Nepal

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- S.L. Chaudhary
, S.N. Mandal
and C.P. Risal

The plant nutrient contents of most organic materials are generally much lower than those
supplied by commercially available chemical fertilizers. But its role for soil life and soil
environment improvement is indispensable. Fertilizer use efficiency can be very low in
strictly monoculture systems or where organic recycling is not practiced. This inefficiency
allows for the movement of nutrients through the soil profile and into the ground water.
Due to heavy use of pesticides and nitrogenous fertilizer, contamination of ground water is
evident in our major agricultural areas.
Organic farming is a whole-system approach for optimizing the natural fertility resources of
a farm. It works through traditional practices of recycling farm-produced livestock manures,
composting, crop rotation, green manuring, and crop residue management. One of the
greater difficulties that organic producers face on a regular basis is determining whether or
not a particular product or material can be used in organic production. All natural or non
synthetic materials can be assumed to be acceptable in organic production. Organic
farming is not simply 'doing away with chemicals' but replacing them by organic manure
and mixed farming principles, which promotes self sufficiency in natural fertilizer for
sustainable agricultural production. The basic principle behind organic farming is
application of right conditioned humus ( manures ) food for micro-organisms in the soil
and soil micro-organisms release minerals from soil particles as needed by the plant, Thus,
the plant is fed indirectly, not directly as with soluble chemical fertilizers. So, it is very
much clear that organic farming stand for feed the soil, not the crops, and this is the
important difference between organic and conventional farming.

Agriculture is the main occupation of Nepal and can play an important role in attaining a
sound food security system if its management is properly maintained. Out of total coverage
area, 77% is occupied by the mountains and hills in the north, and 23% by the terai plains
in the south. Most of the farmers from food deficit areas of mountains and mid-hills have
been practicing subsistence farming. Increasing population pressure subjected to
fragmentation of land holding and subsistence farming has contributed lower yields. Such
farming system silently needs demand driven agricultural production. Terai has surplus
food production and exercise commercial farming. Such farming system solely demand
market oriented approach and more commercialization process for qualitative and
quantitative production. In both the cases improvement of agricultural productivity with
updated information, management, support and accesses to technologies required for better
production. Package of technologies include increased irrigation, seed and soil management,
fertilizer use efficiency, market and information services.
Especially in the developing world like Nepal where there are no petroleum resources and
also not well defined safety standard of food, there is urgent need of judicious use of non

Chief Soil Scientist (Program manager, APPSP)
Senior Soil Scientist (Soil Management Directorate)
Soil Scientist (Soil Management Directorate)

( 104 )
renewable sources of energy, especially petroleum based product as chemical fertilizers,
health hazardous inorganic pesticides and heavy metal containing micro-nutrients and
plant growth stimulants formulations.

Organic Fertilization:
In recent years the energy crisis has caused a shortage of inorganic fertilizers and also due
to adverse effect of the chemicals on soil and agricultural products, the agricultural
scientists particularly those who are involved in plant nutrition management rely on organic
nutrient supply to plant especially in the form of locally available organic resources.
Importance of organic fertilization has well recognized globally by planners, environmental
scientists and agriculturists. It should be, by now, obvious that many technologies use for
organic soil management are presently receiving considerable international attention for
healthy food production.

Organic Matter Status of Nepalese Soils:
Besides the very crucial role of soil organic matter in agricultural production system, most
of the Nepalese soils are very low to low in organic matter content. Soils of most parts of
Sunsari, Bardiya, Banke, Kanchanpur and Kailali districts content very low to low organic
matter, where as soils of Nuwakot district have organic matter of medium range except soils
of river sides. (STSS,2056 BS.) Soil organic matter status of some of mid-hills and terai
districts are given here.
Soil organic matter status
High Medium Low Total
Okhaldhunga 81 181 30 192
Kavre 2 32 156 190
Syangja 15 153 86 254
Parbet 31 130 61 222
Hills 129 (13.5%) 496 (52%) 333 (34.91%) 958
Chitwan 6 41 145 192
Mahottary 17 78 370 465
Parsa 2 23 281 306
Terai 25 (2.5%) 142 (15 %) 796 (82.51%) 963
Total 154 (8%) 638 (33%) 1129 (59%) 1921
Source: Soil Management Directorate, Hariharbhawan.

The above table reveled that soils of Nepal in hills contained medium to low organic matter
content. About 35% Soils showed low in organic matter where as most of the Terai Soils
(about 83%) are low in organic matter. It is clear that the soils of Terai "The grainary belt of
Nepal" content less organic matter compared to hills and needs special care for sustainable
agricultural production.

Organic Matter Management:
An important concept that is often overlooked is that for most agricultural soils, degradative
processes such as soil erosion, nutrient runoff losses, and organic matter depletion are

( 105 )
going on simultaneously with conservation practices such as residue management, crop
rotations, and conservation tillage. The potential productivity of a particular soil then
depends on the interaction of degradative processes and conservation practices (Parr and
Meyer, 1987). On our best agricultural soils, e.g., gently-sloping, medium-textured, well-
structured, and deep-profile, a high level of productivity can be maintained by a relatively
few, but essential, conservation practices that can readily offset most degradative processes.
However, on marginal soils, e.g., steeply-sloping, coarse-textured, poorly-structured,
shallow-depth, and low fertility, soil conservation practices must be maximized to offset
further degradation. The vital component in this dynamic equilibrium is organic matter.
Although FYM is being used in Nepalese agriculture, especially in hills where forest,
livestock and agriculture included in farming system, but without understanding the soil
organic matter dynamism, the use of immature FYM helping not much the farmers to
improve productivity of their lands because of low nutrient content of it.
Sustainability has become main concern of Nepalese agriculture. The use of FYM (Organic
manure) produces physical, chemical and biological properties of soil beside supplying
macro and micro nutrients along with organic matter. The organic matter management of
Nepalese soil is crucial due to its low nutrient content, continuous depletion trend and poor
management by farmers.

Table. Soil organic matter depletion (Hills) and its management.
Low OM (1%) Medium OM (3%)
Presence of OM/Ropani 308 Kg 1186 Kg
OM depletion/Ropani/Year 46 Kg 148 Kg
OM loss by erosion 15 Kg 30 Kg
OM loss in gas Nitrogen 2.7-3.6 Kg 5.5-7.8 Kg
Available to plant in form of N 2-2.2 Kg 4.1-5 Kg
FYM needed to maintain OM level 250 Kg 500-750 Kg
Source: Weber,1998

Organic sources for plant food:
Composting or co-composting an organic waste results in a more stable product that is
easier to store and use. Co-composting of wastes that vary widely in their carbon to
nitrogen ratios or solids content may produce a higher quality product and allows recycling
of some wastes that could not be utilized as the only source of organic matter due to some
inherent chemical or physical property (Parr et al., 1986). Possible wastes that could be co-
composted (Annex 1) are discussed here.

Kitchen waste composting:
In rural areas, a considerable part of the kitchen waste is used for animal feedings and only
little portions composted to improve the soil, where as in the urban areas most of the
kitchen waste is raised for throwing it and create problem of environmental problem. Most
of the people are not aware of its potential for plant food. Thanks to the institutions which
are recently involved in kitchen waste management and stimulated kitchen waste

( 106 )
composting. Still kitchen waste composting is limited in few households. Kitchen waste can
be recycled at source with separate collection of waste and proper management of
composting. Black polyethylene container fitted with aeration mechanism is most common
for kitchen waste composting. The recommended size of the container is 35-140 liter
depending on family size. The collection method at small scale is started recently under the
support of some institutions. This method is easier for the users, but more expensive and
difficult to provide containers for each household. So, container park concept can be
suggested. These parks should be located on enclosed areas with surveillance for clean and
separate kitchen waste collection. With the separate collection of Kitchen waste and
composting of it, new products are introduced on an existing market of soil improving

Garden waste composting or Brushwood compost:
Brushwoods are obtained from training and pruning practices of fruit and garden plants as
well as from thicket clearance of forest. Those are cheap, but incomparably rich in the
ingredients essential for making manures/ fertilizers that are balanced food for plant
growth and development. The brushwood composting scheme has good potential for
returning back valuable organic matter to the soil together with plant nutrients. The
material that can be used are essentially forest litter, under growth plants and herbs, young
tree seedlings and the tree thinning. High proportion of the material should have twigs
diameter less than 8 mm and such material should be more fresh and green so that it will
decompose fairly and rapidly.
The different sizes of the composting materials i.e. branches, thickets, seedlings and tree
are cut or ground into small and thin silvers. Small and thin pieces of the composting
material produced by shavings is preferred. Different types of machine, hammer based
grinder and blade-based shredder could be used for chipping and grinding the materials.
After the grinding/ shredding process the brushwood requires socking with water. A cubic
meter of ground brushwood can ideally absorb and retain700 liters of water over a period of
3 days, the materials drained and piled into a heap and compacted. The drained off water is
recycled periodically by spraying in to the heap. An ideal heap of 4 cubic meter is
recommended. This is the minimum volume to ensure satisfactory evolution of heat and
consequent breakdown. It would yield nearly 2 tonnes of finished compost. A heap of 50
tonnes by weight and 75 cubic meter by volume can produce an average dose of humic
manure for one hectare of land for cereal growing.

Vermi-Compost :
Lumbri-composting (vermi-composting) of bio-waste is a result of combined action of the
earthworms and the micro-biota living in their intestine and in the growth medium.
Earthworms stimulate the composting process by mechanical and biochemical actions. The
mixing and aerating of the substrate, the breaking up of waste as it passes through the
intestine, are mechanical processes. As a consequence of such digestion, organic matter is
stabilized and converted to smaller particles of relatively uniform shape and size. The
casting of the earthworms have a crumby look and an attractive earth like smell. The vermi-
compost is a good soil amendment rich in nutrients readily available to plants.

( 107 )
Epigeic (surface living) or manure worms are found on the surface and are redish brown in
color. They do not process soil but efficient in composting in organic wastes. Vermi-compost
can not be described as being nutritionally superior to other organic manures but the
unique way in which it is produced. The nutrient status of vermi-compost and FYM is given
below. There are differences in the nutrient content of vermi-compost produced by different
species of earthworms. Vermi- compost is thus not a single standard product. On an
average vermi- compost contained more carbon and phosphorus, less potash and
micronutrient then Farm Yard Manure (FYM). Both have comparable contents of nitrogen.
Vermi-compost generally had wide Carbon Nitrogen (C:N) ratio as compared to FYM.
Mean FYM
pH 7.2 7.4 7 7.2 7.2
Organic Carbon % 5.25 27.43 30.31 20.9 12.2
Free CaCO3 % 6 10.5 7 7.8
C:N Ratio 125 45.7 45.9 34.7 24.4
Total Nitrogen % 0.42 0.6 0.66 0.56 0.5
Available Nitrogen (ppm) 215 450 496 387 375
Total P2O5 % 1.16 1.34 1.93 1.48 0.75
Total K2O % 0.26 0.4 0.42 0.36 2.3
Average K2O (ppm) 3000 1500 4700 4060 26030
Fe (ppm) 27.3 17.8 19.8 21.6 24.7
Zn (ppm) 18 19.2 0.9 12.7 40
Mn (ppm) 16.4 24.6 16.5 19.2 120
Cu (ppm) 7.6 7.6 2.3 5.8 2.8
Sourec : Shinde et al.(1992)

Recycling of Sugar Factory Press Mud:
Recycling press mud is one of the steps towards making a productive use of all available
resources for land improvement and gainful utilization of the by-products generated by
Press mud is a waste products obtained during sugar manufacture. After milling the canes
during the processing of raw juice two type of press mud i.e. Sulphitation and Carbonation
is produced depending on clarification processing methods (Sulphitation or Carbonation ).
During the processing impurities are allowed to settle in the form of mud in mud tank. The
mud is delivered to filter press where cake is built. The production of sulphitation and
carbonation press mud is about 3% and 7% of the quantity cane crushed and following
sulphitation and carbonation process, respectively. In general a factory produces 2.5 to 3
tones of press mud cake when 100 tones of sugar cane is crushed. Carbonation process
mud can only be used mainly in acid as it contains high percentage of lime. But
sulphitation press mud cake, which contains no lime can be used in normal soil.

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Chemical Composition of Press Mud Cake.
Particular Unit Value
pH 6.9
Calcium Carbonate % 5.6
Organic Carbon % 20.62
Organic Matter % 35.55
Total Nitrogen % 1.28
Total Phosphorus % 2.04
Total Potassium % 1.2
Total Sulphur % 3.85
C/N ratio 16.1
Iron ppm 560
Manganese ppm 288
Zinc ppm 260
Copper ppm 120
Source: S.D.More et al (Indian farmer's digest,vol.28.No12)

Bokasi mal:
Bokasi mal is a kind of organic manure prepared in short period compared to compost.
Within 10-15 days, bokasi mal become ready to use. It is prepared by fermentation and
composting. So, bokasi is fermented and composted product of various organic ingredients.
Organic ingredients used for bokasi are: paddy husk, wheat husk, chicken drops, FYM,
forest soil, coal, oil cake, fish waste, ash, bone meal, agriculture lime and molasses etc. In
addition to the organic ingredients yeast is also added to increase yeast population and
enhance fermentation process. Ingredients and the preparation technique of bokasi mal is
presented in Annex 2.

Nutrients in 'Bokasi Mal'
Organic Matter 29.30%
Nitrogen 0.7-1.49%
Phosphorus 0.7-1.44%
Potash 0.8-1.13%
Sulphur 0.69%
Calcium 3-5.83%
Copper 0.25-1.4%
Iron 0.25-1.4%
Manganese 0.028%
Zinc 0.0098%
Boron 0.0076%
Source : Dr. Keshav Raj Pandey, Krishi Bi Monthly Vol. 42 No. 4(2062 Kartik-Mangsir)

( 109 )
Azolla "water fern for agriculture use":
Azolla is free floating water ferns commonly found in stagnant water in ponds, ditches,
irrigation canal, and paddy field. Seven species of azolla have been identified. Among those
Azolla pinnata is most common in Nepal. The most remarkable feature of azolla is its
symbiotic relation with a photosynthetic nitrogen fixing bacteria ( Anabaena azollae ). The
association is capable of harvesting efficiently both solar energy and atmospheric nitrogen.
The association is reported to fix 1.4-10.5 kg Nitrogen/ha/day depending upon the duration
of the favorable growing condition, 60-840 kg Nitrogen/ha/year depending upon the
duration of the favorable growing period. Thus it is also known as 'bio-fertilizer'.
Azolla has been recognized as a potential source of nitrogen for low land rice. In country
like China and Vietnam it has been in use as a green manure for rice for a long time and
found efficient in making available large quantities of bio-mass and nutrient to the soil.
Since decade back azolla has been used as green manure to rice and compost for other
crops. Compost prepared from azolla contains quite a good amount of plant nutrients i.e.
3.8% N, 2.5%P and1.9%K, ( Bhattari & Maskey,1987).

Nutrient Contents of organic resources
% Nutrient content on fresh weight basis.
Animal dung 0.2 0.04 0.13
Animal urine 0.6 0.005 0.42
Rural waste 0.5 0.22 0.42
Urban refuse 1.5 0.47 1.27
Source: Gaur (1978)
Comparison of nutrient supply by compost and fertilizer: (Source:FAO 1987)
1. NC = Percentage of nutrient in compost.
NF = Percentage of nutrient in fertilizer.
A = Percentage of nutrient available in the year of application
N=25%, P=100%, K=80%
Find the weight of urea supplying in same weight of nitrogen to a crop as ton of compost in
the year of application.
Urea= 10 x NC x A / NF = 10 x 0.5 x 25 / 46 = 125/46 = 2.72 kg
Find the weight in tons of compost supplying an equivalent weight of potassium to a 50 kg
addressing of muriate of potash.
NC = 0.3%
NF = 60%
A = 80%
Compost = 50x NF / NC x A x 10 = 5 x 60 / 0.3 x 80 = 300/24 = 12.5 tons

Bio-fertilizers are the formulations of living micro-organisms which are able to fix or
synthesize plant nutrients in the available form for plants either by living freely in the soil
or associated symbiotically with plants. Biofertilizers play vital role to meet the nutritional

( 110 )
demand of crops and are extremely important in organic farming. Though Rhizobium
biofertilizer are being popular, there are different kinds of biofertilizers that can be used to
meet a growing expectation of soil users to protect soil fertility through an enhancement of
biological processes.
Anabaena azollae, a cyanobacterium lives in symbiotic association with the free floating
water fern Azolla and fixes atmospheric nitrogen. The inoculation of cyanobacteria in rice
crop significantly influence the growth of rice crop by secretion of ammonia in flood water.
In addition to contributing N, the cyanobacteria add organic matter, secrete growth
promoting substance like auxins and vitamins, mobilize insoluble phosphate and improve
physical and chemical properties of the soil.
Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal ( VAM) fungi colonize roots of several crop plants and can
solubilize unavailable form of phosphorus in the soil to available form. The VAM fungi are
zygomycetous belonging to the genera Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora, Sclercystis, etc.
They help plant growth through improved phosphorus nutrition and protect the root
against pathogens. Nearly 25-30% of phosphate fertilixer can be saved through inoculation
with efficient VAM fungi, Bagyaraj (1992).

Some major Nitrogen fixing microorganisms:
Name of
Nature Beneficial plants
Rhizobium spp

Symbiotic bacteria All legumes
Nostoc, Aulosira Free living cyanobacteria Rice
Anabaena azollae Symbiotic cyanobacteria Rice, Azolla
Azotobacter spp Free living bacteria Rice, Maize, Cotton, Wheat, Vegetables
Azospirillum spp. Associate symbiotic bacteria Maize, Sorghum, Finger millet.
Frankia spp. Symbiotic actinomycetes Alnus, Casuarina, and others.
Source: Dubey and Maheshwari, (1999).

Some major Rhizobium bacteria and the amount of nitrogen fixation.
Species Suitable crop Nitrogen fixation (Kg/ha)
Rhizobium meliloti
Lucerne, sweet
Lucerne: 45-75
Sweet clover: 50-90
Rhizobium trifolli White clover 60-90
Sweet Pea,
Lentil, Pigeon
pea, Chick pea,
Horse gram,
Mung bean etc.
Sweet Pea: 52-77
Lentil: 88-114
Pigeon pea: 168-280
Chick pea: 80-110
Horse gram: 45-55
Mung bean: 63-342
Rhizobium phaseoli Bean 40-70
Rhizobium lupin Lupin 55-85
Soyabean 60-168

( 111 )
Green manuring:
Besides FYM/composts, green manuring has an effective way of meeting the organic
demand of the Nepalese soil. It requires very little involvement in terms of money and easily
carried out by the farmers utilizing their own labor. Some of the plant materials which can
be used as green manures are leguminous and various non-leguminous weeds.
Farmers in hilly regions of the country used different wild plant materials like Titepati
(Artemisia vulgaris), Taramandal (Helianthus annus), Banmara (Eupatorium gladiosa),
Asuro (Adhatoda vasica), Khirro (Holarrhwa antidysentrica), Siris( Albizzia lebbek) etc.
These plant species are rich in Nitrogen and farmers have recognized the benefit of green
manuring with these species on the performance of the succeeding crops. The nutrient
content of these species are given in table below.

Nutrient content of green manuring species
Materials N (%) P (%) K (%) Remarks
Titepati (Artemisia vulgaris) 2.4 0.42 4.9

Analysis on dry
weight basis.
Taramandal (Helianthus annus) 4.96 0.87 5.2
Banmara (Eupatorium gladiosa) 2.35 0.71 -
Asuro (Adhatoda vasica) 4.3 0.88 4.49
Khirro (Holarrhwa antidysentrica), 2.8 0.79 2.89
Siris( Albizzia lebbek) 2.9 0.65 2.59

The plowing under of Dhaincha (Sesbania spp.) as a green manure crop before
transplanting wet rice is common practice in some of the Eastern Terai. Farmers of some
Terai districts (Siraha, Dhanusha, Mahottary, Sarlahi, Rautahat etc.) used to grow mung
bean (Phaseolus mungo) as green manure crops.
The occurrence of azolla as water fern at many tropical and sub-tropical parts of the
country is a good green manuring substance, but number of farmers are not aware of its
benefit yet. Thus, acquainting farmers with the use of azolla as green manure and its
application methods, will be a step further in organic farming. Land holding are small and
inputs are limited in subsistence farming. Pressure on agricultural land from increased
population has resulted in much shorter fallowing periods and hence less fertile soils.

Organic Manure & Fertilizers use efficiency:
In many developing countries like Nepal, there is a scarcity of suitable organic materials for
composting or direct recycling on agricultural lands because of competitive uses. Thus,
treating the entire soil-root zone with an organic amendment is often not feasible because of
limited amounts of material. Consequently, the farmer must seek cost-effective methods of
utilizing these materials to enhance soil productivity and crop yields. It is noteworthy that
the productivity of marginal lands can be improved substantially with relatively small
amounts of materials. This can be accomplished through localized placement techniques
such as side-dressing, banding, bed and furrow systems, vertical mulching (Parr, 1959) and
slot-mulching (Saxton et al., 1981).

( 112 )
The concept of producing better quality crops, however, is a complex issue because
bioavailability of crop nutrients depends on many factors. Bioavailability refers to the
amount of a particular nutrient that is absorbed from a food after consumption that is
utilized. It is not the total amount of nutrient in the food that is consumed. Measurements
of nutrient bioavailability are difficult because of the many interactions that occur between
food components. These types of interactions, very little is known about the bioavailability
of nutrients in crops grown under different management conditions. So research on cultural
practices and bioavailability of nutrients in plant foods should be conducted by
multidisciplinary teams including soil scientists, agronomists, horticulturalists, crop
breeders, physiologists, and nutritionists.

It is well known fact that soil management is a key factors for crop production without
which it will not able to maintain the crop productivity. One hand energy crisis caused a
shortage of inorganic fertilizers and other hand uneven geography of Nepal created obstacle
for transportation of imported chemical fertilizers. So, organic fertilization could be the real
solution for degradable lands of the country. Importance of organic fertilization has well
recognized globally by planners, environmental scientist and agriculturist. It should be, by
now, obvious that organic fertilization at present receiving considerable international
attention for healthy food production, should be encouraged to the highest potential level.
Recommendations as well as feeding the soil, organic farming implies a number of cultural
methods already known to traditional Nepalese farmers but it has been neglected in recent
years. These are;
Compost making to provide soil fertility.
Crop rotation to relieve the mineral drain on cultivated plots.
Mixed cropping to discourage pest build up and to improve soil cover.
Crop protection by use of 'Surti ko jhol' and 'Tite pati' extract.
Planting legume with cereal to add nitrogen to the soil.
Green manuring to ensure add bio mass to the soil.
All these traditional agricultural Practices have great merit, only the thing is to encourage
the practices organize them in better way and large scale basis according to suitable
location. For example, in mid-hills farming communities where there is plenty of materials
for composting and sufficient number of livestock for FYM production, why not a campaign
of FYM/Composting should launched as a 'compost bank' in hills similarly in Terai where
there is scarce of composting materials and fewer number of livestock, even available little
amount of animal excreta is used for cooking fuel. There is very little possibility of
FYM/composting. So, for those area why not green manuring campaign should be
encouraged on massive scale in concentrated way as 'Mung Maidan (Chaur) and 'Dhaincha
Gaun'. Likewise rainfed agriculture on upland and lowland needs a suitable cropping
pattern for efficient moisture use and land improver. As land improver legume
plantation/cultivation once in a year or at least once in a two years should be encouraged.
Beside, these our traditional practices, some following alternative methods can be tried and
encouraged as organic source for plant food. Local resources of compost should be
harnessed in bulk and should be used massively.

( 113 )
Gaur A C and Geeta Singh. Recycling of Rural and Urban Waste through Conventional and
Vermi Composting, IARI, New Delhi, India.
HMG/Nepal, 2003. Nepal Fertilizer Use Study. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives,
Monitoring and Evaluation Division, Fertilizer Unit, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Mandal S. N, 2004. Brushwood Compost; Food for the Soil, The Rising Nepal Daily, 25th
August,1994. Gorkhapatra Sansthan, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Manandhar R., M.P.Khanal, S.N.Mandal and S.N.Jaishy,2004. Current Status of Marketing
and Use of Organic, Bio and Multinutrient Fertilizer; Policy Programs and Prospects, 12th
March 2004. Kathmandu, Nepal.
Maskey S.L. 2003. Promotion and use of Bio-Fertilizers in Nepal, Handout, Nepal
Agriculture Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal.
SMD (Soil Management Directorate) 2005. Annual Progress Report, Hariharbhawan,
Lalitpur, Nepal.
Weber G. 1998. Sustainable Soil Management Training Manual, Sustainable Soil
Management Programme, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Annex-1:Waste Utilization for Plant Food


Agricultural Waste Urban Waste Industrial Waste

Animal waste Vegetable waste Green wastes House waste Sewage Organic waste

Organic fertilizer First degradation Shredding Sewing Primary treatment Separation
(>3% Total.N) (Separation)

Leather Worm compost Water addition Screening Secondary treatment Composting
Skin (Pathogenic)
Composting Windrow Composting Compost

Azolla Urban Sugarcane
Compost Compost pressmud

Annex 2:
How to prepare bokasi mal ?
Starter is prepared by adding 100 gms yeast in a 4:1 water to molasses solution.
Chopped organic ingredients put layer by layer, with the sprinkle of starter between
each layer and make heap.
Maintain 20-30% moisture of the ingredient in the heap.
Make 50cm heap height and covered with jute bags or erect shed over heap to save
the heap from direct sunlight & rain.
Turn over the heap 2-3 times in first week and 1-2 times in second week.
Use freshly prepared Bokasi Mal if planned to use later then keep it in air-tight
condition in plastic bags.
Ingredients for 'Bokasi Mal'
Materials Weight
Chicken drops, FYM, oil Cake fruits bark, fish waste 100 Kg
Tiny paddy husk 5 kg
Water 100 litres
Forest Soil 100 kg
Molasses 1 kg
Burnt Paddy husk, sugarcane trash, Legume husk 100 kg
Bone meal, Ash, Agriculture lime, coal 5 kg
Yeast 0.1 Kg

Annex 3: Some of the organic and bio-fertilizer formulations available in Nepal.
Name of the Product
Country of
Name of the organization registered to import
Meiq Organic Fertilizers China Ganjehen International (Pvt) Ltd.
Pensibao Fertilizer (Raja Mal) China Pensibo Nepal Traders
NAFED Bio-Fertilizer India National Co-operative Federation of Nepal Ltd
Multiplex Annapurna India Bhadra Concern
Kwain-Thong granule bio-
organic fertilizer
Thailand New Lucky Enterprises
New Light Bio-liquid Fertilizer Thailand New Lucky Enterprises
HB-101 Japan Trikan Swastha Fundation
Humaus Plus 4 ( Powder Australia Manoj International Traders
Carbonite 12 (Grannlated) Australia Manoj International Traders

- Shriju Pradhan Tuladhar

1. Background
Solid waste is an inevitable byproduct of human activities. With rapid urbanization,
improved living standards and changing consumption patterns, solid waste management
(SWM) has become a major challenge in many countries. Even in Nepal SWM is often
regarded as a major problem in most cities, particularly the larger ones. According to a
survey done by Central Bureau of Statistics in 1996, most urban residents feel that solid
waste management is the number one environment problem in their cities (CBS, 1997).

Figure 1: Public Opinion on Main Environmental Problems in Urban Areas
Solid Waste
Air Pollution
Water Pollution

Source: CBS, 1997
Approximately 15 percent of Nepals population live in municipalities and they generate
about 500,000 tons of municipal waste per year. Less than half of this gets collected and
almost all of the collected waste is dumped haphazardly in a crude manner. However, there
is plenty of potential for using this waste as a resource and improving waste management
systems in Nepalese municipalities. If solid waste is properly used, it can be a valuable
resource, but if it is not effectively managed, it can result in serious adverse impacts related
to environment and public health.
About two thirds of the waste that is generated in Nepal is organic in nature. Although
there is a market for various types of inorganic waste such as plastics, metal and paper,
organic waste is often not collected by scrap dealers because it is difficult to handle and
profit margins are low. As a result, most municipalities simply dump the organic waste.
However, organic wastes create serious problems, such as smell, leachate, flammable
methane gas in dump sites and they also attract scavengers such as rats, flies and vultures.
Therefore, proper management of organic waste has to be a major priority.
Traditionally, most of the organic waste that was generated by households was recycled to
produce compost. According to Nepali (1964) in Kathmandu the Newars either composted
their waste in the traditional Saaga (which literally means compost pit in Newari language)

Kathmandu Metropolitan City

or Naugaa, that as located in the house or courtyard or sold their waste, including human
excreta, for Rs. 0.50 per tin. This shows that in the traditional Newar culture, waste was
considered to be a valuable commodity that had to recycled and not thrown. Furthermore,
the waste generators were themselves responsible for managing their waste. Although the
traditional sagas and nauga were often not very hygienic and they can be improved, the
traditional culture of waste management was impressive. Today, most people and
municipalities see waste as a problem and simply dump it somewhere where no one will
complain. The challenge today is therefore to revive the traditional value system while
modifying the traditional systems to suit todays needs.

2. Composting Systems
Composting is a simple and effective way of recycling waste that is already being practiced
by many people. As compost is a valuable product that is very useful for farmers and
composting waste will significantly reduce waste management costs, there is a need to
encourage and support more people to do household composting and establish larger
composting facilities in partnership with the private sector.
Several methods or technologies are available for converting organic waste to compost or
organic fertilizer. These include:
Aerobic composting
Vermi composting
Anaerobic digestion
Ecological sanitation

2.1 Aerobic Composting
Composting is the most feasible technology for recycling organic waste in Nepal because the
technology is simple, inexpensive and robust, and the product is useful for an agricultural
country like Nepal. Different types of composting technologies can be used based on the
amount of waste available and the space available.
Simple aerobic composting can be done in piles, windrows, pits, chambers or vessels. The
process involves the following steps:
Preparation of organic waste by chopping the waste into small pieces, mixing the waste so
that the carbon nitrogen ratio is about 25, ensuring moisture content of about 50 percent,
and adding activators such as Effective Microorganisms (EM).
Degradation of organic materials with frequent aeration. Aeration can be done by turning
the compost piles manually or using mechanized equipment. During aeration, moisture
content can also be adjusted.
Preparation of the compost by screening and packing the final product. Screening can be
done manually using inclined screens or mechanically by trammels or more complex
equipment. The quality of the compost can be improved by adding essential nutrients.
Many people, particularly in rural areas, are involved in composting their waste by placing
their waste in piles or pits and letting it degrade. Even in urban areas, about 15 percent of
the people compost their waste in the traditional method (CBS, 1996). In recent years, some
municipalities have started composting their waste, but this is being done only on small-
scale and the total amount of waste being composted is still very small.

Composting in piles
This is a simple system where waste is put in a pile and allowed to degrade. Occasionally
the waste is turned and the compost is prepared in two to six months depending on
aeration and temperature. The following modifications can be made for improving the pile
For composting large amounts of waste long windrows can be used. For large
systems equipped with mechanical turning windrows that are up to 3 meter high
and 3 meter wide at the base can be used. For manual turning, however the height
of the windrow should not be more than 1.5 meters. Such a system is being used at
the Bhaktapur Compost Plant.
Piles should be covered with plastics or straw to reduce the loss of moisture and
Piles should be turned regularly, first after about 10 days and then after about a
month, to allow aeration.
Perforated pipes can be put in the piles to facilitate aeration.
Effective microorganisms can be added to speed up the process.
Composting in Vessels
Various types of vessels that allow aeration can be used for composting at the household or
community level. Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) is currently promoting the Sagaa
Compost Bin, which is made from a 100 litre plastic bin that is separated into two
compartments with a metal grid. The waste is placed in the upper compartment and compost
is removed from the lower compartment. Various other versions of this type of bin are also
available. These bins take up very little space and they are mobile. The cost of a 100 litre
capacity compost bin, including accessories, is approximately Rs. 1000, and KMC is currently
selling these bins for Rs. 750. So far, KMC has sold more than 2000 of these bins.
Composting in Chambers
This system uses a concept similar to the compost bins but is larger and stationary. A
compost chamber built by (KMC) at Teku has two sets of three compartments. Waste is
placed in the top compartment for about 10 days and then it is lowered to the second
compartment and then after about 20 more days it is lowered to the third compartment. The
process of dropping the waste from one chamber to next allows aeration to take place. The
compartments can take up to 2 tons of waste at a time. The capacity of chambers can be
variable, but it is important to have good aeration systems and convenient handling system.

2.2 Vermi Composting
Vermi composting utilizes special types of earthworms to produce worm castings, which can
be a very useful organic fertilizer. Vermi composting has been recently introduced in Nepal
and its use is growing. Experience from India has shown that vermi composting can be
done at the household level or on a larger scale. In Nepal, however, vermi composting has
so far been limited to household level. Now however, some organizations are trying to scale
up the use of this technology.
In Kathmandu, KMC started conducting experiments in vermi composting a few years ago
by importing earthworms of the species Eisenia foetida, from India. KMC is now selling
vermi compost kits, which includes a plastic tub, other necessary accessories and 300
worms, for Rs. 500. This includes a half-day training on vermi composting. These compost

kits can be setup in a small space inside the kitchen and it does not cause odour problems.
KMC has recently set up a facility to use this technology to treat about 500 kg per day of
vegetable market waste.
Experiments done in Kathmandu indicate that the vermi compost has higher amounts of
nutrients than ordinary compost. Now some rural households in places like Gagalphedi and
Methinkot are also starting to use this technology because of the high quality fertilizer it
produces. This technology therefore has great potential in Nepal. It is simple and effective.
But the main drawback is that it is not very effective for treating mixed waste.

2.3 Anaerobic Digestion
Digestion of waste in anaerobic conditions can generate biogas and slurry that can be used
as organic fertilizer. Biogas, which has approximately 60 percent methane, 30-40 percent
carbon dioxide and small amounts of other gas, can be used for cooking. Currently Nepal
has over 130,000 household biogas plants, with capacities ranging from 4 to 10 m3, of
which over 97 percent are operating. Most of these plants are located in rural areas and
most use cow dung and toilet waste as their feedstock.
Although production of biogas from municipal organic waste is not very common because
anaerobic digesters require a homogenous type of waste, some experiments are being done.
However, the household biogas plant has been very successful in rural areas and it needs to
be further promoted. This technology can also be useful for some types of industrial waste
and market waste.

2.4 Ecological Sanitation
Ecological sanitation (Ecosan) is a concept of separating human urine and faeces and using
them as organic fertizer. This reduces environmental pollution and water consumption,
while improving hygiene and soil fertility. So far more than 300 ecosan toilets have been
constructed in Nepal. These toilets are built above ground and they have two chambers for
collecting faeces and a separate tank for collecting urine. Urine has very high concentration
of nitrogen as well as potassium and phosphorus and can therefore be used as an organic
fertilizer. Overall, urine represents less than one percent of wastewater generated in a
normal household, but it contains over 80 percent of the nitrogen, 50 percent of the
phosphorus and 60 percent of the potassium. It can be added directly to the field after
diluting it with water or it can be added to the compost pile to improve the compost quality
and enhance the rate of composting. Similarly, faeces, after storage for at least six months
can be safely used as a soil conditioner.

3. Conclusions
Solid waste is often seen as a major problem in most municipalities and most people are
eager to get rid of it. However, waste can be a valuable resource instead of a pollutant if it is
properly managed. Particularly, organic waste, which makes up about two thirds of the
total waste, can be used to produce organice fertilizer, which can be very useful for a
agriculture-based country like Nepal. There is a wide range of simple technologies available
for converting organic waste into organic fertilizer and some efforts are being made to
promote these technologies. However, the challenges are as follows;
Change the attitude of people so that they view waste as a resource not as a problem.

Scale up the application of various appropriate waste recycling technologies such as
aerobic composting, vermi composting, biogas and ecosan.
Develop a market for organic fertilizer so as to sustain recycling efforts.
As solid waste is a major problem in urban areas while loss of soil fertility is a major
problem in rural areas, organic waste recycling has to become a priority issue that
needs to be addressed urgently with joint collaboration between government
agencies, municipalities, private sector and local communities.

CBS, 1997: Urban Population Survey 1996, Central Bureau of Statistics, His Majestys
Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.
Nepali, G.S. 1964: The Newars, Mandala Book Point, Kathmandu.
Tuladhar, B. 1996: Kathmandus Garbage Simple Solutions Going to Waste, Studies in
Nepali History and Society, Vol.1 No. 2: 365-393, Mandala Book Point, Kathmandu.
Upreti, H.K. and Paudel, P. 2005: Effective of Human Urine on Crop Yield, ENPHO
Magazine, Environment and Public Health Organization, Kathmandu

- Prof. Dr. Ananda Shova Tamrakar*
- Kishor Maharjan**

More and more emphasis is now laid on the organic farming and use of earthworms for the
conversion of organic waste into organic manures. In 20
century modern impacts such as
chemical revolutionized the agriculture. These inputs being mass produced were
aggressively promoted and subsidized. With the result, world over agriculture without
chemical cannot be even considered as possible. However in less than 50 years of their use
in agriculture, it has started showing negative effects. Organic agriculture in a way is an
outcome of these negative effects of chemicals.
In the first instance fertility management require a completely new approach under organic
management. In most of the discussion, held for exploring organic agriculture development
possibilities, nutrient required for cultivation gets the centre stage.
It is said that Mother Nature has provided for organic matter recycling to provide nutrients
for plants from the soil. Under organic management for providing nutrients to soil, organic
matter recycling i.e preparation of compost is expected to play an important role. Important
source of plant nutrients available for composting are urban solid waste, Farm waste,
Animal dung, Agro processing waste etc.
The source waste materials and its conversion into compost play an important role in
deciding compost method.
Use of vermiculture technology as one of the tools of organic farming in recent and found to
be quite promising. The technique in this direction has been a pioneering break-through in
recent times. In most of the centuries, only small scale production i.e handling with few
kilograms waste material was possible through vermiculture process developed by many
scientists in the world. In this regard, Cuba and India have been fortunate to successfully
develop large scale production processes utilizing vermiculture technology. The technology of
using earthworms to turn the organic waste into valuable organic one of manure is known as
Vermiculture technology. In this technology earthworms acts as one of the tools for the
production of Vermicompost. Any level of farmers can easily adopt this method. This
technology can be practice for both on-farm as well as off-farm production. The high levels of
nutrient content in Vermicasting and its beneficial effects on crop such as improvement in
soil condition, quality of crops, less irrigation requirement, less problems of weeds in the
fields have made Nepal is basically an agriculture country. Eighty five percent of our
population depends on agriculture and agriculture contributes 30% to our national income.
Agriculture in Nepal was sustainable in past days. Because people were not using chemical
fertilizer. But recent years due to use of chemical fertilizer and improper irrigation, some land
portions have become saline and destroyed agroecosystems. Now farmers all over the world
have started realizing the necessity of using organic practices for sustainable development.

What is Vermicomposting?
Breeding of earthworm (Vermiculture) and their subsequent use for the preparation compost
(Vermicompost) is called Vericomposting. The compost prepared by using earthworm is called

Central Department of Zoology, T.U Kirtipur
Department of Environmental Science, Tri-Chandra College T.U

Vermicompost. Organic manures like Vermicompost are all the more relevant because of the
harmful effect of continued use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Vermicompost is today a
very important aspect of an organic farming package. It is one of the biofertilizer which not
only increase the growth of plant but also help to increase the water holding capacity and
porosity of soil. It is soil activator, soil conditioner, and soil fertility booster with all required
plant nutrient, Vitamins, enzymes, growth hormones and beneficial microbes.

Why is Vermi culture becoming popular?
Vermiculture does not require sophisticated equipments.
It does not need heavy capital investment.
It is made from eco-friendly technology using organic wastes and biotechnology
It does not require skilled and technical person.

Compost making worms
There are some worm species which are most suitable for waste degradation or compost
making. Only a selected species of earthworms are preferred for this technology. Only
surface living species which are fast breeders, active feeder on such organic matter, high in
nitrogen are used in this technology. There are few species of earthworms such as Eisenia
foetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, Lumbricus rubellus, Lampito maurittii, Perionyx excavatus and
Perionyx fovatus are used in worldwide for organic waste degradation and are found to be
very successful functionaries for manure production from organic wastes. They are
commonly called red worms or composting worms (Tamrakar, 2001).
The earthworm Eisenia foetida i.e red worm is the most suitable species for the use of
Vermicomposting and it is mostly used in Nepal for the compost production. It has very
good efficiency with high reproductive rates. The culturing process of this species is quite
easy due to its feeding adjustment to organic matter. They can live on the wide variety of
decomposable waste. It can consume organic material equal to their body weight per day.
Moreover, it can consume food more than 3 to 4 times to their body weight if the
environmental condition is favorable for them.

Source of organic waste for Vermiculture
The farmers have to look for different source to build up the top soil. This is essential to
restore the carbon level in the soils where the depletion of carbon takes place at rapid rate.
When organic manure has to be applied to fields, it has to be applied in bulk quantities
when compared to chemical fertilizers. The alternative means have to be considered to get
the quantities of organic manure for better results.
List of source of organic waste for vermiculture
S.N. Waste generation Utilizable waste for vermicomposting
I Agricultural Waste
1. Agriculture Fields Stubbles, weeds, husk, straw, fallen liter
2. Plantations Stems, Leaf matter, Fruitrinds, Stubbles
3. Animal Waste Dung, Urine, Pellets, Bio-gas slurry
II Urban Organic Waste
Waste from Kitchen, restaurants, hotels, market & yard
waste, temple and vegetable market wastes, sludge

S.N. Waste generation Utilizable waste for vermicomposting
III Agro-industry Waste
1. Food processing units Peels, rinds and unused pulp of fruits and vegetable
2. Vegetable oil refineries Pressmud, and seed husk
3. Sugar Factories Pressmud, fine bagass, boiler ash, sugarcane trash
4. Breweries & Distilleries Spent wash, barley waste, and Yeast Sludge
5. Seed processing unit Core of fruits, paper & seeds after expiry date
Aromatic oil Extraction
(Herb Industry)
Stems, leaves, flowers after extraction
7. Paper industry Pulp & Sludge
8. Coffee & Tea processing Husk & waste leaves
9. Tissue culture units Paper, agar, wasted plantlets
10. Carpet industry Sludge
Source : Kale, 1994

The organic matters like above wastes are the good sources of locked up nutrient materials
for the plant. They have all the complex chemicals that form the building blocks of the
protoplasm. When these complex substances are unlocked by suitable means, they form
the wholesome nourishment for the plant. Above waste can be used as raw materials for
producing Vermicompost on the commercial scale.

Physiology of the Earthworm gut
The passage of organic waste through the gut of earthworms leads to the acceleration of
humification process by the gut micro flora. The digestive tract has the calciferous gland
and is associated with the regulation of Hydrogen ion concentration (pH). The enzymes
secreted at different regions of gut help in the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
that are derived from ingested decomposed plant materials. Some reports mentioned that
Cellulase and Chitinase enzymes are secreted by the gut wall. This physiological process in
the gut of earthworm brings about the breakdown of complex organic components into
simple compound. The casts are manufactured in the alimentary canal of the worm from
dead organic vegetable matter. In this passage of the food of this creature is neutralized by
constant addition of carbonate of lime from the three pairs of calciferous glands near the
gizzard where it finely ground prior to digestion. The cast which are left contain everything
that the crop needs nitrates, phosphates and potash in abundance and also in just the
condition in which the plant can make use of them. The fresh cast of earthworms is 5 times
richer in available nitrogen, 7 times richer in available phosphorous and 11 times richer in
available potash than the upper 6 inches of the soil. In the Vermicompost, some of the
secretions of worms and the associated microbes act as growth promoters along with other
nutrients. The multifarious effect of the Vermicompost influences the growth and yield of
crops. Vermicompost being a stable fine granular organic matter, when added to clay soil
loosen the soil and provides the passage for the entry of air, the mucus associated with the
cast being hygroscopic, absorb water and prevents water logging and improve water holding
capacity, the strong mucus coated aggregates of Vermicompost hold water for longer times.
The organic carbon in Vermicompost releases the nutrient slowly into the system and
enables the plant to absorb these nutrients. The Vermicompost improves physical, chemical
and biological properties of soil in the long run on repeated application.

Sex life of worm
A worms reproductivity system is quite complex. Worms are hermaphrodic. ie each worm
has both male and female sex organs and each can produce eggs and fertilize the eggs
produced by another worms, under suitable environment, a mature breeder will produce a
cocoon every week. During mating, any two adult worms can join together to fertilize each
others eggs. Then a mucus tube secreted by the clitellum (the band of the way down the
worms body) slips over its head into the sol as an egg case or cocoon. These cocoons are
about the size of a match head and change colour as the baby worms develop, starting out
as pale yellow and when the hatchlings are ready to emerge, cocoons are a reddish brown.
It takes about three weeks development in the cocoon for one to ten baby worms to hatch
but generally two baby worms to hatch.

Methods of Vermicomposting
Five things are necessary for Vermicomposting
(1) Shed (2) Land (3) Worm (4) Organic waste (5) Water
Method 1 : Surface bedding method:
Vermicomposting can be done on ground for large scale Vermicompost production. For this,
ground is leveled and plastered and a manageable sized platform is made. Depending upon
the availability of space and a compostable organic waste, the shed and platforms is made.
It could be 3 feet wide, 20-25 feet long and 1.5 feet height of the waste heaps in a
semicircular manner. In the base of the bed, 3-4 inches thick layer of saw dust/dry
leaves/husk/straw/paper/ ie. any biodegradable dry matter, are spread uniformly. This is
called bedding material and it should be thoroughly moistened. Over the bedding a layer of
12-15 partly digested feed (crop waste/dung/Organic waste) heaped in semicircular way.
Then lives worms are introduced at the rate of 3000-4000 numbers per bed size of one sq.m.
This is ultimately covered by dried leaves/litter or jute bags. The watering is done over the
covered straw/dry leaves/jute bags regularly twice or thrice a week. Watering helps to low
down the temperature of the wastes in beds during summer.
After 2-3 months the upper portion of the prepared Vermicompost should be harvested and
the worms move to down.

Methods 2 : Vermicomposting in tank
(Case study - Vermicomposting plant in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Teku.)
Selection of Container :
Size of cement tank or container depends on the amount of waste and the number of
earthworms to be introduced. The container/ tank should not be too deep. The base of the tank
should be inclined about 3-5
to maintain the flow of produced vermiwash and minimize water
logging. The vermiwash outlet should be constructed at the inclined position of the tank.

Dimension of cemented of vermi tank
Vermiwash outlet

Bedding Materials :
Bedding for worms can be made from coconut husk, sawdust, hay, straw, shredded leaves
or compost. Coconut husk & saw dust are excellent materials for bedding. The bedding
materials should be spread for about 4-5 inches in a tank & thoroughly moistened and it is
spread with cow dung. The bedding should be loosely packed in order to create air space for
the worms to breathe and to control odors.
Feeding materials :
The food of earthworms include admixture of cow-dung, green foliage, vegetable wastes,
discarded parts of fruit, paper or scarp of cardboards.
The organic wastes i.e. biodegradable waste can be used either in fresh or partially
decomposed form for the feeding.
Aerobic digestion :
The earthworm prefers partially degraded organic waste rather than fresh waste. Aerobic
degradation in medium scale vermicomposting has higher significance. Too much fresh
vegetable wastes can generate maximum temperature that can kill the worms, so it is better
to digest aerobically. The aerobic digestion can be done in different composting units such
as; i) Honey comb box ii) Barrel iii) Chamber house
Food to be avoided :
Bones, dairy products, meats that may attract pests and garlic, onions and spicy foods
should be avoided. Limited amounts of citrus can be added but too much can make
compost too acidic and earthworms do not prefer acidic foods.
Earthworm inoculation :
The most suitable types of earthworms used for vermicomposting is tiger worm (Eisenia
foetida). It can consume organic material equal to their body weight per day.
About 5 kg of earthworms per 1.8 cubic meter of tank should be released on the top of the
partially decomposed or fresh waste. These earthworms will start penetrating to the bottom.
Once all these earthworms disappear, cover the surface with jute bags and keep them moist
by sprinkling water in a judicious way.
Harvesting the worms and Compost :
It is important to separate the earthworms from their castings; otherwise the worms will
begin to die. So harvesting is must. After 3 months, it is ready to harvest. There are mainly
two basic ways to separate the worms from the finished product i.e., vermicompost.
Procedure 1 (Sideways Separation) :
It involves moving the finished compost and worms over to one side of the place/container
and adding new bedding material and food waste to the other side. Then worms in the
finished compost move over to the new bedding with the fresh food waste, thus the finished
compost can be removed.


Fig : Separation of Worms from Vermicompost in Cemented Vermi tank.

Procedure 2 (Light separation) :
In this method, the Vermicompost is placed in a large plastic sheet in the form of small cone
shaped heaps. The separation of earthworms should be done in bright light. It is because
they dont like light, they will start to move to the bottoms of heap. So the harvested
Vermicompost after making a number of small cone shaped heap, it should be left for 10
minutes. Now the upper portion of each heap can be removed until the worms reappeared
on the compost. The process can be repeated until the worm forms a ball like structure.
Then the worms can be again used in new bed.

Fig : Separation of Worms from Vermicompost
The vermicompost might need screening if rough stuff (sticks) is used in the bedding that
takes time to break down. The compost can be screened manually using inclined screens
with mesh size of 8mm and 4mm.
Some precautions
Compost making worm tolerate a wide range of temperatures. Survival of earthworm is
even upto 38
C. However, the requirement for optimal temperature is 10-25
C. Greater
than 27
C is however unfavorable for them.
- Keep the vermibox/container/vermicoposting unit from direct heat and strong sunlight.
Sun Light
Worms gathering

- Protect from freezing temperatures.
(A straw or dried leaves covering is good method to keep the vermibox/container from
drying out during hot summer weather. Moreover, this straw in the winter work as an
insulating material to keep the worms from freezing).
Earthworms need a moist environment. They breathe through their skin. Skin must be
moist in order to breathe. They suffocate if the water moisture is very high.
- Moisture content should be 50-60%
- Protect from heavy rain
If moisture content is high, mix dry cow dung/leaf litter/paper with substrate.
Worms need Oxygen to survive and produce Carbon dioxide like human.
- Air circulation is a must in and around Vermicomposting unit.
- Do not cover container by plastic material tightly.
- Jute bag is a good covering material that can pass oxygen and hold moisture content.
Worms need food to survive i.e bio- degradable wastes. Heavy load of food can kill them
and give foul odour as well as generate high temperature.
- Add decomposed waste after loosing its heat as possible while doing in medium and
large scale Vermicomposting.
Although they have no ears, but they are very sensitive to vibrations. They do not like
disturbance by anybody.

Enemies of Worms
Rat/Moles, Frog, Birds, Flatworms, Red ant, Centipedes, Fervicula, Red mites

Advantages of Vermicompost
1) It enhances the growth of plant
2) Maintain the pH of soil
3) Increase the porosity of soil
4) Enhances plants ability to resist against diseases and insect pests, cold, drought, and
adverse condition.
5) Increases the water holding capacity of soil.
6) Increases the availability of macro and micro nutrients viz. N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Zn, etc.
7) Improve quality of farm products (colour, texture, taste and size)
8) Most economical input that increases production, reduces the cost of cultivation and
offers scope for value addition in the form of organic agriculture
9) Made from eco-friendly technology using organic waste and biotechnology process.

Physical, Chemical and Biological properties of Vermicompost
Physical :
1) Vermicompost is dark rich humus like coarse material; it is soft and free from any foul
smell, pathogens, live weed seed and other contamination.
2) Vermicompost has electrically charged particles that improve absorption of plant
nutrients in soil. Thus very high direct manurial value, better than Farmyard manure.
3) Mucus type of substance coated on each particle increases aeration in the soil, excellent
water retention properties and improves drainage in heavy soil.
4) Contains sufficient moisture content.

Chemical :
SN Parameters Value
1 pH 7.6
2 Moisture content (%) 69.2
3 Organic Matter (%) 35.16
4 Total Nitrogen (%) 1.81
5 Phosphorus (%) 2.49
6 Potassium (%) 4.59
7 CN ratio 11.29
8 Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu 200-700 ppm
Maharjan, 2004
Biological properties
Total bacterial count : More than 10
Per gm
Actinomycetes, Fungi, Rhizobium : 10

(Gupta, 2002)
SN Agricultural Crops Amount
1 Field crops -Wheat, Barley, Maize, Gram, Mustard 200-300 kg/ropani
2 Vegetables 300-350 kg/ropani
3 Fruit plants 5-10 kg/plant
4 Flower plots, domestic lawn 10-200 per sq.feet

Multiple uses of vermicompost :
The vermicompost can be used in Agriculture, Floriculture, Horticulture, Silviculture,
Mushroom culture, Bio gas production, Fish pond

Multiple uses of earthworm:
The earthworm can be used as Fish food, Aquarium, Poultry, Piggery, Human food, and

Case study 1 : Vermicomposting plant in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Teku

Title : Pilot Project for Medium Scale Vermi Composting of Vegetable
Market Waste
Objective : Demonstrate the use of vermi composting technology to manage
market waste
Technology : Aerobic Composting and Vermi Composting
Project Activities : - Research on Vermi Composting
- Site selection and design of vermi beds, aerobic composting
chamber and compost box
- Construction of vermi composting shed, compost chamber,
compost box and other related infrastructure
- Procurement of necessary equipment and materials, including
earthworms, for vermi composting

- Operation of vermi composting plant
- Quality analysis of vermi compost
- Preparation of marketing strategy for vermicompost
- Preparation of vermi composting manual
Input : 500 kg Waste from Kalimati Vegetable Market
Outputs : 1. Infrastructure and system set up for production of 200 kg of
vermi compost per day
2. Increased knowledge and understanding on the feasibility of
medium scale vermi composting in Nepal
3. Enhanced capacity of municipal staff and other key
stakeholders on vermi composting
4. Increased awareness on waste minimization and vermi
5. Strategy for marketing vermi compost
6. Manual on vermi composting
Location : North-east corner Teku Transfer Station, Kathmandu
Project Duration : Phase 1: Feb-March 2005 Construct Vermi Compost Plant
Phase 2: April-June 2005 Operate of Vermi compost Plant
Implementing Agency : KMC, PEMON & CEN

Operation of Vermi Compost Plant
Operation of the vermi compost plant started on 21 March 2005 and ended June
2005.Now the project has been managed by Kathmandu Metropolitan City and PEMON
is working as a Consultancy.
During one year, a total of 62.86 tons of waste was processed in the plant. This is
equivalent to an average waste intake of 174 kg per day. This rate is much lower than
the proposed rate of 500 kg per day. The waste intake is thus being increased now.
Once the waste is collected it is unloaded at the project site and then sorted and chopped
if necessary. Usually, about 98.5 percent of the collected waste is organic waste that can
be used. The waste is then weighed and mixed with saw dust in about 20:1 ratio.
Once the waste is ready for composting it is then composted for about 30 days in an
aerobic system such as chamber house, Honey comb box, Barrel, Pile composting.
In the compost chamber, the top compartment holds about 1000 kg of waste. After 10
days, the waste is dropped to the second compartment and from there it is dropped to
the third compartment after 10 more days. Then partially decomposed waste is ready
for feeding to worms.
In the honeycomb compost box, each box is able to hold about 600 kg of waste. In the
beginning two of the boxes are filled with waste. After 15 days, the volume of the waste
reduces by about half and the semi decomposed waste from the boxes is transferred in
to the empty box.
During aerobic composting, the temperature and volume was regularly monitored. The
temperature usually reached a maximum of about 70 degrees C after about six days.
At the end of 10 days the temperature was between 40 to 50 degrees C and by the end
of 30 days the temperature went down to 26 to 32 degrees C.
During the pilot project 200,000 worms were used. Now the project gained more than
300,000 worms.

After 60 days in the vermi tanks, the vermi compost removed and harvested, then the
compost is put aside for about 3 weeks to allow hatching of worms from cocoons.
After the composting process is complete, it needs to be screened and then packed and
stored. Recently, the vermicompost is sold from project site as a brand name, Healthy Gro

Case study 2 :
Project title : Effectiveness of Vermicompost analyzed for Sustainable management of Soil in
Dhading District (Kumpur VDC)
This study was done in Kumpur VDC of Dhading district during the month of December,
2005. Following results were obtained from the different treatment of Vermicompost, FYM
and Control (FYM and Chemical fertilizer).

Productivity testing:

The production of potatoes from different plot was obtained. The study found that the
productivity of potatoes in vermicompost application with 100 gm had the maximum
production (769.2 Kg/ropani) as compared to other types of treatment. Similar result was
observed for the application of FYM with the productivity of 760.5 Kg/ropani. The
production was reduced (430.8 and 423.1 Kg/ropani) with the application of dose increased
to twice and thrice i.e., 200 gm and 300 gm (PEMON, 2006)

References :
Chaudhary, D.R. 2002. Organic farming. An overwiew. Farmer s Forum 2(4):7-9
Gupta, M. 2002. Vermiculture manual, Morarka Research Foundation, Jaipur.
Kale, 1994. Earthworm Cinderella of Organic Farming
Maharjan, K. 2004. Management of Solid waste of Kalimati Fruits and Vegetables Wholesale
Market through different methods of Composting. M.Sc. dissertation, T.U. Kirtipur,
Maharjan, K. 2006. Medium scale Vermicomposting Plant, Teku. A report submitted to
Envoronment Department, Kathmandu, Metropolitan City.
Nagarajan, S.S. 2003. A farmer's trust with organic farming. Kishan World 30(9):44-45
PEMON, CEN, KMC, 2005. Pilot project: Medium Scale Vermicomposting of Vegetable
Market waste in KMC.
PEMON, 2006. Effectiveness of Vermicompost analysed for sustainable management of soil
in Dhading district. A report submitted to Sustainable Soil Management Programme (SSMP).
Tamrakar, A.S. 2001. Vermiculture and Biowaste Management. An Alternative Technolgy,
Biodiversity 1(2):2-3
SN Treatment
1 Control(FYM & Chemical Fertilizer) 684.2
2 Vermicompost
100 gm dose 769.2
200 gm dose 430.8
300 gm dose 423.1
3 FYM (1kg per plant) 760.5

- Shanti Bhattarai*, Kedar Bhudhathoki* and Dil P. Sherchan*

1. Introduction
Organic farming is the culture and tradition of Nepalese farmers. When animal manures and
crop residues are used as the primary sources of nutrients the management system is often
referred to as Organic Farming and it is claimed to be a sustainable system. So 6o percent
of our land are still under this system. In this system especially in the hills the animal waste
received from cows, goats and buffalo along with plant residues are used for compost or Farm
Yard Manure production. So the number of animal heads is more in the hills (Fig.1.) CBS
2004. Use of organic manures gives life to soil by making active the micro and macro
organism of the soil. It supplies all the required nutrients to crops. It also improves the
physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. By using the organic manure negligible
amount of Nitrate which is harmful to human being are deposited in the plant tissue. The
technology is environmentally friendly and produces healthy food for human consumption.

2. Role of organic farming on Soil Fertility
A loam soil in good physical condition for plant growth has approximately one half solids
and one half pore spaces. Out of the solid parts 46 percent usually contents minerals and 4
percent organic matter. So a cubic foot of productive soil surface contains approximately 2
pound of organic matter. Out of which half consists of dead remain of former soil life and
other half is very much alive. The alive parts consists of roots of the plants, bacteria,
earthworm, algae, fungi, actinomycetes, nematodes and many other form of soil life.
Soil organic matter is the indicator of soil fertility for sustainable agriculture
Soil is productive when it contents 2-4 percent organic matter as a result it contents
adequate amount of all the 16 essentials elements in the forms readily available to plants
are in a good physical condition to support plants and contains just the right amount of
water and air for desirable root growth. So soil fertility can be maintained or improved by
adding the organic manures (Allison, 1973).
Incorporation of crop residues has been found to be effective in checking weed growth in
lowland rice (Ramaswamy et al 1984).
Studies show that the organic matter contents of terai as well as hills are low ranging from
0.4-1.61 in terai and 1.5-2.0 in hills (Pandey et al 1998). As a result it has been reported
that productivities of major crops except rice have been decreased in the recent years due to
decline in soil fertility.

3. Effect on crop Production
Declining soil fertility for sustainable production is the major concern of Nepalese agriculture.
Though the cause of decline soil fertility is complex, the major causes are decrease in use of
organic manure, soil nutrient loss through erosion and inadequate supply of plant nutrients.
With the introduction of high yielding and nutrient responsive varieties of rice, wheat, maize,
millets and open pollinated and hybrid varieties of vegetables to meet the food demand of
the growing population there are great demand for plant nutrient sources. To meet the

Senior Scientists and Chief Soil Scientist, NARC
Senior Scientists and Chief Soil Scientist, NARC
Senior Scientists and Chief Soil Scientist, NARC

demand promotion of fertilizer use has been the spearhead to sustain the increased
agriculture productivity and to maintain the soil fertility. This is highlighted in the Twenty
Years Agriculture Perspective plan
(APP, 1995) However, the forty years experiences indicate that increased use of mineral
fertilizer has its own limitation as inaccessibility, timely unavailability, ever increasing price
and low purchasing capacity of most of the farmers. As a result the consumption rate of
mineral fertilizer has not increased more than 35-50 kg/ha.( Basnyat, 1999 ). So the soil
mining is the major cause of low productivity.
For Commercial Agriculture use of mineral fertilizer has very effective role on production.
Where mineral fertilizer is used production of cereals and vegetables increased up to tenfold.
So farmers are using more than recommended dose for higher profit. Use of mineral
fertilizer in a unbalanced way, pesticides and herbicide in alarming high rate causing
adverse effect on human, soil, plant and aquatic life.
This situation has renewed the interest on the used of organic manure in the farming system.

4. Constraints
o Nutrient content especially the nitrogen is very low in organic manure so bulk is
needed to meet the nutrient requirement of the major crops.
o Natural resources to produce organic manure is limited
o Response of organic manure difficult to observed in the first year of application
o Drudgery on women farmers
o Young generation is not interested due to dirty looking and difficult to handle.
o Farmers have lost confident on the use of organic manure in recent years.
o Production of organic manure is limited due to shortage of fodder ,feed and
rangeland of the animal grazing which are the sources of manure
o Though the farmers are aware of the advantage of applying organic manure to the
soil, their knowledge of various techniques of recycling organic waste and improved
method of composting making is limited.
o The knowledge of other sources of plant nutrient like biofertilizer, benefit of
inclusion of legume in the cropping system, green manuring and green leaf
manuring especially for rice, collection and use of human and animal urine, city
waste compost, vermicompost, oil cake and poultry manure and rapid production of
compost as Bokashi is also limited.
Livestock Population and Distribution (A million)

Fig. 1

5. Research Highlights
5.1. Quality and quality production of compost
Farmers usually collect leaf litter and fodder from forest and used them as bedding
materials and to feed their animal .The animal waste mixed with urine soaked bedding is

used for compost making .compost prepared in this way is usually low nutrient content
specially nitrogen due to washing of nutrient with rain. Research was conducted to increase
the nutrient content of the compost and the result showed nutrient can be increase with
proper management (Table 1)
Table 1: Effect on Nitrogen and organic matter content on compost prepared from
different methods
Method of Composting
Different Parameters
N% OM% pH
Pit 1.38 12.46 7.0
Bamboo Bin 2.05 10.90 7.13
Meshwire Bin 1.32 11.42 7.10
Heap 1.86 9.34 7.10

Compost prepared by different method has higher percent of nitrogen (1.38-2.05 %) than
tradition farmers method (0.5 %). and pH of the compost also toward neutral (7.1)

5.2. Application of compost increases fertility of soil
Research result showed that application of compost not only supply nutrients for the crop it
also increase the fertility of the soil by residual effect. ( Table:2)
Table:2. Residual effect of compost on soil
Crops Treatments
Total Nutrients
added NPK/ha
A. Cabbage Compost(30t/ha) 546.45 3.33 294.98 +251.47
1/2com+1/2 MF 383.22 2.89 284.44 +98.78
MF (120:60:40 NPK kg/ha) 220.00 1.65 162.67 +57.29
B.Raddish Compost( 30 t/ha) 639.00 3.56 328.34 +310.66
compost+1/2 MF) 384.50 2.57 321.43 +63.07
MF (60:40:30 NPK kg/ha 130.00 3.08 283.78 -153.78
*Compost contents 50 % Moisture
**Nutrient Content of compost ( % )

For Cabbage-N- 0.635 Raddish N - 0.95
P 0.700 P 0.950
K - 2.308 K 2.360
It is clear from the table 2 that if sufficient amount of compost if applied not only increase
the yield but also increased the fertility of the soil by leaving the residual nutrients.
Compost also increases the volume and weight of the soil.

5.3. Inclusion of Legume in the cropping system
Legumes fixes atmospheric nitrogen with the help of tiny bacteria Rhizobium associated in
the root nodules symbiotically. Experiment was conducted to study the quantification of
biological nitrogen fixation by lentil and chickpea in the rice based cropping at Nepaljung
for three years and the results is tabulated in Table 3.

Table 3 : Winter crop Nepalgunj, MidWestern Terai
Shoot dry matter (DM), N accumulation, and estimates of N-fixation measured during seed-
Crop Shoot Shoot 15 N-derived N-diffa Fixation Total

(kg N/ha)
(kg N/ha)
(kg N/ha)
(kg N fixed/t DM)
Wheat 0N
Wheat +80N
a N-difference method: N fixed = (legume N) (unfertilised wheat N).
b N-fixation efficiency = kg shoot N fixed/t shoot DM.
c Includes estimate of contribution from below-ground legume N = (kg shoot N-fixed) x 1.5.

This table shows that chickpea and lentil can fix 67 and 86 percent (Pfix %) of their nitrogen
requirement but the fixation capacity directly related to biomass production. Lentil
fixes134kgN /ha and chickpea fixes 79kgN/ha in one cropping season. So incorporation of
such residue after grain harvest helps to enrich the soil with nitrogen (Bhattarai,S.)
5.6.1. Green Manuring in Rice
Green manuring is the effective way of meeting the nutrient requirement of rice .It is easy
and can be managed by family labor if the farm size is small. Experiment conducted at
Tarahara Agriculture Research stat ion showed that all sources of green manuring have
positive effect on rice yield and the yield increment was at par with the recommended dose
of mineral fertilizer.( Table 4) Maximum yield increase was observed in the plots where siris
leaves was applied at the rate of 25 t/ha .This may be due to lignin content is high as a
result decomposes slowly making the nutrient available through out the growing period in
warm tropical climate. Sesbania rostrata showed slightly better effect than sesbania
cannabina. This was also observed that positive effect on wheat yield due to green
manuring with rice (Bhattarais).

Table 4. Effect of green manuring and green leaves manuring on the yield of rice and its
residual effect on wheat atTarahara
Amount of
manures/ fert.
N-P-K kg/ ha
increment over
Amount of fert. In
Wheat N-P-KKg/ha
Yield t/ha
increment over
1.Control 0 3.57 0.00 0-0-0 1.19 0.00
2.Titepati 25000 4.01 12.00 50-30-30 2.47 107.00
3.Behaya 25000 4.41 23.50 50-30-30 2.22 86.00
4.Ipil Ipil 25000 4.47 25.00 50-30-30 2.26 89.90
5.Banmara 25000 4.78 33.90 50-30-30 2.33 95.80
6.Siris 25000 5.22 46.20 50-30-30 2.41 102.50
7.Khirro 25000 4.75 33.10 50-30-30 2.83 137.80
8.S.cannabina 25000 4.19 17.90 50-30-30 2.49 109.00
9.S.rostrata 25000 4.22 18.20 50-30-30 2.72 128.00
10.Mineral fert. 90:30:30 4.38 21.30 50-30-30 2.77 132.00
Latin name : 2. Artemisia vulgaris 3.Ipomeaspp 4.Luecomia spp 5.Eupatorium 6.Albizia
7. Sapium insigne

5.6.2 Inclusion of short duration legume
crop for grain and for green manuring
Short duration mungbean, busy type
cowpea and bush bean are suitable to grow
under rice- wheat system for better income
by harvesting the short duration legume
crop and incorporating the biomass for rice
nutrition. Research result shows that yield
of rice is better when cowpea or mungbean
biomass was incorporated after harvesting
the 75% of the pods than rice grown after
fallow.(Fig.2) under irrigated condition with
warm tropical climate..

5.7. Vermicomposting
Cow dung can not be used directly to supply nutrient to plant and to fertilize the soil.
Composting of cow dung takes about four month in ordinary condition. The food, cow eats
can digest only 30-40 percent. If such manure is applied in the soil insect acts on them first
causing damage to the crops. Such cow dung if given for the earthworm which act on them
leaving very rich manure and is called vermicompost.
Vemicompost can be prepared from cow dung within 45-
50 days and has positive effect on legume(Yukti, 2006).
The earthworm is a special type and eats fast and
multiply also very fast. The sps.of earthworm used for
composting of organic waste including cow dung is
Eisenia foetida (Fig 4). This sps.most probably the
worlds most widely used earthworm in vermitechnology
for vermicomposting.
Fig.4 (Yukti ,2006)
5.8 City waste compost
The city waste is the continuous source of organic manure. Handling of such if properly
done by separating organic, recyclable and inorganic parts from the sources itself
continuous production of organic manure is possible. Though the nutrient content may not
be very high but proper management of such waste will help to increase the aesthetic value
of the urban area, reduce the adverse on human health and help to increase the nutrient
content, weight and volume of the agriculture land. Nutrient content of some of the sources
of organic manures along with city waste compost are as follow. ( Table 5)

Table 5: Nutrient Contents of some of the commonly used manure
S.N Sources N% P% K%
1 Compost 0.99 1.24 2.39
2 Farm Yard Manure 0.65 1.00 1.40
3 Poultry Manures 3.00 3.56 3.03
4 City waste Manure 1.90 3.36 2.39
5 Mushroom Waste Compost 1.83 2.40 2.92
6 Dry Biogas Slurry 1.65 0.85 1.61
Fig.2.Effect of Legumes as Green Manure
on Rice Yield in Rice-Wheat System



Cowpea Mung Fallow

5.9 Preparation and Use of Bokashi on vegetable production.
Production technology of Bokashi is a Japanese technology. It is a quick method of quality
compost production. The main ingredients are rice husk ( 19 % ), rice hull ( 19 %) poultry
manure (19 %),Top Soil ( 19 %), Yeast ( 0.2 %), brown sugar ( 2.0 %), Oil cake (10%), and
green grasses ( 5%) are mixed together by adding moisture and make a heap. The heap is
cover with plastic cover. within ten days temperature rises to the maximum ( 60-65 OC) then
make the heap cool by spreading them. In this technology killing of microorganism in the
compost heap is prevented. High quality compost can be prepared continuously within 15-21
days. The response of such Bokhasi compost thus made on vegetable is tabulated (Table 6)
Table 6: Effects of Organic Manures on Yield of Cauliflower
Compost(20t/ha) Bokashi(gm/pl.)
Control - 2.9 455.2
Compost - 7.5 1157.4
Compost +100:80:50 NPK kg/ha - 10.3 1574.1
Compost 50 11.O 1697.5
Compost 100 12.2 1882.7
Compost 150 12.5 1929.0
Compost 200 13.1 2021.6
- 200 7.6 1172.8
Compost +Oil cake 100gm/Plant - 11.1


0.20 455.2
F-Test **

Bokashi compost if mixed with other compost at the rate of 20 t/ha in different amount has
positive effect on the yield of cauliflower and then are significantly difference with each other

6. Strategy
Need to establish Farms/Stations for Research, Extension and Training on organic
Development of proper institution is needed to recommend for certification of
organic products before exporting.
Standardization of organic products is essential.
Establish facilities to test organic products which are coming from different counties
before recommendation.
Government policy to encourage the production of organic product locally.
Networking of the organic food growers and linking them with government policy,
rules and regulation
Effective publicity through mass media.

7. Conclusion
Organic farming is a bit expensive and labor intensive.
Health conscious consumer however, will not mind to the high price.

This will encourage the producer to stick on the organic farming.
It is not impossible to have organic farming
There is a tremendous scope for organic farming as more and more countries in the
world are turning to organic farming.
Nepal government also should have policy, market and transport system
development to encourage the farmer in organic farming.
Use of mineral fertilizer in limited quantity to supply the nitrogen requirement of the
crop to increase the livelihood of the people of hills may be required for sustainable
agriculture and for poverty alleviation.
Technologies are available for the efficient use of compost, quality compost
production and handling but still the rate of adoption is not so encouraging.
Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrients .So continuous supply of high nitrogen
content manure as poultry manure, oil cake and bokashi compost are necessary to
supplement the compost if organic farming has to be practiced.

8. References
1. Bhattarai, s., Prasad,R.C.,Maskey, S.L. Green Manuring in Rice: opportunity and
Constraint in Nepal Proceeding of the 4th National seminar on Science and Technology
organized by Royal Academy of Science and Technology on
2. Bhattarai, S., Maskey, S.L,Gami,S.K., Shrestha, R.K.(2000) Environmentally friendly
Integrated Plant Nutrient Management for sustainable agriculture in Nepal Brief Report
on on-Farm demonstration on IPNM Published by soil Science Division, NARC
Khumaltar and Fertilizer, Advisory, Development and Information Network for Asia and
Pacific ( FADINAP) Bangkok
3. Maskey, S.L., Bhattarai, S.,Gami, S.K., Shrestha, R.K(1999) Environmentally friendly
Integrated Plant Nutrient Management for sustainable agriculture in Nepal Brief Report
on On-farm demonstration on quality and quantity improvement of farm Yard
Manure/Compost Division of Soil Science NARC Khumaltar, Lalitpur Nepal September
4. Central Bureau of Statistics (2004) Statistical pocket Book.Nepal HMG National
Planning Commission Secretariat, Central Bureau Statistics, Ramshah Path, Thapathali,
5. Allison, F.E. (1973) In Soil organic Matter and its Role in Crop Production,
Development in Soil Science 3 Elsevier Press N.Y
6. Ramaswamy, V., Sankaran, S., and Palaniappan,S.P.(1984) IRRI Newsletter
9(4).19Pandey s.P. and Gauchan, D.(1997) Report of the Benchmark Site survey on the
pilot Project for the development of environment Friendly plant Nutrient Program in
Nepal .Published by Soil Science Division NARC,Khumaltar and FADINAP, Bangkok.
7. Yukti Basnet Vermicomposting, Enrichment of vermicompost by Azotobacter
chroococcum and response on Phaseolus Bean. A Dissertation Presented to the Central
Department of Microbiology, TU
8. Basnyat, B.B. (1999) Fertilizer Liberalization in Nepal : Challenges and Issues. Paper
presented on Fertilizer Marketing Systems and Related Government Policies in Nepal.
Jointly Organized by FADINAP and Ministry of Agriculture Kathmandu, Nepal on

- Raju R Pandey* and Ram B Paneru**

Suppression of pest organisms due to the activities of other living organisms such as
predator, parasites, pathogens and antagonists, which is commonly known as biological
control, is the most important component of integrated pest management system. Lack of
insectaries and laboratories involved in manufacturing biological control agents in the
country is the main constraint to the adoption of augmentative biological control. Diverse
agro-ecology and minimal use of pesticides offers greater probability of naturally occurring
biological control agents, which is still under-explored. Exploration and documentation of
indigenous biodiversity within range of agricultural ecosystems is a prerequisite to the
promotion of integrated pest management in general and biological control in particular.
More research is necessary to promote conservation biological control practices through
habitat manipulations. Formation of national biological control working group is suggested
to streamline the biological control research and development activities in Nepal.
Keywords : Biological Control, Conservation, Exploration, Natural Enemy, Habitat

Biological control in its simplest sense is the mechanism of pest suppression through the
use of living organism. Applied biological control is achieved by the application of naturally
occurring organisms to suppress another undesired organism, usually considered as pest.
To be more specific, biological control has been defined as the action of parasites, predators
and pathogens in maintaining another organisms population density at a lower average
than would occur in their absence (Debach 1964). Often, some people try to argue that use
of resistant plant varieties, mix-cropping and/or intercropping, use of pheromones, sterile
insect release techniques and even genetically modified organisms that contain pesticidal
genes as a part of biological control. Though the resistant or susceptible plants are living
(biological) entity, they are usually represented under separate branch of pest management,
management through host plant resistance, and are traditionally not considered biological
control. The transfer of genes through advanced molecular methods to produce resistant
varieties is rather related to plant breeding and not a biological control. The sterile insect
release has a very different mechanism of pest suppression. Similarly, the use of
pheromones and other behaviour modifying chemicals (semiochemicals) is distinctly
different field of study that is promisingly emerging as very important and specialized pest
management techniques. These techniques and the use of botanicals and other natural
materials are rather known as bio-rational pest management techniques. However, there is
some overlap between the cultural methods of pest control including mix and intercropping
with biological control (as discussed in subsequent paragraphs), but depending on the
mechanism of pest control achieved, it may be identified purely as a cultural or an
integration of cultural and biological control methods.

Research Director and Entomologist, Nepal Horticulture Promotion Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal
Scientist (S-2), Entomology Division, NARC, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal

Natural and Applied Biological Control
Biological control can be divided into natural and applied biological control. Biological
control achieved without deliberate human interventions, but solely occurring in nature due
to the interactions between the organisms coevolved in the ecosystem is called natural
biological control. On the other hand, when biological control of pest organism is achieved
through deliberate human intervention, it falls under applied biological control. Use of nest
forming red ants, Oecophylla smargdina, for the suppression of caterpillars and wood
boring pests in citrus orchard in china is probably the oldest recorded applied biological
control used in agriculture, but much of the development in the field of modern science of
biological control took place from the 18th century(DeBach 1974). Control of cottony
cushion scale, Icerya purchasii, in California oranges through the use of vedalia beetle,
Rodolia cardinalis imported from Australia is the most cited and most successful example of
biological pest control (DeBach 1974). Then, there was not any readily available, cheap
synthetic insecticide available for pest control.

Common Biological Control Agents
Predators consume more than one pray while growing up to adulthood. They are important
mortality factors in many ecosystems. Predators important in suppression of agricultural
pests belong to several orders of insects such as Coleoptera (ladybug beetles, tiger beetles),
Hemiptera (damsel bug, reduvid bug, big eyed bug), Odonata (dragon fly, damsel fly),
Neuroptera (green lacewing), Mantodea (praying mantis), Diptera (hover flies, robber flies)
and Hymenoptera (ants, wasps) (DeBach 1974). Similarly, several species of spiders prey
on insects. Predatory mites belonging to the Family Phytosiidae play important role in
suppression of pestiferous mites. Insect belonging to these orders are common in Nepal
(Joshi and Manandhar 2001).
Parasitic insects complete their lifecycle in a single individual of the host species. Most
common insect parasites belong to the order Hymenoptera (wasps) and Diptera (tachnid
flies) (DeBach 1974). Parasitoids are usually host specific and play more important role in
the pest suppression.
The organisms that cause insect disease have been commercially used in the suppression of
many pests. Fungi, bacteria, virus and nematodes constitute the major insect pathogenic
organisms. Bacillus thuringiensis is by far the most widely used bio-pesticide against
variety of caterpillar pests. Antagonist microorganisms have also been used for the
biological control of plant pathogenic organisms.

Practice of Biological Control
With the successful control of cottony cushion scale in California, invasive pests became
the target of biological control agents. Exploration at the site of pest origin and importation
of natural enemies to the newly invaded areas with the expectation to suppress invasive
pest species population below the economic level became the major focus of applied
biological control program for long time. Introductions of biological control agents were the
primary approach of applied biological control, which is known as the classical biological
control approach. Natural enemies introductions are traditionally handled by the
government agencies for the greater benefit of the public.

Mass produced biological control agents can be field released to suppress the specifically
targeted pests and such approach is commonly known as augmentative biological control.
Augmentation is deemed necessary either due to the failure of biological control agents to
survive severe weather conditions, or because their population builds rather slowly
compared to the pest population leading to inadequate suppression of the pest population.
Provision of food and/or shelter to the naturally occurring populations to encourage the
activities of biological control agents falls under the premises of conservation biological
control. Modifications of farming practices, which are conventionally considered as cultural
control methods, are being recognized as ecological control methods. In addition to some
direct impacts many of these practices help promote the activity of biological control agents
and can be grouped as conservation biological control.

Brief History of Biological Control in Nepal
Collection, multiplication and redistribution of gall making fruit fly Cecidochares utilis for
the suppression of banmara (Ageritina adenophorum) weed was the first biological control
program implemented in Nepal. Subsequently, Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) (Hymenoptera:
Aphelinidae) was introduced from France for the control of apple woolly aphid Eriosoma
lanigerum (Hussman) (Homoptera: Aphididae) (Joshi 1991). Curinus coruleus was
introduced from Thailand for the control of Leucaena leucocephala psyllid (Heteropsylla
cubana), Cotesia plutellae and Diadegma semiclaussaum were introduced from AVRDC,
Taiwan for the suppression of diamond back moth Plutella xylostella (Pandey 1995). Some
biological control agents have also been exported from Nepal.
Systematic surveys of indigenous biological control agents of two important pests,
Helicoverpa armigera and Rhynchocorris humeralis began in 1992 at Lumle Agricultural
Centre (Pandey 1995). Trichogramma chilonis is currently being reared at Lumle
Agricultural Research Centre as well as Entomology Division, Khumaltar (Anonymous 2004).
Unidentified species of egg parasitoids wee observed from Chitwan attacking Litchi bug,
Tessaratoma papillosa (Neupane 2002).
Fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae attacking white grub have been isolated,
manufactured for field experimentation purposes (GC 2003). Indigenous strains of Fungi
Trichoderma spp. has been isolated (Pers. Comm. N.P. Khanal) and some of the species
have shown promises as a potential biological control agent of several soil borne diseases
Works on the isolation of indigenous strain of Bacillus thuringiensis has been initiated
(Manandhar et al. 2003) (Khadge 2003). Fungal pathogen Paecilomyces funosoroceus were
isolated from aphids and red ants at Lumle.

Prospects of Biological Control in Nepal
The existence of diverse agroecological environment and traditional agricultural practices
with minimal pesticide application (in most crop environments) are conducive for the
development and promotion of biological methods of pest control. Favourable changes in
the national strategy and policies, operation of farmers field schools and IPM trainings
programmes, promotion of organic pest management practices by many government and
non-government organizations have created a congenial atmosphere for the development of
biological pest management practices in the recent years.

Introductions biological control is usually implemented by the government agencies and is
targeted against invasive pests. Widely distributed weeds such as banmara (Ageritina
adenophorum) and Lantana camara could be the prime targets of classical biological control.
Individual farmer cannot be held responsible for the implementation of such programmes.
Farmers can actively participate and contribute to the other two approaches of biological
control (namely augmentative and conservation biological control) for their own benefit.
Augmentation can be achieved either by inoculative releases (where the released organisms
and their progenies provide the lasting suppression of the pest organism in question) or by
inundative releases (large numbers of natural enemies are released to achieve the goal of
pest management. Inundation can be compared to pesticides application where pest
suppression is achieved by the action of the released organisms. Mass production of the
natural enemies is the pre-requisite of the augmentative biological control. Lack of
insectaries that produce the biological control agents necessary for augmentative field
releases is the major constraint for the promotion of this method.
Modification of agricultural practices and manipulation of the environment that will
encourage the survival and activity of the natural enemies are included in the conservation
biological control. It is probably the most important biological control practice from a
farmers perspective. Success of introduction as well as augmentative biological control
programmes also relies on our ability to conserve the biological control agent in question.
Moreover, if we could conserve naturally occurring biological control agents, it may be
possible to avoid expenses which otherwise would have been spent on chemicals or
biological control agents used for augmentative releases. Lack of awareness about the roles
of biological control agents is the most important constraints to adoption of conservation
practice. Many parasitoids are too small for field observation. Most farmers are unable to
distinguish pest insects from their natural enemies. Many farmers are unable to distinguish
between the hover flies (important aphid predator) and fruit fly (serious cucurbit pest).
There may be difficulty in identifying ladybird beetles and epilachna beetles. Lack of
appropriate techniques is another limitation to the promotion of natural enemies

Methods of Natural Enemies Conservation
Identification of the diversity of potential biological control agents in each crop environment
through exploratory studies is the first step towards understanding and promoting
biological control agents. Once identified, natural enemies can be conserved, their roles
defined and their efficiency enhanced by adopting one or more of the practices such as
pesticide avoidance, use of selective pesticide, provision of food, shelter or alternative hosts.
Avoid disturbance: There have been many occasions of pest upsets following the insecticide
applications in the commercial production system. The outbreaks of BPH in rice, scale
insect in oranges, and fruit borer in tomato have been claimed to be a result of pesticide-
incited ecological disturbance. Reduction in pesticide application (and drift) and use of
selective pesticides are very important for natural enemies conservation. Obviously, the
organic farms benefit the most from natural enemies conservation through the avoidance of
pesticide application.

Provision of food: Some natural enemies have similar food requirement when they are
immature and adult but others have distinctly different food habits. Both the beetle and
grub of ladybird beetle (Coccinellidae) are carnivorous feeding on aphids, psyllids, scale
insects and mealybugs. But the adult hoverflies feed on flower pollen and nectar whereas
the immature are aphidophagous. Most parasitic wasps are parasitic only in their
immature stage, but the adults are free-living herbivores feeding on pollen and nectar.
Increasing plant /crop biodiversity, around the main crop may increase provision of food
through (from flowering weeds, crops etc) and attracts these nectar feeders boosting the
probability of biological control. Planting Fapar (Fagopyrum esculentum) as a ground cover
or as border around the main crop provides food and shelter to many nectarivorous insects
(wasps, syrphids etc) as well as ground-inhabiting beetles and spiders.
Provision of shelter: The predators and parasitic insects are prone to the impacts of
weather change, natural hazards and higher trophic level enemies. They need sheltering
sites, especially during the cold winter and dry summer. Provision of hedgerows, mulching
and cover crops help them protect during these difficult times. The perennial orchards
have better shelters than the annual crop fields. Consequently, the success of biological
control is higher in the orchard systems than in the annual crops. Ground covers not only
provide sheltyer but also increase general saprophagous insect activities thereby providing
food for the predators.
Provision of alternate host: The natural enemies population increases with the increase in
the pest population and vice versa. When the prey or host insect population in a given area
declines (usually after the harvest of the crop), the predator and parasitoid population
disperse to surrounding areas in the search of food. They will not re-invade the field until
the pest population has made a come back. Provision of alternate host/prey population
(either naturally in some plants or by adding them artificially in the environment) is
essential to sustain the natural enemy population.

Way Ahead
Achievements made so far in the field of biological control studies are largely sporadic. A
national biological control working group responsible for setting goals, formulating strategy,
identifying priorities and developing programs on biocontrol research and development
should be formed through the representation of GOs, NGOs and private agencies. This
committee will also be responsible for fostering national and international collaboration and
interagency linkage and coordination.
Collection and preservation of indigenous natural enemies and their authentic identification
plays key role in the subsequent success of the pest suppression programs. Once identified,
development of laboratory and mass production techniques for selected key biological
control agents (predators, parasitoids and pathogens) will enable us to evaluate the impact
these agents on pest suppression. Local production of biological agents will not only help
create employment but also can help replace costly pesticides and protect environment.
More works is necessary to identify the methods of natural enemies conservation under
farm conditions.

We would like to thank DOA and the workshop organising committee for inviting us to
present this paper in this national workshop.

Anonymous. 2004. Annual Technical Report, pp. 48. Entomology Division, Nepal
Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur.
Debach, P. 1964. Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold Publication
Corporation, New York.
DeBach, P. 1974. Biological control by natural enemies. Cambridge University Press,
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Neupane [ed.], National Seminar on Integrated Pest Management. Himalayan Resources
Institute, Kathmandu.
Joshi, S. L. 1991. Biological control inception in Nepal., pp. 72-77, SAARC symposium
workshop on the biological control of agriculturally important plant pests. Centre for
applied molecular biology, Canal Bank Road, Lahore, Pakistan.
Joshi, S. L., and D. N. Manandhar. 2001. Reference Insects of Nepal. Entomology Division,
Nepal Agricultureal Research Council, Kathmandu.
Khadge, B. R. 2003. Management of Soilborne Fungal Diseases of Crops by Trichoderma,
pp. xvi+349. In F. P. Neupane [ed.], National Seminar on Integrated Pest Management.
Himalayan Resources Institute, Kathmandu.
Manandhar, S. P., R. Pradhan, and A. P. Sharma. 2003. Insecticidal Activities of Bacillus
thuringiensis Isloated from the Soils of Nepal., pp. xvi+349. In F. P. Neupane [ed.], National
Seminar on Integrated Pest Management. Himalayan Resources Institute, Kathmandu.
Neupane, F. P. 2002. Bali biruwaks satru ra tinko roktham (Crop pests and their control).
Sajha Prakashan, Kathmandu.
Pandey, R. R. 1995. Biological Control and Development of Integrated Pest Management
Systems at Lumle Agricultural Research Centre., LARC discussion paper No 95/2. Lumle
Agricultural Research Centre., Pokhara.

- Bhola Kumar Shrestha

Quick facts in Nepal
Occupying just .0 03% of total land area of the world.
There are more than 324 plant species having pesticidal properties, of them more
than 50 are being used and 21 plant species are considered as very effective pesticide
Cow urine increased 79.6% yield of leafy vegetables while Urea top-dressed
increased only 45.3%.
49% increase in paddy by mulching of Asuro verses 60:30:30N:P:K
Less than 2% of urban household are consuming organic products while 29% are
Synthetic pesticides penetrated in Nepal after the mid 1950s
In Kavre (Tamaghat and Tinpiple), more than 97% farmer use synthetic pesticide 7-
15 times on every crop they grow and do not follow the certified waiting period.
Liquid Manure has been widely used as a best alternative to substitute Chemical
fertilizer and pesticide.

Plant is the natural factory of Organic Chemicals.
Pyrethrum is the most widely used botanical insecticide.
Sulfur is probably the oldest known pesticide in current use.
Neem has been used for more than 4,000 years in India and Africa for medicinal as
well as pest control purposes.
As a general rule, pesticides approved for organic production break down rapidly
and often are less destructive to natural enemies and other organisms. However,
just because the materials are natural does not mean that they are always less toxic
than the synthetic pesticides.
Tobacco ( Nocotine), Castor oil are prohibited and Bojho ( Acorus calamus ) Derris
elliptica, Khirro (Cepium insigne) are restricted in Organic Agriculture as plant
pesticide by EU,
Organic Products- Global
Food sales 20 25% per annum
The total area of organic land tripled in Europe and the US between 1995-2000
Global OA certified land less than 1% and 1-2% food sale.
Price premium -10-50% more.

Natural pesticides have been used together with the development of agriculture. With a aim
of increasing production to meet the growing demand of the food and serve people from
hunger, synthetic chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) came in a wider use after the second
world war. But its negative effect in a short period of use to soil, animal, plant and human

Center for integrated Training and Rural Awareness, Kathmandu

health forced the world community to rethink on the best alternatives. Plant pesticides
have been found one of the best alternatives to Organic agricultural system The organic
agriculture is the system which combines the indigenous knowledge, skill and scientific
findings with out disturbing the natural harmony, hence the coordinated effort of all sector
is a crucial part for a successful organic farming This paper describes some commonly used
plants as pesticides at global and within Nepal with reference to the farmers practices and
some research findings.

Organic Agriculture:
Organic agriculture has been defined in many ways by different organizations and
individuals and also the central theme of these definitions have been found to change over
time. Some of the examples of such various definitions and concepts are-

Definitions and Concepts
Organic Agriculture refers to a process that uses methods respectful of environment from
production through handling and processing, OA concerns with the whole system used to
produce and deliver the product to the ultimate consumers.
Organic agriculture at international level applies two main sources of general principles and
requirements -The Alimentarius Guidelines and IFOAM 2002 Basic Standard.
The Alimentarius Guidelines considers OA as a holistic production management system
which promotes and enhances, ecosystem, health including biological cycles and in
biological activities.
IFOAM 2002 Basic Standard- deals OA as a whole system approach based upon a set of
processes resulting in a sustainable ecosystem, safe food, food nutrition, animal welfare
and social justice, OA therefore is more than a system of production that includes or
excludes certain inputs.
The primary Aim of OA is to optimize the health and productivity of inter dependents
communities of soil life, plants, animals and people.
In 2500 BC, the Sumerians were using sulphur compound to control insect. Later, for seed
treatment to protect against insects, mice and birds, various natural organic substances
were used in China. Inorganic mercury and arsenic compounds were used to control body
lice and other pests. The Greek and Roman writers Aristotle and Cato, described a variety of
fumigants, oil sprays and sulphur ointment. Nevertheless the wide spread use of natural
pesticide didnt begin until the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe.
At about the time of Second World War, insecticidal property of the synthetic organic
compounds were discovered which brought a dramatic change in the pattern and in the
consequences of pesticide use. It penetrated into Nepal only after the 1950s. The
immediate benefits were obvious but it gradually became apparent that affecting wild life
and people in ways which had not been anticipated.
A study conducted by CEAPRED in 2000 at Tinpiple and Tamaghat of Panchkhal,
Kavrepalanchowk found that most of the farmers (above 97%) use pesticide excessively (7-
15 times on a single crop) on every crop they grow (eg, potato and other vegetables) with out
following the certified waiting period ( time between last application and harvest of the crop)

As a result, the vegetable produced in the that areas are very doubtful for human
consumption ( Shrestha and Neupane 2002)
Taking into consideration of these facts, it is imperative to take a more safest and
sustainable ways in the agricultural practices Organic
Organic pest management concept is not new for Nepalese farming communities. Different
pest management practices related to organic are under practice since their distant past
and have long tradition of using indigenous plant materials to protect standing crops and
post harvest agricultural products. Some examples of such materials are: Plant (botanical)
products, animal products, mixtures of plant and animal products. These materials are eco-
friendly and very safe to human, animals and other non-target organisms. These are also
considered as traditional practices.
According to Grainage and Ahmed (1988) quoted by Paneru and Giri (2003) plants are the
richest sources of renewable active chemicals that check insect populations. The active
ingredients are the secondary metabolites which disrupts the fundamental, physiological
and bio-chemicals process of insects Plants are the natural Chemical Factories providing
the richest sources of organic chemicals on earth.
World wide about 2400 species of botanicals are reported for the inherited pesticidal
properties (Grainage and Ahmed 1988). Among them 324 species are available in Nepal
and 21 are rated as effective (Neupane 2000). Gyawali (1993) reported that more than 50
plant species are being used as plant pesticides.
Due to the prohibitive cost of synthetic pesticides and the problems of environmental
pollution caused by continuous use of these chemicals, there is a renewed interest in the
use of botanicals for crop protection. Agricultural scientists in the world are now actively
engaged in research into the use of plants to fight agricultural pests and diseases, and to
reduce the losses caused by them.
Very scanty work has been done on pesticidal plant products in Nepal (Neupane 2000,
2003). Among the tested plants, sweet flag (Acorus calamus), Neem (Azadirachta indica),
Boke timur (Xanthoxylum armatum) and rape seed (Brassica compestris var. toria) have
provided good control of grain weevils (Sitophilus spp, Bruchus spp and Callosobruchus
chinensis). For the control of various vegetable pest Neem, (Melia azadarach) Adhatoda
(Justicia adhadota), Simali (Vitex nigundo) Siltimur (Lindera neesiana) have provided mixed
results. (Refer annex -3 for more research works in Nepal)

Some commonly used plants as pesticides:
Neem (Azedirachta indica )
Garlic (Allium sativum)
Pudina ( Mentha arvensis)
Ginger (Zingiber officinalis)
Turmeric (Curcuma domestica)
Tite pati (Artemesia alatum)
Marygold (Tagetes patula )
Timur (Xanthoxylum alatum)
Asuro (Adhatoda visica)
Tulasi (Ocimum sactum)

Bakaino (Melia aderachata)
Papaya (Carica papaya)
Sisnu (Urtica dioica)
Tobacco (Nicotianum tobacum)
Pire Ghas (Polygonum hydropeper)
Sarifa (Annonaa squamosa)
Sital chini (Drum stick ie Moringha olerivera)
Onion ( Allium cepa)
Siundi (Euphorbia royaleana)
Sajiwan ( Jatropha curcus)
Simali ( Vitex nigundo)

Farmer experiences
Some examples of the farmers experience on Botanical pest management are given in the
following table;
SN Pest Plant species Remarks
1 Grain Weevil
Sitophilus spp ,
Bruchus sps
Sweet flag ( Acorus calamus),Neem ( Azediracha
indica)., Boketimur ( Xanthoxylum armatum),
rape seed (Brassica compresris var toria)

2 Vegetable crops
(Cole crops
ao) urnip,
onion, beans,
Asuro (Justicia adhtoda), Simali (Vitex
negundo), Neem, bakaino, (Melia azederach),
pyrethrum sps, Siltimur (Lindera neesiana),
Pyrethrum (Chrisanthemus cinerariafolium),
tobacco (Nicotiana tabacm)elderberry (Sabacus
sp), Boke timur (Xanthoxylum armatum),
Mmentha (Mentha arvensis), Gandhe (Ageratum
conyzoides), Hemp (Canabis sativa), Lemon
(Citrus lemon), Custard apple (Annona
reticulata), and Sopa berry Rittha (sapindus
3 Root knot
javanica) of
Green leaves of Neem, bakaina, Sunhemp,
(chlorolaria juncia) Dhaincha (Sesbania
Good result
4 Red Ant, Potato Mulching with Dhurse ( Buddleia
asiatica),Asuro Titepti ( Artemisia vulgaris) ,
Good Result
5 Coffee (Stem
Marigold, Bakaina/Neem leaves, garlic and
linseed oil
6 Black rot of
coffee and citrus
Siundi (Euphorbia royaleana)
Sajiwan ( Jatropha curcus)
Besar ( Curcuma domestica) and water

Although, botanical pest management is considered as the most attractive option for the
protection of agricultural crops from the ravages of insect and non-insect pests, yet
implementation at the farmers level is rather limited. Some of the important challenges to
wider adoption of these practices are as following;
Optimum mix of the existing Traditional knowledge and skill + Scientific
technologies +Natural harmony, has to be realized by all stakeholders
Many of the organizations (GO, I/NGO) and private sector are involved in OA but
coordination among them seems a crucial need for the promotion of OA in Nepal
The Marketing network (national and international) and assurance for farmers
Validation of the existing Technology and development of farmers' friendly tools and
Technical competency development with sufficient material for the development
Government policy and program on Organic agriculture should come into effect.

Nepal s rich bio-diversity possesses more than 324 plant species having pesticidal
properties, out of them 21 plant species are considered as very effective against
insect pests (Neupane, 2003). Only a few species are being exploited from insect pest
management point of view.
The national agriculture development policy as envisaged in agriculture perspective
plan of the nation favors the organic pest management.
If the environmental and social costs of pesticide use are taken into account, OPM
appears to be a more attractive alternative with lower economic costs.
Increasing demand ( 20-25%) of organic and quality food
Traditional knowledge and skill available.
Scope for organic. Low level of chemical use
Favorable National Ag Dev Policy

Networking and coordinated effort of all stakeholders is a crucial need to harness the
abundant in house resources available on pest management
Identification, documentation, conservation and promotion of the existing indigenous
knowledge and skill should be done to protect intellectual right and put them into a formal
research for effective technology development.
Validation through a research on the plant materials having pesticidal properties on their
effect and use (combined effect, dosages, self life persistency) is another important area for
the promotion of organic agriculture in Nepal.

Annex-1 : List of commercially produced Azedirachta indica based insecticides

Margocide OK 80 % EC (Azadirachtin 0.03% w/w)
Margocide OK 20% EC (Azadirachtin 0.15% w/w)
Godrej Achook (Azadirachtin 0.03%)
Neembecidine (Azadirachtin 0. 03% EC)
Nimbasol (Azadirachtin 0.15%, 1500 ppm)
RD- 9 Ropellin 93 EC (Neem oil 93 EC containing Azadirachtin 0.3%, 3000 ppm)
Neemazal F (Azadirachtin 0.15% EC)
Rakshak (Azadirachtin 0.15%,1500 ppm)
Neem Gold (Azadirachtin 0.15% EC)
Neemark (Azadirachtin 0.03%)
Sikrina (Azadirachtin 0.15%, 1500ppm)

Annex-2: Pesticidal value of Nepals Indigenous plant (Dahal, 1995)
SN Scientific name
Part and mode of
Action and properties
1 Acorus
calamus L.
Bojho Bulb Insecticide, insect repellent and
contact poison
2 Agave
americana L.
Ketuki Plant sap Insect repellent and fish poison
3 Allium sativum
Lashun Bulb Insect repellent
4 Annona
squamosa L.
Sarifa Leaves, immature
fruits and seeds.
Insecticide and parasiticide due
o glycerol of hyldroxilated acid
5 Artemisia
vulgaris L.
Tite pati Green or dried
Repellent and fumigant against
insects due to Santonin, an
6 Boenin
Ankuri Whole plant and
leaf extract.
Insect repellent especially to
7 Canna indica
Sarbada Extract of flower Insecticide
8 Cinnamomum
camphora Nees
Kapoor Wood solid crystal Insect repellent use in
preparation of insecticides
9 Crotalaria
juncea L.
Chhinchhine Flower extracts Effective against many insects
10 Chenopodium
Bethe Whole plant Insect repellent
11 Derris elliptica
Deri Lateral line root
and powdered
Rocotene extracted from root is
active ingredient of many
insecticides. Root powder used
as inset powder for pets
12 Digitalis
purpurea L.
------------ Leaves and seeds Pesticide
13 Feenum
Methi Seed Source of insect repellent and
insecticide, due to an alkaloid
15 Hedera helix L. Kathe lahare Whole plant Resistance to some insects
16 Heynea trijuga
Foliage Insect repellent

SN Scientific name
Part and mode of
Action and properties
17 Hedychium
Kewara Rhizome Effective against harmful
bacteria and fungi due to
essential oil
18 Kalanchoe
pinnata Pers
Ajambari Plant juice Insect repellent
19 K. spathulata
Hatti kane Plant juice Insect repellent
20 Lannea grandis
Hallongre Wood Resistant ot termites due to
jingan gum
21 Mangifera
indica L.
Aap Powdered plant Fumigant against mosquito
22 Mesua ferrea L. Nageswar Wood Resistant to some types of
23 Melia
azedarach L.
Bakaino Foliage, fruit,
wood and seed oil
Insecticide and insect repellent.
Insecticide preparation due to
24 Nicandra
Madise til Fresh foliage Insecticide
25 Nicotin rustica Belayati surti Leaf Insecticide and wormicide due
to an alkaline Nicotine
26 Nicotiana
Leaf Insecticide and wormicide due
to an alkaline Nicotine
27 Nerium
odorum Ait
Extracts of root,
stem, leaves,
flower and fruit
Contact and stomach poison to
rodents, due to Nerin, an
28 Sapindus
Rittha Fruit Insecticide and fish poison
29 Sesamum
indicum L.
Sesame Till Major ingredient of insecticidal
30 Tagetes minuta
Foliage Insect repellent
31 Zanthoxylum
armatum DC
Timur Fruit decoctin
Wormicide insect repellent and
fish poison, possibly to Neeher
cullin an insecticidal
32 Zingiber
officinale Rose
Aduwa Ingression of
rhizome extract
Body immunity against
mosquitoes. Insecticide due to
essential oil.

Annex-3 : Some research findings related to use of botanicals for pest management
Insect pests Research findings
Potato tuber moth (PTM)
Pthoremia operculella on
Chopped and shade dried Chenododium botrys.
Mentha arvensis, Artemsia vulgaris and Ducalyptus
sp. Leaves with stem @ 300-330 g per crate of 8 kg
capacity on the stored potato tubers.
Epilachna beetle.(Epilachna
vigintioctopunctata), Mustard
sawfly (Athalia lugens
proxmima) and Leaf miners
Phyllocnistis citrella and
Phytomyza horticola) of
Vegetable crops
Aqueous solution of neem fruits (2 kg neem fruits
and 15 litres of water kept over night)
Joshi et
al. (1991)
Red pumpkin beetle.
(Aulacophora foveicollis) on
summer squash
Fresh leaves extracts of Artemisia vulgaris (blended
and kept in water for one hour, (1:4 parts) strained
and sprayed @ 25,50,and 100g/liter water
et. al
Flea beetle on Cole crops
(Radish, turnip and broad lea
Aqueous solution of pyrethrum @ 3 g/liter water Duwadi et
al. (1993)
Cabbage butterfly on Cole
Thirty minutes cooked solution of elderberry
(Sambucus hookeria) twigs and flowers with water in
a ration of 1:7 weight by volume
Duwadi et
al. (1993)
Red ant on cauliflower Soil treatments with ground berries of Boketimur
(Zanthoxylum armatum) and siltimur (Lindera
neesiana) @ 1 ton/ha
Duwadi et
al. (1993)
Aphids(Lipaphis erysimi and
Myzus persicae) on vegetable crops
Aqueous extract solutions of J adhatoda, Melia azedarach,
seed pomace of Brassica compestris (1:4 ratio)
Cabbage butterfly (Pieris
brassicae nepalensis)
Diamondback moth (Plutella
xylostella) and Cabbage aphid
(Brevicoryne brassicae)on cole
Water extract of neem seeds, tobacco stem and
leaves, and chinaberry seeds and leaves.
Red ants (Dorylus orientalis,
on potato
Soil treatment with shade dried chopped leaves of
Artemisia vulgaris and Eupatorium adenophorum
(fresh leves at the rate of 5 mt/ha)
GC et al.
Red ants, Dorylus orientalis,
on potato
Soil drenching of aqueous solution of Azadirachtin
(0.00045%) near plant stems or 5 g tobacco dust per
liter solution of cattle urine and water (1:5 ratio)
mixed and kept for 24 hours @ 25 ml/plant.
Cabbage butterfly, Soyabean
hairy caterpillar, Tobacco
caterpillar and Diamondback
month on cabbage
Crude water extracts of green neem leaves
(Azadirachtin indica), Chinaberry (Melia azedarach),
malabar nut (Justicia adhatoda) and Indian privet
(Vitex negundo) (each 200 g of leaves per liter of water).
Aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae)
on cauliflower
Use of dry wood ash in the early morning, Wood ash
soaked in water (1:4) for 12 hours filtered and mixed
with soap water and sprayed.
us, (1999)

Baral, KP (1992), Importance of Low Input Agricultural Practices in Nepal, A seminar paper
on Regenerative Agriculture, Pokhara Nepal,
Dahal, L (1995), A study on Pesticide Pollution in Nepal, NPC, HMG/Nepal/IUCN, Nepal.
Dawadi V.R., Gautam S.R. and Thapa M.P. (1993), Test of the Efficacy of Some Local
Measures Against Pest and Diseases in Vegetable Crops at PAC. PAC Working Paper No. 78.
Pakhribas Agriculture Centre, Dhankuta, C/O BAPSO, PO Box 106, Kathmandu, Nepal
GC. et. al (1997), Management of Red Ant in potato and cauliflower, LAC, Working paper No.
97/26, Lumle, Kaski.
Griange M and S. Ahmed (1998), Handbook of Plants with Pest Control Properties. John
Wiley ad sons, New York.
Gyawali, BK (1993), Integrated Pest Management through Indegenous techneque in Nepal
in Tamang D, Gill GJ and Thapa GB (eds), Indegenous management of natural resources in
Nepal, HMG, MOA/Winrock International, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Joshi, S.L.(1994), Nepalma Tarakari Balika Mukhaya Kiraharu, Vegetable Seed Production
Project, Khumaltar, Lalitpur.
Neupane, FP (1999), Field Evaluation of Botanicals, for insect pest management of
Cruciferous Vegetables, Nepal Journal of Science and Technology, 1:77-84
Neupane FP (2003), An Overview of Organic Pest Management in Nepal. Proceeding of the
National Workshop on Organic Pest Management in Nepal. Jointly organized by NARC, DoA,
INSAN, LISP and SSMP, Soil Science Division, NARC, Khumaltar, Lalitpur.
NPC/HMGN (2002), Tenth Five Year Plan, National Planning Commission
Paneru, RB and Giri YP (1995), Organic Pest Management Technologies Developed in Nepal.
Paper presented in National Workshop on Organic Agriculture, Food Security and Local
Market Development, Kathmandu, Nepal
Pradhan, RB (1988), Indegenous weeds as protectants against Potato Tuber Moth infestant
under farmers storage condition, Proceeding National Conference on Science and
Technology, RONAST, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Sharma, GP (2005), Organic Agriculture in Nepal, Paper presented at the National Seminar
on Organic Agriculture and Food Security in Nepal, Nepal Permaculture Group, Kathmandu
Shrestha, PL and Neupane FP (2002), Socio-economic context in pesticide use in Nepal,
CEAPRED, Santibasti Laltipur, Nepal.
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GTZ/GATE Project, TU, Kathmandu, Nepal.

- Maheswar Ghimire

The land area under organic agriculture production Nepal should be around 1000 ha. This
figure does not cover such area which is default organic and if the process applied for the
certification, could accounted as certified organic.
Since last few years there has been growing interest with government and non government
sectors for the promotion of organic agriculture at different level. In order to encompasses
these interest there is need of policy and minimum level of regulation which could guide for
ongoing and future organic production, processing enabling the organic operators to comply
the international norms set for the organic production, processing and handling.
This operational and institutional structure for organic agriculture promotion in Nepal
proposes an institutional mechanism which would enable for the promotion of organic
agriculture in Nepal. In addition to this, the institutional framework may need to explore
the guidelines and standards organic production, processing and handing in harmonization
with internationally accepted criteria and norms.
In order to implement the national organic agriculture programme there should be a clear
policy where role of government and private sectors are well specified. Such policy would be
an entry point to introduce National Programme for Organic Agriculture. Taking in account
of the experience in other developing countries, national programme for organic agriculture
is more towards for the facilitation of international trade (export) of organic products.
Taking in consideration of our high value products, their specialty nature, our resource
base and availability of others facilities and logistics, the following would be the major
objectives of National Organic Agriculture Programme (here known as NOAP);
To provide information on means of certification programme for organic production,
processing and handling of organic products as per the standards recognized at
international level
To facilitate the certification of organic products conformity to the norms and
standard set by national organic agriculture programme
To develop the functional network and linkage among the service provider enabling
for the promotion of organic production, processing and handling
To encourage for the adoption of Code of Conduct in addition to organic standard
during production, processing and handling of organic products
To initiate the dialogue for the establishment of national accreditation body
To commence the market study for organic products nationally and internationally
where Nepalese organic products are asked for.
To develop functional institutional framework for the execution of National Organic
Agriculture Programme

Scope of programme
National Organic Agriculture Programme (NOAP) shall be active including the

Organic Agriculture Services, GPO Box 14345. Sundhara Kathmandu, Nepal

Formulation of policies in consistent to 10th Five Year Plan for the promotion of
organic agriculture at national level
Development of national guidelines/standards for organic production, processing
and handling
Inception of preliminary work for the establishment of national organic certification
body in collaboration with any internationally recognized certification body (based
on market information at local level)
Accreditation of National Organic Inspectors with in the framework of (NOAP)
Certification of organic products for national markets.

Operational Structure
The national structure for the implementation NOAP will be as stated in fig. 1 of this
document. This programme will be implemented by Government of Nepal through its
Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives/Department of Agriculture. Ministry of Agriculture
and Cooperative should be apex body for the implementation of NOAP. In order to
implement the programme, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative will be an apex and
responsible body in collaboration with other different stakeholders including different
ministries and departments of government of Nepal. Ministry of agriculture may include Tea
and Coffee Development Board, Spices Development Section, Herbs and Aromatic Plant
Promotion Section of Ministry of Forest and Natural Resources and other relevant private
and non governmental organizations as members of the central steering committee based
on their involvement or future plan for the promotion of organic agriculture. The main
steering committee may develop the sub-committees based on future possibility of
promotion and market linkage organically produced commodities.
Main steering committee should be responsible to develop Organic Agriculture Standard
and other policies which enable for the development of further programme and policies
required to harmonize organic agriculture production, promotion and marketing
domestically and internationally.

A Brief History of Organic Agriculture Movement at Global Level
Biodynamic Agriculture Movement should be considered as first Organic Agriculture
Movement in the world in a structured way after Dr. Rudolf Steiner gave series of lecture on
Agriculture in 1924. Based on Lecture of Dr. Steiner some of the farmers and pioneers of
Organic/Biodynamic Agriculture Movement developed Demeter Symbol as a Standard for
Biodynamic Products.
The present Organic Agriculture Movement was introduced in England when Soil
Association was formed in the decade of 40s and Soil Association introduced its Organic
Agriculture Standard in 1967. Close to this initiative in USA brought the organic agriculture
regulation in California and Oregon in 1970s. In the decade of 1970s IFOAM was founded
and its Basic Standard for Organic Agriculture was brought in 1984. IFOAM is only an
International Federation of Organic Agriculture at non Governmental level which acts as an
apex body for Organic Agriculture Movement Globally.
After IFOAM other private standards were introduced in Europe, Australia, and New
Zealand in 1980s. Now there are government organic regulation in place in USA, EU and

Japan as major importing countries. There are almost 60 government regulations, Codex
Allimentarius Organic Guidelines set up by FAO and WHO.
There are more than 360 standards and certification bodies and one private International
Organic Guarantee System (IOAS) where 30 certification bodies are accredited.

Organic Land Area
According to a study carried out by IFOAM, SOEL and FiBL, there is more than 31 million
hectares of organic land area globally which is certified organic. This figure does not include
the NTFP collected from wild. The same study shows that total market value of organic
products in 2004 was around 23.5 billion EURO. According to the researcher, the trend of
organic production and flow of organic products in market is increasing.

International Certification Bodies Active in Nepal
The organic certification was started from 1997. The conversion of different types of
agricultural land to certified organic is being gradual and rather slow. There are several
contributing factors for slow growth of certified organic coverage. There are very few
Internationally recognized certification bodies active in Nepal. These are NASAA-Australia,
IMO-Switzerland and Ecocert-Belgium. Beside organic certification some of the community
forest in Nepal have been certified as per the norms of Forest Stewardship Council. There
are very few companies who are fair trade certified for agricultural commodities.

The Need of Organic Certification
If organic production and consumption system is locally based, there may not need of third
party verification. In such case participatory guarantee system would an effective means for
the quality assurance of organic products. For a market based out side from production
and processing system, there is need of third party verification of production, processing
and handling of products which could be termed as certification.
According to United States National Organic Agriculture (USNOP) Programme, Organic
Certification is determination made by a certification body for the entire process (production,
processing and handling) of organic product which is in compliance with the act/regulation
or standard set by the authority which is documented by a certificate of organic operation.
Through this process, it is expected that it ensures to the consumers that the integrity of
products from its production to final offer to the table of consumers is well maintained.
In general the following could be some reasons of organic certification;
Interest and demand of consumers
Complying the requirement as stated by standard
Assuring product quality
Minimizing the chances of fraud
Regulating market through means of certification
Chances of premium price for specialty products
Advocacy and lobbying for appropriate use of natural resources and biodiversity

Organic Certification Process
Prior to applying or looking for the certification of organic production, processing and
handling of organic product, applicant should understand the respective rule, regulation
and standards set by importing authority or internationally recognized standard setting
body. In general following is the process for organic certification;
Contact/applying with locally available certification body for certification
Certification Agency sends the application package with relevant standards and
other associated information
Applicant complete the application with operation detail
Applicant should comply all administrative requirement as per the norms of
certification body
Completed application submitted to certification body with in given time frame
Certification body reviews the application and information
Information is provided to applicant whether application is complete
If complete, inspection of operation is scheduled in consultation between applicant
and certification body
Independent or employed inspectors are assigned for inspection of operation
Inspectors are provided with all detail information of operation as submitted by
applicant to certification body
Inspector communicate with applicant and set the date and time for inspection
Inspector perform the inspection, inspection time depends on size and geographical
areas of operation
On site affidavit is completed and signed by applicant or its representative
Inspector completes the inspection report and submit to certification body along
with the hard copies of documents made available by applicant during inspection
Certification body reviews the inspection report contacts with inspectors for any
Certification body forms the review committee for inspection report review
Review committee recommends certification body for certification or to deny with or
with out conditions
Applicants are notified on their certification status with appeal status if there is any
from the side of applicant over the certification decisions
If, certified applicant can sell the product as certified organic product.
All procedures of standard need to be followed through out the year and
documentation for the running year need to be maintained for the following year
inspection which is the regular schedule to be a continued certified operation
As per the norms of accreditation authority for certification body, unannounced
inspection of operation may takes place at any time of year

Major Problems for Organic Certification (in context of Nepal)
Since we have least developed institutional and other framework on organic agriculture, it is
a challenging issue for us in order to bring our organic agriculture products at international
market level. There are some common problems for organic product to get access at
international market. The requirement which need to be complied by handler of organic
product is determined by the regulation imposed by the importing authority. For example, if

we would like to trade our organic product in Japanese market it need to be certified
according to MAFF/JAS rule of Japanese Government. Some of the major problems at
international level for organic products are;
import discrimination
multiple certification
multiple accreditation
parallel guarantee system like EUREGAP
difficulties in trade and procedural requirement e.g. customs
lack of information flow
few equivalency agreement (MLA)

Management of Organic Production and Processing System
In order to apply for organic certification, operation should have free of prohibited chemical
inputs for at least three years prior to application for certification. Similarly, applicant
should be in position to declare the detail of following information for the last three years
Detail Production records and checklist
Detail of processing records and checklist
Social policy with in operation
Environment policy of operation
Now different importing authority expects the detail from the exporter on the areas of
quality management system which is implemented in accordance to HACCP or ISO series of
quality management. In Nepalese context, prior to going HACCP or ISO series of quality
management detail documentation of Standard Operating Procedures for each stage of
operation would be a helpful step towards HACCP or ISO series of quality management.

Some Clarification
With in institutional framework for the National Organic Agriculture Programme (NAOP),
development of certification body is not stated taking in account of our institutional and
human resource base. In order to bring the stage of setting a certification body, the
available human resources involved on organic production, processing and inspection need
to further strengthen and task force may need to be formed to work out for the setting of a
certification body if the need is felt widely. Otherwise, the collaborative work with
internationally recognized certification body would be a preliminary work on this area.
National Level Committee/taskforce may need to be formed to work out on the areas which
need to be developed as it is proposed on fig. 1

There are some conceptual and theoretical bases for such initiative. These initiative should
bring different impact on subjective as well as objective domain. Conceptually the initiative
could be guided for respect to nature, respect to people, quality assurance and commitment
and meeting the expectation of consumers and a meaningful change on livelihood of people
contributing for the socio-economic development as well as complying the international
commitment made by the state at international level.

Ghimire Maheswar; Code of Conduct for Orthodox Tea Production, Processing and Handling
in Nepal, 2006
Ghimire Maheswar; Organic Agriculture Products Certification in Nepal, Paper presented at
National Organic Agriculture Workshop organized by NPG, Kathmandu, 2005
Fig. 1 Institutional Organogram for National Organic Agriculture Programme

of Nepal
Ministry of
Agriculture and
National Steering Committee for
responsible for development of
Standards, Guidelines and other
by laws required for certification
and accreditation
ce Committee
Accreditation Committee (Formed
as per the recommendation of NSC)
Processors and
Other Operators

- Prem Bahadur Thapa*

Key Words: Organic, Inspection, Certification, Accreditation, Process, Norm, Regulation,

1. Background
Organic agriculture has developed rapidly worldwide during the last few years and is now
practiced approximately 110 countries in the world. In the other hand, traditionally there was
a very limited amount of products flow from one place to other region. Since last few decades
the flow of products has been dramatically increased and consumers are more aware about
the products and its quality. People now a day has been found sensitive on food quality,
which also influence the current marketing system. In order to address the market demands
and assure food safety, there has been implementation of food regulations based on which
quality standards of the product are measured. So, basically regulations are considered as
the basis for measurement. However, based on types of consumers and consumers demand
different kinds of process for organic product standardization are being established. This
paper very briefly shares about organic product inspection and certification.

2. Organic Products
Organic agriculture offers the most comprehensive response to the sustainability problems
on food production system. It is based on specific and precise production, processing and
handling standards encouraging the environmentally sound, socially adopted and
economically viable production of foods and fibers that can insist the capability to sustain
livelihood of the people. It adheres globally accepted principles, which are implemented
within local socio-economic, climate, and cultural settings thereby have positive impact on
environment, food security and socio-economic status of the people practicing the system
and the region where it is practiced. (IFOAM, Cite the reference).

3. Overview of Global Market
Sales of organic food and drink continue to increase across the globe. This is expected to
further increase in coming years, as demand for organic foods becomes global and organic
products become more widely available. In this regard, different stakeholders at different
levels might have different perception and definition about the market. Very broadly,
market is the place from where needs or demands of consumers are fulfilled through a
various way. Based on market opportunity and its location, the market system can be
categorized into two broad areas.
3.1. Local Market
The local market is a marketing system in which consumers demand are fulfilled at local
level. The producers and traders have a natural inclination to supply their high quality

Policy, Planning and Quality Assurance Manager; Practical Action Nepal and Chairperson;
Nepal Permaculture Group (NPG)

organic products locally, where consumers are more closely connected to their life. Local
market is a way to obtain more self reliance and more independence.
A3 (AAA) Farm Bhaktapur, Brighter Farm Chovar, SADP Pokhara, Gunilo Pokhara, Farmers
Group in different parts of the country, Organico Chitwan, Eco Village, Kathmandu,
Supermarkets in Kathmandu and others are the major local level organic operators in Nepal.
Local market is often referred to as an alternative to the international market. There is
increasing need for the development of local market in developing countries. They have a
natural inclination to supply their high quality organic products locally, in which
consumers are more closely connected to their life. There are various forms of local market.
They are mainly; Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), Teiki in Japan, Home Delivery
Services, Specialist Stores, Supermarket, etc.

3.2. International Market
The needs or demands of one country are fulfilled from the produces of other countries.
Organic food productions continue to rise across the globe; however same level sales are not
distributed all over the continents. North America and Europe account for roughly 97
percent of global revenue, the rest of the world accounts for a mere three percent of global
revenues; mostly from Japan and Australia.
The international market system needs a rigorous process to compliance the international
rules and regulations. According to International Trade Centers projection, the organic
market size in 2010 is estimated at $ 46 billion in the EU, $ 45 billion in US and $ 11
billion in Japan and commands premium prices 15 50% over conventional produce.
Although, Nepal has been exporting very limited amount of specific products mainly tea and
species, it can be involved in exporting various kinds of species, fruits, pulses, NTFPs and
others in a massive amount.

4. Standards and Guidelines
4.1. International Standards
IFOAM Standards
The basic Standards for Organic Production and Processing (IBS) of the IFOAM were first
published in 1980. Since then they have been subject to biennial review and republication.
The IFOAM Basic Standards define how organic products are grown, produced, processed
and handled. These standards should not be seen as a final statement, but rather as a work
in progress to contribute to the continued development and adoption of organic practices
throughout the world. IFOAM Basic standards 2000

The Codex Alimentarius
The Codex Alimentarius Commission, a joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, began
in 1991 (with participation of observer organizations such as IFOAM and the EU)
elaborating Guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and marketing of organically
produced food. The requirements in these Codex Guidelines are in line with IFOAM Basic
Standards and the EU Regulation for Organic Food. There are some differences with regard
to the details and thematic areas, which are covered by different standards. Codex
Alimentarius Guidelines; Guidelines for the Production, Processing, labeling and Marketing
of Organically Produced Foods, 2001

4.2. National and Supranational Regulation
The EU Regulation
In the member states of the European Union, the labeling of plant products as organic is
governed by regulation 2092/91, which came into force in 1993, while products from
organically managed livestock are governed by EU regulation 1804/99, enacted in August
2000. In February 2000 the EU Commission introduced a logo for organic products that
may be used throughout the EU by producers operating in accordance with the provision of
the EU regulation o organic production. EU organic standards; The European Union
Council regulation No. 2092/91/EEC on organic production and labeling

Other National Regulations
Many countries outside the European Union legally protect organic products or are in the
process of development of organic regulations. All these regulations lay down minimum
rules governing the production, processing and import of organic products, including
inspection procedures, labeling and marketing. US regulation on organic agriculture, the
national Organic Programme (NOP) came into effect in October 2002. Similarly, other
countries have also started to establish national level standard. United States organic
standards. The National Organic Programme, 2000 (NOP) fully implemented in October
2002, Japanese Agriculture Standard (JAS) for organic products from April 2002, Thai
Standard for Organic Agriculture Product and others; India, China, etc

4.3. Private Standards
In some countries in Europe, farmers associations had already formulated their private
standards and labeling schemes long before national regulations came into force. This
quality marks; for example in the UK, in Denmark, Australia, Sweden and Switzerland are
well trusted by consumers and are one of the reasons for current boom in the market for
organic products in these countries.

5. Need of Inspection and Certification in Organic Farming
5.1. Certification
Certification is a process of determination made by the authorized body and provides
certificate or label to the products, which has fulfilled and compliance the acts, regulation
and other institutional requirements that are mutually agreed by the parties concerns. It is
a market based approach in which different kinds of acts and regulations based on safety
food principles are mutually prepared, followed and inspected.

Organic Certification
Organic certification has been defined from different ways; however it is an entire
determination process of organic products in line with the act and regulations. As part of
the certification, biodynamic certification process was started in Europe few decades ago
followed by Non Governmental initiatives. International Federation for Organic Agriculture
Movement (IFOAM) for Basic Standard Development and Soil Association in England are
some of the institutions who played vital roles for organic agriculture standard and
certification development process in the later stages. EU in the decade of 1990 enacted the
organic regulation followed by USNOP in USA and JAS for Organic Agriculture in Japan.

Developing countries in Latin America and Asia in these days have also implemented
National Organic Programme including national organic standards. .
According to USNOP document Organic Certification is a determination made by a
certification body for the entire process (production, processing and handling) of organic
product which is in compliance with the act and regulation which is documented by a
certificate of organic operation. It ensure to the consumers in fulfilling the established rules
and regulations.

5.2. Need of Certification
As mentioned before, certification is a determination process in ensuring to the consumers
on the products. It ensures to the consumers that the integrity of products from its
production to final offer to the table of consumers is well maintained. Market is the most
important aspects that decide the certification process. If any parties would like to go for
the certification process, that needs to look for the requirements of its market / consumers
prior to going for the certification process. Certification is a long process that demands quite
a big amount of cost whether this is domestic and international.

Local Certification
Local market or internal market is one of the important places that support to establish a
sustainable marketing system at local level. For internal market, if there are enough buyer
of organic products operator may continue to follow the organic principles for its entire
operation with out certification where Participatory Guarantee System can be a mechanism
for the assurance of product quality. There are some exemptions in USA for the small
producer or handler who can declare their products with out going to certification process
where annual transaction is below US$ 5000. However, such operators are not exempted
from maintaining the document as stated in National Standard of Organic Production and

International Certification
In order to assure the consumers / markets in international markets, certification process
for organic products is important and crucial. For a country like Nepal, there is need of
organic certification especially for export oriented commodities. The followings are the major
Meeting the consumers demands of the respective market
Quality assurance of the product according to its principles
Meeting / compliance the regulatory requirements of importing country and
regulating the market through the means of certification
Minimizing the chances of fraud and fetching the premium price
Strengthen policy and strategic aspects especially for a conversion grant for organic
Understanding on the ethics and principles of the organic agriculture and prerequisite for
Organic Certification is the basic procedures. Similarly, for the certification, the need of
export market should be considered and certification system should be selected according
to their requirements.

Organic Agriculture Certification Process
Process is the most important aspect in certification. So, before going for Organic
Certification, any operators should understand the ethics and principles of organic
agriculture and prerequisite for Organic Certification. In order to enter for the Organic
Certification, operation should be in place according to the organic principles prior to 3
years for the process of Organic Certification. Similarly, the need of export market should
also be considered and certification system should be selected according to their
requirement e.g. for US market, USNOP Certification is required. Furthermore, prior to
going for Certification process any producers or processors should understand the
requirements for the organic production and processing. The following process would be
taken once the operator is confident for the organic management procedures;
Identify the certification body based on cost and market accessibility
Request for the information and application
Certification body ask for the detail information
Based on the information provided, certification body provides application form as
well as other relevant information
According to requirements for certification, applicant should judge its operation and
proceed with application
Forward detail about production, processing and handling along with organic
management and handling plan if applicable,
Sign an agreement with Certification body; agreement may include the issues like
access to the premises, cost detail, compliance to organic standard, confidentiality
and other procedures required to be a registered operator or licensee
Certification body communicate for the appropriate time to carry out first inspection
Assigned Inspector (s)
Operator and Inspector are requested for the appropriate time of inspection
First Inspection is carried out

7. Certification Bodies in Nepal
Although, there are lacks of systematic recording, formally and informally, different
certification bodies are active in Nepal. They are namely;
NASAA-Australia Accredited with IFOAM, JAS, US NOP and AQIS
SKAL/Control Union-Accredited with EU, USNOP and JAS
IMO-Accredited with EU, JAS and USNOP
Forest Stewardship Council-For forest product certification (Certification Body but
not for organic)
FLO-Fair Trade Certification (Certification Body but not for organic)

8. Inspection and its Process
Inspection process starts after the agreement signed between operator and certification
body. Assigned Inspector is allowed to conduct different activities and processes as below;
Develop basic checklist based on certifiers requirements and standards
Visit all area/premises of production, processing and handling
Verifies the information as stated on Organic Management/Handling Plan

Organic Seals and Logos
Inspection and observation of associated issues relevant to operation
Analyse different issues relevant to operation
Interview operators based on developed checklist
Prepare reports incorporating all aspects of operation in line with acts and regulation
Countersigned by operator/licensee on prepared report and submit to the Certifier

Annual Inspection
Farm operation mainly production, processing and handling need to be inspected every year.
The contract conditions are verified and in case of failed to comply the condition operator is
require submitting the justification. The other procedures are same as apply in the first
inspection. Annual Inspection is scheduled is accordance to the timing of operator as well
as consideration is given for the peak time of critical operation.

Un-announced Inspection
Un-announced inspection is carried out in special circumstances. Inspection report is
maintained even for the un-announced inspection. From such inspection if any violation or
major non-compliance noted the certification could be suspended / withdrawn. However,
operators are given a certain time frame for any appeal to relevant body over the
dissatisfaction of the decisions.

Organic Inspector in Nepal
NPG in collaboration with other agencies has developed six Organic Inspectors in Nepal,
who are formally and informally supporting in organic agriculture promotion and marketing.

9. Taking decision for Certification
Based on submitted countersign report by the Inspector, additional different steps will be
made in taking decision for product certification;
Inspection report is reviewed by the panel of experts
Panel of expert is made necessary recommendation to the Certification Committee of
Certification Body. However the certification is largely based on inspection report.
Take appropriate decisions
Forward decision to operator with conditions of certification which need to be
fulfilled by operator within a period of time as stated.

Organic Seals and Logos

10. Preparation for OA Marketing in the Context of WTO
Analyse the market and marketing opportunities
Identify products to be exported with high premium price
Develop farmers capacity to present competent and high quality products
Develop appropriate technology in value addition
Researching on different alternatives and options
Develop basic infrastructure services
Establish and strengthen market information resource centers
Establish farmers groups and cooperatives for organic production, processing and
Need to develop relationship and affiliation with Fair Trade

11. Conclusion
In order to address the consumers demand as well as assurance for food safety, there has
been implementation of food acts and regulations. These regulations are varied from general
to specific to products classification and types. These acts and regulations are the basis for
inspection and certification.
Certification of organic products is a process, which is time taking and expensive process
for the developing countries like Nepal where support for organic agriculture is negligible
and available small amount of products. Certification system can be categorized into two
different approaches. That is basically for local market and international market. In the
context of WTO, Nepal has to develop competency to compete with the international market
and marketing system. Likewise, producers or processors have to approach international
certification body in order to harness for the better market opportunity for its products. The
different kinds of support from different stakeholders at policy level towards organic
agriculture would further help to strengthen organic agriculture in Nepal. Furthermore, use
of local resource could help to minimize the cost for inspection and certification. Additional
efforts in establishing coordination and collaboration would also help to harness the wider
opportunities for sustainable rural livelihoods in Nepal.

12. References
IFOAM, 2005. Participatory Guarantee Systems Shared Vision, Shared Ideals,
Participatory Guarantee Systems / Concept working Paper
Codex Guidelines of FAO/WHO different publication
JAS Document for organic agriculture production and processing
ISO different guidelines
US NOP documents
NPG, 2005. Proceedings of National Workshop on Organic Agriculture and Food Security
IFOAM, 2005. The World of organic Agriculture; Statistics and emerging trends.

- Rajendra P. Shrestha*

Organic farming of various crops demanded by upper middle local population, resident
expatriates, and tourist class hotels in Kathmandu and other select important towns has
been going on for more than one decade. In absence of organized market, market
information, and quality assurance, the
Producers have no clear idea as to where to sell their produce,
Buyers lack information as to where and when they can buy OF products easily, and
Govt. agencies severely lack information on types of products, their market, quality
standards to monitor the quality of products coming to the market.

2.1 Current status
Major outlets for organic farm products in Kathmandu- Hotel Summit, Sanepa, Lalitpur
(Sunday & Wednesday), Mikes Breakfast, Naxal, Kathmandu, Mobile (home delivery)
marketing system (offering between Bouddha to Swayambhu), mail order supply
(particularly in dry form)
Major products sold in these outlets- seasonal vegetable & fruits, honey, rice, herbs, high
altitude tea, and coffee etc. Among the Nepalese OF products slowly gaining market hold
outside Nepal are high mountain tea and coffee.
Marketing of organic farm products going on on social charity/ support kind of basis.
To catch growing craze for organic products among High profile social class, use of
Organic label is often felt being mis-used/ or over-used
Absence of any quality standard set so far, and growing demand organic food products
among upper middle class society, more conscious farmers tempted to produce organic
foods mainly vegetables, fruits, tea, coffee, culinary herbs, honey. Farmers are being
encouraged by the IPM program to grow more organic crops.

Figure-1: Schematic diagram showing demand driven production system with quality
assurance backed by research-for-development

GM Agro Services Pvt. Ltd, GPO Box 1155, 335 Tripurapath, Tripureswar, Kathmandu, Nepal Ph. 977-1-4260 660, Email:
R-for- D

2.2 Market Orientation
Start with What the MARKET wants but not with What I can produce. Select the
product(s) with High growth potential and high profitability based on comparative
advantages of the area (s)
Market information (product type, quality, price)
Market research
The following points should be, among other things, included which doing market
Industrial competition Analysis
Knowing your competitor in the market is of crucial importance.
Supply condition (No. of suppliers, scale of suppliers, degree of integration, product
Once the suppliers are identified, we have to know their scale of operation, and the
degree of integration. We have to find out whether these suppliers enjoy any product
differentiation. Based on such information production plan has to be drawn up for
products-in-demand and those products having comparative advantages of the area.
Market Demand. Any production plan has to be based on the potential demand for
the product in the market. Situation of over-supply and under-supply has to be
avoided to sustain the production and marketing of the product.
Entry barriers (Tariff and Non tariff barriers)
To take up and production for export market outside the country, one has to find
out exactly what are the tariff and non-tariff barriers imposed by the potential
importing country on these products.

3. Production
Given the prevailing condition of small farm production and varied agro-eco system, the GON
has been adopting group-based production-marketing system. Drawing lessons from the
working models of Nepal such as SSSC, production can be vertically integrated with the
market through community-based agro-enterprise. This approach ensures relatively more fair
trade basis thus increasing more profit going back to the community. To sustain the industry
production- marketing has to be strictly adhered to the terms and conditions of the contract.

4. Processing/ Packaging
To improve self-life and consumer appeal of the product, the product needs to be properly
processed, graded, and packaged in ready-to-use form.

5. R-for-D (Research-for-Development)
To sustain the growth and development of any production enterprise, continuous
improvement and development of the product based on feedback information received from
the consumer-end should form the basis for R-for-D.

6. Quality Assurance
For sustained growth and retain satisfied consumers quality assurance at every stage from
production to marketing need to strictly adhered. To create and implement QA program

national standards for products on priority basis, and implemented through a practical,
implmentable QA system in the country.

7. Role of Farmers
The farmers are the main stakeholder in the production system. Major roles expected of the
farmers in the community-based production and marketing program shall among other
things include the following:
Be vigilant and participate in the process of group formation
Be prepared to contribute to the group activities
Be prepared to participate in the group (community) based contract production and
marketing program

8. Role of NGOs and development organizations
The NGOs has very vital and crucial roles to play in establishing such innovative equity-
based vertically integrated community enterprise. These enterprise need to be created,
facilitate and support develop activities including creation of proposed community
enterprise with assured venture capital support. In addition enterprise created in this
manner need to be incubated during the initial years. Specifically NGOs among other things
shall provide the following activities:
Select potential area for the production
Form a group for the purpose
Help prepare the constitution and operational work plan of the group
Post-formation support to the group at the field level to facilitate the process:
Consciousness raising about planning and monitoring/ evaluation
Support the FG in methods for planning, monitoring and evaluation
Provide on- the- job- training
Participate in FG meetings
Evaluate and revise production plan based on feed-back provided by various
Actively facilitate linkage of production with market, and market with the production
on fair trade principles in transparent manner
Actively promote/ facilitate transfer of field tested technologies to enhance value-
added production systems
Facilitate to promote research-for-development of of production on demand driven

9. Role of Traders
Traders constitute the vital and crucial position in the value chain of any commodity system.
Being accountable the traders can contribute significantly in value addition of any
commodity (thus helping/ ensuring fair trade) in the whole value chain of any commodity.
Among other things the traders shall play the following roles in performing this business:
Traders are vital link in the commodity/ value chain
Participate in contract production system through FG organization

Promote/ practice marketing of quality assured organic farm products only. Avoid
marketing products of doubtful quality for short term gains
Feed back information on quality requirement and product demand, consumer
preferences to review/ revise production program. In order to sustain OF the traders
need to play vital role in fine tuning the production program by providing feed back
information regarding quality requirements and products in demand to review and
revise production program.

10. What needs to be done/ ways ahead
Organize market outlet for organic farm products at say Kalimati Fruits & Vegetable
wholesale market/ DDC outlets, Vegetable wholesale market outside Kathmandu such as
the one promoted/ operated by a private sector organization- Shree Complex in Pokhara
Collect, document and disseminate price information of organic farm products like the
practice done for fruits & vegetables.
Develop and adopt quality assurance system for internal market and export. Marketing with
accredited Organic Logo will help develop/ increase production. To sustain and develop
organic food production Quality Assurance System for various products on priority basis
need to developed and adopted. The products meeting the quality standards should be
awarded national Organic Food Logo. Marketing of food products with such quality Logo
will help gain more confidence of the consumers in the domestic as well as export markets,
thus, ensure getting more business.
Support to production divert/ re-allocate part of current transport subsidy given to
chemical fertilizers to upgrade/ develop locally produced organic manures and bio and
botanical pesticides. Using chemical fertilizers in the Hilly areas is an expensive proposition.
With aim to mitigate food security situation GON is providing transport subsidy to carry
chemical fertilizers to district HQs in the Hilly areas. If part of such subsidy fund is diverted
and allocated to upgrade and develop locally produced organic manures and bio and
botanical pesticides. This approach will help develop utilize local resources, encourage
development of local enterprises to produce such products, and reduce the use of imported
Promote research-for-development of OF production on demand driven basis Adaptive
research works on new crops based on market demand in new potential areas closure to
the markets need to be stepped up. Similarly more traditional crops should be explored,
assessed, and developed and promoted in the market.

Abbreviations and Terms used
DDC Dairy Development Corporation (An GON Undertaking)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FG Farmers Group
GON Government of Nepal
IPM Integrated pest management program (GON / FAO)
NGO Non-Government Organization
OF Organic Farming
SSSC SEAN Seed Service Centre

- Krishna Prasad Pant, Ph.D.

After entering to the multilateral trade regime of the World Trade Organization, the
opportunities of producing and exporting organic farm products have accentuated. This
paper attempts to review the efforts of the government reflected in policies and strategies
relating to the promotion of the organic farming. Based on this review, the major issues on
development of organic farming are identified and analyzed. Finally the means to address
the issues are suggested under the ways ahead. Several issues like testing and certification,
costs of compliance and needs of the legislation are discussed.

Nepal has competitive advantages in labour intensive organic products. The organic
products especially fresh vegetables and vegetable seeds among several other produces
such as cheese, honey, silk, dried mushrooms, tea and coffee are the potential export
commodities of Nepal (Pant, 2004). Although there have been arguments on whether
traditional farming can be called organic, for the majority of small farmers in Nepal,
conversion of their farms to organic agriculture would require relatively less efforts than for
the commercial growers in other countries.
In the context of world market, demands for organic products are increasing. The market
value of organic products worldwide was US $ 25 billion in the year 2003. The largest share
of organic products was marketed in Europe and North America (Willer and Yussefi, 2005).
Organic agriculture is the fastest growing food sector. In a decade after nineties, it has been
growing 15 to 20 percent per year while the overall food industry is growing 4-5 percent per
year. The organic food supply chain is a typical consumer driven, with a market value of US
$ 40 billion (2004) and a growing involvement of the private sector (Scialabba, 2005).
Organic food is produced without conventional pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, sewage
sludge, bioengineering, or ionizing radiation. Choosing organic provides a tangible way to
benefit the environment, local economies, and public health, both on and off the farm.
Certified organic agricultural operations do not use most synthetic pesticides used in non-
organic agriculture.
Efforts are ongoing to protect the integrity of organic standards, further differentiate organic
foods by accurate labels and promote different forms of short supply chains for local
community development. Beyond standards, the International Federation of Organic
Agriculture Movements (IFOAM, 2005) has recently approved the four principles upon
which organic agriculture must be based on, namely (a) the principle of health, (b) the
principle of ecology, (c) the principle of fairness and (d) the principle of care/precaution
(Scialabba, 2005).
Profit efficiency* of organic rice farming in Thailand is estimated by Setboonsarng et al.,
(2006). The study showed that the profit efficiency of certified organic rice farming,

Profit efficiency is defined as the ratio of the observed profit to the potential maximum attainable profit. While
profit provides a direct measure of relative competitiveness of one type of farm (organic farm) in relation to others
(non-organic farm), the concept of profit efficiency can also be useful as an indicator of relative competitiveness.

transitory organic rice farming and initial organic rice farming are 0.75, 0.71 and 0.70,
respectively**. They concluded that during the transition years to organic farming, profits
are low and as ecosystems restore themselves, the farms become more profitable and profit
efficient. No doubt, organic agriculture can be a sustainable alternative to mitigate the
adverse effects of chemicals on human health and environment. However, lower production
in organic farming in the initial years need to be compensated (Shivakoti and Magarati,
2005). For small farms with subsistence agriculture, the compensation of the lower
production in the initial period is a difficult task. If a large number of farmers switch to
organic farming at a time, it will have two implications to the trade. First, the reductions in
the production due to the start of organic production necessitate an increase imports.
Second, the volume of organic products needs to be exported. For this purpose, trade
liberalization is necessary.
Trade liberalization has encouraged the flow of agricultural goods from one country to other
and also at the same time raised quality awareness globally. The biggest force of trade
liberalization experienced so far is the emergence of multilateral trade body, the World
Trade Organization (WTO). Different agreements under the WTO affect the trade of
agriculture products differently. The Agreement on Agriculture attempts to improve the
market access for increasing the trade. At the same time, the proposed reduction in the
domestic supports and export subsidies increase the international price of the products and
also decreases the exportable surplus of the countries with support driven agriculture. This
is expected to create some rooms for the products of developing countries. But, another
agreement directly related to agricultural products is the Agreement on the Application of
Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures (Pant, 2004).
The SPS agreement authorizes the members to impose trade restrictions to protect lives and
health of humans, animals and plants in the country based on risk analysis. The risk
assessment appeals to science to determine risks. The countries with advance level of
scientific development can put higher level of restrictions on the import. Organic
agricultural products are regarded as a good option to overcome SPS measures of advanced
countries. Similarly, the Agreement Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) permits the members
to restrict trade to protect the legitimate interest of the people and environment in the
country without unnecessarily restricting the trade. The organic products can not generally
be restricted in the names of legitimate interest and environmental problems.
Increasing awareness of the consumers has shifted the demand curve for the organic
agricultural products up. Capital surplus economies find it costlier to produce labour
intensive organic products. Developing countries with surplus labour and low level of wage
rate have competitive advantages in the organic agricultural products. A low external input
agriculture of the countries like Nepal can benefit from the emergence of international
market for organic products. The potentials of such benefits are particularly high in Nepal
because of a large tract of agricultural farms are still away from chemicals like pesticides
and chemical fertilizers. To this end the exploration of potentials for the expansion of
organic agriculture is urgently needed. This paper attempts to scan the national polices in
the agriculture sector that are related to organic agriculture.

The profit efficiency is 0.64 under conventional non-organic rice farming. But the confounding factor is that the
conventional farming is for non-contract farming while the transitional and full fledged organic farms are under
contract system of production.

Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to review the public policies and strategies in the country
relating to the promotion of the organic farming. Based on this review, the major issues on
development of organic farming are identified and analyzed.
Existing policies in favor of organic farming are reviewed first. One the basis of this review
and development in international trade, the major issues of the organic farming are
identified. Finally the means to address the issues are suggested under the ways ahead.

Existing Policies for Organic Farming
Organic food is produced by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable resources and the
conservation of soil and water to enhance environmental quality for future generations. The
relationship between soil quality and plant quality are now recognized by some of the
farmers. Organic farming grew out of a belief that healthy soil produces healthy food. These
practices have clear environmental benefits for those living and working on or near the
farms. Health benefits emerge from the fact that the organic foods consistently have fewer
pesticide residues than the foods produced with inorganic chemicals.
Effective policies and clear laws are required for the promotion of production and trade of
organic agricultural products. Organic farming policies are required for stimulating
adoption of organic farming practices and legislations for creating demands for organic
products by assuring consumers of the quality of the products. Policies in Nepal affecting
the organic farming are scattered and incomplete. Initiatives have been taken with the
recently formulated agricultural policies and tenth plan, but legal provisions are yet to be

National Agricultural Policy
The National Agriculture Policy (2004) fairly recognizes the importance of organic farming.
The Policy has adopted one of its objectives as to conserve, promote and utilize natural
resources, environment and biodiversity (MoAC, 2004). Under this objective the Policy
adopted following policy arrangements for organic farming and environmental protection:
It proposes to provide supports for quality certification of organic agricultural products,
particularly for exporting (Policy No 31) and encouraging organic farming.
It also proposes the minimization of negative impact and other environmental problems
resulting from the use of agricultural chemicals on soil and water bodies. Likewise, it aimed
at the reduction of the use of veterinary drugs and hormones that pass to the consumers of
livestock products in the livestock and poultry.
This policy also proposes promotion and encouragement of the production and use of
organic fertilizers (Policy No 51) and a better plant nutrient management.
The policy has encouraged minimization of adverse affects of environmental problems (soil
and water bodies) resulting from the excessive use of agriculture chemicals, drugs and
hormones used in livestock production and has encouraged the production of organic
manures and its use.
With the objectives of increasing agriculture production, enabling it to compete in the
international market and conservation of natural resources, the National Agriculture Policy
emphasizes on improving the production and productivity. For this purpose, there are

provisions of extending special facilities to target groups, developing commercial and
competitive agricultural system and conservation of natural resources and environment.
The policy proposes for the quality control of the agricultural production and certification,
particularly for the organic products. Similarly, it makes a provision for reliable quarantine
control to assure the export market from the risks of spread of diseases and pests (MOAC,
2004). Thus, the Policy aimed to promote organic farming as a part of the efforts for
promoting exports of agricultural products.

Agriculture Perspective Plan
Twenty years Agriculture Perspective Plan (APP) (1995-2015) is a growth strategy and
focuses on four input investments priorities, namely, irrigation, roads and power,
technology and chemical fertilizers. It has emphasized on increasing fertilizer consumption
per unit of land to increase agriculture productivity (APPROSC, 1995). The APP requires
raising fertilizer use level to almost 131 kg of plant nutrients (NPK) per hectare by 2015
which is quite high. Reliance only on chemical fertilizers in attaining APP targets signal for
potential environmental hazards. The APP, though takes environmental protection as of the
vague outcomes, has not addressed the issue of organic farming. It neither talks about the
importance of organic manure, nor any other policy that is helpful to the organic farming.

National Fertilizer Policy
National Fertilizer Policy formulated in 2002 aims to ensure supplies of quality fertilizers in
the country for increasing agricultural production. The Policy attempts to increase production,
import and distribution chemical fertilizers. It covers both organic and inorganic fertilizers as
the sources of plant nutrients to attain higher crop productivity, prevent soil degradation, and
consequently help meet future food supply needs. It emphasizes integrated plant nutrient
management systems and suggests using chemical fertilizers judiciously and efficiently with
sufficient compost and farmyard manure. It seeks to increase agricultural production as well
as to safeguard the environment for future generations (FADINAP, 2005). But, the Fertilizer
Policy is focusing more on chemical fertilizers or a judicial combination of organic and
chemical fertilizers and not on the organic farming.

Plans and Strategies for Organic Farming
The main plans and strategies in agriculture sector are Tenth Plan and Medium Term
Expenditure Framework. Somehow, both of these documents recognize the importance of
organic farming.

Tenth Five Year Plan
Agricultural sector in the Tenth Plan (2002-2007) has adopted one of its objectives as
contribution to the sustainable production and growth by protection and use of
agrobiodiversity and balance the environment by reducing pollution from the use of external
inputs (NPC, 2002). To achieve the objective, the plan has adopted a sustainable
agricultural development strategy by protection, promotion and use of agrobiodiversity and
environment. The plan has envisaged promotion of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for
minimizing the use of chemical pesticides. It also stressed increased production by ways of
organic farming, environment protection and pollution reduction.

Tenth plan has emphasized on the promotion of organic farming based on better
management of organic manures. Similarly, tenth plan has also encouraged the minimum
use of pesticides and promotion of IPM. Though the IPM aims to minimize the use of
chemical pesticides, it does not guarantee the organic production. For pollution control and
environment protection, the Plan proposes an assistance to be provided for the reduced use
of pesticides and through integrated crop management.
Working policies of Tenth Plan clearly emphasize the organic farming. To achieve the
sectoral objectives and strategies the Tenth Plan focuses on integrated crop management
system along with the development of organic farming system in order to minimize the use
of toxic chemicals in the farms. It also emphasizes on the encouragement of cooperatives
and private sector to participate for promoting the use of organic fertilizers. The production
of organic fertilizers from the waste generated from agricultural market yards is one of the
strategies. Thus, the Tenth Plan recognizes the importance of organic farming and included
in its policy and strategy. But, the efforts are highly scattered and not enough.

Medium Term Expenditure Framework
The Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), under its second objective of promoting
research, emphasizes natural resource management through sustainable soil and water
management practices, conservation of biodiversity, integrated pest management (IPM),
integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM), pastureland management and land use
planning. It also emphasizes on the organic farming.
The arrangements for implementation of MTEF focus on the promotion of organic manure,
balanced use of chemical fertilizers and minimizing the use of pesticides for the protection
of the environment. The potential areas to be addressed, in case additional resources are
available, include an additional plantation of organic coffee in 100 hectare (NPC, 2002a). It
recognizes that new opportunities are arising for the commercialization of non-conventional
farm inputs like organic fertilizers, biofertilizers and organic pesticides. But, the relative
price of such organic fertilizers and chemicals is questionable.
Informed decision making on organic agriculture will allow governments and the private
sector to direct their research and extension efforts to organic farming and tap market
opportunities. To harvest such opportunities several issues are yet to be thrashed out.

Major Issues on Organic Farming
The policies and strategies adopted by the government emphasize the organic farming in the
countries. Still there are several issues to be resolved. The major issues include organic
certification, cost of compliance and use of inputs for organic farming.

Certification of Organic Products
Certification of organic products and assuring the consumers of the quality are the
challenges faced by markets of organic products. Nepal needs to develop standards,
certification system, labeling and information of the organic agriculture to contribute to
environmental quality, income generation and food security.
Laboratory services, quality control and certification need to be developed for testing the
inputs and outputs of the organic farming. For such testing and certification for export
purposes need to be accomplished by accreditated laboratories. Till the laboratories in

Nepal are in the process of accreditation, we need to get tested from foreign laboratories
that are accreditated. For such testing, private sector laboratories should be promoted,
which can also act as third party guarantee.

Cost of Compliance
Organic testing and certification involves costs. The costs need to be compared with the
benefits out of it. In Nepal, where the farm holdings are very small and scattered, with
small marketed surplus per farm, the cost of laboratory testing is proportionately high. To
overcome, such cost barrier, we need to pool the farms, though operationally, so that entire
village can be treated as a farm. But, all the farmers in a village may not be ready for
organic farming at a time. Moreover, traceability of the outputs needs to be maintained to
enforce the liability rules for any wrong-doing by the farmers or by any person handling the
outputs. Maintaining traceability in such aggregated output is a big challenge.

Genetic Modification of Crops
Genetically modified organism (GMO)5 is a plant, animal or microorganism that is created
by gene splicing technology of genetic engineering. The processes of genetic engineering6
and traditional breeding are different. Gene splicing has crossed the boundary of natural
breeding making is possible to transfer genes and hence the useful traits from one species
to other.
The genetically modified crops, even if produced without inorganic chemicals, have different
risks than the naturally occurring plants, hence can not be regarded as organic as it
contains genes artificially combined. Therefore, the genetically modified from can not be
used for the organic farming. But, this fact is not clearly recognized from the policy.

Local Food Security
Choosing to purchase locally-produced organic foods, help to increase availability of healthy,
organic foods by encouraging the farmers to increase the production of such food. It can all
be a part of a larger movement to address local food security issues. But, the productivities
of organic farming, at least in the initial years, are lower than the in-organic farming. The
means of meeting food security needs of the farmers during is transition phase are not well

Emerging Supermarkets
Emerging supermarkets are likely to grab the retail markets often through direct
contractual arrangements with producers. The supermarket strategies imply
responsiveness to concerns of consumers beyond price and opens niches for specialty
producers such as organic farmers. The supermarket retailers determine standards and
packaging and most supermarkets have their own labels. For the supermarkets, the
standards set by the public sector are valid only to the extent legally enforced. Therefore,
bringing the supermarkets to the channels of organic marketing is the most essential effort
to penetrate to high income consumers.

The most widely grown GMO crops are soybeans, maize, canola (rapeseed) and cotton mainly for insect resistance
and herbicide tolerance.
Genetic engineering involves crossing species which could not cross in nature.

Price of Organic Fertilizers and Pesticides
The concentration of plant nutrients in organic fertilizers is quite low as compared to that in
chemical fertilizers. Tests show that NPK in organic wormi-compost marketed by an Eastern
Region based company is 0.74: 0.91: 1.01 percent of NPK respectively. All together, the total
nutrient is 2.66 percent and price is Rs 11/kg as compared to 46 percent in urea (Rs
18/kg), 65 percent in diammonium phosphate (Rs 24/kg). Comparison of organic and
chemical fertilizers shows that the plant nutrients from marketed organic fertilizers are 11
times costlier than that from chemical fertilizers. The price of organic farm products is also
higher, but not in the similarly proportion. Similarly, the direct cost of pesticides per unit of
crop land is believed to be higher for the organic pesticides. The environmental benefits
from the application of organic fertilizer and pesticides are the external benefits that can not
be harvested fully by the concerned farmers. Most parts of which goes to the society, but
the direct costs are borne by the farmers. Those farmers need to be compensated from the
public sector.

Burning Dung Fuel
Yet another issue of organic farming is the burning of animal dung. Animal dung is the
most important foundation of organic plant nutrients. A comparison between dung burnt
and chemical fertilizers imported shows that the loss of the plant nutrients due to the
burning of dung for cooking purposes is 95 percent of the amount of the plant nutrients in
the fertilizers imported by the public sector (Pant, 2006). The figures in table 1 show that
the amount of potash burnt is many times higher than the potash imported.

Table 1: Imports of chemical fertilizers and loss of plant nutrients by burning dung
Particulars Nitrogen Phosphorus Potash Total
Nutrients in the chemical fertilizers
sold by the public sector (2004/05)
8,118 9,135 933 18,186
Annual wastage of plant nutrients
due to dung fuel
4,939 4,116 8,213 17,268
Percent loss to the total sale 60.8 45.1 880.5 95.0
Source : Pant 2006
Ways Ahead
The ways ahead for the development of organic farming in the country are discussed briefly
in this section. The major requirements to be met for the promotion of organic farming
include the congenial policy, appropriate legislation, basic infrastructures and human
resource for testing and certification.

Organic agriculture production and marketing policy
National Agriculture Policy 2061 talks very little about the organic farming and marketing of
organic products domestically and in export markets. A set of policies for promoting organic
farming, certification of organic agricultural products and their marketing needs to be
developed under this umbrella national policy.

Organic Agriculture Legislation
Laws are required for ensuring the protection of the interest of the consumers of organic
products. For providing quality assurance of organic products the production, processing,

marketing, storage and transportation of organic agricultural products should come into
the purview of domestic laws. These laws include Act, regulation, standards and related
provisions for organic farming and marketing. Alternatively, the Food Act 1966 and Food
Regulation can be amended to include the legislative provisions for organic farm products,
but, in this case, it is difficult to incorporate the input certification and on-farm
observations. Therefore, a separate free standing set of laws are desirable.

Organic Certification and Monitoring
Organic production, processing, storage, transportation and marketing need to be closed
monitored, and the every step needs to be certified by a competent agency to ensure the
trueness in the organic products. The certifying agency should be able and liable to take full
responsibility of organic nature of the products certified. National level accreditation
program need to be developed for private firms that want to be accredited as certifying
agents. The certifying agents will certify production and handling operations in compliance
with the requirements of organic standards of Nepal and that of the importing country.
Certification services are needed to all stages of the organic food chain from farms to
processors, restaurants and retailers. We should certify farm and livestock operations,
processors, retailers, private labelers, and restaurants for meeting the farm to fork
certification requirements of the international organic marketing system.
National standards need to be established for the production and handling of organically
produced products. A list of substances approved for use in organic production and
handling, and procedure for adding new substances to or deleting some substances from
the list need to be determined. Similarly, a list the substances prohibited from use in
organic production and handling, and procedure for adding new substances to or deleting
some substances from the list are necessary. The provisions for the Amendments to the
National List of allowed and prohibited substances should be legally defined. All such
provisions are necessary to assure the consumers that such products meet consistent and
uniform standards.

Organic Farm Production Program
All the organic farms need to be registered with unique farm code for each. The organic
farms can be categorized into three groups, certified organic farms, transitory organic farms
and initial organic farms indicating their levels of purity in organic farming. Supports are
needed for organic farmers for accelerating the transition to organic agriculture.

Marketing of Organic Products
Public sector programs are needed to facilitate domestic and international marketing of
fresh and processed food items that are organically produced. Requirements for labeling the
products as organic and containing organic ingredients need to be fully met. Education of
consumers about the benefits of organic food and farming need to be promoted. For this
purpose, political advocacy of organic products would also be helpful.

The government of Nepal seems to be committed for promoting organic farming in the
country. Several pieces of policies and strategies are formulated to promote organic farming.
But, these policies and strategies are scattered and simply inadequate. Nepal has entered
into multilateral global trade regime though the membership of the World Trade
Organization, which brings enormous opportunities for exporting certified organic food
products to high income countries. In addition to development programs aimed at
production and marketing of organic products, Nepal need to develop standardization and
certification system and infrastructures for such products. For this purpose, a consolidated
policy and a clear set of legislative provisions are required.

APROSC. 1995. Nepal Agriculture Perspective Plan (APP). Agricultural Project Service
Centre (APROSC) Kathmandu and John Mellor Association, Inc. Washington D.C.
FADINAP. 2005. National Fertilizer Policy, Fertilizer Unit, Ministry of Agriculture and
Cooperatives, and Fertilizer Advisory, Development and Information Network for Asia and
the Pacific (FADINAP), Bangkok Thailand. www.fadinap.org. Internet document.
IFOAM 2005. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). Organic
eprints. www.ifoam.org. Internet document.
MOAC, 2004. National Agriculture Policy, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives,
Kathmandu, Nepal.
NPC 2002. Tenth Plan, HMG/N, National Planning Commission Secretariat, Sigha Darbar
NPC 2002a, Medium Term Expenditure Framework, Section 2.1 Ministry of Agriculture and
Cooperatives, Fiscal Year 2002/03 - 2004/05
Pant, K. P. 2004. Nepalese Agriculture and World Trade Organization (in Nepali),
Agriculture Information and Communication Center, Hariharbhawan, Kathmandu.
Pant, K. P. 2006. Dung Fuel and Imported Fertilizers: Environmental Problems Tangled
with Gender and Poverty, Agriculture and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and
Cooperatives, Kathmandu (forth coming)
Scialabba, Nadia El-Hage, 2005. Global Trends in Organic Agriculture Markets and
Countries demand for FAO assistance, Global Learning Opportunity - International
Farming Systems Association Roundtable: Organic Agriculture Rome, 1 November 2005.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, www.fao.org/organicag
Setboonsarng S., P. Leung, and J. Cai, 2006. Contract Farming and Poverty Reduction: the
Case of Organic Rice Contract Farming in Thailand, ADB Institute Discussion Paper No. 49
Shivakoti Sabnam and K. K. Magarati 2005. Organic Farming: A Sustainable Alternative?
In: Agriculture and Environment (Published on the Occasion of World Environment
/Population Day-2005), Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Gender Equity and
Environment Division, Kathmandu, pp 19-24.
Willer, H. and M.Yussefi, Eds. 2005. The World of Organic Agriculture 2005-Statistics and
Emerging Trends. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements, Organic
eprings. www.ifoam.org. Internet document.


Appendix I : Expected number of participants
A workshop organising committee was formed under the Chairmanship of Dr. Deep
Bahadur Swar, Director General, Department of Agriculture. The committee decided the
persons and the organizations for participation on the workshop as follow:
District Agricultural Development Offices: 29
Ilam -2, Morong -1, Dhankuta-1, Panchthar-1, Bara-1, Chitwan-1, Makwanpur-1,
Dolakha-1, Kathmandu-4, Bhaktapur-2, Lalitpur-1, Kavre-1, Dhading-1, Nuwakot-1,
Kaski-1, Palpa-1, Mustang-1, Gulmi-1, Salyan-1, Dadeldhura-1, Surkhet-1, Gorkha-2
and Kailali-1.
Regional Directorates: 5
Department of Agriculture: 5
Program Directorates: (32)
o Vegetable Development Directorate -4
o National Potato Development Program-1
o National Spices Crop Development Program-1
o Fruit Development Directorate-2
o Tea-Coffee Development Division-1
o National Citrus Crop Development Program-1
o Crop Development Directorate-1
o National Industrial Crop Development Program-1
o Soil Management Directorate -1
o Fishery Development Directorate-1
o National Natural and Artificial Pond Fishery Development Program-1
o Agriculture Business Promotion and Market Development Directorate-1
o Agriculture Business Promotion Program-1
o Agri. Product Export Promotion Program-1
o Agri. Training Directorate-1
o Crop Protection Directorate-1
o Pesticide Registration and Management Division-1
o Industrial Entomology Development Directorate-1
o Central Horticulture Farm-1
o Post Harvest Management Direcrorate-1
o National Plant Quarantine Program-1
o Agri. Engineering Directorate-1
o Agri. Extension Directorate-6
Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative-7
Projects - 4
o Agriculture Prospective Plan Support Program APPSP
o Crop Diversification Project
o Agriculture Training and Extension Improvement Project
o Integrated Pest Management Program
National Agriculture Research Council-6
o Out-reach Research Section

o Soil Science Section
o Entomology Section
o Agronomy Section
o Horticulture Research Section
o Agri- Environment Unit
Non-governmental Organizations-12
o Li-Bird, CWDS, UMN, JICA, ICIMOD, SSMP, World Vision, ADP KTM, FAO, NPG,
SECARD Nepal, Winrock FTF Program.
Farmers -16: (Kathmandu-4, Lalitpur-1, Bhaktapur-2, Gulmi-2, Argakanchi-1, Palpa-1,
Illam-1, Kavre-1, Kaski-1, Dhading-1, Chitwan-1)
o Salt Trading Ltd.- Kathmandu
o Khajuri Food P. Ltd.- Chapagaun
o REED- Palpa
o Organic Village- Kathmandu
o Agro-business Centre for Research and Development (AEC)- Kathmandu
Department of Livestock Service -1
Department of Forestry-1
Department of Cooperative-1
Department of Food Technology and Quality Control-1
Kathmandu Metropolitian-1
Lalitpur Sub-metropolitian-1
Ministry of Finance-1
National Planning Commission-1
District Development Committee-1


Appendix II : List of Participants
S.N. Name Address / Office Remarks
1. Ananda Ratna Bajracharya RAD, Pokhara
2. Ananda Shobha TU
3. Arjun Kumar Karki Rural Economic Development Federation (REDA), Palpa
4. Ashish Rouniyar ShreeKrishna Agro Tech., Newroad
5. Atma Ram Lohani DADO, Lalitpur
6. Balaram Sainju Vegetable Development Directorate, Khumaltar
7. Balram Koirala DADO Panchthar
8. Balram Rajbhandari DADO Dhading
9. Bashanta Raj Gautam LDO, Kathmandu.
10. Bashu Subedi Directorate of Vegetable Development
11. Bed Khatiwada SECARD Nepal, Sitapaila
12. Bhakta Raj Palikhe
Pesticide Registration and Management Section,

Bhim Bahadur Regmi
Rimuwa VDC 4, Gulmi
14. Bijaya Kumar Mallik RAD, Hetauda
15. Bina Upreti Agri. Extension Directorate
16. Binod Khanal DADO, Kathmandu
17. Biraj Bahadur Bista The Organic Village Baluwatar
Bishnu Prasad Dhakal
Kamala Organic Farm, Sundarijal, Kathmandu
19. Chandra Kanta Devkota DADO, Gulmi
Chandra Prasad Adhikari
Organic Agri. Production. Cooperatives, Phulwari 3,

21. Chudamani Bhattarai
Organic Coffee Farming for Poverti Alleviation,

22. Chut Raj Gurung Directorate of Vegetable Development
23. Dandapani Khanal DADO Kavre
Dev Bahadur Magar
Chidipani 2 Palpa
25. Devi Prasad Acharya NEPLCMAC, Lalitpur
26. Dharma Maharjan Central Horticulture Center, Kirtipur
27. Dharma Prasad Devkota Directorate of Fruit Development
28. Dhruba Chitrakar RAD, Dipayal
29. Dhruba Raj Neupane DOA
30. Dhruba Vishwokarma (Far.) Janahit Coffee and Tea Cooperative, Dhading
31. Dilaram Bhandari DADO Kathmandu
32. Dilli Ram Sharma DADO Gorkha
33. Dinesh Acharya MOAC
34. Dipak Adhikari DADO, Kathmandu
35. Dipak Prasad Dahal Farmer) Lalitpur
36. Dr. Binod Shah IPM Program
37. Dr. Krishna Bahadur Karki NARC, Khumaltar
38. Dr. Krishna Prasad Pant MOAC

S.N. Name Address / Office Remarks
39. Dr. Shyam Kishor Shah DADO, Ilam
40. Dr. Yogesh Hari Shrestha DADO Gorkha
41. Durga Prasad Upreti Agri. Commodity Export Promotion Program
42. Gagan Bahadur N. Pradhan Fisheries Development Directorate, Balaju
43. Ganesh Raj Joshi DOA
44. Ganga Bahadur Tamang Farmer
45. Gita Koirala Agri. Extension Directorate
46. Gopal Lamichhane Vegetable Development Directorate, Khumaltar
47. Gopal Man Shrestha Agri. Trade Promotion Program, Hariharbhawan
48. Govind Prasad Acharya NEPLCMAC, Lalitpur
49. Gyanendra Poudel DOA
50. Hom Nath Regmi NARC, Dailekh
51. Hom Raj Bishta MOAC
52. Ishwor Prasad Rijal DADO, Dolakha
53. Jagadish Bhakta Shrestha Industrial Entomology Development Directorate
54. Jagannath Maharjan Khajuriko Nepal, Pvt. Ltd.
55. Jiwan Thapa (Farmer) Integrated Farmers Group, Talku, Kathmandu
56. Kamala Dahal (Farmer) Eloye Multipurpose Cooperative Centre Ilam
57. Kashi Bahadur Nepali Coffee and Tea Development Section, Kirtipur
58. Kedar Budhathoki (Farmer) Seed Multiplication Farmers Group Sanga-2, Kavre
59. Keshab Raj Kaphle DADO, Bara
60. Keshav Adhikari DADO, Kathmandu
61. Khadak Bhakta Poudel NARC, Khumaltar
62. Khem Narayan Chapagain DADO, Mustang
63. Khem Sharma Paudel DADO, Kailali
64. Kishor Maharjan TU
65. Kishor Prasad Pant Agri. Extension Directorate
66. Kishor Sherchan NARC, Khumaltar
67. Krishna Bahadur Kadayat DADO, Kaski
68. Krishna Kumar Khadka Salt Trading Corporation Ltd., Kalimati
69. Krishna Prasad Chaulagain(F) Lapsephedi VDC-9, Kathmandu
70. Lal Prasad Acharya Seed Quality Control Center, Hariharbhawan
71. Laxmi Prasad Gelal NEPLCMAC, Lalitpur
72. Lilaram Paudel DADO Surkhet
73. Madan Regmi
Agri. Trade Promotion and Market Development
Directorate, Hariharbhawan

74. Mahendra Kumar Yadav CDP, Hariharbhawan
75. Muna Mulepati DADO Bhaktapur
76. Muralidhar Mishra DADO, Bhaktapur
77. Nabin Chand Tara Shrestha National Plant Quarantine Program, Hariharbhawan
78. Nabin Gopal Pradhan NRD, Khumaltar
79. Narayan Prasad Bhandari Vegetable Development Directorate
80. Netra Bahadur Bhandari Agri. Extension Directorate
81. Nilkantha Sharma Agri. Information and Communication Center
82. Nirmala Adhikari (Farmer) Pancha Kanya Agri. Cooperatives, Kavresthali

S.N. Name Address / Office Remarks
83. Niru Dahal (Panday)
National Industrial Crop Development Program,

84. ParsuRam Acharya District Cooperative Association
85. Phulgen Pradhan RAD, Dipayal
86. Prabin Lal Shrestha Agri. Extension Directorate
87. Prachand Man Shrestha Coffee Promotion Project , Helvetas
88. Prem Bahadur Thapa NPG/Practical Action Nepal, Kathmandu
89. Purshottam Khatiwada NRD, Khumaltar
90. Pushpa Raj Bhattarai (Farm.) Gulmi
91. Rabindra Subedi Agri. Extension Directorate
Raj Krishna Shrestha
Madhyapur Thimi Municipality-13
93. Ram Bahadur Kunwar Agri. Extension Directorate
94. Ram Bahadur Shrestha MOAC
95. Ram Naresh Sharma DADO, Dadeldhura
96. Ram Prasad Pulami DOA
97. RamChandra Mishra Fisheries Devt.Centre, Bhairahawa
98. Resham Raj Dhital N.N.A.R.F.D. Program, Balaju
99. Riddhi Bahadur Maharjan Agri. Extension Directorate
100. Rita Sigdel Agri. Extension Directorate
101. S.P. Yadav C.W.D.S., Balaju
102. Sabanam Shiwakoti DADO, Kathmandu
103. Sachet Bahadur Nepali Crop Development Directorate
104. Sanjaya Kumar Yadav DADO, Dhankuta
105. Satya Narayan Mandal Soil Management Directorate
106. Shalik Ram Bastola DADO, Pokhara
107. Shamir Newa The Organic Village, Baluwatar
108. Shankar Prasad Panday DADO, Palpa
109. Shanti Bhattarai NARC, Khumaltar
110. Sharad Chandra Shrestha DADO, Kathmandu
111. Shashi Adhikari Post Harvest, Shrimahal
112. Shashi Ratna Shakya NARDF
113. Sher Bahadur Chand Agri Engineering Directorate
114. Shriju Pradhan Kathmandu M. Municipality
115. Shyam Khadka Organic Farm, Gamcha, Bhaktapur
116. Shyam Prashad Dhakal APDO, NSPC, Sindhupalchok.
117. Suraj Pokhrel DADO, Chitawan
118. Surath Babu Aryal DOA
119. Surendra Prasad Rijal National Citrus Devt. Program, Kirtipur
120. Suresh Shrestha National Spices Development Program Khumaltar
121. Tapendra Bahadur Shah DOA, Hariharbhawan
122. Tej Prasad Dawadi DADO, Makawanpur
123. Tek Bahadur Bam RAD, Surkhet
124. Yadav Lal Karmacharya
Agro. Business Centre for Research & Development,


List of Invitees
S.No. Name Address / Office Remarks
1 Asheshwar Jha MOAC
2 Bhairab Raj Kaini MOAC
3 Bhrigu Rishi Duwadi WINROCK, Baneshwor
4 Bol Maya Banjara RSS
5 Dala Ram Pradhan DLS
6 Dilli Raj Baskota Kanchanjangha Tea E., Panchthar
Dr. Amriteshwori
Food Technology and Quality Control
Department, Babarmahal

8 Dr. Deep Bahadur Swar DOA
9 Dr. Kaushal Kishor Lal Seed Quality Control Center
10 Ganesh Kumar K.C MOAC
11 Gautam Pradhan NICDP, Lalitpur
12 Hari Bhandari Crop Development Directorate
13 Jay Ram Subedi Nepal Samachar Patra, Kalimati
14 Jhalak Lal Shrestha Shri Complex, Pokhara
15 Kazuyuki Tsurumi FAO
16 Krishna Bahadur Shrestha MOAC
17 Lok Nath Dewaju National Citrus Program, Kirtipur
18 Madan Singh Karki DLS
19 Madhav Shrestha
Agri. Information and Communication

20 Maheshwor Ghimire IFOAM, Kathmandu
21 Nima Joshi SSMP- Helvetas, Bakhundol
22 Shankar Lal Chaudhari APPSP
23 Surendra Chaudhari Nepal SIMI, Bakhundol
24 Thakur Prasad Pradhan Directorate of Agricultural Training

Appendix III : Working Groups
Group Name List
Group A
S.N Participants Address
1 Mr. Dhrub Chitrakar RAD, Dipayal
2 Mr. Chandra Kanta Devkota DADO, Gulmi
3 Mr. Dilli Ram Sharma DADO, Gorkha
4 Mr. Raj Krishna Shrestha Madhyapur Thimi Municipality
5 Mr. Keshav Raj Kafle Plant Protection officer Bara
6 Mr. Arjun Kumar Karki
Rural Economic Development Society,
7 Mr. Puspa Raj Bhattrai Dynamic Youth Farm, Gulmi.
8 Mr. Sachet Bdr. Nepali DoCD, Hariharbhawan
9 Mr. Krishna Pd. Chaulagain Farmer, Lapse Phedi, Kathmandu.
10 Mr Deepak Pd Dahal Farmer, Lalitpur
11 Mr. Govinda Pd. Archarya Lalitpur
12 Dr. Yogesh Hari Shrestha Horticulture officer, Gorkha
13 Prof. Annadda Shova Tamrakar TU, Kirtipur
14 Mr. Lok Nath Debaju
National Citrus Development Program,
15 Mr. Satya Narayan Mandal Soil Management Directorate
16 Mr. Yadav Lal Karmacharya Agro- Business Center
17 Mr. Jeevan Kumar Thapa Telku Cooperatives
18 Mr. Padam Bdr. Singh National Program Officer, FAO
19 Mr.S.P. Yadav CWDS, Balaju
20 Mr. Bala Ram Raj Bhandari DADO, Dhading
21 Mr. Shankar Lal Chaudhari APPSP
22 Mr. Tapendra Shah Extension Officer, DOA
23 Mr. Tej Pd. Dawadi Extension Officer, Makawanpur
24 Mrs. Neeru Dahal/ Pandey, Industrial Crops Development Divisions
25 Mr. Netra Bdr. Bhandari Extension officer, DAE

Group B
SN Participants Address
1 Mr. Fulgen Pradhan RAD, DEPYAl
2 Mr. Laxmi Pd. Gelal NEPSAMAC,Lalitpur
3 Mr. Dhru Raj B.K
Janaheet Coffee and Tea Cooperative Society,
4 Mr Khem Narayan Chapagain Extension Officer, Mustang
5 Mr .Bed Khatiwoda SECARD, Sitapaila
6 DR. D.P. Sherchan NARC
7 Mrs. Shanti Bhattarai Soil Division NARC
8 Mr. Shanker Pd. Pandey DADO, Palpa

SN Participants Address
9 Mr. Tika Ram Mulicha Plant Protection Directorate
10 Mr Devi Pd. Archarya NEPSAMAC, Laltpur
11 Mr. Hom Nath Regmi NARC, Dailekh
12 Mr. Krishna Kumar Khadka Salt Trading Ltd.
13 Miss, Muna Mulepati DADO, Bhaktapur
14 Mr. Chandra Pd Risal Soil management Directorate
15 Mr. Shasi Ratna Shakya NARDEF
16 Mr. Binod Khanal DADO, Kathmandu
17 Mr. Parsuram Archarya District cooperative Society Ltd, Gulmi
18 Mr. Jhalak Lal Shrestha Shree Complex Phokhara
19 Mr. Rama Nanda Mishra Fish Development Center Bhairhawa
20 Mr. Hom Raj Bista MOAC
21 Mr. Bijay Kumar Mallik RAD, Hetauda
22 Mr. Ashok Kumar Das Horticulture officer, Morang
23 Mr. Bhakta Raj Palikhe Pesticides Control Division/DOA, Lalitpur.
24 Mr. Prem Bdr. Thapa NPG, Kathmandu
25 Mr. Shankar Sapkota Extension Officer, AED
26 Mrs. Geeta Koirala Extension Officer, AED

Group C
SN Participants Address
1 Dr. Shyam Kishor Shah DADO, Illam
2 Mr. Chandra Pd Adhikari Organic Farming Cooperatives, Chitwan
3 Mr. Shalik Ram Bastola Gaurishankar Sanstha, Pokhara.
4 Mr Shyam Pd Dhakal Potato Development Division Khumaltar
5 Mr Dev Bdr. Kuwar Farmer, ChidiPani 2, Palpa
6 Dr. Dinesh Parajuli DOLS
7 Mr. Ram Neresh Sharma DADO, Dadeldhura
8 Mrs Sabanam Shivakoti DADO, Kathmandu
9 Mr Danda Pani Khanal DADO Kavre
10 Mr.Bhim Bdr. Regmi Farmer, Ghulmi
11 Miss.Sujeeta Shrestha Organic Village
12 Mr. Chut Raj Gurung
Vegetable Development Division,
13 Mr. Khadak Bhakta Paudel Horticulture Section NARC
14 Mr. Lila Ram Paudel DADO Surkhet
15 Mrs. Nirmal Adhakari
Panchakanya Agricultural Cooperatives,
16 Mr. Bishnu Pd Dhakal Kamal Organic Farm, Sundarijal
17 Mr. Ram Brd, Shrestha MOAC
18 Mr.Suresh Shrestha
National Spices Development division,

19 Mr. Bashu Dev Subedi
Vegetable Development Directorate,
20 Mr. MuralidharMishra DADO, Bhaktapur
21 Mr. Shyam Khadka Organic farm Ghamcha
22 Dr. Binod Shah IPM Program
23 Mr. Prabin Lal Shrestha DoAE
24 Mr. Dilli Banskota Kanchangunha Tea State, Panchthar
25 Mr. Maheswor Ghimire NASAA Consultant

Group D
SN. Participants Address
1 Mr Shanjaya Kumar Yadav DADO Dhankuta
2 Mr. Annanda Ratna Bajjracharya RAD, Phokhara
3 Mr. Keshav AdhIkari DADO, Kathmandu
4 Mr. Iswori Pd. Rijal DADO, Dolkha
5 Mr. Madan Regmi ABPMDD
6 Mr. Kedar Budathoki Farmer, Kavre
7 Mr.Nabin Gopal Pradhan HRD, Kathmandu
8 Mr. Lal Pd. Archarya Seed Quality Control Centre, Hariharbhawan
9 Mr. Bala Ram Koirala DADO, Panchthar
10 Mr. Ganesh Dahal EPC, Kathmandu
11 Mr. Krishna Bdr. Kadayat DADO, Kaski
12 Mr. Dharma Pd. Devkota Fruit Development Division, Kirtipur
13 Mr. Kishor Kumar Maharjan Trichandra College
14 Mr. Dila Ram Bhandari DADO, Kathmandu
15 Mrs.Shreeju Pradhan KCMT
16 Mrs. Kamal Dahal Farmer, Illam
17 Mr Dinesh Archarya MOAC
18 Mr Gopal Man Shrestha ABP Program
19 Mr Jagadish Bhakta Shrestha CEDD
20 Mr Atma Ram Lohani DADO, Lalitpur
21 Mr Bhola Kumar Shrestha SITARA
22 Mrs. Shashi Adhikhari PHD, Shree Mahal
23 Dr. Krishna Bdr Karki Soil Division, NARC
24 Mr Kishor Pant DoAE,

Appendix IV : Topic outlines
Theme 1: Concept, Status and Opportunity of Organic Farming
1. Concept, Status, prospects and opportunities of organic agriculture in Nepal.
- Mr. S.B.Aryal, DOA
Concept of organic farming with guiding principles
Present status of organic farming in Nepal.
Opportunities in terms of technological, economical, social and sustainability.
Major issues and challenges
2. Agricultural extension in promoting organic farming in Nepal.
Mr. P.L.Shrestha, Mr. K.Pant, DAE, Hariharbhawan
Importance of Organic farming in Nepal (Soil, climate, health, socio-economic,
environmental aspect etc.)
Extension programs (farmers group formation and mobilization, awareness
programs for consumers, different extension teaching tools, transfer of technology,
market information etc))

Theme 2 : Production Techniques
3 Technological development in organic vegetable production system in Nepal.
- Mr. Bashu Subedi, Hom Raj Regmi VDD, Khumaltar
Principle of organic vegetable production
Available improved technologies
Farmers adopted practices in Nepal
Possible vegetables and practices for organic farming.
4. Prospect, challenges and opportunity of organic tea production in Nepal.
- Mr. Dilli Baskota, Kanchanjungha Tea State, Panchthar
Scope of organic tea production in Nepal
Present status
Market demand situation
Certification and standardization procedure
Challenges and opportunities
5. Prospect, challenges and opportunity of organic coffee production in Nepal.
- Mr. Prachanda Pradhan, Helvetas
Scope of organic coffee production in Nepal
Present status
Market demand situation
Certification and standardization procedure
Challenges and opportunities

6. Prospect, challenges and opportunity of organic honey production.
- Dr. Suraj Pokharel, DADO Chitwan
Organic honey production techniques
Present status
Certification and standardization procedure
Opportunities and challenges

7. Organic base fish farming (Integration of fish, pig and fodder production) for organic
aquaculture. - Mr. G. Bdr. Pradhan, FDD.Balaju
Organic base fish farming ( Ghol and ponds)
Present status
Improved practices for organic fish farming
Market demand situation
Opportunities and challenges
8. Community level organic crop production program; an experience of Kathmandu valley.
- Mr. Dilla Ram Bhandari, DADO Kathmandu
Status of community level organic farming in Kathmandu
Organic producer groups and areas
Crops and production techniques
Certification procedures
Roles of DADO in promoting organic farming

9. Livestock and its management for organic agriculture system.
- Dr. Dinesh Parajuli, DOLS.
Need of integration of livestock in organic farming
Possible areas for integration
Scope of organic production in livestock
Production technology

Theme 3 : Soil fertility management
10. Sources of different organic manures, their method of application under different
ecological zones and in different crops of Nepal.
- Mr. S. L Chaudhary, Mr. S.N. Mandal and Mr.S.P. Risal, DOSM hariharbhawan
Sources of enriching organic manures (Compost, F.Y.M., vermin-compost, green
manure, legumes crops etc.)
Time and methods of application for different crops
Calculation procedures for nutritional requirements of the crops
11. Management of solid waste as a source of organic fertilizer.
- Shriju Pradhan (KMTC)
Management procedures of solid waste
Possible bi-products
Environmental effect
Marketing of organic manure
12. Role of vermin-compost in organic farming.
- Prof. Anand Shova Tamrakar, TU
Importance of vermin-compost in organic farming
Process of making vermin-compost
Methods of application
Process of communicating the importance of vermin-compost in rural farm people

13. Residual effect of organic and inorganic fertilizing materials specially NO3 (nitrate) in
different crops under different agro climatic condition.
- Dr. K.B. Karki and Mr. Bhandari NARC
Importance of NO3 analysis in organic farming
Comparative study on organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer
Residual analysis technologies
Implication in farmers field.
14. Organic farming & its role in soil fertility, effect on crop production, constrains and
future strategy. - Mrs. Shanti Bhattarai, NARC
Fertility management techniques in organic farming
Effect of organic farming in crop production (yield)
Constrains of organic farming
Future strategy for promoting organic farming in Nepal.

Theme 4 : Pest Management
15. Biological pest management in organic farming through conservation of natural
enemies. - Dr. Raju Raj Pandey and Mr. R B Paneru, NARC
Concept of biological pest management
Pest management technology in organic farming
Need of conservation of natural enemies and conservation techniques

16. Use of botanical pesticides for pest management in organic farming.
- Mr. Sarad Chandra Parasar and Mr Bhola Shrestha,
National Seed Certification center, Harihar Bhawan
Types of botanical pesticides
Different sources; local and synthesis
Market availability
Product of Nepal
Calculation and application procedures

Theme 5: Inspection, Certification and Standardization
17. Institutional arrangements and procedures for certification of organic products.
- Mr. Maheshwor Ghimire, NASAA
Organizational structure for certification
Production procedure
Certification procedure
Regulatory mandate

19. Standardization, inspection and certification of organic products in Nepal in the context
of W.T.O. - Mr. Prem Thapa, NPG
Need of inspection in organic farming
Procedure of inspection
Certification procedure
Standardization procedure
International standard

19. Role of farmers, NGOs and private traders in marketing of organic products in Nepal.
- Mr. Rajendra Shrestha GM agro-Enterprises
Roles of farmers and NGOs
o in group formation and mobilization
o Awareness creation
o Transfer of technology
o Market linkage
o Quality control
private traders
o Trade preference for organic products
o Information on demand market situation
o Quality and consumers preferences

Theme 6 : Policies and Strategies
20. Present policies and strategies of HMG/N to promote organic farming in Nepal in the
context of WTO. - Dr K.Pd. Pant, MOAC
Policies of HMG/N to promote organic farming in Nepal
Major issues on organic farming
Strategy taken for promoting of organic farming
21. An Idea on organic Agriculture System in Nepal
- Mr. Ganesh Kumar K.C. Secretary, MOAC.


Appendix V : Program Schedules
Venue : Horticulture Centre, Kirtipur,
Date &
Program Remarks
June 12, 2006
Inaugural Session Master of Ceremony: Mr. Gautam Pradhan,
Rapporters: SC Shrestha, S. Siwakoti
Chairperson Dr. Deep Bahadur Swar, DG, DOA
Chief guest Mr. Ganesh Kumar KC, Secretary, MoAC
Welcome, Objectives & Modality of
P.L. Shrestha, Program Director, Directorate
of Agri Extension
Inauguration Mr. Ganesh Kumar KC, Secretary, MoAC
Key Note Speakers
Vision for organic agriculture system in
Mr. Ganesh Kumar KC, Secretary, MoAC
Concept, Status, prospects and
opportunities of organic agriculture in
Mr. Surath Babu Aryal, DDG, DOA
Few words Dr. Dalaram Pradhan, DG, DoLS
Few words Kazuyuki Tsurumi, Resident Representative,
Few words Mr. D.C Pathic, ED, NARC
Inaugural speech Mr. Ganesh Kumar KC, Secretary, MoAC
Vote of thanks Mr. Chutraj Gurung, SVDO, DoVD
Closing remarks Dr. Deep Bahadur Swar, DG, DOA
14 17
Technical Session Master of Ceremony : Mr. Gautam Pradhan,
Rapporters : SC Shrestha, S. Siwakoti
Chairperson Mr. Surath Babu Aryal, DDG, DOA
Agricultural extension in promoting
organic farming in Nepal
Mr. P.L. Shrestha, Mr. K.P. Pant
Prospect, challenges and opportunity of
organic tea production in Nepal.
Mr. Dilli Baskota, Kanchanjungha Tea State
Prospect, challenges and opportunity of
organic coffee production in Nepal.
Mr. Prachanda Pradhan, SSMP
Technological development in organic
vegetable production system in Nepal.
Mr. Bashu Subedi, Hom Raj Regmi
Tea break
Prospect, challenges and opportunity of
organic honey production.
Dr. Suraj Pokharel, DADO, Chitwan
Organic base fish farming (Integration of
fish, pig and fodder production) for
organic aquaculture.
Mr. Gagan Bdr. Pradhan

Date &
Program Remarks
Closing remarks Mr. Surath Babu Aryal, DDG, DoA
June 13, 2006
Technical Session MC: Mr.Sankar Sapkota,
Rapporters: G.S. Lamichhane, N. Bhandari
Chairperson Dr. Ganesh Raj Joshi, DDG, C.& T.D., DOA
Community level organic crop production
program; an experience of Kathmandu
Mr. Dila Ram Bhandari, DADO, kathmandu
Livestock and its management for organic
agriculture system.
Dr. Dinesh Parajuli DOLS.
Sources of different organic manures,
their method of application under
different ecological zones and in different
crops of Nepal.
Mr S.L. Chaudhari, Mr.S.N. Mandal and
Mr. S.P. Risal DOSM, Hariharbhawan
Management of solid waste as a source of
organic fertilizer.
Shriju Pradhan (KMTC)
Tea break
Role of vermin-compost in organic
Prof. Anand Shova Tamrakar /Kishor
K.Maharjan TU
Residual effect of organic and inorganic
fertilizing materials specially No3 in
different crops under different agro
climatic condition
Dr. K.B. Karki and Mr.R.C Bhandari, NARC
Organic farming & its role in soil fertility,
effect on crop production, constrains and
future strategy
Ms. Shanti Bhattarai
Biological pest management in organic
farming through conservation of natural
Dr. Raju Raj Pandey, R.B. Paneru
Closing remarks Dr. G.R. Joshi, DDG
Technical Session MC: Mr. Sankar Sapkota,
Rapporters: G.S. Lamichhane, N. Bhandari
Chairperson Mr. Tek Bdr. Thapa, Chief, Planning Division,
15.0 5
Use of botanical pesticides for pest
management in organic farming.
Mr.Sarad Chandra Parasar, National Seed
Certification Center; B. Shrestha, SITARA
Institutional arrangements and procedures
for certification of organic products.
Mr. Maheshwor Ghimire
Standardization, inspection and
certification of organic products in Nepal
in the context of W.T.O.
Mr. Prem Thapa, NPG
Tea break

Date &
Program Remarks
Role of farmers, NGOs and private traders
in marketing of organic products in Nepal
Mr.Rajendra Shrestha, GM agro- Enterprises
Closing remarks Mr. Tek Bdr Thapa, Chief, Planning Division,
June 14, 2006
Technical & Group Work Session MC : Ms Gita Koirala
Rapporters: Netra Bhandari, Rabindra Subedi
Chairperson Mr. B.R. Kaini, Chief, M&E Division, MoAC
Present policies and strategies of HMG/N
to promote organic farming in Nepal in
the context of WTO.
Dr. K.Pd. Pant, MoAC
Closing remarks Mr. B.R. Kaini, Chief, M&E Division, MoAC
Tea break
Group Division (4 groups)
Group works
Closing Session MC: Ms Gita Koirala
Rapporters: Netra Bhandari, Rabindra Subedi
Chairperson Mr A. Jha, Chief, Gender Equity &
Environment Division, MoAC
Presentation of Group Works Group leaders
Few words Participant representative
Few words Mr. B.R. Sainju, PD, Directorate of Veg
Few words Mr. Dilaram Bhandari, DADO, Kathmandu
Few words Dr. Deep Bahadur Swar, DG, DOA
Chief guest Mr. Ganesh Kumar K.C., Secretary, MoAC
Tea break
Vote of thanks Mr. P.L. Shrestha, Program Director, AED
Closing remarks Mr. A. Jha, Chief, Gender Equity &
Environment Division, MoAC