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Faculty of Health

Harvard-style Referencing Guidelines

Faculty of Health Harvard-style Referencing Guidelines Contents Page Introduction 1 Citation and References 2

Contents

Page

Introduction

1

Citation and References

2

Confidentiality

2

Citing

2

Multiple Authors and et al.

3

Direct Quotations

3

References List and Appendices

3

Bibliography

4

Where to find the relevant details

4

Referencing…

a

book

4

an e-book

4

a

journal article

5

Secondary references

5

Chapters within edited books

5

Forum postings

5

Maintaining confidentiality of source material

6

Anonymous works

6

Government or Official Publications

6

Law Reports

6

Statistics

7

Internet and WWW publications

7

A

home page

8

Moodle

8

Powerpoint

9

An example Reference List

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Introduction

The Harvard style (also known as the ‘author-date system’) is the most commonly- used style of referencing worldwide. Citing references is a way of letting your reader know where you found your information. It is standard academic practice and you must do this in all your assignments. We use the term "citing" as a quick way of referring to citing references, but there are actually two inter-related parts in the process.

Citation

A citation is essentially a marker you put in your text to show that you are referring to a

source, for example, you may have given a direct quotation or summarised the ideas from the

source. The marker you use links to the reference.

Reference

A reference gives full details about a source you have cited in your text. References are

listed, in alphabetical order, at the end of your assignment, before any appendices.

Referencing is an essential part of academic scholarship, and ethical values demand that authors identify the sources used in their work.

You are referencing in order to:

Acknowledge an intellectual debt to another author where you have drawn from his or her published work or ideas, either explicitly or implicitly.

To support specific facts or claims which you make in your text.

To enable your reader to find sources to which you have referred easily and quickly.

Failure to identify sources upon which you draw is plagiarism, a serious academic offence. (To see the University’s Student Disciplinary Policy follow this link

Confidentiality

Confidentiality must be maintained within referencing as well as your written work. The following statement of confidentiality can be found in the Faculty’s Guidelines:

Guide to Academic Procedures: Confidentiality in Learning, Teaching and Assessment.

If a patient’s/client’s name or that of a member of staff is included in any part of your work including appendices (if they are not available to the general public), you will fail. The work will be deemed a ‘technical fail’ and will receive a mark of 1% only. Success in the resubmitted work will be subject to capping, as for any resubmission. See the full policy in your student handbook for further guidance. Guidance is provided in these referencing guidelines regarding the maintenance of confidentiality of source material.

Citing - Referring to or summarizing an author’s viewpoint in your text

If you are referring to the general theme of the book, page numbers are unnecessary. If the

author’s surname occurs naturally in the text, the year follows in round brackets. If not, insert the name and year in round brackets at the end, e.g.:

Carlson (1981) obtained results which

In a recent study (Carlson 1990)

Where you are quoting or referring to figures or data, page numbers must be included, e.g.:

Schon (1991, p.17) found that “several factors contributed to the emergence of professional pluralism" which shows that…

In some professions, awareness of uncertainty, complexity, instability, uniqueness, and value conflict has led to the emergence of professional pluralism (Schon 1991, p.

17).

2

Multiple Authors

If there are up to three authors, all surnames should be given before the date, e.g.:

Weyham, Reheman and Dee (2006) suggest that….

If there are more than three authors, include the surname of the first, followed by “et al.”, e.g.:

Nursing involves careful observation at all times (Jackson et al., 2004.)

If an author has published more than one paper in a year, lower case letters, a,b,c, etc., follow the date:

Example: Bradshaw (2006a) argues that

Direct quotations

Bradshaw (2006b) shows that…

When taking a direct quotation, you must give the document’s author, year of publication and the page number(s) on which the quote appears. Quotations of up to 4 lines should be placed

in double quotation marks within your text. You can place the name, date and page numbers

before or after the quote, e.g.:

Roberts et al. (2004, p.342) say that “Patterns of organization and methods of research vary across different disciplines and faculties.”

Longer quotations are usually introduced by a colon followed by two empty lines, indented five spaces from the left margin and typed with single spacing but without quotation marks. The author’s surname, date and appropriate page number(s) appear at the end, e.g.:

Critical reading requires you to focus your attention much more closely on certain parts of a written text, holding other information in mind. As it involves analysis, reflection, evaluation and making judgments, it usually involves slower reading than that used for recreational reading or for gaining general background information. As you develop critical reading skills, these reading skills will become faster and more accurate. (Cottrell, 2005, p.147)

References List

These are the full details of all writing by author(s) or organizations to which you have referred, or from which you have quoted in your work. They are collected together in

a list at the end of the complete text. Arrange the list of references alphabetically by the author’s surname, year and letter (if there is one). For an organisation (e.g. the NMC) the first letter of the corporate author is used.

Examples:

MORTON-COOPER, A. (2000). Action Research in Health Care. Oxford: Blackwell.

RANDLE, S. (2004). Being an Advocate for your Clients in the Antenatal Period. Midwifery Matters. Winter (103), pp.4-6.

ROGERS, J. (2001). Adults Learning. 4 th ed. Buckingham: Open University Press.

For an example References List, please turn to page 10 of this publication.

Appendices

If you include an appendix, this should come after the reference list. Works cited in the appendices should still be included in your reference list.

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Bibliography

This is a list of books, journal articles and other items which you have used for background reading to inform your opinion, but which you have not referred to or quoted from directly. As with the list of references, (see above) these should be listed alphabetically in the same format as references, and should be placed after the list of references at the end of your completed work.

Where to find the relevant details

Reference details should be taken from the publication itself. In a book, they will normally be found on the title page or back of the title page or equivalent.

Referencing a book

Author(s) or editor(s) in capitals, surname, comma, then initial(s). Full stop. Date (rounded brackets) Full stop. Title as printed on title page, in italics or underlined, with first letter of significant words in capitals, full stop. Edition (if applicable). Full stop. Place of publication colon. (Include country or state if location of place is unclear.) Publisher full stop.

Example:

e-Books

COTTRELL, S. (2005). Critical Thinking Skills. Developing Effective Analysis

and Argument. 2

nd

ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author(s) or editor(s) in capitals, surname, comma, then initials. Full stop. Date (rounded brackets) Full stop. Title as given on title page, in italics or underlined, with first letter of significant words in capitals, full stop. Edition (if applicable). Full stop. Type of medium [square brackets]. Full stop. Place of publication colon. (Include country or state if location of place is unclear.) Publisher, full stop. Available at: include e-Book source. Full stop. URL (Uniform Resource Locator – the web address) <diamond brackets> Tip: Cut and paste the URL into your document. Access date (round brackets). Full stop

Example:

PEATE, I. (2006). Becoming a Nurse in the 21 st Century. [electronic resource]. Chichester: John Wiley. Available at: Birmingham City University Library Catalogue. <http://www.myilibrary.com/browse/open.asp?ID=51894> (Accessed 29 th October 2008).

ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. (2008). Osteoarthritis: National Clinical

Guideline for Care and Management in Adults. [electronic resource]. London:

Royal College of Physicians. Available at: Royal College of Physicians Website.

<http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/pubs/contents/d87b4537-b333-4b8a-a2d8-

5e96b7f4b65a.pdf>. (Accessed 30

th

October 2008).

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Journal articles

Author(s) in capitals, surname, comma, and then initials. Date (rounded brackets). Full stop. Title of article as given on page. First letter of significant words in capitals, the rest in lower case. Full stop. Title of journal, first letter of significant words in capitals, the rest in lower case, in italics, or underlined, full stop. Volume no space. Issue (rounded brackets), comma. Page numbers in the form of “p.” for one page or “pp.” for more than one. Full stop.

Example:

HENDRY, C. and FARLEY, A.H. (2006). Essential skills for students who are returning to study. Nursing Standard. 21(6), pp. 44-48.

Secondary references

Whenever possible, use references from original (primary) sources and avoid secondary referencing. When this is not possible – for example, when the original is unpublished, or for some other reason is not available – the original author and date appear in the text.

Example: The work of Maslow (1970) has become an established theory…

To indicate that Maslow (1970) is a secondary reference in the references list at the end of your work, use the term ‘In’ followed by the full reference to the work in which it was found, thus:

MASLOW, A. (1970). Motivation and Personality. In: KIGER, A. (2004) Teaching for Health. 3 rd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, p.34.

Chapters within edited books

Author(s) of chapter, in capitals, surname, comma, then initials. Full stop. Date (rounded brackets). Full stop. Title of chapter as printed on title page of chapter, with first letter of significant words in capitals, full stop, followed by In (in italics or underlined). Colon. Editor(s) of book in capitals, surname, then initials, followed (ed.) for one editor or (eds.) for more than one (in parenthesis). Then follow instructions for book reference from Title to Publisher, comma, and then Page numbers (optional) in the form of “p.” for one page or “pp.” for more. Full stop.

Example:

SHAW, T. (2005). Leadership for Practice Development. In: JASPER, M. and JUMAA, M. (eds.) Effective Healthcare Leadership. Oxford: Blackwell, pp.

207-221.

Forum Postings

When referring to forum posts, include the full details of the forum post within your reference list so that the forum post can be identified on the Moodle page (see example below). You do not, however, have to paste the whole forum post into your reference list.

Examples:

In text:

Jarvis (2007) said that communication through a forum is difficult.

Communication through an on-line forum is difficult (Jarvis

2007).

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In reference list:

JARVIS, S. (2007). Patch 1 - Action Learning Set Support Forum. Fri 26th October 2007, 11:17am.

Maintaining confidentiality of source material (please also see p.2)

If Trust documents are being used for example, policies, procedures or care plans it is important that the name of the trust is never divulged, because these documents are not available to the general public.

Example:

In text:

This action was taken in accordance with the NHS Trust’s (Name withheld, 2005) disciplinary policy.

In reference list:NHS TRUST (Name withheld, 2005) Disciplinary Policy

For documents available to the general public, for example patient information leaflets produced by the Trust:

In text: The information provided by the Trust about this service is written in several languages (Appendices 1-3).

In Appendix: Documents labelled as Appendix 1, Appendix 2, Appendix 3.

Citations for works with no author or anonymous author(s):

When a work has no author, or if the author is anonymous, the in-text citation consists of the word ‘Anonymous’, or ‘Anon’, followed by the year. In the Reference List, the full details of the publication will be given, preceded by ANONYMOUS.

In text: This injection policy was apparently not followed in other clinical areas (Anonymous, 2006).

In Reference List: ANONYMOUS. (2006). A third of needlestick injuries easily avoidable, expert says. Nursing Standard, 21(6), p.10.

Government or Official Publications

Government department/organization for which report etc was produced in capitals. Full stop. Date (rounded brackets). Full stop. Title as given on title page, with first letter of significant words in capitals, the rest in lower case, in italics or underlined, full stop. Official reference number (if there is one), comma. Place of publication, colon. Publisher followed by Name of chairperson followed by “Report”, if there is one, in round brackets. Full stop.

Example:

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. (1994). Report of the inquiry into the care and treatment of Christopher Clunis. Cmnd. 9543, London: HMSO (Ritchie report).

Law Reports

When citing and referencing Law Reports, case names and all details should be in italics, e.g.:

Murphy v Brentwood District Council [1990] 2 ALL ER 908.

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Case Year in [Square] brackets. Volume number, if applicable. Abbreviation for name of report and first page of report.

When referring to a case for the first time, give its full name (exactly as it appears in the report). However, in subsequent references, a case can be referred to by a shortened name, e.g. Murphy v Brentwood District Council may be referred to as the Murphy case.

Further examples:

In the case of Broom v Cassell & Co [1972] AC 1027 the Court of Appeal refused to follow the decision made in Rooks v Barnard [1964] AC 1129 on the circumstances in which exemplary damages could be awarded…

When a particular passage is being quoted or referred to, the specific page reference must be included, e.g.

The facts of the case outlined in Jones v \Tower Boot Co Ltd [1997] 2 ALL ER 406 at 411 show that…

When the judge is being quoted or referred to in a particular passage, the judge’s name should be provided as part of the citation, e.g.

That was the opinion of Lord Mackay LC in Pepper v Hart [1993] 1 ALL ER 42 at 47…

Use “open punctuation” (i.e. no full stops) when abbreviating a law report series for example: ALL ER not All. E.R., FAM LR not FAM. L.R.

Statistics

Government dept/organization for which report etc. was produced in capitals. Date (rounded brackets). Full stop. Title as given on title page, with first letter of significant words in capitals, the rest in lower case, in lower case, italics or underlined, fullstop. Official reference number (if there is one), comma. Place of publication, colon, Publisher, full stop Table, figure or other identifying information, comma. Page numbers in the form of “p.” for one page or “pp.” for more, full stop.

Example:

WEST MIDLANDS REGIONAL OBSERVATORY. (2004). Real Lives, Real Issues. A State of the Region Report 2004. Birmingham: West Midlands Regional Observatory. Figure 27, p.56.

Internet & WWW publications

Author or responsible organization in capitals, surname, comma, and then initials. Date (rounded brackets). Full stop. If no date is given use (n.d.) in round brackets. Title as given on screen with first letter of significant words in capitals, the rest in lower case, in italics or underlined, full stop. Place of publication if included, colon. Publisher (if given). Available at: include webpage source. Full stop. URL (Uniform Resource Locator – the web address) <diamond brackets> Date of update where given, then date of access (round brackets) Full stop.

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Example:

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH (2004). Home Oxygen Therapy Service:

Service Specifications. London: DOH Available at: Department of Health Website. <dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics> (updated June 2004, accessed

26 th October 2006).

In the text: The Department of Health (2004) provides specifications for

Referencing a home page

Organization in capitals. (If applicable, add a comma and the sub-section of the organization). Full stop. Date (rounded brackets). Full stop. Title of home page with first letter of significant words in capitals, the rest in lower case, in italics or underlined. (If no title, place “Home page” in italics or underlined in square brackets as a description not in the original source, i.e. [Home page], full stop. URL <diamond brackets>. Date of update (if given) and access (round brackets) Full stop.

Example:

Moodle

BIRMINGHAM CITY UNIVERSITY. (2007). Student Services: main menu. <http://www.ssv.bcu.ac.uk/index.htm>. (updated 2006,

accessed 27 th October 2007).

Author(s) where given, in capitals, surname, comma, then initials. Full stop. Date (rounded brackets). Full stop. Title as given on module page cited, in italics or underlined, with first letter of significant words in capitals. Full stop. Place of publication: colon. Publisher. Full stop. Available at: include web page source. Full stop. Module number. Full stop. URL (Uniform resource Locator – the web address) <diamond brackets> Date of update where given, then the date of access (round brackets). Full stop.

Example: Known author

BLOGGS, F. (2008). Dementia Care. Birmingham: Birmingham City University. Available at: Birmingham City University Faculty of Health Moodle Site. Module GM6196.

<http://moodle.bcu.ac.uk/health/course/view.php?id=1356>.

(accessed 2 nd January 2009).

Example: Unknown author

BIRMINGHAM CITY UNIVERSITY. (2008). Dementia Care:

A framework. Birmingham: Birmingham City University. Available at: Birmingham City University Faculty of Health Moodle Site. Module GM6196.

<http://moodle.bcu.ac.uk/health/course/view.php?id=1358>.

(accessed 2 nd January 2009).

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PowerPoint Presentations

Author(s) or editor(s) in capitals, surname, comma, then initials. Full stop. Date of presentation (rounded brackets). Full stop. Title as given on PowerPoint title page, in italics or underlined, with first letter of significant words in capitals. Full stop. Type of medium [square brackets]. Full stop. Presentation details. Full stop.

Example:

SMITH, J. (2009, January 9th). Hand washing for the beginner. [PowerPoint slides]. Presented at a GM1234 lecture at Birmingham City University.

PowerPoint embedded in Moodle and other web sites.

Author(s) where given, in capitals, surname, comma, then initials. Full stop. Date (rounded brackets). Full stop. Title as given on module page cited, in italics or underlined, with first letter of significant words in capitals. Full stop. Type of medium [square brackets]. Full stop. Place of publication: colon. Publisher. Full stop. Available at: include web page source. Full stop. Module number. Full stop. URL (Uniform Resource Locator – the web address) <diamond brackets> Date of update where given, then the date of access (round brackets). Full stop.

Example:

And finally…

SMITH, J. (2009). Hand washing for the beginner. [PowerPoint slides]. Birmingham: Birmingham City University. Available at: Birmingham City University Faculty of Health Moodle Site. Module GM1234.

<http://moodle.bcu.ac.uk/health/course/view.php?id=1356>

(accessed 2 nd January 2009).

No guide can hope to instruct you in every conceivable possibility in referencing your sources. Some materials are frequently problematical. By applying these guidelines and by using your own judgment and common sense (bearing in mind the need to give enough information for interested teachers and readers to locate an item) you should be able to construct a proper reference for any item which you have consulted.

Further Reading

GASH, S. (1999). Effective literature searching for students. 2 nd ed. London: Gower.

GOPEE, N. (1999). Referencing academic assignments. Nursing Standard, 13(27), pp.37-40.

NEVILLE, C. (2007). The complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS (2003). The Chicago Manual of Style. 15 th ed. Chicago:

University of Chicago Press.

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Example References List

References

ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF OBESITY (2004). The prevalence of obesity in the UK. Association for the Study of Obesity. Available at: ASO Website.

<http://www.aso.org.uk/portal.aspx?mlmenuid=1990&TargetPortal=36&ApplicationID=116>

(accessed 21 April 2007).

BARLOW, S. E., and DIETZ, W.H. (1998). Obesity Evaluation and Treatment: Expert Committee Recommendations. Pediatrics, 102(3), pp. 29.

BRITISH HEART FOUNDATION (2000). Couch kids, the growing epidemic: looking at physical activity in children in the UK. London: British Heart Foundation.

BURNIAT, W. et al. (eds). (2002). Child and adolescent obesity: causes and consequences, prevention and management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

CHINN, S., and RONA, R.J. (2001). Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity in three cross-sectional studies of British children, 1974–94. BMJ, 322(7277), pp. 24– 26.

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH (2005). Obesity among children under 11. London: Department of Health.

MACNAIR, T. (n.d.) Obesity in children. London: BBC. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/conditions/obesity2.shtml>. (accessed 3rd January 2008).

McCARTHY, H., ELLIS, S.M., and COLE, T.J. (2003). Central study of overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11–16 years: cross-sectional surveys of waist circumference. BMJ, 326(7390), pp. 624.

McCARTHY, H., JARRETT, K., and CRAWLEY, H. (2001). The development of waist circumference percentiles in British children aged 5.0–16.9 y. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55(10), pp. 902– 907.

Maloney v Brighton & District Health Authorityl [1990] 2 ALL ER 908.

PEATE, I. (2006). Becoming a Nurse in the 21 st Century. [electronic resource]. Chichester:

John Wiley. Available at: Birmingham City University Library Catalogue. <http://www.myilibrary.com/browse/open.asp?ID=51894>. (Accessed 29 th October 2008).

SCOTTISH INTERCOLLEGIATE GUIDELINES NETWORK (2003). Management of obesity in children and young people. Edinburgh: SIGN.

SMITH, A. (2004a). The consequences of poor diet in children of school age. Nutrition Review, 12(3), pp. 29-33.

SMITH, A. (2004b). Why good food matters. Child Health Review, 2(4), p19.

Why good food matters. Child Health Review , 2(4), p19. Further information about Harvard-style referencing,

Further information about Harvard-style referencing, including details of how to cite your sources, as well as other hints and tips, can be found on the Faculty of Health’s Moodle website. Go to the Library Content section, and click on the ‘Study Success With Less Stress’ module.

Philip Dee, Peter Ebrey, Annmarie Lee, Walter Riggans. Revised 08/09

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