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# Two-Parameter Similarity

Transformation
• Given two different coordinate systems:
Applications in Plane – One system is rotated with respect to the other
Coordinate Surveys at an angle β
– One system’s scale is different from the other
by a scale factor λ
Coordinate Transformation  β and λ are the two parameters
(Two-Parameter and Four-Parameter involved in the transformation
Similarity Transformation) • Assumption: The two systems have a common
origin

Y
T

S Y
T
xp P

β sp tp S
X
rp
yp

θp β

## Rotation Parameter (β) Rotation Parameter (β)

The relationship between the two coordinate systems for Using trigonometric properties, sp and tp become:
any point P can be obtained by:
s p = rp cos θ p cos β + rp sin θ p sin β
x p = rp cos θ p
s p = x p cos β + y p sin β
y p = rp sin θ p
s p = rp cos (θ p − β ) t p = rp sin θ p cos β − rp cos θ p sin β
t p = rp sin (θ p − β ) t p = y p cos β − x p sin β

1
Scale Parameter (λ) Scale Parameter (λ)
Y’ = λT

## Y • Previously, the scale of the two systems are identical

T X’ = λS • However, if we introduce a scale factor λ such that for
point P,
S
x′p = λ s p
β
X y′p = λt p

## • Therefore, the relationship between the two coordinate

Y’ = λT systems for any point P becomes:

## Y x′p = λ ( x p cos β + y p sin β )

T
xp P x′p = ( λ cos β ) x p + ( λ sin β ) y p
X’ = λS

## y′p = λ ( y p cos β − x p sin β )

x’p = λsp y’p = λtp
S
rp
yp
y′p = ( −λ sin β ) x p + ( λ cos β ) y p
θp β

## X  These are the coordinate transformation equations

for x to x’ and y to y’

## Scale Parameter (λ) Computing λ and β

• To simplify the previous equations, we can let: • When parameters a and b are already computed, the
scale and rotation parameters can readily be computed
a = λ cos β using:

b = λ sin β
• The coordinate transformation then becomes: λ = a 2 + b2
x′p = ax p + by p b
β = arctan
y′p = −bx p + ay p a

2
Cases for two-parameter
transformation
Practical Application

• One point has known (true) coordinates in both • xp and yp may represent survey coordinates in a
systems  a and b can be solved directly local rectangular system while xp’ and yp’ may be
• Two or more points have known (true) coordinates in a shifted Universal Transverse
coordinates in both systems  redundancy Mercator (UTM) system
exists (least squares solution is needed)
• The local system is oriented at an angle β with
• Both sets of coordinates are observed variables respect to the UTM system
 use General Least Squares
• Only one set of coordinates are considered as • The scale factor λ is applied to the UTM system
observed variables (the other set is known/true)
 use Least Squares Adjustment of Indirect
Observations

## Four-Parameter Similarity Four-Parameter Similarity

Transformation Transformation

• More often in practice, the two coordinate • The transformation equations for any point P will
systems have different origins therefore be:

## • The two-parameter transformation would not be x′p = ax p + by p + k1

applicable anymore since the parameters will be
increased to four parameters y′p = −bx p + ay p + k2
where:
k1 and k2 = shift parameters
= represent the coordinates of the origin
of the x, y coordinate system in the x’, y’ system

Four-Parameter Similarity
Transformation
Example

## Y Following are coordinates of three points in two plane survey

coordinate systems that have a common origin:
Y’ xp Point X (m) Y (m) X’ (m) Y’ (m)
P
x’p 1 1314.31 2540.26 2102.35 1936.44
yp
2 2078.70 3511.23 3152.60 2587.35
y’p
k1 X 3 4900.60 5000.39 6311.60 3021.20

## Each of the X and Y coordinates has a standard deviation of 0.20 m,

k2 X’
and each of the X’ and Y’ coordinates has a standard deviation of
0.05 m. All coordinates are assumed to be uncorrelated.
Calculate least squares estimates for transformation parameters a and
β
b used in transforming x, y to x’, y’. Also calculate the covariance
matrix and standard deviations of the estimates for a and b, and the
scale and rotation parameter estimates λ and β.

3
Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity
Transformation Transformation

The coefficient matrix of the normal equations can be The vector of constants can be derived as:
derived as:
 n n
2 
∑ ( xi xi′ + yi yi′) − a0 ∑ ( xi + yi ) 
2

 n 2 
 ∑ ( xi + yi ) t = we  n
2
0
i =1 i =1

  2 
n
N = we    ∑ ( yi xi′ − xi yi′) − b0 ∑ ( xi + yi ) 
i =1 2

 n
2   i =1 

0 ∑
i =1
( xi + yi ) 
2

i =1

Where:
1
we =
(a + b )Q1 + Q2
2
0
2
0

## Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity

Transformation Transformation

## Letting: The normal equations can then be written as:

n
p = ∑ ( xi2 + yi2 ) p 0   ∆a   q − a0 p 
i =1 we     = we  
n
0 p   ∆b   q′ − b0 p 
q = ∑ ( xi xi′ + yi yi′)
i =1
n
q′ = ∑ ( yi xi′ − xi yi′)
i =1

## Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity

Transformation Transformation

## The solution is therefore: The corrected values for a and b are:

1 
 p 0  q − a p
1 q
∆ = N −1t =   we 0

1   q′ − b0 p 
aˆ = a0 + ∆a =

we p
0 p
 
q′
q 
− a0  bˆ = b0 + ∆b =
 ∆a   p p
∆= = 
 ∆b   q′ − b 
 p 0
 

4
Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity
Transformation Transformation

The covariance matrix of a and b can also be derived Using the previously discussed equations, we get:
using:
n
p = ∑ ( xi2 + yi2 ) = 73849842 m 2
1  i =1

p 0 n
σ2
  q = ∑ ( xi xi′ + yi yi′) = 69358096 m 2
Σ ∆∆ = σ Q∆∆2
0 = σ 02 N −1 = 0
i =1
we  1
0 p 
n

i =1

## Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity

Transformation Transformation

Using the previously discussed equations, we get: The variances are: σ 12 = (0.20) 2 = 0.0400 m 2
σ 22 = (0.05)2 = 0.0025 m 2
q 69358096
aˆ = = = 0.939177
p 73849842 Selecting a reference variance: σ 02 = 0.0100 m 2
q′ 25241381
bˆ = = = 0.341793
p 73849842
We get: σ 12 0.0400
Q1 = = =4
σ 02 0.0100
σ 22 0.0025
Q2 = = = 0.25
σ 02 0.0100

## Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity

Transformation Transformation

## Substituting the values we got: The covariance matrix of â and b̂ is therefore:

1 
1 1 0
we = = = 0.2355 σ 02  p 1.35 ×10−8
 = 0.0100 
0 
Σ ∆∆ = 
(aˆ 2 + bˆ 2 )Q1 + Q2 (0.998876)(4) + (0.25) we  1  0.2355  0 1.35 ×10−8 
0 p 

5.73 ×10−10 0 
Σ ∆∆ =  
 0 5.73 ×10−10 

## σ aˆ = σ bˆ = 5.73 × 10−10 = 2.39 ×10−5

5
Solution to 2-Parameter Similarity
Transformation

## The least squares estimates of the transformation

parameters are therefore:

λˆ = aˆ 2 + bˆ 2 = 0.998876
λˆ = 0.999438
bˆ 0.341793
βˆ = arctan = arctan
aˆ 0.939177
βˆ = 19.99787° = 19°59 '52"

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