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# GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference Systems

Datum
Datum Transformation
Transformation

Lecture 18

## Department of Geodetic Engineering

University of the Philippines

a.s. caparas/06

Datum Transformation

## changing the coordinates of a point from

one datum to another while in the same
coordinate system is called datum
transformation.

Example:
(X, Y, Z) WGS84 Æ (X, Y, Z)PRS92
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Coordinate Conversion

## changing the coordinates of a point from

one coordinate system to another while in
the same datum is called coordinate
conversion.

Example:
(φ, λ, h)PRS92 Æ (X, Y, Z)PRS92
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Different Transformation
Methods
• Transformation of coordinate frames may be
classified as: Parallel lines remain parallel
after the transformation
1. First Order Transformation (Linear)
2. Second Order Transformation (Quadratic)
3. Third Order Transformation (Cubic)
4. Nth Order Transformation involves warping or
rubber-sheeting of
the input coordinate
frame

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference

Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Different Transformation
Methods
• In datum transformation, the first order
transformation method is usually being
employed.
• Among the first order transformation
methods (which includes Affine, Hermert,
etc.), it is the Affine transformation which
is usually being used to perform datum
transformation.

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference

Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

## Affine Transformation Method

• In the Affine transformation, a coordinate
frame id being transform using different
transformation parameters which includes:
1. Translation Parameters
2. Rotation Parameters
3. Scale Parameters

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference

Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Translations Parameters
Movement of points along an Axis

∆X ∆Y

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference

Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Rotations Parameters
Movement of points around an Axis

ε ψ

ω
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Scale Parameter
Changing the distance between points

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference

Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Methods of Datum
Transformation
1. Three-Parameter Transformation
• Simplest among the transformation
methods
• Uses three parameters only for
translating the origin of one datum to
another.
• Assumes conformity in the orientation
and size of the reference ellipsoid.
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Methods of Datum
Transformation
2. Molodensky’s Formulae
• often used in handheld GPS receivers and GIS
softwares
• uses 5 parameters: 3 for the shift between the
centers of the 2 ellipsoids (∆X, ∆Y, ∆Z) and 2
for the differences in semi-major axes and
flattening (simple subtraction)
• simple derivation and application
• assumes internally consistent networks
• limited accuracy: 5 meters
• requires ellipsoidal heights
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Methods of Datum
Transformation
3. Bursa-Wolfe Seven Parameter Transformation
• uses 7 parameters: 3 translation(∆X, ∆Y, ∆Z), 3 rotation
(RX, RY and RZ) and 1 scale (Sc)
• parameters are derived by observing at least 3 points or
more in two datums and doing a least-squares fit
• accuracy: 1 to 2 meters
• requires ellipsoidal heights
• accuracy limited by network consistency
• used in the Philippines and in many GIS packages.

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference

Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Methods of Datum
Transformation
3. Bursa-Wolfe Seven Parameter
Transformation

e
scal

B
ation um
transl Dat

rotation
Datum A
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Methods of Datum
Transformation
3. Bursa-Wolfe Seven Parameter Transformation

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference

Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Methods of Datum
Transformation
4. Surface Fitting/Grid Distortion Modeling (Higher Order
Transformation)
• many points are observed (preferably in grid formation) in
both datum to generate a surface of distortion (like a
contour map), one for latitude and another for longitude
• distortion between the two systems for points in between
grid lines are interpolated
• accuracy: 0.1 m or 10 cm (can be better if more points are
observed)
• very complex to derive and many points are needed to be
observed to accurately model network inconsistencies
• also known as Minimum Curvature Method (USA), Multiple
Regression Method (Canada) & Collocation Method

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference

Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

## Differences Between Horizontal

Datums
• The two ellipsoid centers called ∆ X, ∆ Y, ∆ Z
• The rotation about the X,Y, and Z axes in seconds of arc
• The difference in size between the two ellipsoids
• Scale Change of the Survey Control Network ∆S
Z System 2
ψ
ε
System 1
WGS-84 ∆Z
Y
∆Y
∆X
X
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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7-Parameters Transformation

X’ X ∆X
Y’ = S Rxyz Y + ∆Y
Z’ Z ∆Z

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference

Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

3-Parameters

X’ X ∆X
Y’ = Y + ∆Y
Z’ Z ∆Z

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference

Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Transformation Process
DATUM (World Geodetic System 1984) DATUM (Ireland Datum 1965)

## Reporting System Reporting System Reporting System Reporting System

(GEOREF) (Military Grid Reference System) (GEOREF) (Irish National Grid)

Conversion Conversion

## Grid Coordinates Grid Coordinates

Conversion (UTM-coordinates) Conversion (TM-coordinates)

Conversion Conversion

Molodensky
Geographic Coordinates (Latitude, Longitude, Height) and MRE Geographic Coordinates (Latitude, Longitude, Height)
Transformations

Conversion Conversion

7, 5, 3
Cartesian Coordinates (X, Y, Z) Cartesian Coordinates (X, Y, Z)
Parameter

## Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference

Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

## More Precise Determination

Local Control Points
in Local Datum Transfer Control Points
Survey Using
Control in WGS-84
WGS-84
Local Control Points
in WGS-84 Standard Molodensky Formula
Derive Transformation
Multiple Regression Equations
Parameters

## Transform Local 7, 5, or 3 Parameter Transformation

Points
Local Points
in WGS-84
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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