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GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference Systems

Datum
Datum Transformation
Transformation

Lecture 18

Department of Geodetic Engineering


University of the Philippines

a.s. caparas/06

Datum Transformation

changing the coordinates of a point from


one datum to another while in the same
coordinate system is called datum
transformation.

Example:
(X, Y, Z) WGS84 Æ (X, Y, Z)PRS92
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Coordinate Conversion

changing the coordinates of a point from


one coordinate system to another while in
the same datum is called coordinate
conversion.

Example:
(φ, λ, h)PRS92 Æ (X, Y, Z)PRS92
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Different Transformation
Methods
• Transformation of coordinate frames may be
classified as: Parallel lines remain parallel
after the transformation
1. First Order Transformation (Linear)
2. Second Order Transformation (Quadratic)
3. Third Order Transformation (Cubic)
4. Nth Order Transformation involves warping or
rubber-sheeting of
the input coordinate
frame

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference


Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Different Transformation
Methods
• In datum transformation, the first order
transformation method is usually being
employed.
• Among the first order transformation
methods (which includes Affine, Hermert,
etc.), it is the Affine transformation which
is usually being used to perform datum
transformation.

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference


Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Affine Transformation Method


• In the Affine transformation, a coordinate
frame id being transform using different
transformation parameters which includes:
1. Translation Parameters
2. Rotation Parameters
3. Scale Parameters

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference


Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Translations Parameters
Movement of points along an Axis

∆X ∆Y

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference


Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Rotations Parameters
Movement of points around an Axis

ε ψ

ω
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Scale Parameter
Changing the distance between points

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference


Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Methods of Datum
Transformation
1. Three-Parameter Transformation
• Simplest among the transformation
methods
• Uses three parameters only for
translating the origin of one datum to
another.
• Assumes conformity in the orientation
and size of the reference ellipsoid.
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Methods of Datum
Transformation
2. Molodensky’s Formulae
• often used in handheld GPS receivers and GIS
softwares
• uses 5 parameters: 3 for the shift between the
centers of the 2 ellipsoids (∆X, ∆Y, ∆Z) and 2
for the differences in semi-major axes and
flattening (simple subtraction)
• simple derivation and application
• assumes internally consistent networks
• limited accuracy: 5 meters
• requires ellipsoidal heights
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Methods of Datum
Transformation
3. Bursa-Wolfe Seven Parameter Transformation
• uses 7 parameters: 3 translation(∆X, ∆Y, ∆Z), 3 rotation
(RX, RY and RZ) and 1 scale (Sc)
• parameters are derived by observing at least 3 points or
more in two datums and doing a least-squares fit
• accuracy: 1 to 2 meters
• requires ellipsoidal heights
• accuracy limited by network consistency
• used in the Philippines and in many GIS packages.

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference


Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Methods of Datum
Transformation
3. Bursa-Wolfe Seven Parameter
Transformation

e
scal

B
ation um
transl Dat

rotation
Datum A
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Methods of Datum
Transformation
3. Bursa-Wolfe Seven Parameter Transformation

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference


Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Methods of Datum
Transformation
4. Surface Fitting/Grid Distortion Modeling (Higher Order
Transformation)
• many points are observed (preferably in grid formation) in
both datum to generate a surface of distortion (like a
contour map), one for latitude and another for longitude
• distortion between the two systems for points in between
grid lines are interpolated
• accuracy: 0.1 m or 10 cm (can be better if more points are
observed)
• very complex to derive and many points are needed to be
observed to accurately model network inconsistencies
• also known as Minimum Curvature Method (USA), Multiple
Regression Method (Canada) & Collocation Method

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference


Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

Differences Between Horizontal


Datums
• The two ellipsoid centers called ∆ X, ∆ Y, ∆ Z
• The rotation about the X,Y, and Z axes in seconds of arc
• The difference in size between the two ellipsoids
• Scale Change of the Survey Control Network ∆S
Z System 2
ω NAD-27
ψ
ε
System 1
WGS-84 ∆Z
Y
∆Y
∆X
X
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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7-Parameters Transformation

X’ X ∆X
Y’ = S Rxyz Y + ∆Y
Z’ Z ∆Z

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference


Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

3-Parameters

X’ X ∆X
Y’ = Y + ∆Y
Z’ Z ∆Z

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference


Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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Transformation Process
DATUM (World Geodetic System 1984) DATUM (Ireland Datum 1965)

Reporting System Reporting System Reporting System Reporting System


(GEOREF) (Military Grid Reference System) (GEOREF) (Irish National Grid)

Conversion Conversion

Grid Coordinates Grid Coordinates


Conversion (UTM-coordinates) Conversion (TM-coordinates)

Conversion Conversion

Molodensky
Geographic Coordinates (Latitude, Longitude, Height) and MRE Geographic Coordinates (Latitude, Longitude, Height)
Transformations

Conversion Conversion

7, 5, 3
Cartesian Coordinates (X, Y, Z) Cartesian Coordinates (X, Y, Z)
Parameter

Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference


Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

More Precise Determination


Local Control Points
in Local Datum Transfer Control Points
Survey Using
Control in WGS-84
WGS-84
Local Control Points
in WGS-84 Standard Molodensky Formula
Derive Transformation
Multiple Regression Equations
Parameters

Transform Local 7, 5, or 3 Parameter Transformation


Points
Local Points
in WGS-84
Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Reference
Lecture 18 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy Systems: Datum Transformation

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