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# GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy

## Introduction to Geodesy: Concepts in Geodesy

The
The Geodetic
Geodetic Datum,
Datum, the
the Reference
Reference Systems
Systems
and
and the
the Geodynamics
Geodynamics ofof the
the Earth
Earth

Lecture No. 6

## Department of Geodetic Engineering

University of the Philippines

a.s. caparas/06

The
The Geodetic
Geodetic Datum
Datum and
and the
the Geodetic
Geodetic
Reference
Reference Systems
Systems
• Recall…

## Clark, GRS, Geocentric or

earth WGS Ellipsoid Geodetic

## Choose or define a Define the origin

reference ellipsoid Establish control
network
Determine positions of
WGS84, the control stations Define geoid
model
PRS92 Define the geoid-
geoid-
ellipsoid separation

Concepts in Geodesy:
Lecture 6 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy The Geoid and the Height
Systems

1
The
The Reference
Reference Systems
Systems and
and Reference
Reference
Frames
Frames
• A Reference System
- is the conceptual idea of a particular coordinate
system; (theoretical definition).

• A Reference Frame
- is the practical realization of a reference
system by observations an measurements
(which have errors).

## • In practical surveying we are only concerned

with reference frames, but the underlying
concepts of a specific reference frame are of
fundamental importance. Concepts in Geodesy:
Lecture 6 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy The Geoid and the Height
Systems

The
The Geodetic
Geodetic and
and the
the Celestial
Celestial Reference
Reference
Systems
Systems and
and Reference
Reference Frame
Frame
Geodetic/Terrestrial Celestial

## • Geodetic/Terrestrial • Celestial Reference

Reference System System (CRS)
(GRS)/(TRS) - Conceptual idea of an space-
- Conceptual idea of an earth- fixed Spherical coordinate
fixed Cartesian system (X, Y, Z) system.

• Geodetic/Terrestrial • CelestialReference
Reference Frame (ITRF) Frame (ICCRF)
- Practical realization of a - Practical realization of a
geodetic reference system by geodetic reference system by
observations of terrestrial observations of stars/celestial
points bodies
Concepts in Geodesy:
Lecture 6 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy The Geoid and the Height
Systems

2
The
The Global
Global and
and the
the Local
Local Geodetic
Geodetic
Reference
Reference System
System

• Global GRS
Origin: Earth´s centre of mass
Z-axis: Coincides with mean rotational axis of Earth
X-axis: Mean meridian plane of Greenwich and ± to
Z-axis
Y-axis: Orthogonal

• Local GRS
Origin and orientation of axes is "arbitrary"
Concepts in Geodesy:
Lecture 6 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy The Geoid and the Height
Systems

The
The Global
Global and
and the
the Local
Local Geodetic
Geodetic
Reference
Reference Frame
Frame

## • Global Reference Frame

Looking at the definition of a reference frame, there
should be only one truly global reference frame
(ITRF)

## • Local Reference Frames

Since each country/area in the surface of the earth
uses a frame that is appropriate to the local surface,
there are infinite number of local frames.

Concepts in Geodesy:
Lecture 6 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy The Geoid and the Height
Systems

3
The
The Global
Global and
and the
the Local
Local Geodetic
Geodetic
Reference
Reference Frame
Frame

## A Global Reference Frame A Local Reference Frame

Concepts in Geodesy:
Lecture 6 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy The Geoid and the Height
Systems

## What is a Geodetic Datum?

• The term “datum” is often used when one
actually means “reference frame”

## • A geodetic datum is expressed in terms of the

set of transformation parameters which are
required to define the location and orientation of
the local frame with respect to the global one.

## • Minimum set of parameters required to define

location and orientation of the local system with
respect to the global reference system/frame.
Concepts in Geodesy:
Lecture 6 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy The Geoid and the Height
Systems

4
The Geodetic Datum

## A geodetic datum is used as reference

for computing the positions of a point
observed in the surface of the earth for
geodetic and mapping purposes at a
certain portion on the surface of the
earth.

Concepts in Geodesy:
Lecture 6 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy The Geoid and the Height
Systems

## • The ITRF as a global reference frame

provides position solution accurate within
10 cm at any given.

## • The maintenance of a datum at this level

of accuracy requires constant monitoring
of the of the geodynamics of the earth.

Concepts in Geodesy:
Lecture 6 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy The Geoid and the Height
Systems

5
Geodynamics of the Earth

## • Some of the geodynamics being

monitored by the IERS for the ITRF:
1. Polar Motion
2. Tectonic Plate Motion
3. Solid Earth Tides

Concepts in Geodesy:
Lecture 6 GE 161 – Geometric Geodesy The Geoid and the Height
Systems

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