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RockMechanicsforIndustrx,Amadei,Kranz,Scott&Smeallie(eds)¸

1999Balkema,Rotterdam,ISBN9058090523

Experimentalstudyonthemechanicalbehaviorof singlejointundera

constantx/o loadingconditionanditsapplicationtomechanicalmodeling

H.Yasuhara,K.Kishida,H.Fujii& T.Adachi

Departmentof CivilEngineering,KyotoUniversity,Japan

ABSTRACT:Althoughthejoint elementmethodcanbeappliedto numericalanalysesofjointedrockmasses, theeffortin datapreparationinvolvingthejoint parameters,theconstitutivelaw,andthenumberofjointsis increased.Toovercomethisdifficulty,theequivalentcontinuousmodelis appliedinsteadofthejoint element method.In thisstudy,focusisplacedonthemechanicalparameters,normalstiffnessk, andshearstiffnessk,.

The relationshipofk, andk, (Goodman1984)is measuredin thisstudyby constantr/a loadingtests.Then, theresultsareusedto determinethematerialconstantsoftheequivalentcontinuousmodel.

l INTRODUCTION

Recently,the needfor both rock and underground

structures, such as tunnels, dam

foundations,

undergroundpowerhouses,andundergroundcaverns

for storingoil, gas,compressiveair, andradioactive

waste,hasbeenincreasing.Sincethesestructuresare

usually constructedin a jointed rock mass,the

mechanicalpropertiesof the jointed rock mass

shouldbe graspedprecisely.In

mechanicalpropertiesofjointedrockmasses,oneof

the most importanttasks is to understandthe

mechanicalbehaviorof the joints.The mechanical

propertiesof rockjointscangenerallybe described

and determinedby two mechanicalparameters, namely,normalstiffnessk, andshearstiffnessk•.

a

discussionon the

The normal

stiffness and the shear stiffness are

determinedthroughuniaxialcompressivetestsand

direct shear tests on rock joints, respectively.

Goodman(1976),Barton(1976),Bandis(1980),and

Bandiset al. (1981) cardedoutuniaxialcompressive

tests and direct sheartests on rock joints, and presentedmethodsfor estimatingthenormalandthe

shear stiffness.

In this study,loadingtests are conductedin

considerationof thejointsandtheloadingdirection againstthejoints.That is, by changingthe loading directionagainstthejoints,themechanicalbehavior

of

the joints can be observedunder various

combinations

of normal

stress and

shear stress on

the rock joints. It is thought,therefore,that the mechanicalbehaviorof a jointedrockmasscanbe

practicallydiscussedin terms of excavationand

construction.

415

In orderto performexperimentsanddiscussthe

relationshipbetweenthe joint stiffness(k• and k•) andthe loadingdirectionagainstthejoints,a new testingapparatushasbeendeveloped.A constant

loadingconditioncanbe appliedto thejoints using

thisapparatus.Thus,thetestsdescribedin thispaper

arecalledconstantdaloadingconditiontests.

2

CONSTANT

TESTS

r/a

LOADING

CONDITION

2.1 Specimens

In orderto investigatethe mechanicalbehaviorof

joints, specimensthat containa singlejoint are

employedin the loadingtests.The specimensused

in this researchare rectangularprismsfor which

thereis a crosssectionof 42 x 42 mmanda heightof

80 min.The specimenscontaina singlejoint, which

is located at the center (lengthwise)of each

specimenand is approximatelyaligned on the

horizontal plane, as shown in Figure 1. The

specimensare made of mortar.The combination

ratio of cement:

sand:

water

is

1:

2:

0.65.

The

days. Cylindrical

specimensare also prepared under the same conditions(the samecombinationratio and curing

curing age in

water is 28

age)andare employedin the uniaxialcompressive testssoasto investigatethemechanicalpropertiesof

thematerial.Fromtheuniaxialcompressivetestson

the cylindricalspecimens,theuniaxialcompressive

strengthandYoung'smodulusarefoundto be 28.9

MPaand3.02x 10aM/a,respectively.

In order to discuss the influence

of the natural

!1 = 42mm

!2 = 42mm

h

=

80

m

Figure1. Specimen.

Table I

angles.

The valueof JRC

Specimen JRC

0 degree

and the orderof the loading

15de•rees 30de•rees 45de•rees

A

12.61

0

0

0

0

B

13.07

0

0

0

0

C

16.68

0

0

0

0

joint surfaceroughness,threekindsof naturaljoint

surfaceroughnessarechosenthroughrecoveredcore samples.A•er choosingthe naturaljoint surface roughness,impressionsare made of them. Using theseimpressions,reproducedmortarspecimensare

then created.The impressionsare madeof Silicon rubber (TSE350, made by Toshiba Silicon).

Variationsinjoint surfaceroughnesscontainedin the

samplesmadeit possibleto carryoutmanytypesof

constantr/•loading conditiontests.

Beforeperformingthetests,measurementsof the joint surfaceroughnessaretakenwith a non-contact

type of laser-scanmicrometerwhich is situatedon a

three-dimensionalstage,a 3-D RoughnessProfiler (Tanimotoand Kishida, 1995). Data acquisitionis

fully automatedby a computer,and eachjoint

surfaceroughnessis measuredat 0.5 mm intervals.

A bird's-eye view of the measuredjoint surface

roughnessis shownin Figure2. Basedonthedigital dataof joint surfaceroughness,Barton'sJRC (Joint

RoughnessCoefficient) (Barton, 1973) in

each

specimen is calculatedusing the relationship

betweenJRC and Z2 (Tse and Cruden, 1979). The calculatedJRC valuefor eachspecimenis presented

in Table

1.

The relationshipbetweenthe loadingdirection andthejoint of eachspecimenis shownin Figure2 The value of 0 formedwherethe joint inclination

andthe loadingdirectioncrosseachother,and it is

definedas the loadingangle in this paper.These

three specimenshave been previouslyset up in variousdegreesof loadingangle0, andthenthetests

have beenstarted.The orderof the loadingangles

usedin thisresearchworkis alsopresentedin Table

1.

2.2 Testingapparatusandan outlineof thetests

The testingapparatusis shownin Figure 3. Each

specimenis separatedintoupperandlowerpartsby therockjoint. Theupperpartis completelyfixedto

the loadingframe, while the lower part can move

freely in bothverticalandhorizontaldirections.The linear-valuedisplacementtransducer(LVDT) fixed

on the loadingframemeasuresthe verticaland the

horizontaldisplacementsof eachspecimen(v andh,

respectively),andthe strainof the intactrockpartsis

measuredby the straingauge.Sincethe strainof the intactrock is measuredat the lower andthe upper parts(a and b, respectively),the total displacement

of intactrocku,,•, canbe calculatedusingthisstress CompressiveloadP is workedthroughtheloadcell.

Figure 4 illustrates the image of the specimen

deformationand the measuringparameters.Since

compressiveloadP canbe brokendowninto normal

and sheardirectionson the rockjoint, the testsare

assumed

to

be

a kind

of

direct

shear test under

a

constantr/crloadingcondition.

As mentioned above, the upper part of the specimenis completelyfixed andthe lower partof

the specimencanmovefreely in both vertical and

horizontaldirectionsin thedevicedevelopedin this

researchwork. Thus,the main purposeis to apply

the load to the rock joint under various loading

angles. In other words, the influence

of the

relationshipbetweenthe loadingdirectionandthe

of the relationshipbetweenthe loadingdirectionandthe (a) SpecimenA (b) SpecimenB (c) SpecimenC Figure2.

(a) SpecimenA

(b) SpecimenB

(c) SpecimenC

Figure2. Bird's-eyeviewof thenaturaljointsurfaceroughness.

416

!i?•-•%'•.•.• LVDT I •.157'•'•{•.• (vertical)• •8 • 6 LUST '• 4 z 2
!i?•-•%'•.•.• LVDT
I •.157'•'•{•.•
(vertical)•
•8
6
LUST
'•
4
z
2
I-'.::•
"•'2:2:22:2:•2:2:2•;2'22½::2:'.i.:i.:.:.:.:.:½2:2:2:2:2:2:2:'.:2.2:i.i4.2•,i"•
0
2
6
12
20
30
Time [mitt ]
Figure5. Loadingpattern
'"•::•Loadcel
3 RESULTS
OF THE
CONSTANT
r/or LOADING
CONDITION
TESTS
Fig•e 3.
Testingapp•ams.

P

le Joint
le
Joint

Figme4. •e

• P(Load)

relationhipbemeen•e jolt inclination•d

•e loadingdkecfion

joint inclinationcan be discussed,and the

mechanicalpropertiesof the rockjoint of each

specimencanbedeterminedundervariousloading

directions.

In thisstudy,testsareperformedwithfourtypes

ofloadingangles,namely,0, 15,30,and45 degrees,

asdescribedin Table1.The45-degreeloadingangle

is the maximumbecauseof the limit for thistesting

apparatus.Five stepsof cyclic loadingand

unloadingare performedunderthe stresscontrol

method,as shownin Figure5. The loadinglevel increases,stepby step,andthemaximumloadfor

eachstepisdetermineduntilthenormalstressonthe

rock joint reaches2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 MPa,

respectively.The loadingvelocityin the vertical

direction is 2.0 MPa/min.

417

3.1 Deformationof intactrockparts

In thissection,thedeformationof intactrockpartsis

discussedthroughtheconstantr/crloadingcondition

tests. As mentionedabove, uniaxial compresslye

testswere performedusing cylindricalspecimens,

and the resultswere describedsuch that Young's

modulus and Poisson's ratio were 1.39 x 104 MPa

and0.174,respectively.

On the other hand, Young'smodulusobtained

throughthe constantr/orloadingconditiontestsis

measuredto be 1.59,1.70,2.25,and1.82x 104MPa

on the 0, 15, 30, and 45-degreeloadinganglesfor

SpecimenA. It is confirmedthatYoung'smodulus,

obtainedthroughthe constantr/orloadingcondition

tests,islargerthanthatobtainedthroughtheuniaxial compresslyetests. The same tendenciescan be

confirmed for SpecimensB and C. Since the

specimensin the constantr/or loading tests are coveredwith steelandare laterallyfixed, as shown in Figures3 and4, Young'smodulusyieldslarger measurements.When applying Young's modulus obtainedthroughtheconstantr/crloadingteststothe

numerical simulation of

a jointed rock

mass,

therefore,this trendmustbe considered.

3.2 Deformationof therockjoints

In performingthe constantderloadingcondition

tests, both the vertical and the horizontal

displacementsalong the testing device can be measuredthroughLVDT. And,theverticalloadcan be measuredthroughthe loadcell. The purposeof

thetestsisto clarifythemechanicalbehaviorof the

rockjointsthroughthesedata.Then,theloadandthe

vertical and the horizontal displacements are

transformed

into normal and shear directions

on the

rockjoints,andthemechanicalbehaviorof therock

Uintact= a + b

Figure6. Measuringparameters.

jointsis discussed.Firstof all, the calculatingflow of thestressandthedisplacementsontherockjoints

aredescribedin thefollowing.

The displacementsof

the rock joints are

describedusingnormalandsheardisplacementsUjn

andu•, respectively,asshowninFigure6, andthey

arecalculatedbythefollowingequations:

uj,= vcosO-hsinO-Uintact

ujs= vsinO+hcosO

where v and h are the vertical

(1)

(2)

and the horizontal

displacementsmeasuringLI•T, respectively,and 0 is the loadingangle.On the otherhand,thenormal and the shearstresson the rockjoints (rr and r, respectively)can be calculatedby the following

equations:

 

PcosO

a-

(3)

 

PsinO

r-

(4)

whereP is the applyingload andA is the joint

contactarea. The relationship,which is formed

betweentheEquations(3) and(4), is r/rris equalto

tanO.In thisstudy,therefore,thetestsarecarriedout

undera constantr/rr loadingconditionon the rock

joint of eachspecimen.

Sincethe joint contactarea changeswith the

performanceof the tests,the areacanbe calculated

asthefollowingequation:

A = l,(l: -

(5)

418

wherel• and 12are the lengthsof the specimens shownin Figure1. The stress- displacementcurves

of both the normal and the shear directions on the

rockjointaredescribedinFigure7.

4

MECHANICAL

JOINTS

BEHAVIOR

OF

TI-[E

ROCK

Basedon the resultsof the constantdrr loading

conditiontests,themechanicalpropertiesof therock joints are discussed.Consideringthe mechanical propertiesof the rockjoints, the normaland the

shearstiffnessmustbe determined.In this section,

therefore,the normalandthe shearstiffnessof the

jointsaredetermined,andthemechanicalproperties

of the rockjointsandthe relationshipbetweenthe

normalandthe shearbehaviorof therockjointsare

discussed.

4.1 Estimationof thenormalstiffness

First of all, the determinationof normalstiffnesskn

is introduced.Figure7(a) showstheresultsof the0-

degreeloadingangletest.Sincetheloadingangleis

equalto 0 degrees,onlythe normalstress- normal

displacementcurveontherockjoint canbeobtained. The traditional method for determiningnormal

stiffnesskn closelyresemblesthe normalstress-

normaldisplacementcurveto a function.And, the

tangentialgradientof the approximatefunctionis calculatedsoasto determinethenormalstiffnesskn.

In orderto calculatethe value of kn,therefore,the

approximatefunctionsof the normalstress-joint normaldisplacementare described.Bandis(1980) andBrown& Scholz(1986) presented,respectively, thefollowingempiricalequations:

Ujn--

b•

a+&

+C

Ujn=a +ptnrr

( a,b,c:constant)

( a,,8:constant)

(6)

(7)

Equations(6) and(7) arethenappliedto theresults

andnormalstiffnessk, is determined.In Figure7(a),

a permanentdeformationcanbeconfirmedfor each

loading and unloading cycle. The permanent deformationforthefirstloadingandunloadingcycle is largerthanthat of the othercycles.This is the

reasonwhy the influenceof the contactingjoint surfaceroughnessundertheinitialconditionoccurs

in thefirstloadingandunloadingcycle.In theother cycles, each permanentdeformation is almost

constant and each tangential gradient of the

unloading curves is almost equal. The normal stiffnessis representedbytheelasticbehaviorof the

normaldeformationof eachrockjoint. Therefore,

 

10

-

8

4

4

2

2

 

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

 

Jointdisplacement[mm]

 
 

(a) Theloadingangle;0 degree

 
 

8

.,/ /////

0.2

,Z.•.•

0.4

•'5

::i::'>5•q:",.,z'

0.6

0.8

JointDisplacement[mm]

2

(c) Theloadingangle;30 degrees

-

0.1

Normaldirection

Sheardirection

0.2

0.3

.:.•

0.4

0.5

Jointdisplacement[mm]

0.6

(b)Theloadingangle;15degrees

:[

SheardirectionI

,

:

"5;5'.

•--'?3'.O¾

'

""!)'

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

JointDisplacement[mm]

1

(d) Theloadingangle;45 degrees

Figure7. Thestress- displacementcurvesof boththenormalandthesheardirectionsontherockjoint (SpecimenA)

the normal stiffnessis determinedusing the unloadingcurvein the final loadingandunloading cycle.In the caseof the approximationof Equation

(7), a highercorrelationcoefficient(R = 0.998) can

be obtained.WhenEquation(7) is appliedto the

results, the normal displacementsgrow to an

unlimitedvalueif thenormalstressbecomesinfinity.

However, this behavioris not realisticbecausethe

normaldisplacementof a rockjointis actuallyfinite

anda maximumjoint closureexists.In the caseof the approximationof Equation (6), a higher

correlationcoefficient(R = 0.999) can also be

obtained.If the normal stressbecomesinfinity,

Equation(6) convergesthe value (b + c) andthe maximumjoint closurecanbe obtained.Therefore,

it is thoughtthatEquation(6) is moreaccuratethan Equation(7) in resemblingthe normal stress-

normaldisplacementcurve.In Equation(8), normal

stiffnesskn is determinedin order to calculatethe

tangentialgradientof the normal stress- normal

displacementcurveontherockjointusingEquation

(6).

k.- act_(a+or)2

d ttjna.b

(8)

419

8

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

Jointnormaldisplacement[mm]

Figure 8. The normalstress-

normaljoint displacement

Equation(8) showsthat normal stiffnessk, is a

function of the normal stress o:

Figure 8 presentsthe normal stress- normal displacementcurvesfor a rock joint in the final

unloadingcycle.Thecurvesareobtainedthrougha

O-degreeloadingangletest. Sincethe curvesare similarto eachother,the differencein specimens, namely,thedifferenceinjoint surfaceroughness,is not clearly shown. It is thought that the normal

deformationof therockjoint and/ornormalstiffness

kndoesnot dependon the shapeof joint surface

roughness.Somesamplesof thenormalstiffnesskn,

Table2.Thenormalstress(ata = 2.0MPa)andthevaluesofa•byandc

Loading

SpecimenA

SpecimenB

SpecimenC

angle

•delFee)a

b

c

(x104MPa) a

b

c

(x104MPa) a

b

c

104MPa)

0

2.02

0.163

0.132

4.74

1.43

0.340

0.147

2.80

1.97

0.144

0.164

4.80

15

1.60

0.390

0.108

2.52

3.54

0.368

0.168

2.36

2.10

0.452

0.125

2.15

30

1.93

0.487

0.091

1.18

3.58

0.358

0.176

2.43

4.38

0.347

0.261

2.67

45

2.93

0.239

0.108

3.46

0.943

0.107

0.005

3.74

1.63

0.180

0.030

4.48

Table3.Theshearstiffnessoftherockjoints.

degrees

Specimen(lx5103MPa)

.4

9.65

30 degrees

(x103MPa)

6.85

45 degrees

(x103MPa)

6.13

Direct sheartest

•x103MPa)

3.52

B

9.46

7.84

4.65

4.12

C

3.64

4.98

3.28

3.42

(x10•)

3.5

'''

I''

-I'-'

i'"'"":

"1

.

0 •',•

2

- - 4S-degree

!

,,,

i,,,

4

Jointno•

•,,,

6

stross[MPa]

'

•,,

8

:4

10

Figure9. Thenormalstiffllessof eachloadingangle.

determinedbyEquation(8), arepresentedin Table2.

In thiscase,the conditionof the determinationis set

at

a, b, andc inEquation(6).

or= 2.0 MPa. Table2 alsopresentsthe valuesfor

Next, the resultsof the constantz'/crloading

conditiontests on a 15-degreeloadingangle are

shownin Figure 7(b). Both the normal stress-

normaljoint displacementand the shearstress- shearjoint displacementcurvesare shownby the

solidlineandthebrokenline,respectively.Applying Equation(6) to the resultsof the normalstress-

shearjoint displacementcurves,a highercorrelation

coefficient(R = 0.999)canalsobe obtained.In this

case,thevaluesof a, b, andc aredifferentthanthose

determinedin the O-degreeloadingangletest.It is

confirmedthatthe loadingangleaffectsthe normal deformationof therockjoint. And, it isthoughtthat the shear behavior contributesto the poor

correlation.

In thecaseof the30 and45-degreeloadingangle

tests,the stress-joint

thenormalandthe sheardirectionsontherockjoint

are shownin Figures 7(c) and (d), respectively.

ApplyingEquation(6) to the unloadingnormal

stress- normaljoint displacementcurvesin thefinal

cycle,a highercorrelationcoefficient(R = 0.999;30 degreesand0.998;45 degrees)canalsobeobtained.

And, differentvaluesfor a, b, andc arecalculatedin

eachcase.As mentionedabove,it is alsoconfirmed

displacementcurvesof both

420

thattheloadinganglesaffectthenormaldeformation

oftherockjoint.

normal stress

The normal joint stiffness-

relationsfor eachloadingangletest are shownin

Figure 9. It is easily confumedthat the normal

stiffnessdependson the normalstressandincreases

with incrementsin the normal stress.And, it canbe

noticed

that

the

normal

stiffness

decreases

with

incrementsin theloadingangles,exceptforthecase

ofthe45-degreeloadingangle.

Based on

the

results, normal stiffness k,

decreaseswith incrementsin theloadingangle.With incrementsin the loading angle, shearbehavior occursandthe contactconditionof thejoint surface roughnessbecomesunstable.That is, since the

aspertiesof the joint surfaceroughnessdo not engagesmoothly,the limited allowanceof the

deformationin the normal direction is clearly

appeared.On the otherhand,k, on the 45-degree

loadingangleincreasescomparedwithk• onthe30- degreeloadingangle.In the caseof the 45-degree

loadingangle, the dilationoccurswith the shear

behavior,partsof the normaldeformationon the

rock joint divide the dilation, and the normal

stiffnessincreases.The turningpoint is when the dilationbeginsto affectthenormaldeformationon the rock joint, and this phenomenoncannotbe

graspedin detailwiththisapparatus.

4.2Estimationoftheshearstiffness

Thebrokenlinesin Figures7(b), (c), and(d) show

theshearstress- shearjoint displacementcurvesfor

eachloadingangle.Thepermanentdeformationof

the sheardeformation is larger than that of the

normaldeformation.Shearstiffnessksis determined

usingthesecurves.Firstof all, theloadingcurvesin

theinitialcyclicloadingareextracteduntiltheshear

stressreaches2.0 MPa, and the straight line is

estimatedbytheleast-squaresmethod.Finally,shear

stiffness

ks, which

is the gradient

of an

approximatelystraightline, canbe determined. Table3 showsshearstiffnessks.It isgenerallyfound

that shear stiffness ksvaries inversely with.the

1.5

0.0,.,o,•••c•:.•-''• -•-o-.o-• ß -•o•. •3-•o-~,.t

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Sheardisplacement[mini

Figure10.Resultsof thedirectsheartestsonrockjoints.

loadingangle. This is the reasonwhy the shear

displacementdependson the compressivepressure

in the normal direction. If the normal stressbecomes

higherthantheshearstress,it is hardfor it to deform in the sheardirection.In otherwords,it is thought

thatthe sheardisplacementis largerundera higher loadingangle,suchas 45 degrees,thanthe shear

displacementundera lowerloadingangle,suchas

15degrees.

Table3 alsopresentsthe shearstiffnessthrough

directsheartestson rockjointsusingthe sametype

of specimens.Examplesof theresultsof the direct sheartestsusingSpecimenA areshowninFigure10. In Figure10, the sheardisplacement- shearstress

relationunder variousconstantnormal confining

conditions

is

described.

The

shear

stiffness

is

determinedby the curvebeingextracteduntil the

peak shearstress.In Table 3, the shearstiffness

throughthe directsheartestsis almostin agreement

withthatthroughthe45-degreeloadingangletest.

5 CONCLUSION

In order to understand the mechanical

behavior

of

rockjoints,twomechanicalpropertiesof rockjoints,

namely,k, andksaretakenfor examinationin this study.To graspthe mechanicalbehaviorof therock

joints and the relationshipbetweenthe combined joint stiffness(k, and ks) and the loadingangle

againstthejoints,the newtestingapparatus,which

canbeappliedto a constantdryloadingconditionon

therockjoints,hasbeendeveloped.

The resultsshowthat the joint stiffnessvaries

accordingto its dependencyon the loadingangles.

The tendency of the joint stiffness can be

qualitativelygraspedundercertainloadingangles,

suchas0, 15, 30, and45 degrees.And,the normal

joint stiffnesscanbe determinedasa functionof the

normal stress. The normal behavior can be affected

by the dilation along the shearbehaviordue to

incrementsin the loadingangle.On theotherhand, theshearstiffnesscanbedeterminedusingtheshear

stress- shearjoint displacementcurvesduringthe

421

initialcyclicloading.With incrementsin theloading angle,the shearstiffnessis closelyassociatedwith thatobtainedthroughdirectsheartests.

REFERENCES

Bandis,S.C. (1980):Experimentalstudiesof scale effectsonshearstrengthanddeformationof rock

joints,Ph.D.thesis,Univ. of Leeds,UK; Bandis, S. C., Luresden,A. C. andBarton,N. R.

(1981):Fundamentalsof rockjoint deformation, InternationalJournal of Rock Mechanicsand

Mining Science& GeomechanicsAbstract,Vol.

20, No. 6; 249 - 268.

Barton,N. R. (1976):RockMechanicsReview:The shear strength of rock and rock joints, InternationalJournal of Rock Mechanicsand Mining Science& GeomechanicsAbstract,Vol.

13; 255 - 279.

Brown, S.R. and Scholz,C.H. (1986): Closureof

rockjoints,J. of GeophysicalResearch91035);

4939 - 4948.

Goodman,R.E. (1976):Methodsof geological

engineering in

discontinuousrocks, West

PublishingCompany. Goodman, R.E. (1984): Introduction to Rock Mechanics,JohnWiley& Sons;135.

Tanimoto,C. andKishida,K. (1995): Quantitative determinationof rockjointroughnessby 3-D non- contacttype profilerandthe maximumentropy

method, Journalof GeotechnicalEngineering,

J.S.C.E.,No. 511/IH-30;57- 67. (inJapanese)

Tse,R. andCruden,D. M. (1979):Estimatingjoint

roughnesscoefficients,InternationalJournalof

Rock

GeontechanicsAbstract,Vol. 16;303 - 307.

Mechanics and

Mining

Science &

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