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# Data & Consulting Services

Schlumberger
1. Importance to Schlumberger
2. The concept of Nodal
TM
Analysis
3. Segments in the reservoir/well system where pressure
loss occurs
4. Solution node
5. Inflow performance curve
6. Tubing curve
7. System graph
8. Small Project-Multilayer Nodal Analysis
1. Explain the concept of Nodal Analysis.
2. List the four major segments between the reservoir and the
separator where pressure loss occurs.
3. Give definitions for each of the following terms:
Inflow performance curve
Tubing performance curve
System graph
Solution node
4. Explain the importance to you and Schlumberger

Stimulation candidate selection
Production prediction
Treatment type and design
More objectives of Nodal analysis
Estimate WHP from IPR, Pr, completions and target rate
Estimate rates from WHP, IPR, Pr, completions
Size completions from IPR, Pr and WHP constraints
Determine choke size for target rate and system description
Design AL system
Predict hydrate formation

AP
1
= P
r
- P
wfs
= Loss in reservoir
AP
2
= P
wfs
- P
wf
= Loss across completion
AP
3
= P
wf
- P
wh
= Loss in tubing
AP
4
= P
wh
- P
sep
= Loss in flowline
P
r
P
e
P
wfs
P
wf

AP
1
= (P
r
- P
wfs
)
AP
2
= (P
wfs
- P
wf
)
AP
3
= P
wf
- P
wh

AP
4
= (P
wh
- P
sep
)
P
sep

Sales line
Gas
Liquid
Stock tank
AP
T
= P
r
- P
sep
= Total pressure loss
Adapted from Mach et al, SPE 8025, 1979.
P
wh

AP
1
= P
r
- P
wfs
= Loss in reservoir
AP
2
= P
wfs
- P
wf
= Loss across completion
AP
3
= P
wf
- P
wh
= Loss in tubing
AP
4
= P
wh
- P
sep
= Loss in flowline
P
r
P
e
P
wfs
P
wf

AP
1
= (P
r
- P
wfs
)
AP
2
= (P
wfs
- P
wf
)
AP
3
= P
wf
- P
wh

AP
4
= (P
wh
- P
sep
)
P
sep

Sales line
Gas
Liquid
Stock tank
AP
T
= P
r
- P
sep
= Total pressure loss
Adapted from Mach et al, SPE 8025, 1979.
P
wh

2111 STB/D
1957.1 psi
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Production rate, STB/D
F
l
o
w
i
n
g

b
o
t
t
o
m
h
o
l
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
Inflow (Reservoir) Curve
Tubing Curve
9 Initials
27-Aug-13
10 Initials
27-Aug-13
10
27-Aug-13
q
k h
B
P P
n
r
r
S
o
o
o o
r wf
e
w
=

|
\

|
.
| +

(
000708
1
0472
.
.
'

Inflow Performance
Flow rate (bpd)
permeability (mD) net pay (ft)
average reservoir
pressure (psi)
flowing bottom hole
pressure (psi)
viscosity (cp)
formation volume
factor (rb/stb)
Total skin
Q: What can we do to really influence the flowrate ?

Single phase liquid:Darcys law for radial flow
through a permeable medium as follows:
Productivity Index - Oil Wells - Single phase liquid

4
3 06 . 10
ln
2
1
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
w A
r C
A
PD
11
27-Aug-13
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
06 . 10
ln
2
1
w A
r C
A
PD
|
.
|

\
|
=
D t
Ei PD
4
1
2
1
2
w r C
kt
t
t
D
|
=
| | s P B
kh
p p
q
J
D
wf
+
=

2 . 141
Stabilized rate
Productivity index
Pressure drawdown
Dimensionless pressure
Infinite-Acting Solution
wf P Pi P = A
wf P P P = A
wf P Pe P = A
= AP
C
A
= Dietz Shape factor

12
27-Aug-13
Constant Well Rate Constant Well Pressure
Changing p
wf
Constant p
wf
No-Flow
Boundary
= t
r
3
r
2
t
2
= 1 day
t
3
= 3 days
t
4
= 10 days
r
4
No-Flow Outer
Boundary
r
1
t
1
= 0.3 day
t
5
t
5
Fluid at the farthest
boundary starts moving
toward the well
t
1
t
1
r
1
r
1
r
2
t
2
t
2
r
2
t
4
t
4
r
4
r
4
t
3
t
3
r
3
r
3
Constant-Pressure Boundaries : Steady State Solution

13
27-Aug-13
r
3
r
2
t
2
= 1 day
t
3
= 3 days
t
4
= 10 days
r
4
Constant-Pressure
Outer Boundary
r
1
t
1
= 0.3 day
Constant Well Rate Constant Well Pressure
Changing p
wf
Constant p
wf
Constant-Pressure
Boundary
Fluid at the farthest
boundary starts moving
toward the well
t
1
t
1
r
1
r
1
r
2
t
2
t
2
r
2
t
4
t
4
r
4
r
4
t
3
t
3
r
3
r
3
Shape Factors - Pseudo Steady State Solution
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

s
r C
A
B
kh
p p
q
J
w A
o o
wf
4
3 06 . 10
ln
2
1
10 08 . 7
2
3
14
27-Aug-13

Shape Dietz
C
A
Odeh
C
A, Odeh
Fetkovich
s
CA
Shape Dietz
C
A
Odeh
C
A, Odeh
Fetkovich
s
CA
31.62 0.564 0.573
2
1
10.84 0.964 1.108
31.6 0.565 0.573
2
1
4.51 1.494 1.546
27.6 0.604 0.641
2
1
2.077 2.202 1.934
60
27.1 0.610 0.650
2
1
3.157 1.786 1.725
1/3{
21.9 0.678 0.756
2
1
0.581 4.162 2.571
0.098 10.14 3.461
2
1
0.111 9.529 3.399
30.9 0.571 0.584
1
4
5.38 1.368 1.458
13.0 0.881 1.018
1
4
2.69 1.935 1.805
4.51 1.494 1.546
1
4
0.232 6.591 3.030
3.34 1.738 1.697
1
4
0.1155 9.337 3.379
1
2
21.8 0.679 0.758
1
5
2.361 2.065 1.870
Dietz Shape Factor
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

s
r
A C
B
kh
p p
q
J
w
Odeh A
o o
wf
4
3
ln
10 08 . 7
3
Odeh Shape Factor
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
| '

=

s s
r
r
B
kh
p p
q
J
CA
w
e
o o
wf
4
3
ln
10 08 . 7
3
Fetkovich Shape Factor Skin
t
'
A
r
e
Combination Single Phase Liquid and Two Phase Flow
15
27-Aug-13
( ) psi D STB
p p
q
J
wf
/ /

=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
8 . 0 2 . 0 1
p
p
p
p
q
q
wf wf
max
+
Mathematical model for Vogels curve
Two-phase flow in the reservoir when pressure drops
below bubble point pressure
Assumptions: Initial Pr at Pb, Radial flow, undamaged well & pseudo steady state
Multiphase Flow
Combination Darcy/Vogel
16
27-Aug-13
q
max

J p
b

1.8
q O
O
q
b

Rate
p
wf

p
b

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

p
Multiphase Flow
How to find q
max
:
17
27-Aug-13
( )
( )

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = >
= s
2
max
8 . 0 2 . 0 1 : then for
: applies law s Darcy' , for
b
wf
b
wf
b b b
wf b
p
p
p
p
q q q q q q
p p J q q q
8 . 1
p J
q q
b
b max
+ =
Reservoir Conditions:
Original Pressure = 2150 psi
Bubble Point = 2150 psi
Crude oil PVT. Characteristics
and relative permeability
Characteristics from Ref. 7
Well spacing = 20 acres
Cumulative recover,
percent of original
oil in place
Producing rate, bopd
B
o
t
t
o
m

h
o
l
e

w
e
l
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i

Multilayer Reservoirs
19
27-Aug-13
Input individual IPR for each layer

Composite IPR node solution at top Layer
Jones Gas IPR
Problem -
Darcys law valid for laminar flow only
High permeability gas wells produce in turbulent flow
near the wellbore
bq aq p p
wf
+ =
2 2 2
Turbulence Term
Laminar flow Term
Jones Equation
Assumptions
Darcys and Jones laws assume that the average
pressure( ) is constant
e
, is constant
These assumptions are true in pseudo-steady
state only, i.e. when all of the outer
boundaries of the reservoir are reached.
p
The time to reach pseudo-steady state (pss), t
stab
, can be
calculated with the following equation

k
r c 948
t
2
e t
stab
|
=
t-hrs Ct-1/psi
K-md re-feet
U-cp Porosity-fraction
t
1

t
2

t
3

t
stab

q
p
wf

p
t
stab
> t
3
> t
2
> t
1

t
stab
State (PSS) IPR
(Darcy) @ > Time
to PSS

Oil Reservoir IPRs
Well PI (P
wf
> P
B
)
For undersaturated oil
Can also be applied to flow below bubble
point with minor changes
Vogels* (P
wf
< P
B
)
Empirical relationship
C = 0.8 by default
Fetkovich/Backpressure
where n which ranges from 0.5 to 1
represents degree of turbulence
Jones*

modified PI and Darcy equation accounting
for turbulent flow
wf
> P
B
) :
based on Darcy IARF
) (
wf R
P P J q =
2
max
) 1 ( 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
R
wf
R
wf
P
P
C
P
P
C
q
q
n
wf R
P P C q ) (
2 2
=
2
Bq Aq P P
wf R
+ =
( )
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
S
r
r
B
P P kh
q
w
e
wf R
75 . 0 ln
00708 . 0

## Gas Reservoirs IPR

Well PI
Backpressure*
n = 0.5 to 1
Jones*

modified PI equation accounting for
turbulent flow
Darcy IARF)
pseudo-pressure (for all P)

OR pressure squared (for low P)

2
2 2
Bq Aq P P
wf R
+ =
) (
2 2
wf R
P P J q =
n
wf R
P P C q ) (
2 2
=
( )
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

S
r
r
T Z
P P kh
q
w
e
wf R
75 . 0 ln
10 703
2 2
6

( ) ( ) { }
wf R
P m P m C q =
( ) dP
Z
P
P m
}
=

2 where
27 Initials
27-Aug-13
dZ
dv
g
v
d g
v f
g
g
dZ
dP
m
c
m m
c
m m m
m
c
tot

u + + =
2
sin
2
Elevation
Friction
Acceleration
V
g

V
L

g L
L
L
V V
V
H
+

( )
g L L L m
H H + = 1
Based on dimensional analysis by Duns and Ros
Duns and Ros (1963)
Hagedorn and Brown (1963)
Orkiszewski (1967)
Beggs and Brill (1973)
Mukherjee and Brill (1983)
Suggested application of correlations
Duns and Ros (1963) (vertical upflow)
Orkiszewski (1967) (vertical upflow)
Hagerdorn and Brown (1965) (vertical upflow)
Beggs and Brill (1973) (vertical or inclined,
upflow or downflow)
Mukherjee and Brill (1985) (vertical or inclined,
upflow or downflow)
Dukler (1964) (only horizontal flow)
Factors affecting Pressure
Producing Rate
GOR
WCT
Tubing Size
Tubing geometry
Skin factor
The Skin Factor (St) is a constant which relates the
pressure drop due to skin to the flow rate and
transmissibility of the formation. Thus:
|
.
|

\
|
B
A
=
Kh
q
P
S
o o
skin
t
2 . 141
( )
wf wf skin
P P P = A
'
The Concept of Skin
Damage Skin is an additional pressure drop through a zone of reduced
permeability (kd) in the near wellbore region
r
w
r
d
r
e
k

k
d
What causes this damage skin?
P
wf
(no skin)
P
wf
(with skin)
Ap
skin
r (distance from wellbore)
r
d
k
d
r
w
k
P
wf
(no skin)
P
wf
(with skin)
Ap
skin
r (distance from wellbore)
r
d
k
d
r
w
k
Skin Factor graphical representation
P
r
P
wf
P
wf
r
w

r
d

Positive skin ~ Damaged wellbore or
The Skin Equation
(
(

)
`

|
|
.
|

\
|

(
(

)
`

|
|
.
|

\
|
= A 75 . 0 ln
00708 . 0
75 . 0 ln
00708 . 0
w
d o o
w
d
d
o o
skin
r
r
kh
B q
r
r
h k
B q
P

r
w
r
d
r
e
k

k
d
( )
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
75 . 0 ln
00708 . 0
w
e
o o
wf R o
o
r
r
B
P P h k
q

skin
o o
P
B q
kh
S A =
2 . 141
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
= A 1 ln
00708 . 0
d w
d o o
skin
k
k
r
r
kh
B q
P

S
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 ln
d w
d
k
k
r
r
S
S
kh
B q
P
o o
skin
00708 . 0

= A
Recalling the original Darcy equation
Sources of Skin
Positive skin
Drilling-induced or other formation damage
Migration of formation fines.
Perforation skin
Partial completions (and partial penetration) cases.
Gravel packs.
Reservoir flow turbulence
Negative skin:
Stimulated formations.
High density perforated completions.

Flow Efficiency:
FE < 1 for Damaged well
FE >1 for a Stimulated well
......, + + + + + + =
s o turb pp p d t
S S S S S S S
Skin factor
S
t
= total skin effect, (+ damaged; - stimulated)
S
d
= skin effect due to formation damage (+)
S
pp
= skin due to partial penetration (+)
S
p
= skin effect due to perforation (+)
S
turb
= D
q
, skin effect due to turbulence (+)
S
o
= skin effect due to slanting of well (-)
S
s
= skin effect due to stimulation (generally -)
Pressure Loss in Perforations
The effect of perforations on productivity can be
quite substantial.
It is generally believed that if the reservoir pressure
is below the bubble point, causing 2 phase flow
through the perforations, the pressure loss may be
an order of magnitude higher.
2 Methods for calculating presssure loss in
perforations, McLeod (1983) and Karakas &Tariq
(1988).
Given the surface _____ pressure and the _____ pressure, along with the
physical properties of each system segment, we can calculate the
______ at which the well will produce.
(i) Flow rate
(ii) Separator
(iii) Water salinity
(iv) Reservoir
(v) API gravity
(vi) Tubing ID
43
27-Aug-13

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Before After Incremental
Q1=250 BPD Q2=300 BPD
Pwf1=1750 Psia Pwf2=1900 psia
J1(pss)=1.0 BPD/psia J2(pss)=3.0 BPD/psia J=2 times

Q1, Pwf1
Q2, Pwf2
What is the productivity index before and after the stimulation?
For the same bottom hole flowing pressure(1750), what is the expected incremental oil?
Exercise 3 : Before and after Stimulated well Pr=2000 psia. Assume Pwf1>Pb
Tell me
How do you see this
class benefiting your
daily job?