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E
k
E
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Detailed solution of IES 2014 (ECE) Conventional Paper I
Sol. 1 (a)
(i) Conductivity is a degree to which a specified material conducts electricity and gives idea how much
smooth flow is of electricity by a carrier. Mobility is degree to which specified material can move freely
and easily and it gives idea about ability of movement of a carrier.
(ii) Zener break down occurs in highly doped Zener diode and it is due to tunneling phenomenon while
Avalanche breakdown occurs in lightly doped Zener diode and it is avalanche multiplication due to
successive collisions of electrons in depletion region of Zener diode. Zener occurs at high value of break
down voltage while avalanche occurs at small value of break down voltage.
(iii) Piezo-electric materials which are insulators become electrically polarized in presence of mechanical
stress and produce voltage which is reversible process. Ceramic materials are in organic materials and are
combination of metal and non metals which are generally formed by action of heat and subsequent cooling.
(iv) Direct band gap:



Minima of C.B coincides with Maxima of VB and here energy is emitted in form of light by photons
Indirect band gap:



Minima of C.B does not coincides with Maxima of VB and here energy is emitted in form of heat.
(v) Polarisability is the ability of molecules to be polarized and express as dipole moment per unit electric
Field. Permittivity is the measure of resistance which is encountered when forming and electric field in
a medium. Unit of polarisability is F-m
2
while permittivity has no unit.
Sol: 1(b)
(i) Given condition that NMOS is in Saturation region
( )
2
D GS T
I K V V =
GS T
V 2.1V&V 1V = =
Then | |
2
3
D
I 0.8 10 2.1 1

= =0.968 mA which is nearly equal to 1 mA


(ii) ( )
d
m GS T
gs
dI
g 2K V V
dV
= =
( )
3
m
g 2 0.8 10 1.1

= =1.76mA/ V
(iii) If V
I
=10 mV then new V
GS
=2.11 Volt so transistor will still remains in saturation region
( )
2
D GS T
I K V V = = ( )
2
3
0.8 10 2.11 1 0.9856mA

=
Output voltage
0 DD D
V V RI 9 0.9856mA 2 7.0288Volt = = =
Sol.1(c):
j
A D
2V
1 1
W
q N N
c | |
= +
|
\ .

Since
A D
N N <<< so
A D
1 1
N N
>>>>>



2

+
CLK
C
Hold
V
out
V
in
1
So here
j
A
2V
W
qN
c
=
j p
p A p
p
2V
But qN so W
c
o = =
o

Sol.1(d) :
To synthesize a driving point immittance function z(s) the first step is to decompose it into a sum of simpler
positive real functions z
1
(s), z
2
(s), z
3
(s), z
4
(s),. z
n
(s), and then to synthesize these individual z(s) as
elements of the overall network whose driving point impedance is z(s).
A function is said to be positive real function if it satisfies the following conditions:
1. F(s) is real for real s i.e F() is real
2. F(s) may have only simple poles on the jw axis with real and positive residues
3. | |
Re F( jw) 0 for all w >
( )
( )( )
( )
6 s 3 s 9
27 9
Z s 6
s s 6 s (s 6)
+ +
= = + +
+ +

Sol.1(e): ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2t t
h t e u t , x t e u t

= =
( ) ( ) ( ) Y s X s .H s =
( )
1 1
Y s
s 1 s 2
=
+ +

( ) ( ) ( )
t 2t
y t e u t e u t

=
Sol.1(f): when clock is high complete circuit responds similarly to an OPMAP in unity gain feedback
configuration when clock is low input voltage at that time is stored on capacitor. By use of OPAMP in
feedback loop input impedance of sample and hold circuit is greatly increased.
Figure:





Sol.1 (g): Propagation constant (P) ( )( ) R j L G j C = + e + e
As frequency is not mentioned so problem cant be solved
Sol.1 (h): It is a transducer which uses change in the electrical resistance to measure strain. Here electrical
resistance is proportional to instantaneous spatial average strain over its surface.
Applications :
1. Vibration measurement
2. Compression and tension measurement
3. Contractions in muscles in medical science
4. Blood pressure measurement
5. Used in volumetric differential low pressure



3
5V
D
1
V
1
D
2
V
2
+ +
Force
R
R
Active gauge
Dummy or
compensating
gauge
Temperature compensation in strain gauge:











The active strain gauge is installed on the test specimen while the dummy or compensating gauge is installed
on a like piece of material and is not specified to strain.
Sol. 3(a) As
2
i
np n =

A D
n N p N + = +
but
A
N 0 =

D
n p N = +

( )
2
D i
2 2
D D i
n n N n
N N 4n
n
2
=
+
=

But n cannot be negative so
2
D
D i
i
N
N n 4
n
n
2
| |
+ +
|
\ .
=
As
D i
N n <<<

2
D
i
N
n
| |
|
\ .
can be neglected.

D i
N 2n
n
2
+
=

( )
2 2
2
D D i
D
i
N N 4n
N
p neglecting
2 n
+ +
| |
=
|
\ .


D i
N 2n
p
2
+
=
Sol. 3(b)






4
n type S.C
light
x < 0 x > 0
x = 0
10cm
D
1
is R.B and Non conducting
D
2
is F.B but Non conducting
D
1
is not in breakdown as V
B
= 50 V but
1 2
5 V V = +
Both diodes are in series, in D
1
reverse current will flow from N to P while in D
2
current will flow
from P to N so here
1 2
I I =

2
T
V
V
0 0 2 T
I I e 1 V 2V n2
q
| |
= = |
|
\ .
= 34.66 mV=0.03466 Volt
So here
1 2
V 5 V 4.9653V = =
Sol. 3(c)




0
p p
p p dp p
dt t t
A
= = since it is N-type SC so major change will be in concentration of holes only
and not electrons.
Here given
21 3
10 / / sec
dp
EHP cm
dt
=
So
21 6 15
10 10 10 / p cc n

A = = = A
here, dx = 34.6 m
here; Initially in N type s.c, holes are minority and only contribution which is dominant is
after the following of light.
So dx = 34.6 m

3 2
p
J 5.536 10 A/m =
And ( )
p p
I J area =

p
I 5.536mA =
Now, Initially
15 3
D
N 4.5 10 /cm =
Now
21
n
n
10
A
=
At

Then
15 3
n 10 / cm A =
Change in e

is ( ) ( )
15 15
n ' 4.5 10 10 A =

15 3
3.5 10 / cm =
Thus Applying continuity equation.

15
n
6
dJ 1 3.5 10
q dx 10

=
Now,
3 2
n
J 19.376 10 amp / m =

n n
I J A =

n
I 19.376mA =


5
V
CC
R
C
R
2
R
1
R
E
R ||R
1 2
V
T
R
e
R
c
V
cc
Sol. 3. (d)
CC CE E C
V 20V, V 8V, V 6V, S 10, 200, I 5mA = = = = | = =






Now
E
E B
1
s
R
1
R R
+|
=
| |
+|
|
+
\ .


E E E
V R I =
E
R 1.2k = O
As
E C
I I ; ' ' = | is very high
Then ( )
CC CE C C E
V V I R R = + +
C
R 1.2k = O

E
E TH
1
s
R
1
R R
+|
=
+|
+

E
E B
R 1
1
R R S
+|
+| =
+


B
R 11.365k = O
Now,
1 2
1 2
R R
11.365k
R R
= O
+

( )
E
T BE 1 2 E E
I
V V R || R I R = +
|

Then;
1
1 2
R
0.3492
R R
=
+


1 2
1 2
R R
11.365
R R
=
+


2
R 32.545k = O

1
R 17.462k = O
Sol. 3.(e) Initially T is switch off then capacitor get charged to 10V in steady state. So capacitor is
charged to 10 Volt . at t=0 capacitor voltage will remain at 10 volt Now T becomes ON by 4
volt Here V
DS
=10 Volt and V
GS
=4 Volt so MOSFET will be replaced by resistance then
( )
ds
on
m 0 m
1 1 1
r
g r g
= + ~ where ( )
3
m GS T
g 2K V V 2 5 10 2 20mA/ V

= = =

ds
1
r 50
20mA/ V
= = O Now r
ds
and C will be in parallel and capacitor will discharge through r
ds

t / t / 12
0
12
V(t) V e 5 10e where 100 10 50 s
t ln 2 100 10 50 0.6932s 3466psec 3.47nsec
t t

= = t =
= t = = =