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Tutorials on How to interface ADC0808 using clock from

8051 microcontroller (AT89C51)



An analog-to-digital converter is a device which converts continuous signals to discrete digital
numbers. Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage (or
current) to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current. This circuit
demonstrates the interfacing of ADC0808 using 8051 microcontroller. The digital output is taken
on a set of LEDs. This is an intermediate circuit which finds several applications. This circuit
depicts a way to provide the external clock, required for ADC, from the microcontroller.
Analog-to-digital converters are among the most widely used devices for data acquisition.
Digital computers use binary values, but in physical world everything is analog. Therefore, we
need an analog-to-digital converter to translate these analog signals to digital signals.
An ADC has n-bit resolution where n can be 8,10,12,16 etc. The ADC chips are either parallel or
serial. Parallel ADC has 8 or more pins dedicated to bring out the binary data. ADC0808 is such
a parallel ADC with 8-bit resolution.
ADC0808 has 8 input channels, i.e., it can take eight analog signals. To select these input
channels, three select pins are to be configured. In this circuit the microcontroller is used to send
the control and enabling signals to ADC.
In ADC Vref (+) (pin12) and Vref (-) (pin16) are used to set the reference voltage. If Vref (-) is
GND and Vref (+) = 5V, the step size is 5V/256=19.53mV. ADC0808 has 8 input pins IN0-IN7
(pins 1-5 & 26-28). To select an input pin, there are three selector pins A, B and C (pin 25, 24 &
23, respectively). ALE (Address latch enable, pin22) is given a low to high pulse to latch in the
address. SC (Start conversion, pin6) instructs the ADC to start the conversion. When a low to
high pulse is given to this pin ADC starts converting the data. EOC (end of conversion, pin7) is
an output pin and goes low when the conversion is complete and ready to be picked up, and
OE(output enable, pin9) is given a low to high pulse to bring the converted data from the internal
register of ADC to the output pins. Pin11 is Vcc and pin13 is GND. Here we are using external
clock for clock input (pin 10).
The connection of the ADC with the microcontroller can be seen on the circuit diagram. ALE
(pin22) of ADC is connected to P1.0 of controller AT89C51. Selector pins A, B, C (pins 25, 24
& 23) of ADC are connected to P1.4, P1.5 & P1.6 pins of microcontroller, respectively. SC
(pin6) of ADC is connected to P1.1 of controller. EOC (pin7) of ADC is connected to P1.2 of
microcontroller and OE (pin9) of ADC is connected to P1.3 of microcontroller. Output of ADC
goes to port P0 (pins 32-39) of controller. AT89C51 The output is sent to the port P2 (pins 21-
28) of controller which is connected to eightLEDs.
The program continuously scans the input of ADC and displays the output on the output port P2.
By varying the input of ADC, output of ADC changes and the change is reflected in the glowing
pattern of LEDs connected to the port.
To provide clock input to the ADC, Timer0 is used in interrupt enabled mode to generate a clock
of frequency 500 KHz. To enable the Timer0 in interrupt enable mode, the register IE is loaded
with the value 082. Every time the Timer completes the counting, pin P1.7 toggles its state.

C Language Code
// Program to test ADC 0808. The output pins are connected to LEDs. Controller interrupt is
used to generate the clock for driving the ADC 0808.
#include<reg51.h>
sbit ale=P1^0; //address latch enable
sbit oe=P1^3; //output enable
sbit sc=P1^1; //start conversion
sbit eoc=P1^2; //end of conversion
sbit clk=P1^7; // clock
sbit ADD_A=P1^4; // Address pins for selecting input channels.
sbit ADD_B=P1^5;
sbit ADD_C=P1^6;
sfr input_port=080;
sfr output_port=0xA0;
void timer0() interrupt 1 // Function to generate clock of frequency 500KHZ using Timer 0
interrupt.
{
clk=~clk;
}
void delay(unsigned int count) // Function to provide time delay in msec.
{
int i,j;
for(i=0;i<count;i++)
for(j=0;j<1275;j++);
}
void main()
{
eoc=1;
input_port=0xFF;
ale=0;
oe=0;
sc=0;
TMOD=022; //timer0 setting for generating clock of 500KHz using interrupt enable mode.
TH0=0xFD;
IE=082;
TR0=1;
while(1)
{
ADD_C=0; // Selecting input channel 2 using address lines
ADD_B=0;
ADD_A=1;
delay(2);
ale=1;
delay(2);
sc=1;
delay(1);
ale=0;
delay(1);
sc=0;
while(eoc==1);
while(eoc==0);
oe=1;
output_port=input_port;
delay(2);
oe=0;
}
}