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Gerard Payen
AquaFed President
Chair of UNSGAB monitoring group
Via del Mar, Chile, 19 March 2013
Towards an ambitious
global Goal on Water
Un Secretary Generals Advisory Board
on Water & Sanitation UNSGAB
High-level independent board
created by Kofi Annan on 22 March 2004
To stimulate action by political decision-
makers, with a focus on access to drinking
water and sanitation
23 members from all continents
www.unsgab.org
AquaFed
THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF
PRIVATE WATER OPERATORS
www.aquafed.org
Outline
Current and future global goals
Most critical water-related challenges
Access and Human Right
Wastewater management
Efficiency of water uses
Competition for global priority list
Current global goals end in 2015
Water Target:
Halving the proportion of population
without safe drinking water
Indicator: improved water sources
Sanitation Target:
Halving the proportion of population
without basic sanitation
Indicator: private sanitary toilets
2015
MDGs Post-MDGs ???
Aquafed
Development
Agenda
Sustainable Development Goals
Aquafed
SDGs
All 3 dimensions of Sustainable Development:
social, economical, environment
( Green Growth & Poverty Alleviation)
Jobs
Food
Energy
Health Poverty
Water
Slums
Urbanisation
Global goals targeting results
7
Measurable
time-bound
Targets
Operational
Indicators
Global
Aspirational
Goals
Content?
Ambition?
< 2015
Access to improved
water sources
Access to toilets
1 Target on
drinking water
and sanitation
Environment
Goal
> 2015
Goal on water
security ?
3 Targets on
most-critical
water challenges?
???
???
???
???
HIGH LEVEL PANEL ON POST-2015
It will submit a report by 31 May 2013
Composed of 27 eminent persons,
to advise the UN Secretary-General on
a development agenda post-2015
Source: UNDP, N.Igloi, Dec 2012
OPEN WORKING GROUP ON SDGs
composed of 30 representatives
nominated by 70 Member States
It will submit a report, to the 68
th
session
of the General Assembly
Source: UNDP, N.Igloi, Dec 2012
(Status: 30 Nov. 2012)
NATIONAL CONSULTATIONS
(Sept. 2012 March 2013)
Source: UNDP, N.Igloi, Dec 2012
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Costa Rica
Ecuador
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Peru
Santa Lucia
Latin America & Caribbean
THEMATIC CONSULTATIONS:
www.worldwewant2015.org
Youth
Health
Governance
LGBTI
rights
Economic
Inequalities
Indigenous
Peoples
Food Security
& Nutrition
Environment
Water
Population
Dynamics
Growth &
Employment
Conflict &
Fragility
Violence against
Women
Source: UNDP, N.Igloi, Dec 2012
The Water
stream
Outline
Current and future global goals
Most critical water-related challenges
Access and Human Right
Wastewater management
Efficiency of water uses
Competition for global priority list
14
4 (+1) main challenges
Poor
Access
Growing
scarcity
Pollution Disasters
Climate
mitigate remove
anticipate
Access
improve
MDGs
What challenges and results should
be targeted at the global level?
Jan 2013 - UNSGAB Call for
a post-2015 Goal on Water
The Board recommends that the emerging post-2015 agenda
includes a dedicated and comprehensive Global Goal on
Water that reflects waters comprehensive contribution to
development needs.
Such a post-2015 global goal on water should encompass
quantified, qualified and time-bound targets that respond to the
three following objectives:
1) Achieve universal access to sustainable sanitation and to
drinking water that is really safe,
2) Increase wastewater management and pollution prevention;
3) Improve integrated water resources management and water-
use efficiency.
UN online consultation on Water
The thematic consultation on Water was structured in 3 sub-
streams:
Access to safe drinking water, sustainable sanitation
and hygiene (WASH)
Wastewater management and water quality
Water resources management
Water was by far the theme that attracted the most people
with balanced interest between the 3 streams.
> Conclusions in The Hague on World Water Day (22 March)
6 dedicated paragraphs on Water
(Same importance as Energy)
Water is recognised as necessary to all
3 dimensions of sustainable development
Commitment to implementing the Human Right
to Water and Sanitation
Inclusion of wastewater
Efficiency is also mentioned
Rio+20 > Satisfactory outcome for Water
Outline
Current and future global goals
Most critical water-related challenges
Access and Human Right
Wastewater management
Efficiency of water uses
Competition for global priority list
19
The truth
800 million people lack access to
improved water sources
Access to water: the great hypocrisy
800 million people lack access to
safe drinking water
UN General Assembly, 26 July 2010
UNICEF-WHO , 16 March 2012
The common wording is untrue:
Billions of people lack satisfactory access to
safe drinking water
Global needs for drinking water
Population 2008
6.75 billion
* UN Statistics (WHO-UNICEF)
** Estimate by G.Payen in Worldwide needs for safe drinking water are
underestimated: billions of people are impacted, Editions Johanet, 2012
unimproved sources*
(shared with animals)
0.8 billion
Probably
unsafe
water**
Water of
doubtful
quality**
Right to safe
drinking
water not
satisfied**
1.9 billion
3.4 billion
> 3.5 billion
Governments
to provide
progressively
to all water
that is:
Implementing the Human Right
to Drinking Water and Sanitation
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without discrimination
acceptable
affordable
accessible
safe (drinkable)
in sufficient quantity
A multi-dimensional right
to be ensured progressively
Sufficient
quantity
Availability
Accessibility
Equity
Non-discrimination
Affordability
Safety
Acceptability
AquaFed
3
Obligations of public authorities
International law:
respect the human right,
protect the human right
progressively ensure its satisfaction for the whole population
In practice:
Adopt appropriate legal and regulatory frameworks
Organise missions and means of the different institutions
Adopt inclusive policies with timeframes
Mandate operators (public, private, NGOs)
Operators are tools
to implement policies
Examples of progress on
each of the dimensions of
the human right to safe
drinking water achieved
through partnerships
between public
authorities and
private operators
www.aquafed.org
Right
How to incorporate the dimensions of the Right
to safe drinking water into post-2015 targets?
25
Operational
safe
Compliance to standards
acceptable
Colour, odour
accessible, available
24/7, distance of source
affordable
Tariffs, subsidies
in sufficient quantity
Minimum pressure, etc
without discrimination
Equitable access
AquaFed
Drinking water: what level of service
should be targeted?
GPayen estimates (to be further validated)
G.Payen
Population
in 2015
0.6 bn
MDG indicator
Human Right compliance
3.5 bn ?
UNAVAILABILITY <2 days in 2 weeks
SAFETY: E. coli < 10 CFU/100 ml
Intermediate threshold
2 bn ?
ACCESSIBILITY:
Collection time < 30mn
Basic threshold 0.9 bn?
2
7
10%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
2000 1990 2015 2030 2040 2050
Drinking water use JMP draft
at home 22 Nov 2012
% of population
2
8
10%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
2000 1990 2015 2030 2040 2050
Sanitation at home JMP draft
22 Nov 2012
% of population
29
Access to Water is
deteriorating in the urban
half of the world
1
The race between development of
urban infrastructure and urban growth
1
See AquaFed press release on 7 September 2010
and Ban Ki-Moon declaration on 22 March 2011
Outline
Current and future global goals
Most critical water-related challenges
Access and Human Right
Wastewater management
Efficiency of water uses
Competition for global priority list
31
> 80% of used water is discharged
without any pollution removal
Outline
Current and future global goals
Most critical water-related challenges
Access and Human Right
Wastewater management
Efficiency of water uses
Competition for global priority list
Increase efficiency of water uses,
specially in irrigation
Water: By 2050, without new policies
33
Source: OECD Environmental Outlook 2050, Key facts and Figures, March 2012
Freshwater availability will be further strained, with 2.3
billion more people than today (in total over 40% of the
global population) projected to be living in river basins
under severe water stress
Global water demand is projected to increase by some
55%, due to growing demand from manufacturing
(+400%), thermal electricity generation (+140%) and
domestic use (+130%). In the face of these competing
demands, there will be little scope for expanding
irrigation water use under this scenario.
Outline
Current and future global goals
Most critical water-related challenges
Access and Human Right
Wastewater management
Efficiency of water uses
Competition for global priority list
Existing goals + new needs
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Towards an ambitious post-
2015 goal on water security
www.aquafed.org