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www.fitnessHE.co.za
ISSUE 12 R42.00
JULY - AUGUST 2014
PRINTED IN SOUTH AFRICA
OTHER COUNTRIES R36,84 EXCL TAX
LIVE LIFE LOOKING GREAT
BUILD THIS
ON COVER: Gavin Perry
RAISE
THE BAR
5
AMINO ACID COMBOS
SIMPLE TREND OR
DIET REVOLUTION?
#LCHF
PERFORMANCE
ENHANCING
SIX WAYS TO
USE CABLES FOR
QUALITY MUSCLE
PROTEIN
VARIETY
CHANGE UP
YOUR PROTEIN
SOURCES FOR
MAXIMUM
MUSCLE GAIN
BARBELL COMPLEXES BUILD MUSCLE,
BLAST FAT & BOOST FITNESS & STRENGTH
MASTER THE
TRAINING TAPER
[CONTENTS ]
60
88
32
82
68
Cover image of
Gavin Perry
by Richard Cook
Read more
about Gavin
on page 40
40
42
94
REGULARS
22 CrossFit Column
Thinking inside the box
24 Fitness Tech
The latest fitness gadgets
26 Ask Fitness His Edition
All your health & fitness questions answered
FITNESS, TRAINING & FEATURES
30 Defining fitness
Fitness at its most fundamental level
32 Its not (just) the shoes
Weighing in on the minimalist shoe debate
36 Breaking barriers
How Ray Wicksell broke Roger Bannisters record
24 times
40 Cover profile: Gavin Perry
After almost five years he is back competing
42 Barbell complexes
Build more muscle, blast fat, improve fitness and
enhance strength
50 Fit experience
Our insider look at the CrossFit Regionals
54 Mastering the taper
Arrive at the start line feeling fresh
60 Sprinting
An all-conquering form of exercise
62 Athlete profile: Ananso Jobodwana
South Africas young track sensation
64 Gear guide
All youll ever need for the sprint
76 Over the hill
The effect of ageing on physical performance
78 Challenging beliefs
A potential new approach to training splits
82 Cable exercises
Shape and define muscle with these training moves
84 Training when sick
Its a matter of risk vs reward
86 Evox Fitness Model Search
Meet the top 10 finalists
88 Fishy meals
The health benefits associated with eating fish
90 Off the beaten track
A review of top alternative gyms in SA
NUTRITION & SUPPLEMENTS
38 Protein variety
More than just meat
66 Amino acid combos
Enhance performance with
these five powerhouse combos
68 #LCHF
Just another diet trend?
LIFESTYLE
94 Male Fixation
Annie Philippeos
Barbell
complexes
Annie
Philippeos
68 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[NUTRITION]
#LCHF
>> BY PEDRO VAN GAALEN AND DEVLIN BROWN
hile not a new concept, Prof. Tim Noakes revolution
against modern eating habits has people talking.
Whether its on social media, at the dinner table or
around the water cooler at gym, everyone seems to have
an opinion about the low-carb, high-fat (LCHF) approach
to eating that he now vociferously advocates.
However, his about-turn on the nutritional principles he promoted
for years as South Africas foremost sports scientist, which are
epitomised in his seminal work The Lore Of Running, hasnt been
met with widespread acceptance, particularly among the broader
medical and dietetics communities. The professor now says that he
was wrong and that he is facing up to that by advocating a diet that
he feels is the answer to insulin resistance, which he says is far more
prevalent than we generally accept.
Polarising opinion
N
oakes' positions seem to
have polarised opinion in the
medical and health and fitness
industries. It even prompted
the Health Professions Council
of South Africa to release the
following statement: Although
low carbohydrate diets containing
less energy may have short term
beneficial effects on weight control
and insulin resistance in some
individuals, a healthy diet remains
a balanced diet. A simple search
on social media platforms for
#LCHF also yields widely
differing public opinion.
Amidst all this noise what is
clear is that there's a great deal of
misinformation being perpetuated
in the public sphere: some that is
simply misguided due to a lack of
understanding around the concept
or the complete lack of perspective
and relativity when reporting on the
results (there is only so much info
one can share in 140 characters on
Twitter, for instance), and some that
is borne out of ignorance and a lack
of adequate education by those who
promote the diet.
The Banting diet
I
n 1863 William Banting, a then
obese English undertaker,
adopted a low-carbohydrate
approach to eating for weight
control, which he devised with the
assistance of his physician, Dr.
William Harvey. For this reason
the diet is often referred to as the
Harvey-Banting diet, but most
people, including Noakes, simply
refer to it as the Banting diet.
Banting published his approach
in his Letter on corpulence,
which is what Noakes has largely
based his approach on, albeit in
an adapted form. For the sake of
factual accuracy it should be noted
that Bantings approach was far
from carb-free, or even as low carb
as what Noakes suggests today.
He would eat up to 3-4 slices of dry
toast, a small amount of fruit and
consumed up to seven glasses of
wine, with spirits in the evening. As
an article on carbsanity.blogspot.
com so succinctly put it: Basically
he was on a low carb, moderate
fat, high alcohol diet. According
to the website, which based the
calculation on the information
available in his letter, Bantings
macronutrient ratios were roughly:
35% alcohol, 21% carbs, 23% fats
and 21% protein. However, Prof.
Noakes LCHF diet approach has a
much higher fat ratio, is devoid of
alcohol and is more nutrient dense.
W
hy is there so much
discussion around our
current approach to eating? Well,
Noakes and a growing number
of others, including doctors,
nutritionists and sporting coaches,
believe that the blame for obesity
and lifestyle disease sits squarely at
the door of our modern diet.
Since processed foods, which
are high in sugar, refined flour and
vegetable oils have become our
modern-day staple the incidence of
chronic health conditions has risen.
Many also cite other factors in this
regard, such as our more sedentary
lifestyles, but what we eat seems
to be the most important factor
affecting our health and weight
today.
Sugar is one of the leading
causes of this trend, and mankind
has significantly increased its
total sugar consumption over the
last 150-odd years. Its estimated
that people in some Westernised
countries consume about 67kg of
sugar per year - over 500 sugar-
derived calories per day. This
overconsumption has been shown to
lead to severe metabolic problems,
including insulin resistance,
metabolic syndrome and elevated
cholesterol, among others, and has
been linked to the rise in obesity and
type-II diabetes.
In addition, genetically modified
food production has led to modern
farming methods which tend to
produce crops with less nutritional
value. Modern dwarf wheat, for
instance, contains up to 28% fewer
minerals than older varieties.
And when modern medicine
started to blame saturated fat for
heart disease and high cholesterol
the war against high-fat foods
began. Interestingly, this occurred
in the late 1970s when the first
dietary guidelines for Americans
were published, which correlates
with the start of the countrys
obesity pandemic. Since then
people have chosen to abandon
more traditional forms of natural
fat in favour of products that
contain hydrogenated vegetable oils
like margarine.
Why switch to LCHF?
The need for a different approach
w
S
o why then do we need to
switch to a LCHF diet? Why
not simply cut out the processed
food and sugar, and start eating
food thats closer to its natural
form? Well, Noakes explains
that the LCHF diet works if
someone is insulin resistant.
There are many people who
arent insulin resistant and
theyll do fine on the diet that
they want to eat. As long as you
arent insulin resistant, and as
long as your insulin is acting
normally, then you can have
more carbohydrates.
However, Noakes adds that if
the carbohydrates youre eating
are nutrient poor, you wont get
the same amount of nutrients
as you would from a high fat,
high protein diet theres more
nutrients there, but were being
told the opposite, which is wrong,
The dieticians have said: it is
carbohydrates that give you
nutrients, (which is) nonsense. It
is the exact opposite eggs and
liver, for example, are the two
most nutritionally dense foods on
the planet. If youre eating them
youve got a very nutritious diet,
on just those two foods alone,
one thats more nutritious than
you get from carbohydrates -
rice, pasta, bread which are
nutrient poor and they spike
glucose.
And thats where much of
the rationale behind Noakes
approach lies in moderating
the insulin response to the
massive amounts of glucose we
dump into our bodies through
our modern-day diets. As
he explains, too much
insulin, through a
high-carbohydrate diet, leads
to the lifestyle diseases already
mentioned in this article.
Were all living with far
too much insulin thats the
key. As soon as you cut the
carbohydrates whether you go
ketogenic or not - you will cut
your insulin and then you start to
have a positive effect, Noakes
explains.
He says that many people
who follow this diet are insulin
resistant, but that doesnt
mean that all of the tissues
inside their bodies are insulin
resistant. When these people
eat carbohydrates their bodies
have to work hard to get rid
of the glucose from their
bloodstream. However, their
insulin resistant tissue doesnt
absorb all of this glucose, which
means more work for the insulin
sensitive tissues such as the
fat cells, kidneys and liver. So,
insulin sensitive fat cells will
store fat, the kidneys are insulin
sensitive and people get high
blood pressure because of this
insulin effect. The demands on
the liver to metabolise glucose,
which remains insulin sensitive,
also leads to abnormalities in
triglyceride levels. And it is all
insulin driving these processes.
So the only way we can cope is
to cut the carbohydrates and
reduce insulin that is the key
adaptation of this diet. Cutting
calories is what will cause you
to lose weight, and that may be
beneficial, but the key is getting
insulin down.
dump into our bodies t
FITNESS HIS EDITION 69
Defning LCHF
T
hroughout much of recorded
history some form of fasting
has been used to treat seizures
and convulsions, even when
deemed to be the result of
demonic possession. As early as
1797 low-carbohydrate diets were
used to treat diabetic patients,
and in 1911 starvation and carb
manipulation techniques were
used as tools to manage epilepsy.
Building on the observations
of Rollin Woodyatt, who found
that ketone bodies were produced
by the liver in otherwise healthy
people when starved or if
they consumed a very low-
carbohydrate diet a state now
known as ketosis, Russel Wilder
coined the term ketogenic for the
diet he proposed as a treatment
for epilepsy.
The diet aimed to provide
sufficient protein for growth,
but insufficient amounts of
carbohydrates to meet the
bodys metabolic needs. As such,
energy was largely derived from
stored or ingested fat that was
then converted to ketone bodies,
thereby providing an alternative
energy source to glucose.
The classic ketogenic diet
contained a 4:1 ratio (by weight)
of fat to combined protein and
carbohydrate intake, comprising
up to 90% fat, often with as little
as 50g of carbs per day.
Modern pharmaceuticals
then replaced the use of food
as medicine in modern society.
However, interest in the ketogenic
diet has increased in recent
years as mankind continues to
learn more about the purported
therapeutic and health benefits.
A growing body of new and
previously lost or forgotten
scientific evidence is also coming
to the fore to support many of
the claims that ketogenic diets
address a growing number of
modern-day maladies, including
many lifestyle-related conditions
such as obesity, type-II diabetes,
high cholesterol and high blood
pressure. The diet now also
comes in many guises, including
Atkins, Paleo, Caveman, LCHF or
Banting.
Is it just another diet
trend or a panacea for
modern man?
The Real Meal Revolution aims
to open peoples eyes to the
myth of low-fat eating. Its
packed full of LCHF recipes.
Its estimated that
people in some
Westernised
countries consume
about 67kg of sugar
per year - over
500 sugar-derived
calories per day.
This has been shown
to lead to severe
metabolic problems,
including insulin
resistance, metabolic
syndrome and
elevated cholesterol,
among others, and
has been linked to
the rise in obesity and
type-II diabetes.
Eggs and liver, for example,
are the two most nutritionally
dense foods on the planet.
Since processed
foods, which are
high in sugar,
refined flour and
vegetable oils
have become our
modern-day staple
the incidence of
chronic health
conditions has risen.
[FROM THE EDITOR ]
In your hands youre holding issue 12 of
Fitness His Edition. It marks two years since
we embarked on what was, if Im honest, a
big gamble in a declining publishing industry.
But it seems to have worked as were still
here, and were still growing, thanks in
large part to you, our loyal readers.
Over the last 24 months weve tried
different things. Some worked, others didnt.
But weve learnt from those mistakes, and
weve built on the successes to create what
is hopefully a well-rounded, interesting and
informative read that covers every aspect of
the male health and fitness lifestyle.
Ill admit that it isnt easy to deliver
balanced content to a market as diverse
as the mens health and fitness market.
Differing views, multiple sporting codes,
varied training philosophies and modalities,
and an ever-changing landscape means
we walk a fine line between becoming a
generalist magazine that misses the mark
as a jack of all trades and a master of none,
which offers little value, and a specialist
title that talks over the heads of the majority
of the market were trying to reach. By all
accounts weve found that middle ground,
that balance between mundane, generalised
(dare I say male lifestyle) content and the
stuff published in scientific journals.
PUBLISHED BY THE MAVERICK
PUBLISHING CORPORATION
Publishers of Muscle Evolution and
fitness magazine
011 791 3646
www.maverickpublishing.co.za
DISTRIBUTION
On The Dot, No 2 Herb Street, New Doornfontein
Tel +27 11 4015880 | Monice Kruger
FOR SUBSCRIPTION ENQUIRIES
ftnesshisedition@rnad.co.za
Tel (011) 473-8700
A TIME TO REFLECT
No liability is assumed by The Maverick Publishing
Corporation, Muscle Evolution (and M.Es Fitness) nor any of
the authors of the information provided in this publication.
The Maverick Publishing Corporation cannot be held liable
for any advice provided in this publication. The information
published in this magazine should not be considered as
medical advice, please consult a registered doctor. The
Maverick Publishing Corporation shall not be liable for
any unsolicited material, nor photographs or manuscripts
submitted to our publication of ce. The Maverick Publishing
Corporation reserve the right to reject any advertising
without notifcation, and will not publish
any editorial material nor advertising
that we feel does not comply with our
readership audience.
But thats also a sign of the times. Were
in an era when the broader health and
fitness community is more educated and
more discerning about the content they
consume and ultimately believe. Most guys
who take their training seriously no longer
wish to live with a spoon-fed mentality.
They want to learn and advance their own
knowledge and understanding of their
bodies, and how training and nutrition can
be optimised to achieve their goals. And
hopefully were catering to that, broadening
horizons, challenging you to question the
status quo, and helping you to grow your
health and fitness IQ.
This is a philosophy thats entrenched in
our own business. Were constantly trying
to learn more by questioning conventional
wisdom, challenging commonly held beliefs
and learning from the thought and opinion
leaders who choose to be pioneers in the
industry. Accordingly the magazine is a
constant work in progress, which is why
we value the feedback we get from you.
We also welcome any ideas or suggestions
you may have for how we can continue to
improve. Email me directly if you wish (my
details are listed alongside this column in
the contributors section) and let me know
what you think.
From a personal perspective, my journey
with Fitness His Edition over the last two
years has been extremely rewarding. I get
to meet and talk to seriously intelligent
people who are extremely passionate about
this industry. Im constantly challenged to
question what I know and believe and what
I was taught at university. Thats not to say
that all of it was wrong, but things change,
including our understanding of the human
body and how we react to exercise and
nutrition. For these reasons I find that its
truly an amazing time to be alive. We know
more than ever before, but all of it isnt
100% correct. But thats part of the fun the
continual learning process and our unending
journey of discovery. And thats my parting
thought for this column. The moment you
think you know it all is the moment you
stop growing, be it from a mental, physical
or even emotional perspective. So, long
may your thirst and hunger for knowledge
continue. Hopefully well continue to be
around for many more years to help you
satiate that need.
Enjoy issue 12, and thanks for being a part
of our amazing journey over the last
two years.
PUBLISHER
ANDREW CARRUTHERS
andrew@maverickpublishing.co.za
EDITOR
PEDRO VAN GAALEN
pedro@maverickpublishing.co.za
DEPUTY EDITOR
DEVLIN BROWN
devlin@fitnessmag.co.za
ADVERTISING SALES
BRIAN VERSTER
brian@muscleevolution.co.za
082 924 5284
SENIOR DESIGNERS
Jane Horton, Christian Nel
CONTRIBUTORS &
ADVISORY
Mario Van Biljon
Sean Johnson
Julian Reichman-Israelsohn
CREATIVE DIRECTOR
Tanja Carruthers
ADMINISTRATION
Kate Rodney
PHOTOGRAPHERS
Cindy Ellis,
Richard Cook, Slade;
Hennie Lombard
8 JULY - AUGUST 2014
MUST READ
@fitnessHE
Fitness(His Edition)
Pedro Van Gaalen
Editor
6
8
ONLINE EDITOR & FEATURES WRITER
Melanie Heyns
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Taking on the
FNB 24km
Platinum Trail
Run presented by
Isuzu, which took
place in Buffel-
spoort in May.
10 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[FROM THE PUBLISHER ]
One of the greatest pieces of advice I
can offer anyone who gets into fitness or
sport and really wants to excel at it is to
understand that its a process that demands
time. Changing your body and getting
involved in a sporting code that tests your
every fibre is hugely demanding, and not
just physically. As driven, enthusiastic and
motivated individuals, learning to have
patience is always a tough pill to swallow.
As much as we appreciate the time required
to master and learn new things, were also
impatient. Accordingly, we often tend to push
harder and faster, even at times when we
should actually be backing off.
Now, before I carry on, some of you are
probably thinking but youre supposed to
always push us to do better, train harder
and be more! And youd be right, but Im a
firm believer in the concept that downtime
is just as important as the up time, if I
can call it that. Learning to listen to your
body (honestly, without influence from our
inherent laziness or negativity) is probably
the single most important weapon in your
arsenal when it comes to ensuring progress.
On some days youll find that youll walk
into the gym, amped for the workout:
youve eaten well, slept well and youre well
hydrated, but suddenly you find yourself
pushing mediocre weights or your fitness is
not up to scratch. On other days youll walk
into the gym after a day full of meetings
and not enough food, with work stress on
your mind, but youll find yourself literally
RESPECT THE
DOWNTIME
Andrew Carruthers
Publisher
breaking the place apart in one of your best-
ever training sessions. So whats the point?
Well, its simple, you cant always expect the
finest and best performance from yourself,
no matter how hard you might feel youve
planned and prepped for any given training
session or event. Youre not a machine (even
though some of your mates might think you
are). The truth is everyone needs downtime
at some stage, be it planned or induced, and
you need to learn to change and adapt to the
circumstances. If youre having a bad strength
day, stop trying to reach personal bests and
rather do volume training, for instance. Having
a great day? Smash it and try to break new
levels of strength, fitness or a personal best
on the road.
Just remember, the worst thing to do is
to react in the opposite manner to what your
body is telling you. All youll do is set yourself
up for disappointment and frustration, which
only helps to create negativity and resentment
towards the achievement of your ultimate
goal. Learn to change and adapt your training
and performance around what your body is
telling you, and respect the downtime because
tomorrow is another day. When youre back
to firing on all cylinders again youll be able
to push yourself to new levels with renewed
motivation and positivity.
Enjoy issue 12.
OVER 72 000 MAGAZINES PRINTED (COMBINED)
FROM THE PUBLISHERS OF
54 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[TRAINING ]
Mastering
the
>> BY PEDRO VAN GAALEN, EDITOR
MONTHS OF HARD WORK, SCIENTIFICALLY PROGRAMMED TRAINING AND METICULOUS PREPARATION
CAN ALL BE UNDONE IN THE FINAL WEEKS BEFORE A BIG EVENT OR RACE WITHOUT AN ADEQUATE
TRAINING TAPER. Getting the training taper wrong, or worse, not tapering at all, will result in sub-optimal race-day
performance as your body hasnt been given the time to adapt to the training stimuli you imposed on it in the lead up to the big day.
A
ccordingly, it pays to give as
much attention to the last two-
week period (in general) before a
big race as you did the preceding
six months of periodised training.
While the larger training blocks
aim to deliver you to the start line
in peak condition, an adequate
taper is what will ensure an
athlete is able to convert the
adaptations and conditioning
developed during that time into
a win or a new personal best on
race day.
To achieve this Ian Craig,
BSc MSc CSCS, an exercise
physiologist, nutritional therapist
and sports coach, explains that
athletes need to stimulate a
breakdown in a system through
training, be it the muscular,
endocrine, cardiovascular and/
or cardiorespiratory systems,
following which it is rebuilt
stronger than before.
This essentially means that
youre always on a knife edge trying
to balance this process, and its
easy for an athlete to fall over the
edge into illness, he explains. This
is a concept known as overtraining,
which we covered in a recent issue
of Fitness His Edition.
In addition, your aerobic and
anaerobic systems require enzymes
to function optimally, all of which
need cofactors to function properly.
However, these cofactors can
become severely depleted when
athletes continue to cook it every
day before a big race. Your body
needs time to replenish these
compounds, as well as stores of
other important substances depleted
during heavy training blocks. This
replenishment can only happen with
adequate rest and recovery, and the
correct intake of macronutrients and
enzymes. If it doesnt have this time
to recover and you continue to train
with high volumes before a major
event or race you wont have the
reserves or capacity to compete at
the highest level.
N
utritionally speaking,
Craig says athletes should
continue to eat normally. The
extra calories available due to
the drop in training volume will
allow you to store the glycogen
your body needs. I normally
shift macronutrient ratios to
include slightly more carbs,
while reducing fats and proteins
slightly. This is obviously based
on your genetics and ability to
metabolise carbs or fats. But
dont try anything new. Just
stick to what youre used to.
He also points out that any
endurance event under two
hours in duration wont require
an increase in carb intake.
This approach would obviously
differ when tapering for a multi-
day stage race. In this instance
I might advise an athlete to do
some training on limited carbs
to help them become more fat
efficient. Carb intake would
then be more critical during the
event and directly afterwards for
optimal recovery and glycogen
repletion.
Dietary
guidelines
M
S
o what happens
if you get it
wrong? Aside
from the threat
of overtraining,
you could line up
at the start in a
depleted state,
which means you
may feel tired or
flat.This means
youll lack that
all-important
race-day
sharpness. Its
therefore likely
that youll run a few
seconds per kilometre slower
than you expected. Worse still,
you may bomb at 75% of race
distance, according to Craig.
There is also the threat
of over-tapering resting
too much, with insufficient
stimulation to maintain the
levels of neuromuscular
function that are necessary for
optimal performance. Many
studies show that a period of
inactivity of about two weeks is
when de-training sets in. This
decrease in neuromuscular
function results in a loss
of speed and sharpness.
Technically an athletes
endurance should still be there,
and technique shouldnt
www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 55
Defning the taper
B
en Capostagno from
Science2Sport, a collective
of sports scientists and coaches
who use scientifically-validated
methods and products to give
their athletes an advantage
during training and competition,
defines the training taper as a
strategy that allows athletes to
peak for major competitions.
Manipulating both the volume and
the intensity of the training during
the taper allows the athlete to
flush out fatigue without losing
training-induced adaptations.
There are an infinite number of
methods used to structure tapers.
In addition, there are both intra-
and inter-individual responses to
different tapering protocols. As
such, coaches and athletes often
use a trial and error approach to
determine which tapering protocol
is best suited to a specific athlete.
Craig echoes these sentiments,
and elaborates further by stating
that the type and length of a
taper also varies depending on the
distance or duration of a specific
event. What athletes need to bear
in mind is that it basically takes
three weeks from your hardest
training sessions for your body to
realise the full benefit. However,
this is highly individualised as this
adaptation may happen in two
weeks depending on an athletes
genetics. Regardless, your body
needs time to adapt and a properly
planned taper should therefore give
your body sufficient time to adapt to
your last training cycle.
In practical terms Craig says
the last major training session for
a marathoner should therefore
be 3-4 weeks before the race.
Conversely, a 10km race taper
would be no more than a week
and a taper for a 5km race could
conceivably be as little as one
day. In his coaching methodology
Craig believes that the peak of the
last training cycle should fall on
a specific day, which is basically
The art of
arriving at
an event
or race
fresh and
sharp
taper
calculated backwards from the
race date. For marathon runners
he includes one day of tapering for
every mile of the race. That would
mean almost a month of reduced
training volume for a 26.2-mile
marathon, he explains.
However, clearly defining
what reduced volume refers
to is important. A taper doesnt
mean no training, as many people
incorrectly believe, continues
Craig. Using the marathon taper as
a point of departure, Craig explains
that overall training volume starts
decreasing during the first two
weeks of a taper, but training
intensity may increase.
From week two there should
be a massive drop in volume
between 75-50% of peak training
volume. However, intervals at
slightly faster-than-race pace
should be included to ensure
the athletes neuromuscular
recruitment remains sharp. In
the week before the race there
should be another drop of 50-25%
in overall volume. However, during
these runs the athlete would need
to work at race-pace intensity for
at least one fast session, with a few
intervals or bursts during tempo
runs. The trick is to leave those fast
training session wanting more.
Two days before the event is
usually a complete rest day, with
a short 20-25 minute session that
includes 4-5 bursts to round out
the taper. However, rest days
shouldnt be devoid of activity.
Go for a walk and stay relatively
active, perhaps with some light
stretching.
suffer, but the body will become
de-conditioned and will therefore
be unable to reach and maintain
the physiological peak attained
through training. As such your
other systems will have to
work harder to make up the
difference, which is when early-
onset fatigue sets in. Thats why
it is essential to do some race-
pace and stride bursts in the
final week as it maintains that
sharpness, concludes Craig.
Capostagno adds that other
symptoms of getting the taper
wrong include sluggish or
sleepy legs at the start, with
athletes often saying that it took
their legs a while to wake up.
Getting it wrong
Carb intake would
then be more
critical during the
event and directly
afterwards for
optimal recovery
and glycogen
repletion.
Manipulate both the volume and the
intensity of the training during the taper.
MUST READ
5
4
12 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[ LATEST NEWS AND EVENTS ]
FITNESS NEWS
OUR TOP FITNESS
READS THIS MONTH
SOUTH AFRICAS 50 MOST
FAMOUS RUGBY PHOTOS
By Gallo Images
This collectors book will bring back many
happy, and a few not-so-happy memories of great
South African rugby moments. In this book you
will see over 50 photos of South Africas most
famous rugby stars covering over 50 years of
memorable rugby moments.
R195 www.jonathanball.co.za
EAT MOVE SLEEP
By Tom Rath
Eat Move Sleep is a transformative book
and online application that will improve
your health for years to come. While Tom Raths
bestsellers on strengths and well-being have
inspired more than 5 million people in the last
decade, Eat Move Sleep reveals his greatest
passion and expertise. Quietly managing a serious
illness for more than 20 years, Tom has
assembled wide ranging information on the
impact of eating, moving and sleeping. Written in
his classic conversational style the book features
the most proven and practical ideas from his
research. This remarkably quick read offers advice
that is comprehensive yet simple and often
counterintuitive, but always credible.
R278.66 www.kalahari.com
THE BLOOD SUGAR SOLUTION
By Dr Mark Hyman
In The Blood Sugar Solution, Dr. Mark
Hyman reveals that the secret solution to
losing weight and preventing diabetes, heart
disease, stroke, dementia and cancer is balanced
insulin levels. Dr. Hyman describes the seven keys
to achieving wellness - nutrition, hormones,
inflammation, digestion, detoxification, energy
metabolism, and a calm mind - and explains his
revolutionary six-week healthy-living programme.
With advice on diet, green living, supplements and
medication, exercise, and personalising the plan
for optimal results, the book also teaches readers
how to maintain life-long health.
R351.51 www.kalahari.com
1
2
EAT MOVE SLEEP
3
Cafe Raw now
serving healthy
meals in Bryanston
Cafe Raw is a recently launched secluded,
peaceful cafe that offers gourmet raw cuisine. All
food is preservative free, contains no sugar, and no
processed foods or animal products are served for a healthier dining
experience. The cafe is open from Tuesday to Friday, 10h00 15h00,
with a buffet lunch served from 11h30. Takeaways are available and
bookings are advisable. The Cafe Raw health store offers healthy
snacks, honey, oils, coconut products, nut butters, teas from around
the world, superfoods, nuts, dried fruit, books, gifts and more. Bring
the family and enjoy healthy gourmet raw cuisine in the peaceful,
secure garden setting on every last Sunday of the month.
Cafe Raw is located at 103 Adele Place, Hurlingham Ext 5,
Johannesburg. For bookings or orders contact Carol on
082 896 8176 or email carol@profitness.co.za.
PLANET FITNESS LAUNCHES
LES MILLS RPM CLASSES
Planet Fitness has launched another Les Mills class called RPM across 15 clubs.
RPM is an indoor cycling workout where individuals ride to the rhythm of powerful
music across a range of terrains. The RPM instructor leads the pack through a journey
choreographed to inspirational music that incorporates different riding
positions and speeds to suit the terrain. Les Mills training is based on the
successful group effect approach - a powerful way to motivate, inspire
and achieve results. The benefits of RPM include increased cardiovascular
fitness, fat loss, toning and shaping legs, hips and buttocks, increased leg
strength and muscular endurance, with up to 600 calories burnt during a
normal 45-minute class. A new RPM class is released every three months
with new music and choreography. Visit www.planetfitness.co.za to see
if your local Planet Fitness offers the class.
E-Fit Electro Fitness now in SA
GET AN EFFECTIVE MUSCLE BUILDING WORKOUT IN ONLY 20 MINUTES WITH
E-FIT ELECTRO FITNESS. THE ELECTRIC MUSCLE STIMULATION (EMS) METHOD,
WHEN COMBINED WITH ACTIVE EXERCISES, CONTRIBUTES TO MUSCLE GROWTH
AND DEVELOPMENT. This method is different to the treatment commonly used
in beauty salons where active exercise is not implemented. This approach is
ten times more effective than this training done separately. E-fit training also
stimulates the entire body simultaneously. As all muscle groups are exercised at
the same time an average 1.5 hour full-body workout can be reduced to just 20
minutes. Due to the EMS, all muscle groups are trained simultaneously generating
36,000 muscle contractions throughout the body. Additional workout programmes
include lymphatic circulation enhancement, relaxation, improving body posture
and strengthening dorsal muscles. For bookings or more info contact Sean on 082
562 2854 or visit Ultimate Fitness Centre, 47 Van Riebeeck Ave, Edenvale.
When Sean from E-Fit insisted on letting me try out this new and revolutionary
training system and told me it'll only take about 20 minutes, I was skeptical. But I
pitched up, got kitted out with all the necessary gear and began the training. I was
immediately blown away at how much more resistance the machine generated
while trying to complete simple exercises. The EMS definitely put me through my
paces. When it was all over I was left as vascular and pumped as I would be after any
hardcore weight training workout. The next few days after the training proved just
how hard my body had worked as the satisfying dull ache that accompanies severe
muscular strain lasted a few days. I highly recommend that anyone who wants to
blast through plateaus and reach new levels in their training and physique visit Sean
and E-Fit. I'm definitely sold on the benefits! - Andrew, Publisher.
GNC
CONCEPT STORE
LAUNCHES IN
CAPE TOWN
THE SECOND GENERAL NUTRITION
CENTRE (GNC) CONCEPT STORE
IN SOUTH AFRICA RECENTLY
LAUNCHED AT THE V&A
WATERFRONT IN CAPE TOWN. GNC
addresses the needs of modern
consumers who want to improve
their quality of life and who place a
major focus on their personal health
and preventative self-care. The V&A
Waterfront store has experienced and
qualified nutrition advisors on hand to
assist customers in finding the correct
products to suit their unique needs.
The first GNC stand-alone concept
store opened at Cresta Shopping
Centre in April and additional stores
will be rolled out at premier malls
across the country. Visit GNC store
6106 at the V&A Waterfront or call
021 418 1116 for more info. GNCs
range of vitamins, sports nutrition
and weight loss products are also
available at larger Clicks stores
nationwide.
SIMULATED ALTITUDE
TRAINING AT BIKEPLUS
BIKEPLUS, A CYCLING SHOP SITUATED IN THE HEART OF THE LEAFY AND
MOUNTAINOUS CAPE TOWN SUBURB OF CONSTANTIA, now offers simulated altitude
training to help clients improve performance and recovery, prepare for trips or races
at high altitude, and support general health, weight loss and well-being. The BikePlus
Altitude Centre houses a hypoxic training facility, which is only the second one in Africa.
The methodology of this training is premised on the theory that exposure to a low-oxygen
environment will lead to adaptations as the body becomes more efficient at transporting
and using oxygen. This mimics the train-high-sleep-low methodology, known as
intermittent hypoxic training, which puts the body through performance-boosting stresses
for a few sessions per week, while also enabling athletes to train hard and recover well
in the normal low-altitude environment. The BikePlus Altitude Centre features Watt bikes, designed to
simulate authentic cycling motion, with extensive performance measurement and feedback mechanisms to
ensure performance gains are tracked and monitored. For more info visit www.bikeplus.co.za.
THE ORIGINAL
GETFIT
CHALLENGE
The Original GetFit Challenge is a 12-week
results driven programme geared to get
you into the best shape of your life.
Originating in Durban in 2008, the challenge continues to
change bodies and lives. Participants are trained in group
sessions and are also assessed on their eating habits to
help them make healthy and positive lifestyle changes.
Sessions include a combination of cardio and weight
training exercises aimed at increasing fitness levels and
improving muscle strength or tone. The sessions are
run by trainers who monitor correct form and encourage
participants to ensure optimum results are achieved.
An eating plan is given to everyone who signs up and this
encourages participants to adopt a simple healthier way
of eating to help them reach their goal weight. Qualified
professionals offer nutritional advice to participants
throughout the Challenge. All participants can easily track
their progress online, a unique feature which sets GetFit
apart from other fitness challenges. Participants can also
win cash and prizes in categories that include Biggest
Transformation in under 40, over 40 and over 50 age groups,
Best Physique and Fittest Male and Female. GetFit Jozi
opened in 2012 and is currently into its seventh successful
challenge, with GetFit Port Elizabeth currently on challenge
three and GetFit Pietermaritzburg hot on their heels.
For more info visit www.getfitchallenge.co.za or
call 0861 FIT FIT (0861 348 348).
NEW ICY HOT LAUNCHES
The new IcyHot range, now available in South Africa, offers
soothing relief from everyday minor aches and pains associated
with muscle strains, sprains, bruises, cramps, arthritis and
simple backache. IcyHots formulations include active ingredients
to relieve minor pain, namely, menthol or a combination of menthol
and methyl salicylate. Menthol soothes the effects of muscle soreness
and joint pain, and creates a cooling sensation that diverts attention
from the actual pain. Methyl Salicylate also has pain-killing and anti-
inflammatory properties, and increases blood flow. Available in four
variants including a balm, cream, vanishing scent gel or patch from
selected pharmacies and retailers nationwide.
For more info visit www.icyhotza.co.za.
E
V
E
N
TS
C
A
LE
N
D
A
R
FITNESS NEWS
>> BEER CRAWL
Project Hot Box will be launching a brand
new event this winter that includes a fun
run while savouring some of SAs best
local craft beers. Mad-cap challenges
and entertainment will add to the fun for
the day. Smack Republic, an innovative
craft beer brewery in the heart of the
Maboneng district in Johannesburg, will
be refuelling racers on the day.
All drivers will be required to take a
breathalyser test before leaving the
parking area, compliments of iWyze.
Date: 5 July 2014
Venue: The Big Red Barn, Olifantsfontein
Distance: 5km fun-run
For more info visit www.projecthotbox.com/
beercrawl.
>> 5150 BELA BELA TRIATHLON
Be part of South Africas fastest growing
triathlon series, the 5150. The 5150 Bela
Bela Triathlon is the perfect way to start
the new triathlon season and the race
is also a qualifying event for the Hy-Vee
5150 US Championship. Team entries
are available for those who arent ready
to take on the full distance. Entries are
limited to 1,400.
Date: 23 August 2014
Venue: Forever Resorts, Warmbaths
Distances: 1.5km swim, 40km bike and
10km run
Enter online at www.5150.co.za.
>> NAMAQUA QUEST 4 DAY TRAIL RUN
Run through the worlds most spectacular
natural flower display as you cross
flower covered valleys, rugged, ancient
mountains and amazing trails in the heart
of Namaqualand during peak flower
season.
Date: 27 - 30 August 2014
Venue: Jakkalswater Guest Farm,
Springbok, Namaqualand
Distance: 110-120km
For more info visit
www.namaquaquest.co.za.
14 JULY - AUGUST 2014
PHOTO CREDIT: LINDA BASSON
>> CAPE TOWN MARATHON 2014
The route is confirmed and entries are open for this years
Cape Town Marathon. In addition to providing an opportunity for
participants from around the world to run through the beautiful
city of Cape Town, this iconic city marathon brings with it prize
money in excess of R1.6 million. The route will take runners past
many of the citys natural and cultural attractions, including the
12 Apostles, the Atlantic Seaboard, the Bo-Kaap, the Company
Gardens, Parliament, the City Hall, the Castle of Good Hope,
District 6, the V&A Waterfront and Table Bay.
Date: Sunday, 21 September 2014
Distances: 42.2km, 10km Peace Run, a 5km Peace Fun Run
For more info or to enter visit www.capetownmarathon.com.
>> B-FIT&FAB EXPO
The B-Fit&Fab Expo is South Africas first
wellness, weight-loss, health, beauty, nutrition,
supplement, strength, longevity, fitness,
extreme body transformation and multi-
sports expo. Over 100 exhibitors within the
beauty and fitness industry will display and
promote their products and services, while a
variety of selected fitness, strength, sporting
and beauty events will provide entertainment
during the two-day expo, including the Rossi
Classic Fitness & Bikini Pageant + Bodybuilding
Spectacular, an SA Strongman Challenge,
street dancing and an MMA demonstration.
Dates: 20 & 21 September 2014
Venue: Heartfelt Arena, Centurion
For more info visit www.bfitandfabexpo.co.za.
>> CAPE CLASSIC 380
The Cape Classic 380 multi-day stage race
is set to take place for the first time in one of
the most picturesque areas of the Western
Cape. The Cape Classic 380 will have rolling
road closures so that riders can ride in a safe
environment. Entries opened in April 2014.
Date: 31 October to 2 November 2014
Venue: The Montagu Country Hotel
Distances: 144km, 98km and 138km
For more info contact Andrew Selby on
082 495 0199, email a-selby@mweb.co.za or
visit www.capeclassic.info.
>> CLUBBELL ATHLETICS CERTIFICATION
Join Clubbell training founder Scott Sonnen for
a Level 1 Clubbell Athletics Certification course.
Date: 14-15 November 2014
Venue: Blackriver CrossFit, Cape Town
For more info or to book contact Jaco Joubert on
JCJoubert13@gmail.com or call 083 412 5939.
>> TACFIT FIELD INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATION
Join TacFit founder Scott Sonnen for a Level 1
and Team Leader Level 2 TacFit Field Instructor
Certification course.
Date: 16-17 November 2014
Venue: Blackriver CrossFit, Cape Town
For more info or to book contact Jaco Joubert on
JCJoubert13@gmail.com or call 083 412 5939.
>> THE MUNGA
The Munga, a new 1000km single-stage race,
claims to be the toughest, most demanding, yet
most rewarding mountain bike race on earth,
offering prize money of $1 million.
Date: 3 December 2014
Distance: 1000km
Route: Bloemfontein to Stellenbosch
For info visit www.themunga.com.
FITPRO
COURSE DATES
JOHANNESBURG
12 July: Boxing workshop
19 July: CPR and choking
19 July: Plyometrics workshop
26 July: Sports massage course
21 July: National Certificate in Fitness
(full-time)
2-3 August: Kettlebell Ballistics course
7 August: Exercise science course
16 August: Foam roller workshop
CAPE TOWN
26-27 July: Kettlebell Ballistics course
A BETTER
CARB
OPTION
Quinoa, pronounced
keen-wa, is high in
protein, low in fat and
is cholesterol free.
It is a whole grain and a
complete protein, which
is a rare combination,
and it is easy to
prepare. It is an ideal
substitute for rice, pasta or couscous as
it is low in fat. It is also gluten free, which
means people who suffer from coeliac
disease or who are gluten intolerant can eat
this food with no side effects.
It is also a low glycaemic Index food,
which means it does not spike blood sugar
levels and is therefore indicated for use by
diabetics, as well anyone trying to control
blood sugar levels. Quinoa can be eaten
hot as a side dish instead of rice or pasta,
or cold, added to salads for some extra
texture. It can be eaten sweet (crunchy
quinoa granola) or savoury (curried quinoa
salad with broccoli and cauliflower).
Pouyoukas quinoa is available at Pick n
Pay, Spar and Checkers and retails from
R26,59 for 250g.
When free radicals
oxidise cholesterol, blood
vessels are damaged and fat builds
up in arteries, which can lead to a
heart attack. The antioxidants
in black olives prevent this
oxidation of cholesterol, thereby
helping to prevent heart disease.
oxidation of cholesterol, thereby
GRAPES
A great natural
anti-infammatory.
Coconut oil
contains
four growth
hormones
that help the
development
of many
organisms.
One medium
sized apple is
packed with
4g of soluble
fibre.
There are
over 700
varieties of
peaches.
FRUITY FACTS:
Himalayan
rock salt is
rich in iron,
magnesium,
phosphorus,
calcium,
potassium and
chloride. It
also contains
traces of boron,
fluoride, iodine,
zinc, selenium
and copper.
Four
reasons to
eat more
cabbage
Purple cabbage contains
anthocyanins, which
are proven to have anti-
carcinogenic properties. Its
also low in saturated fat and
cholesterol, and is a good
source of fibre. As a good
source of vitamins C and
K, cabbage will naturally
bolster the good work your
vitamin supplement of choice
is doing for your health.
18 JULY - AUGUST 2014
HEALTH NEWS
[ HEALTH TIPS FOR MEN ]
PharmaChoices ViralChoice immune
booster range now includes a non-
prescription cough lozenge, for the treatment
of symptoms associated with respiratory
infections and coughs.The herbal preparation helps to
reduce and treat the symptoms associated with a cough thanks
to the inclusion of thyme as the active ingredient. Research
has shown that thyme is an effective herbal remedy for coughs
as it contains natural anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and
antispasmodic properties for the bronchial tubes, which assists
in the release of stubborn
phlegm and relieves
the cough by promoting
expectoration.
McNabs SuperGuard is a convenient single-dose sachet.
It delivers a six-tablet formulation that contains essential
vitamins needed to support your bodys immune system
such as vitamins A, B, C, D and E. The product also contains
Sutherlandia*, an Africa immune-boosting herb that has
been used for centuries by many different cultures to combat
infection and boost immune function. SuperGuard also
contains copper, selenium and zinc essential micronutrients
needed to maintain an effective immune system and prevent
common viral infections such as colds and flu.
Available countrywide
in local garage forecourt
stores, as well as Pick n
Pay, Shoprite Checkers,
Spar, Clicks, Dis-Chem and
many leading pharmacies.
3 HEALTH
BENEFITS
OF GINGER
Helps reduce flatulence.
Improves the absorption
of essential nutrients in
the body.
Helps to alleviate throat
and nose congestion
when drunk as a tea.
For a concentrated
source of minerals such
as copper, iron, calcium,
potassium, manganese,
selenium, zinc and
magnesium add some
fennel seeds to your food.
Available at pharmacies and
leading retail outlets at the RRP
of R29.95 (20). For more info
visit www.pharmachoice.co.za.
Suffering from a sore throat,
but dont have throat lozenges?
Try gargling every 2 hours with
teaspoon of salt dissolved
in cup of warm water.
SuperGuard
yourself this winter
BROWN RICE IS AN
EXCELLENT SOURCE
FOR MANGANESE,
SELENIUM AND
MAGNESIUM. IT
ALSO HAS MORE B
VITAMINS AND IRON
THAN WHITE RICE.
BROWN RICE IS ALSO
A BETTER OPTION
FOR THOSE WHO
ARE PRE-DIABETIC
BECAUSE IT HELPS
TO STABILISE BLOOD
SUGAR LEVELS.

MEDIUM
SIZED
CARROT
IS MADE
UP OF 25
CALORIES,
6g OF
CARBS
AND 2g
OF FIBRE.
ViralChoice
Cough Lozenges
SORE THROAT
SUPPORT
YOUR IMMUNITY
THIS WINTER
The Linctagon range offers support to
those who are suffering from colds and flu
or secondary bacteriological infections of
the nose, throat, lungs or ears. The active
ingredients in Linctagons plant base display
both anti-bacteriological and bacteriostatic
properties, making the products in the
range ideal for use in the defence against
bacteriological respiratory infections and
associated conditions such as sinusitis,
ear infections, tonsillitis and bronchitis.
Linctagon products are available from
pharmacies, Dis-Chem, Clicks, retail outlets
and garage forecourts (sachets) nationwide.
For more info visit www.nativa.co.za.
According to the Mayo
Clinic, at least 30
minutes per day of
aerobic exercise helps
to strengthen our
hearts and boosts our
immune systems.
Almond butter and almonds are a great
addition to any diet because theyre tasty,
are a great source of plant protein and help
reduce bad (LDL) cholesterol levels.
FOODS
THAT FIGHT
HEADACHES
Cherries
Coee
Salmon
Whole grains
Spinach
Corn
Banana
Flaxseed
A
S
P
A
R
A
G
U
S
RECHARGE YOUR FEET
Recharge Your Feet contains herbal extracts,
essential oils and active ingredients that
naturally help to alleviate the symptoms
associated with diabetic feet; poor circulation,
numbness and tingling, changes
in skin temperature, swelling
and changes in skin colour. The
product also assists with fungal
infections, cracked heels, dry skin,
swelling, restless legs, varicose
veins or spider veins and
minor cuts or burns. No alcohol,
parabens, petrochemicals, animal
products and synthetic fragrances
are contained in the product.
Available at Dis-Chem, Clicks,
leading pharmacies and health shops
nationwide. For more info visit
www.rechargeyourlife.co.za.
of mango contains
107 calories,
0.45g of fat and
28g of carbs.
1
CUP
ASPARAGUS IS A
GOOD SOURCE OF
FIBRE, FOLATE,
VITAMINS A, C, E
AND K, AS WELL
AS CHROMIUM,
WHICH IS A TRACE
MINERAL THAT
ENHANCES THE
ABILITY OF INSULIN
TO TRANSPORT
GLUCOSE FROM THE
BLOODSTREAM
INTO CELLS.
20 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[ MUSCLE >> STRENGTH >> NUTRITION ]
SUPPLEMENTS
The GNC Mega Men Sport Vitapak Program
combines ingredients and nutrients designed to
support the overall health, athletic performance
and exercise intensity of active men. Each pack
consists of a combination of GNC Mega Men
sport multivitamin, Energy Formula, beta-
Alanine and L-glutamine. These slow-release
caplets help to boost the immune system,
improve energy levels, enhance cardiovascular
and cell health, boosts various metabolic
processes, offers joint cushioning and aids
muscle recovery.
BIOGEN
WELLMUNE WGP
Biogen Wellmune WGP is a natural beta
1,3/1,6 glucan, clinically proven to boost the
bodys immune strength before and after
exercise, sustain energy levels and maintain
overall health. Wellmune has regulatory
approval worldwide, including FDA GRAS
notication, and offers both competitive and
recreational athletes an immunity edge to
support their training regimen.
DIS-CHEM QUALITY
ASSURANCE PROGRAMME
GNC
MEGA
MEN
SPORT
VITAPAK
Available in large Clicks stores and GNC
concept stores. Visit www.gnc.co.za/stores
to find your closest outlet.
32GI TRUMAG
32Gi TruMag is a slow release, 100%
bioavailable magnesium tablet that fuses
magnesium and carnitine. Unlike most
magnesium supplements TruMag breaks
down in the body over a period of eight hours
and is completely absorbed by the system,
making a single dosage extremely effective.
The unique patented infused combination of
carnitine makes it a powerful formula for any
endurance athlete due to carnitines unique
property of transporting free fatty acids to the mitochondria in muscle cells, where theyre utilised
as a source of energy. This helps to delay the onset of muscle fatigue, promotes fat burning,
aids muscle recovery, assists in exercise performance, reduces the risk of muscle cramping and
promotes overall immune system health.
Supashapes CinoLean is a decadent, low-
fat, low calorie, instant cappuccino with
no added sugar and a hint of chocolate
flavour. It has also been blended with
an extra dose of caffeine for an energy
kick. Now available at Dis-Chem, Game
and other key retail outlets throughout
South Africa.
SUPASHAPE
CINOLEAN
E
V
O
X
3
D
T
2 3 Dimensional Training 2 is Evoxs strongest
pre-workout product ever. This powerful
nitric oxide pre-workout supplement gives
your workout that added edge by delivering
dynamic muscle pumps, increasing drive
and enhancing mental focus. It also defends
against fatigue. 3DT2 will provide you with the
lasting energy and increased endurance
you need to
pump out those
extra reps, all
while maintaining
razor sharp focus.
Available from all
Evox stockists.
Following more USA-based development USN
has launched Lean-8, a high protein, low carb,
high fibre product. Designed as a premium
lean muscle gain powder, USN Lean-8 contains
a selection of protein sources including fast,
medium and slow release proteins such as
whey concentrate and isolate, milk concentrate
and micellar casein. This stimulates protein
synthesis while limiting
muscle breakdown. The
product is an ideal daily
snack option for those
who aim to enhance
muscle tissue recovery
and growth. It also
contains AminoGenR,
a digestive enzyme
shown to improve
protein digestion and
amino acid assimilation,
and ToleraseTL to
help improve lactose
metabolism and
digestive comfort.
Dis-Chem has partnered with HFL Sport Science Laboratories, a division of LGC Group Limited,
the largest global provider of contamination testing, doping control and research, to test the sports
nutrition and food products sold in the groups pharmacies nationwide. Their methodology meets
the exacting requirements of various regulating bodies, including ISO 17025, GLP (Good Laboratory
Practice) and GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice), and covers all formulation types powders,
capsules/tablets, gels, bars and liquids. In addition, Dis-Chem has also put various checks in place
as part of their exclusive Quality Verified Retailer programme to protect consumers.
Nutritional advice is available online via a registered nutritionist: nutrition@dischem.co.za.
For more info visit www.dischem.co.za/ChooseSafe.
Dis-Chem has implemented a comprehensive Quality
Assurance Programme that is endorsed by renowned medical
and industry experts, and uses the best possible suppliers,
authorities and partners available.
USN Lean-8
[THINKING INSIDE THE BOX]
>> BY JULIAN REICHMAN-
ISRAELSOHN, owner and
head trainer at CrossFit
Platinum
COLUMN
22 JULY - AUGUST 2014
F
irst and foremost, I
work very closely with
physiotherapists (two
of whom are on our
CrossFit Games Team)
and chiropractors to come up with
proactive ways to incorporate prehab
exercises during CrossFit training
to lessen any chance of unnecessary
injury. In this regard the emphasis must
be on teaching proper technique above
all else. This is necessary as many
people need to be re-taught how to
move correctly, which forms part of the
CrossFit Inc. ethos (available on www.
CrossFit.com):
CrossFit is not easy and its
not simple. To be fit and physically
competent to handle all of the
challenges in life is no small endeavour.
As you work to become a fitter and
healthier person, youll need to learn about:
Movement - How to move safely and
effectively.
Fitness - What it means to be fit. Its definition,
the supporting theories, and how to go about
attaining it in real life.
Nutrition - Eat meat and vegetables, nuts and
seeds, some fruit, little starch and no sugar.
Education is a big part of CrossFit. When you
start, youre not expected to have the knowledge
you need. CrossFit is an education about
movement, fitness, nutrition and community. All
of these things require responsibility, common
sense, and work to educate oneself using all the
tools available in the community.
I also have many clients who use CrossFit
as part of their injury rehab routine. Another
excerpt from CrossFit.com, which I feel sums
up the relationship between CrossFit and
rehab best, states: CrossFit is an education in
movement and fitness. As is rehabilitation. The
patient and body are re-taught how to move
correctly.
Many hours and years have been wasted, and
continue to be wasted, by individuals training
in various facilities without ever being correctly
educated as to the best ways to move. The injury
rate within these arenas will remain constant
until the level of education in training is raised
and the coaches, trainers and athletes are aware
of how the body can and should be moving during
training, competition and in life.
If our movement patterns and technique are
flawed, or the supporting structures of the body
are slightly incorrect the body will eventually
become overloaded and unbalanced, which is
when injury is more likely to occur (read more
about this in the Its not the shoes feature on
page 32 - Ed). Unfortunately time is only spent
on correcting bad form and technique during
rehabilitation with physios and biokineticists
once injury has occurred.
CrossFit is a great way of minimising time
spent in dealing with injuries as CrossFitters
are taught rehabilitation exercises within their
normal training regimes. They are therefore
educated and their movement patterns are
corrected before injury occurs.
One of the key elements of CrossFit is the
initiation of movement from core to extremity.
Core work is also the key to many rehabilitation
programmes and routines. CrossFit teaches us
to initiate movements from the core, engage the
correct muscle groups
and take the body through
the full range of motion.
Rehab does the same
thing. Injuries are rectified
by teaching the patients
to fire or engage the core
and re-teach the body and
joints to move through the
correct ranges of motion in
the way we were designed
to. CrossFit also teaches
midline stabilisation in all
its movements, which can
only be done when the core
has been strengthened,
the stabilising muscles are
doing their jobs and the
primary movers are able to
move the body through a
full range of motion.
Included in the ten
physical skills of fitness
outlined by CrossFit are
flexibility, coordination, agility, balance and
accuracy. Flexibility is generally a physical
response to physical movement. Coordination,
agility, balance and accuracy are neural
responses to training, but these skills are also
included in a rehabilitation programme. These
skills are needed for both optimal performance
and rehabilitation. As with strength and skill
development, rehab is aimed the re-educating
the bodys movement patterns and balance
the bodys alignment to increase and improve
performance. Accordingly, CrossFit, in its quest
for general physical preparedness and all-
round fitness, has become the new-age form of
exercise that incorporates many of the attributes
used in rehabilitation in its everyday application.
A good CrossFit programme can therefore
function as a straightforward programme to
enhance performance, as a tool for prehab
and injury prevention or, if injury has already
occurred, as a tool to rehabilitate the client. Just
make sure your coach knows the difference and
programmes accordingly.
AS WERE SEEING, TIME AND TIME AGAIN, WHEN DONE CORRECTLY CROSSFIT SAVES LIVES. ITS
SAVING MANY FROM THE DISEASE OF OBESITY, ILL HEALTH AND A SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE BY
EMPOWERING PEOPLE TO TAKE CONTROL OF THEIR LIVES AND CORRECT THE BAD HABITS THAT
PLAGUE MODERN SOCIETY, WHICH IN ITSELF CAN BE CONSIDERED A FORM OF REHABILITATION. AND,
CONTRARY TO A COMMONLY HELD BELIEF THAT CROSSFIT IS INJURIOUS, IT CAN ACTUALLY FULFILL
ANOTHER REHABILITATIVE FUNCTION REHAB FROM INJURY.
R
E
H
A
B
I
L
I
T
A
T
I
O
N
CROSSFIT
FOR INJURY
CrossFit is an education in movement and
ftness. As is rehabilitation. The patient and
body are re-taught how to move correctly.
[ THE LATEST GEAR ]
24 JULY - AUGUST 2014
The Withings Pulse O
2
is a new
activity tracker that captures
steps, distance walked, elevation
climbed and calories burned. At night
it monitors your sleeping cycles and, when
asked, it measures your heart rate and oxygen
saturation level. Four LED lights give you a visual
representation of your current health status. This
feedback enables you to make more informed
choices regarding your health and fitness. The
device can be worn in three different ways on
your wrist using the adjustable strap, attached
to your belt or apparel using the clip or in your
pocket or bag. The Withings Pulse can also be
used to track your running, tracking data such as
duration and distance. The Pulse O
2
automatically
syncs to your smartphone throughout the
day using embedded Bluetooth Low Energy
technology. Each time the data is wirelessly
transmitted to your free, secure Withings account
it's made available via the dedicated web and
mobile apps (iOS and Android).
S
o
n
y
W
S
e
r
i
e
s

S
p
o
r
t
s
W
a
l
k
m
a
n

The waterproof design holds up to both


intense workouts and depths of up to 2m
under water. The rapid charge battery
ensures youre ready to train within three
minutes of charging, which delivers up
to 60 minutes of use and a full charge
can deliver up to eight hours of constant
play. Drag and drop functionality enables
you to mix up your music before every
session by transferring your favourite music from your Mac or PC quickly and
easily. The multi-format playback means
the device is compatible with MP3, WMA,
AAC or L-PCM music files, and with 4GB
of internal memory you can store up to
900 songs. Convenient, multi-function
playback buttons ensure ease of use as you can quick tap to switch tracks or switch folders with a longer hold. In playlist mode, a quick tap changes songs, while a tap and hold changes the
entire playlist.
FITNESS TECH
The Suunto Ambit2 R is a GPS-enabled watch for
runners. It provides responsive and reliable speed
and distance readings thanks to FusedSpeed, a
unique combination of GPS and accelerometer
data. The device also measures running cadence
from your wrist. With the ability to plan workouts
or download complete training programs from
Movescount.com, the watch will remind you of
daily targets and tracks target completion. It also
provides speed and intensity guidance while you run.
Additionally, track-back and full navigation features
offer the freedom to explore new trails without
getting lost. Available in
black or white, with
the white sporting
a soft silicone
strap for an
improved fit
for women.
Both can be
purchased
with or
without a
Suunto heart
rate belt.
S
U
U
N
T
O

A
M
B
I
T
2

R
WITHINGS
PULSE O
2
The Sony W
Series Sports W
alkm
an is a
w
ire-free headphone that does aw
ay w
ith
irritating cables to let you w
ork out com
fortably
in the gym
, outdoors or in the pool.
THE APP INSTANTLY TURNS YOUR DATA
INTO EASY TO READ GRAPHS THAT SHOW
TRENDS AND SHOWCASE YOUR PROGRESS.
Jomi Smart
Water Bottle
Sleeve-Plus-App
THE JOMI SMART WATER BOTTLE SLEEVE-PLUS-APP
AND BAND-PLUS-APP (PICTURED) HAVE BEEN DESIGNED
TO TAKE THE GUESSWORK OUT OF STAYING
OPTIMALLY HYDRATED THROUGHOUT THE DAY.
The devices have been designed to fit under or around almost
any water container or bottle, and syncs to your online dashboard
and smartphone app on the fly via Bluetooth 4.0. A built-in sensor
tracks when you sip and how much you drink to track your daily
fluid intake. The system constantly monitors your hydration levels
and notifies you via its embedded lights or push notifications if
youre falling behind your daily intake goals.
QA&
MENS FITNESS
Do you have any questions?
Email info@ftnessmag.co.za
and one of our experts answer
it for you.
Q
A
CONSIDERING SUPPLEMENTS
QUESTION WAS ANSWERED BY MARIO VAN BILJON NHDIP: MICROBIOLOGY
I recently started gyming as I want to gain more
muscle. You obviously read a lot about the importance
and effectiveness of using supplements to achieve
this goal, but Im not sure whether I should be using
them or not. My gym partner says that I shouldnt
use supplements because my body will become too
dependent on them. He says a proper eating plan will help
me gain the muscle and weight I want. However, I have read
the articles you publish on supplements, which seem in
favour of this practice. I would therefore like to know why
you think I should use supplements? I would also like to
know what would happen to my body if I stopped
using them? Kimollo Latakgomo
26 JULY - AUGUST 2014
Your training partner is unfortunately misinformed when it comes to supplements. Nutritional
supplements are not drugs and do not create dependencies aside from stimulant-based products
like thermogenic fat burners. Rather, they are intended to support a well-planned diet and exercise
programme. You can certainly get good results without them, but the intelligent use of nutritional
supplements by way of vitamins, protein powders, creatine, amino acids and essential fatty acids, amongst
others, will support your efforts in the gym, and will also aid recovery afterwards. As a result, while you are
supplementing with such products you can expect your progress to be faster than it would be on a typical whole
food diet alone. When you stop using them your progress will simply fall back in line with the progress you
would have been making without them. With the aforementioned in mind, whether you choose to supplement or
not, here are some dietary tips that I think will help you in your quest to gain lean muscle mass.
5
DONT NEGLECT FIBRE
Fibre is vital for good health, and is especially important when youre eating a high protein diet aimed
at gaining muscle mass. Fibre, particularly that found in fruits and vegetables, provides a number of important
benefits, not least of which is the prevention of constipation by providing bulk to the stool. High-protein
diets can, by themselves, cause constipation. This is an important consideration as many who follow a high
protein diet suffer from constipation. This can slow metabolism, and is bad for the absorption and utilisation
of nutrients. By including sufficient vegetables in ones diet this problem can be circumvented. The fibre in
vegetables is generally known as insoluble fibre. It has the advantage of being relatively low in carbohydrates,
while still providing the body with many essential minerals and phytonutrients. There are also soluble fibres
found in foods such as oatmeal and the pulp of fruits. Soluble fibres speed up transit time through the digestive
tract too and also have the added advantage of helping to lower blood cholesterol levels. If getting sufficient
fibre from fruit and vegetables poses a challenge you can always supplement with something like psyllium husk
or one of the other common dietary fibre supplements available at your local supplement stockist.
1
EAT FREQUENTLY
When you eat may be as important as what you eat. Eating for
maximum muscle gain ideally requires dividing meals into a number
of smaller portions separated by no more than 2-3 hours, as opposed
to having two or three large meals separated by more than three
hours. In other words, having six or seven evenly spaced small meals
each day is more effective for building lean muscle than taking in
the exact same amount of calories and food content, but divided over
only two or three meals each day. Increased meal frequency allows
you to evenly spread your protein intake out throughout the day, thus
optimising its absorption, which is also the best way to keep your
metabolism focused on anabolism (muscle building).
2
CONSUME SUFFICIENT PROTEIN
Building more muscle entails breaking down muscle fibres during
training, and building them back up again through proper nutrition. This
muscle repair and reconstruction process requires sufficient protein intake
to ensure muscle growth. The best protein sources are animal-based as
animal-derived proteins are complete, which means they supply all the
essential amino acids required for muscle repair and growth. While
an average sedentary individual might not need more than
1g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day,
someone serious about gaining muscle may need
double that amount,
depending on his size
and training intensity.
4
KEEP WELL HYDRATED
Water may be the most neglected of all nutrients, yet our bodies are made up
of more than 50% water. From a dietary perspective, the body cannot be expected to
maintain an anabolic state when its even slightly dehydrated. Always remember that
thirst is an indication of dehydration, so if you only drink when youre thirsty chances
are youre already chronically dehydrated. Without sufficient water there is no way
for all the protein, essential fats, vitamins and minerals you ingest to support muscle
growth. It is therefore essential that you stay well hydrated by consuming
at least 3-4 litres of fluid throughout the day (750-1500ml while training).
3
CONSUME
ESSENTIAL FAT
Its important to keep
carbohydrate intake in check to
ensure lean muscle is gained, as
is ensuring an optimal healthy
fat intake. Essential fats are not
only critical to general health,
but theyre also a key structural
component of muscle cells. Of
course, consuming the right
kinds of fat is important. Certain
fats are also deemed essential,
like essential fatty acids (EFAs)
which cannot be made by the body
from other substances and must
therefore be provided for in our
diets. Key sources of these EFAs
are omega 3 and omega 6 fats. Rich
sources include cold water fish,
seeds (especially flax and hemp),
nuts and EFA supplements.
30 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[FEATURE]
One of the most common concerns
for casual exercisers and people
who have not exercised or who are
out of shape is the ability to merely
run or cycle a certain distance.
In their mind, when they achieve
this they will be fit. However,
there is far more to fitness than
just developing cardiovascular or
cardiorespiratory efficiency.
Being able to run far is
highly impressive, and should
be celebrated and appreciated.
However, being able to run is not the
determinant factor of the general
state of fitness. Being able to run
far is a case of being conditioned to
>> BY DEVLIN BROWN, Deputy Editor
DEFINING
FITNESS
BOILING THE CONCEPT OF
FITNESS DOWN TO ITS MOST
FUNDAMENTAL LEVEL
I
TS NOT UNUSUAL TO HEAR SOMEONE SAY I WANT TO
GET FIT, WHILE OTHERS LIKE TO MEASURE THEMSELVES
AGAINST A BENCHMARK TO DETERMINE WHO IS FITTER?
CrossFit Inc. even, somewhat presumptuously, labels the
winners of their global competition the Fittest on Earth.
The truth is that fitness is a broad term and there are numerous
metrics that can be used to measure or quantify it your resting
heart rate, your maximum heart rate, your VO2max, your lactate
threshold or a specific sporting performance, for instance.
BASIC FITNESS
activity in itself will work on the
other components of fitness
as nothing exists in isolation),
overall fitness, health and even
performance in your chosen event
will be greatly improved with an
appreciation of, and improvement
in, all aspects of fitness.
Various sources and textbooks
break down physical fitness into
various components. Some speak
of four or five components, and
some, such as CrossFit, speak of
10 components. But generally,
they involve the following in various
guises: cardiorespiratory fitness,
muscular endurance, flexibility,
strength, power, speed, body
composition (of course things
like skill and balance come into
consideration too). There are also
various energy systems that are
used to power various functions,
from very short bursts of power to
slightly longer power output, to long
slow releases of energy: the ATP-
PCr or a-lactic anaerobic system,
glycolysis or lactic anaerobic system
and oxidative or aerobic system.
As is obvious, we aren't able
to exist for long in one state in
isolation. We cannot train absolutely
exclusively for muscle endurance
without tapping into cardiovascular
fitness. We cannot improve
power without training strength.
Similarly, when we partake in
sport or exercise, our bodies will
shift between the various energy
systems. Seen this way, fitness is
a holistic state of preparedness for
activity.
partake in that particular endurance
activity, which is just one element in
the overall spectrum of fitness.
And while one can be successful
at endurance running without
actively focusing on the other
elements of fitness (as the physical
IN GENERAL PHYSICAL FITNESS INVOLVES THE
FOLLOWING IN VARIOUS GUISES: CARDIORESPIRATORY
FITNESS, MUSCULAR ENDURANCE, FLEXIBILITY,
STRENGTH, POWER, SPEED AND BODY COMPOSITION.
GETTING FIT
One would naturally focus
on the elements of fitness
needed for a particular sport.
A competitive powerlifter will
not be particularly interested
in learning to run 22km.
However, light cardiovascular
exercise that doesn't impede
on his strength training
will result in an overall and
general improvement in health
and fitness.
When talking to the High
Performance Centre's Shona
Hendricks about age and sport
performance, for the article
Over the hill on page 76, Fitness
His Edition extended the
questions to get a sense of her
take on just what fitness is.
Fitness, for me, is the
ability to fulfil the physiological
demands of a particular
task, without undue injury or
harm. For example: fitness
for a runner is their ability to
complete a marathon in their
desired time. Whereas fitness
for a CrossFitter is to be able to
finish their WOD at the desired
weights and times without
injury, explains Hendricks.
How then should we prioritise
training the elements of fitness
and the energy systems needed
for our specific sport, as they
all have varying yet specific
demands? It would most
definitely depend on the type
of sport/demands of fitness a
person would require, but it is
very seldom that a scientist or
exercise physiologist will look at
one energy system. One cannot
isolate the energy systems as
they are all working all of the
time. Isolating them creates a
very simplistic view of the body
where, in fact, it is the complete
opposite. Each of the systems
would not be able to function
properly without the other,
explains Hendricks.
So it will depend on the
goals and demands of the
particular sport and person.
But, as I said, it is nearly
impossible to only work on one
system. Of course, you can focus
on a particular component,
however it is always good to
do all-round work as each will
complement the other.
FITNESS FOR A PURPOSE
Lets presume then that not
everyone is training for one
particular sport. What about the
general population? What should
we focus on and how should we
train to get fit?
Again, I wouldnt separate the
systems in importance. However,
something like strength work
is very important for the elderly
population to improve their daily
living activities. But for a younger
person I would always suggest a
well-rounded programme so as
to not neglect anything. This is
specific to their goals and sport
obviously as well, suggests
Hendricks.
And so, this brings us back to
the original point of this article:
being fit is so much more than
running 5km. However, being able
to run 5km is a vital component of
overall fitness. As with everything
in life, a good balance is what
we should be striving to achieve
if general fitness is what were
after.
FITNESS FOR A RUNNER IS THEIR ABILITY TO
COMPLETE A MARATHON IN THEIR DESIRED TIME.
WHEREAS FITNESS FOR A CROSSFITTER IS TO
BE ABLE TO FINISH THEIR WOD AT THE DESIRED
WEIGHTS AND TIMES WITHOUT INJURY.
32 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[SPORTS SCIENCE]
THE SHOES
C
ausation and correlation are two terms we tend to hear
a lot in the broader health and fitness industry these
days, particularly as people try to make sense of the
increasingly complex interrelationship between our health
and optimal function, and our modern lives. To clarify the
concept, a correlation between two variables does not
necessarily imply that one causes the other, whereas causation refers to
an action or occurrence that directly causes another.
And as more people look for answers and question whether mankind is
currently on the right path, we're finding that conventional scientific-based
wisdom is increasingly being challenged. This is not only from the growing
number of increasingly intuitive and inquisitive members of the public,
but also by a number of free-thinking fitness professionals and classically
trained scientists.
Dr Ross Tucker, an exercise physiologist and high performance sports
consultant at the University of Cape Town and Sports Science Institute of
South Africa, who shares his personal insights on www.sportsscientists.
com, terms these people deviant thinkers - people who push back against
convention.
However, he explains that scientific progress and application to the public
can be undermined by the natural, human desire to simplify the message
and adopt a polarised view of what are actually very complex concepts. The
result, according to Tucker, is public debate that is a polarised science, one
where the pendulum swings wildly from one extreme to the other. This is
also when confusion between causation and correlation often occurs.
While this is in no way an admission that
barefoot and minimalist running doesn't
work, many people have taken to social media
to denounce the barefoot movement and
all the benefits it touts based on this latest
development.
One of the biggest points of contention is
the claim that barefoot or minimalist running
can reduce the prevalence of running-related
injuries. Many minimalist denialists and
THE BAREFOOT DEBATE
A
nd there are few topics as hotly debated at the moment as minimalist and barefoot running,
particularly now that Vibram, the incumbent minimalist shoe manufacturer, has agreed to a
$3,75 million out-of-court settlement for a class action lawsuit instituted because the company
made unsubstantiated claims about the benefits of their foot-shaped shoes.
supporters of traditional, modern cushioned and
motion-control running shoes take the polar
opposite view that barefoot and minimalist
running causes injury. Sadly they, and most
mainstream media, are using the outcome of the
Vibram lawsuit to once again oversimplify the
debate about whether minimalist and barefoot
running causes or simply correlates with
running-related injuries.
Headlines such as Those Barefoot Sneakers
Might Be A Total Scam (Newsweek), Vibram
... Settles Lawsuit Over False Health Benefits
Claims (www.ibtimes.com), and FiveFingers
Maker Will Pay Millions To Suckers Who Bought
Its Shoes (Deadspin.com) have only helped to
fuel the hype and polarise public sentiment even
further.
While the link between injuries and minimalist
and barefoot running is probably more than a
mere correlation, boiling the debate down to the
idea that minimalist shoes are the root cause of
injuries trivialises the complexity of running -
the role human biomechanics play in the process
and, more specifically, how our biomechanics
have been affected by our modern lifestyles.
ITS NOT
WEIGHING IN ON THE
GREAT MINIMALIST AND
BAREFOOT RUNNING DEBATE
Cushioned
running shoes
have become
an enabler in
this regard as
theres no longer
an incentive to
learn how to run
naturally for most
runners.
ausation and correlation are two terms we tend to hear
>> BY PEDRO VAN GAALEN, Editor

J
U
S
T

With that in mind,


Dave seemed to be an
ideal expert perhaps
not in the traditional
sense of the word as
he holds no formal
qualifications to share
his insights into the
causation or correlation
between injuries and
barefoot and minimalist
running.
The fact of the
matter is that there's a
massive combination of
factors that cause the
most common running
injuries when people try
to transition. While shoes are a contributing factor, be they cushioned
or motion-control running shoes, Vibrams or sandals, most injuries are
caused by poor biomechanics.
He says that a combination of a more sedentary lifestyle, which is
devoid of regular activity, has led to weak muscles and immobile joints,
particularly in the areas most essential to efficient, injury-free running.
In the past people used to do everything for themselves, but we now
live in an age of convenience. This has made the general population lazy,
which is a major part of the problem as our movement patterns have
become lazy too. And cushioned running shoes have become an enabler
in this regard as there's no longer an incentive to learn how to run
naturally for most runners.
Els explains that cushioned shoes, whether worn while running or
for everyday use, tend to act as a cast. As a result your feet, your calves
and Achilles tendons become weaker, as does everything else up your
posterior chain especially your hamstrings and glutes.
Short hip flexors and weak
core muscles caused by hours
spent sitting each day further
compound the problem. And your
core, hip flexors (particularly
your psoas muscle) and glutes
are the main muscle groups
required to run fast and efficiently
explains Sean Johnson, a Bowen
Therapy practitioner based in
Fontainebleau, Randburg.
When we sit for so many
hours a day, be it at work, in
the car or in front of the TV,
our muscles atrophy. This
also shortens our hip flexors,
weakens our glutes, tightens
our piriformis (another
muscle in the glutes), and
our sacroiliac (SI) joints tend
to 'lock up'. That's where
most problems start. With
this degree of biomechanical
dysfunction it is very difficult
to run naturally.
These muscle imbalances
can cause our arches to drop,
which results in overpronation.
That's when runners start
A MORE HOLISTIC VIEW
D
ave Els, who is more commonly known
as Barefoot Dave, is the founder of
The Barefoot Runner, a website dedicated
to extolling the benefits of barefoot
running and helping runners make the
transition by sharing his own experiences.
You wont find links to controlled scientific
studies on the site, just anecdotal accounts
of his experience over the last four years.
While many may dismiss this approach,
the proof is there for all to see. Dave
has been running injury free and faster
than ever since 2010, either barefoot, in
sandals or in Vibrams. Sometimes you
need to ask yourself do we really need
more evidence?
While shoes
are a contributing
factor to most
common running
injuries, be they
cushioned or
motion-control
running shoes,
Vibrams or
sandals, most
injuries are
caused by poor
biomechanics.
34 JULY - AUGUST 2014
down a road that invariably leads to chronic
injuries that reoccur throughout their careers.
Most runners will then go to see a podiatrist,
who prescribes inserts to lift your arch. However,
this isn't a long-term solution as you're merely
treating the symptoms, not the cause, which in
this case is primary biomechanical dysfunction
in the pelvic area. A common running injury soon
follows, such as ITB or runner's knee. You then
see a physiotherapist, many of whom merely try
to manipulate the soft tissue around the injury
to ease the tension state. Seldom is the root
cause addressed, which means this becomes
a self-perpetuating cycle of injury, rehab and
more injury.
In terms of injuries related to minimalist
shoes, Johnson explains that most running
injuries happen because your legs are support
structures, not the primary power generators
when you run. Injuries occur when your legs
need to fulfill a function they were never
designed for as they now have to accommodate
the forces imposed on them by runners who fail
to correct these biomechanical imbalances and
build the foundation of foot and leg strength to
run in the way these shoes naturally promote.
These shoes force them to run more naturally
in the way we were designed to run as heel
striking in the traditional manner becomes too
painful without the cushioning. However, either
the strength in the structures required to support
this type of running isn't there, or they try to push
through the pain and discomfort of heel striking
in these thin-soled shoes, continue Johnson.
That's when injuries occur as the stress being
imposed on the legs finds the weakest point, which
is normally a lower extremity ligament or tendon,
or soft muscle tissue. These forces can eventually
also lead to pelvic and lower back injuries as there
is no longer any cushioning to soften the blow each
time their heel hits the ground in the conventional
manner.
Johnson believes that this is why anyone in
a state of biomechanical dysfunction who tries
to switch from cushioned or motion-control
running shoes to minimalist shoes, of which
sandals and Vibrams are the most extreme, will
likely experience injuries and have a tough time
transitioning.
Few people with a vested commercial interest
in the minimalist running shoe industry have been
as vocal about this point than Galahad Clark, co-
founder and managing director of minimalist shoe
manufacturer, Vivobarefoot. In a blog post he wrote
following the Vibram settlement he stated:
Dont run in our shoes.... Unless you have
strong healthy feet and good technique. Not your
average sales pitch for sure.
It is also a far cry from the standard
transitioning rhetoric of alternate shoes, start slow
and slowly build up your distance in the minimalist
shoes. There is hardly ever any mention of a need
to learn how to run properly, with strict running
technique and proper biomechanics.
Clark goes on to promote a return to natural
movement before transitioning to minimalist
and barefoot running. Watch any four year old
running barefoot round a swimming pool and you
will see natural movement, he says. But then we
go to school, start sitting on chairs and wearing
padded shoes, and
so begins a lifetime
of bad posture and
movement habits.
Everyones transition
back to strong
healthy feet and
natural movement
varies depending on
lifestyle, chair and
shoe use... All injury
and pain is due to
weakness and lack
of skill. Basically,
it's not the shoes that
cause injury!
A
nd the lost art of natural running is a key
component to this discussion, yet it is
often left out of the mainstream minimalist
and barefoot running debate. This style of
running ensures that a runners feet strike
behind the leading knee (this ensures a
bent knee on impact) and under the hips,
regardless of whether he fore-foot, mid-
foot or heel strikes. Accordingly its not
necessarily the shoes that determine a foot
strike pattern the one element most people
seem to concern themselves with. The truth
is your strike pattern has more to do with the
speed at which you run.
To better illustrate this aspect, a study
conducted by Ogueta-Alday et al at the
University of Len, titled: Rearfoot striking
runners are more economical than midfoot
strikers, published in Medicine & Science in
Sports & Exercise, found that runners who ran
with a heel strike pattern were up to 9% more
efficient than runners with similar physiology
and biomechanics who ran with a mid-foot
strike pattern.
The study showed that the heel strikers were
5.4%, 9.3%, and 5.0% more economical than
the mid-foot strikers at sub-maximal speeds,
namely 11, 13 and 15km/h respectively. While
cadence and stride length were not different
between the groups, the heel strikers showed
longer ground contact time and shorter flight
time than the mid-foot strikers at all speeds.
The lead researcher was quoted as saying
that the improved efficiency stems from the
increased ground contact time which allows
more force to be applied, while also decreasing
the metabolic cost of running.
However, this forces us to fixate on the feet
once again. What the study failed to clarify was
the style of running the participants used. Did all
the runners (who had the same biomechanics)
strike in front of their hips and the leading knee
or did they have a natural running style?
What the researchers did say was that the
study only looked at slow speeds. Ogueta-
Alday also acknowledged that a faster pace
would require shorter ground contact time and
was quoted as saying that: It seems clear that
A RETURN TO NATURAL RUNNING
THE REAL CAUSE
T
he causal link between injury and
the shoes we wear comes in when
the average runner, who heel strikes in
front of their hips and leading knee, and
has been for decades, slips on minimalist
shoes in an attempt to cure their injuries or
strengthen their feet.
a forefoot strike is important to run fast and
conceded that running sub-5-minute miles or
faster was likely more efficient with a mid-foot
strike pattern.
These are sentiments that Els echoes. The
slower we move the more inclined we are to move
using a heel-toe strike pattern. However, as we
get faster we should naturally move toward the
mid-foot. Thats the reason why middle distance
track runners have spikes on the front of their
shoes.
This notion is also supported by other
scientific studies, with a study conducted at the
Department of Human Evolutionary Biology at the
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at
Harvard University, by Daniel E. Lieberman et al,
titled: Foot strike patterns and collision forces
in habitually barefoot versus shod runners,
often cited in this regard. The study showed that
habitually barefoot endurance runners often land
on the fore-foot (fore-foot strike) before bringing
down the heel, but they sometimes land with a
flat foot (mid-foot strike) or, less often, on the
heel (rear-foot strike).
[SPORTS SCIENCE]
Watch any
four year old
running barefoot
round a swimming
pool and you
will see natural
movement,then
we go to school,
start sitting on
chairs and
wearing padded
shoes, and so
begins a lifetime
of bad posture
and movement
habits.
Its not necessarily the
shoes that determine
a foot strike pattern
but rather the speed at
which you run.
www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 35
When the foot is encased in a cushioned
running shoe it disturbs the neutral position of
the foot and many of the receptors involved in
proprioception arent able to function properly.
This cushioning also enables a pronounced heel
strike and alters the alignment of the body.
And thats what minimalist and barefoot
running is all about according to Lee Saxby,
Vivobarefoots in-house biomechanics guru and
an evolutionary biology expert - allowing your
body to do what it was naturally designed to do.
It stands to reason that a natural foot has all
the technology you need, and a shoe should let
your foot do its thing.
As he explains, humans have been running
long distances for over two million years, having
evolved from 6,666 generations of natural
hunter gatherers. However, were only into our
fourth generation of normal sedentary modern
humans.
Not only have humans evolved to run
long distances, most of that running was
done barefoot on hard, rough surfaces before
modern humans invented footwear, continues
Saxby. When viewing movement through an
evolutionary lens it appears logical that humans
are very well adapted to walking and running
barefoot and recent biomechanical research
supports this logic with data that suggests
running with a natural technique characteristic
of experienced barefoot runners (skillful fore-
foot strike, upright posture and shorter stride
length) can significantly reduce loading rates
and reduce the risk of injury. There are, of
course, other studies that offer differing views,
but there is enough evidence on both sides for
you to make your own decision.
However, he states that the benefits
associated with a natural running technique
only occur if used in conjunction with a
natural foot. The transition to barefoot can
range anywhere from six weeks to two years,
depending on how natural or normal your
hardware is. The hardware of the foot is subject
to the same biological laws of adaptation as
the rest of the body - too much, too soon will
overload the structure. And thats the crux of
the matter. The shoes dont cause the problem,
weakness and biomechanical dysfunction do.
He recommends that anyone who wants
How I got there was a combination of science,
education, experience, intuition, self-discovery
and experimentation. I chose to question what I
was being told by so-called experts, and chose
not to take everything I read or heard at face
value, including the science, as I didnt want to
fall victim to the causation vs correlation trap
any longer. As Sean Johnson so succinctly put
it, When it comes to our bodies and the way we
move it is too simplistic to state that A+B causes
C. In this case, running + minimalist shoes
causes injury is also too simplistic.
The truth is that the shoes we wear should
merely form part of a broader debate around
a return to a more natural and efficient way of
running. Shoes shouldnt be the be-all and end-
all of the debate, which is more often than not
the case. Our biomechanics are the confounding
factor or lurking variable that is normally missed
in the debate on the matter, outside of scientific
circles.
I therefore urge you to do the same in whatever
area of health and fitness your interest lies.
Empower yourself to challenge entrenched
beliefs. Based on my experience, having gone from
suffering with chronic Achilles tendon pain caused
by poor biomechanics (not my shoes), to running
faster and more efficiently than ever before in my
life, I have no doubt that this approach has the
potential to change your life too.
FOOD FOR THOUGHT
THE IMPORTANCE OF
PROPRIOCEPTION
T
he philosophy behind the design and
construction of Vivobarefoot shoes is to
provide the brain with accurate sensory
feedback, says Clark. The ultra-thin puncture
resistant soles have been designed to provide
as much sensory feedback to the brain as
possible, while the anatomic shape lets the
foot and toes splay and recoil. This enhances
foot proprioception - the information the brain
needs to control natural, healthy movement
patterns and keep the body balanced.
S
o, is this article intended to convince you that barefoot or minimalist running is for
everyone? Certainly not. For starters, some of the people interviewed have a commercial
interest in the industry. I, on the other hand, do not, but through my own anecdotal experience
I have (re)discovered natural running, which has been a revelation in my own life. I dont run in
minimalist shoes though at least not yet.
to transition should first spend a few months
standing, squatting and walking barefoot to
allow proprioception and gravity to do their jobs
before attempting to run in minimalist shoes or
go barefoot.
The fact of the matter is that most people
who try to transition are unwilling to do
the groundwork required to strengthen the
structures that modern living has weakened,
even though they are so vital to natural running.
Thats when injury occurs during the transition,
and these injuries are often far worse than
anything a runner would experience by staying
in conventional running shoes as tendon and
ligament ruptures and tears take longer to
heal than muscle strains. However, with the
right approach everyone should be able to run
with a natural gait, with slower runners still
heel striking, but not in such a pronounced and
injurious manner. Once that element has been
mastered transitioning to minimalist shoes
or barefoot running becomes a much easier
proposition if runners wish to go that route,
concludes Els.
The fact of the matter is
that most people who try to
transition are unwilling to do
the groundwork required to
strengthen the structures that
modern living has weakened,
even though they are so vital
to natural running.
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SETTING GOALS
36 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[FEATURE]
>> BY NICK VAN DER LEEK (@HiRezLife)
S
IXTY YEARS HAVE PASSED SINCE ROGER BANNISTER
BROKE THE UNBREAKABLE BARRIER AT AN
ATHLETICS TRACK IN OXFORD ON MAY 6 (1954). When the
spry 62, 70kg Bannister crossed the tape and the announcer shouted, The time was
three the crowd went mad and no one heard the rest (the of cial time was 3:59.4).
The story often stops there, but theres a lot more to it, like what was it that enabled
Bannister to achieve his ground-breaking feat that day, and how has it in uenced modern
running since this legendary milestone was achieved?
How Ray Wicksell broke Roger Bannisters
ground-breaking record 24 times
BARRIERS
BREAKING
choose to leave the story there. After all,
Bannisters record lasted less than fifty days
(Australian John Landy ran a 3:58 mile 46 days
after Bannister). What most people dont know is
that he went on to become a doctor, and that hes
still around. He turned 85 this year and, despite
suffering from Parkinsons disease, he has been
out and about promoting his new autobiography.
The other interesting elements of the backstory
that are seldom told is that Bannister achieved
his record while he was practising as a junior
doctor at the time. He actually went from work to
the track meet between British AAA and Oxford
University at Iffley Road Track in Oxford. His diet
was also far from what most would consider
optimal for an elite athlete. He had a ham salad
for lunch before the race.
Its reasonable then to assume that the four-
minute mile isnt such a big deal after all. The
current world record held by Moroccan Hicham
El Guerrouj, who ran 3:43.13 fourteen years ago
(its worth noting that the mile is no longer a
standard distance) - is comfortably below four
minutes, and high school athletes have been
running sub-four minute miles since 1964.
However, the enormity of Bannisters sub-four-
minute mile should never be underestimated.
It was a big deal. Its akin to attempts to break
the two hour barrier in the marathon today. To
put a sub-four-minute mile into perspective for
laymen, it means running at an average speed
of 24.14km/h or 2:29.13/km pace. That equates
to 14.91 seconds per 100 meters a mere 5.33
seconds slower than Usain Bolts current 100m
world record and just 4.71 seconds behind the
100m world record in 1954.
FOR YEARS AND YEARS, WICKSELL SAYS, MY TIMES HOVERED AROUND 4:01 AND 4:02. IT BECAME A MENTAL THING FOR ME HAVING SPENT YEARS TRYING TO BREAK THAT DAMN BARRIER.
B
ANNISTER WAS MOTIVATED
MORE BY DEFEAT THAN BY BEING
IMMORTALISED. AT THE 1952 HELSINKI
OLYMPICS, DESPITE SETTING A BRITISH
RECORD, HE DIDNT WIN THE MEDAL HED
PINNED HIS HOPES ON. Humiliation is the
word he used to describe his feelings about that
day, but that disappointment led to the pursuit of
an even loftier challenge - the four-minute mile.
He obviously achieved his goal, but many
To put a sub-four-minute mile into perspective,
it means running at an average speed of 24.14km/h.
That equates to 14.91 seconds per 100 meters
5.33 seconds slower than Usain Bolts current 100m
world record and 4.71 seconds behind the
100m world record in 1954.
Roger Bannister about to cross the
tape at the end of his record breaking
mile run at Iffley Road, Oxford. He
was the first person to run the mile in
under four minutes, with a time of 3
minutes 59.4 seconds.
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www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 37
Despite gargantuan volumes of training
Wicksell was only able to stand the heat for the
first three laps. Keeping up that infernal pace
over the last minute always seemed a bridge too
far. For years and years, Wicksell says, my
times hovered around 4:01 and 4:02. It became a
mental thing for me having spent years trying to
break that damn barrier.
Even his training partner, the legendary Steve
Scott from California (who ran an incredible 136
sub-four-minute miles the most in history),
couldnt believe it. At that stage Steve had the
record; he was running 3:51 and 3:53. One day,
while we were training together, he said, Ray,
why cant you break four? You should break
four easy. You should be able to run 3:56, 3:57
'cos youre training with me and youre keeping
up with me in the workouts.' Scott then told
Wicksell that he felt that training wasnt the
problem. They were covering 110-120km a week.
We were really strong, Wicksell enthuses.
He remembers a workout he did with Scott on
Christmas Day in California (thats mid-winter in
America), on a UCLA track near Hollywood. It
was 1981. We went to the track, warmed up with
7km. Then we did 12 100m strides, but fast. The
first four at 70-80%, the next four at 90%, and
the last four at 100%. Then we did three 800m at
1:55 or 1:54 pace, jogging 400m after each one.
Then we did three 400m in 52, 52 and 51 seconds
respectively. To run a sub-four minute mile you
need to run 400m in under 60 seconds, so we
were way ahead of schedule. The total distance
for that session was about 15km.
Wicksell says he was also doing plenty of core
work, along with push-ups, sit ups and skipping.
In March, racing at the Martin Luther King Games
in Stanford, Wicksell was 22 years old. I was in
my prime. I was the only non-sub four minuter
there. All the other guys had broken four. Scott
offered Wicksell his shoes, quipping, Maybe
these will help. They did. Wicksell won the race
and broke four minutes for the first time. After
that it was easy. I had been in great shape, so it
was more of a mental thing. Its a great story. Its
in his [Scotts] book.
Sure enough, after years failing to shave even
a second off his time, Wicksell went with the US
team to race in New Zealand. I ran a 3:56 there.
That was in 1981, and Wicksell went on to run a
total of 24 sub-four minute miles.
Knowing that Wicksell has been sponsored for
many years by Nike, I asked, were Scotts shoes,
the ones that got you to break your first four
minutes, Nikes? No, Wicksell laughs, they
were Diadoras.
When I take Wicksell back to the before and
after of that mental barrier, I ask him where
the problem really lied. Was it the beginning of
the race - starting too hard -, was it the whole
thing, or was it the end? You know, thats a very
interesting question. I think it was all at the end.
The secret to breaking barriers is essentially
two-fold - three-fold if you consider the non-
negotiable training. But once youre fit and
strong enough you have to learn how to solve the
problem of distributing that power and energy
evenly. Thats a matter of pacing, and breaking
the four-minute
mile is all about
pacing (which is
why Bannister
did it with two
pace-makers).
If you Google
Bannisters
first successful
attempt you can clearly see on the
YouTube video how carefully Bannister times his
final burst. In fact, given that he came in under
four minutes by a fraction of a second, its timed
to perfection. The secret, Wicksell says, is you
have to get to the 1200m mark at 2:58. If you go
through at 3:03 you just have too much work on
that final lap.
And that's the secret to breaking any barrier.
There's a critical threshold - it may be a certain
amount of training beyond which you get sick,
or fail to lose weight, or overtrain. It may be an
entirely different measure, but whatever it is
you can only find that mark by going out there
and exploring it. But heres the rub: doing the
work is not enough without the mindfulness to
apply it. It may be magic shoes, a lucky shoelace,
or a scientific algorithm. Whatever it is, the
biggest barrier isnt in your body or in your
muscles. As someone says in one of those Matrix
movies, there is no spoon. Theres just you.
But you have to find your true self, that spirit of
irreducible resilience, within yourself. Once you
do, nothing can stop you.
FOR YEARS AND YEARS, WICKSELL SAYS, MY TIMES HOVERED AROUND 4:01 AND 4:02. IT BECAME A MENTAL THING FOR ME HAVING SPENT YEARS TRYING TO BREAK THAT DAMN BARRIER.
W
ITH THESE STATS IN MIND HOPEFULLY ITS EASIER TO APPRECIATE HOW THOSE
WHOVE TRIED TO DIP UNDER FOUR-MINUTES FOR THE MILE SINCE THEN HAVE TO
FACE WHAT MUST BE A REAL BARRIER. Athletes like Ray Wicksell, a previous American track and
field star who now lives in South Africa with his family of gifted runners.
BREAKING THE BARRIER
T
he indomitable Prof. Tim Noakes
proposed a theory in his book
Challenging Beliefs: Memoirs of a career
which he terms the central governor.
In the book he makes specic reference to
Bannisters feat, stating that Roger Bannister
was able to convince his central governor that it
was achievable, while the Australian athlete John
Landy was not able to do so. Landy could only
achieve this once someone else had provided the
clear evidence that this impossible performance
was indeed achievable. Noakes believes that
amazing feats like these are achievable by elite
athletes because they dont impose the same
subconscious limits on their performance that the
rest of us do. Their belief in
their capacity to achieve is
extraordinary.
Read more about
the central governor
theory in Challenging
Beliefs: Memoirs of a
career by Tim Noakes
with Michael Vlismas
(Zebra Press 2012).
Available from www.
randomstruik.co.za
for R250.
THE CENTRAL
GOVERNOR
THE SECRET TO
BREAKING BARRIERS IS
ESSENTIALLY TWO-FOLD
- THREE-FOLD IF YOU
CONSIDER THE NON-
NEGOTIABLE TRAINING.
BUT ONCE YOURE FIT
AND STRONG ENOUGH
YOU HAVE TO LEARN HOW
TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM
OF DISTRIBUTING THAT
POWER AND ENERGY
EVENLY.
[NUTRITION] >> BY PEDRO VAN GAALEN, Editor
Protein is essential for more than
just muscle development. Proteins
play a vital role in many biological
processes, including enzyme
production and function, metabolism
regulation, immune response, as well
as cell development and function.
Each protein within the body has a
specific function and varies in
structure. They are constructed from a
set of 21 amino acids, eight of which
are essential as they cannot be
produced by the human body and
therefore need to be supplied through
the diet. There are several types of
proteins, which all have distinct
functions. The two main classes of
proteins include:
Fibrous proteins - These fibre-like
proteins play a protective and
structural role in the functioning of the
body as they are constituents of
connective tissue, muscle fibre and
tendons. An example is the cell wall of
myosin in skeletal muscle.
Globular proteins - The polypeptide
(amino acid) chains in globular
proteins are folded together into a
knot-like shape. Globular proteins
usually change faster than fibrous
proteins and play a variety of roles.
Over 10,000
different
proteins are
found and
needed by
the body to
maintain life.
PROTEIN
VARIETY
THE IMPORTANCE OF
owever, thanks to our modern
lifestyles that focus on
convenience more so than
anything else, our diets are often
deficient in a number of important
macro- and micronutrients,
including protein. While we may
get our daily recommended dose
of protein, many of us seldom give
the concept of protein variety a
second thought. As such our main
sources of protein are animal-
derived, in the form of dairy, meat
and eggs.
Any physically active individual
will know the importance of
protein in their diet. As a key
structural element of muscle tissue,
protein is essential to help develop
bigger, stronger muscles and aid
recovery and repair after exercise.
MINIMUM
RECOMMENDED DAILY
PROTEIN INTAKE
GUIDELINES:
ENDURANCE ATHLETE:
1.2-1.6 grams per kilogram
of lean bodyweight per day
STRENGTH AND
POWER ATHLETE:
1.6-1.8 grams per kilogram
of lean bodyweight per day
BODYBUILDERS AND PHYSIQUE
CONSCIOUS INDIVIDUALS:
1.8-2.0 grams per kilogram
of lean bodyweight per day
1.8-2.0 grams per kilogram
H
38 JULY - AUGUST 2014

THE ROLES
Enzymes - Biological catalysts that are responsible
for initiating and controlling (speeding up) important
biochemical reactions in the body. An example is
pepsin, which works in the stomach to break down
proteins in food.
Hormones - Chemical messengers responsible for
initialising a response in the body. Some hormones
have a regulatory effect. Examples include insulin
and somatotropin.
Antibodies - Specialised proteins involved in
defending the body against antigens (foreign
invaders) such as bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Transport/conjugated proteins - Carrier proteins
that move molecules from one place to another
around the body. Examples include haemoglobin and
cytochromes.
Storage proteins Store amino acids.
Contractile proteins - Responsible for movement
through muscle contraction. Examples include actin
and myosin.
Membrane proteins - Globular proteins that play a
role in transporting ions in and out of the cell.
After water has
been excluded, 75%
of an average
persons body
weight consists
of protein.
D
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Peas are a rich source
of bioavailable protein
and offers a good am
ino
acid pro le, although it
is not com
plete.
PROTEINS ARE SYNTHESIZED IN THE
BODY THROUGH A PROCESS CALLED
TRANSLATION. Translation occurs in the
cytoplasm the fluid that fills a cell -
and involves the translation of genetic
codes, assembled during DNA
transcription, into proteins. Cell
structures called ribosomes help
translate these genetic codes into the
amino acid (polypeptide) chains, which
undergo several modifications before
becoming fully functioning proteins.
To ensure we have all the amino acids
required to effectively fulfill these
functions it is essential that we consume
a broad spectrum of protein sources.
The reason for this is that, while some
protein sources contain excellent amino
acid profiles, they all have different
amino acid profiles and combinations.
The quality of protein we consume also
varies in the foods we eat. For these
reasons it is essential that you mix your
protein sources throughout the day,
especially if you mainly derive your
protein from plant sources.
Animal protein sources such as
beef, poultry, fish, venison, lamb,
pork and eggs are considered
complete proteins as they contain
all eight essential amino acids.
Plant-based protein sources are
generally incomplete proteins as
they contain some, but not all, the
essential amino acids. For this
reason it is vitally important that
vegans and vegetarians consume a
variety of protein sources to meet
their bodys needs. Incomplete
protein sources can be consumed
together to deliver a complete
amino acid profile with each meal
or throughout the day. Incomplete
proteins that are consumed in
combination to create a complete
protein source are referred to as
complementary proteins.
However, there are a few plant-
derived protein sources that have a
complete amino acid profile.
Soybeans, for instance, are a
nutritionally complete protein, and
are a cheaper source of protein than
meat and dairy. It is also low in fat
and is cholesterol-free. Soy also
contains important substances like
saponins, phytosterols and
isoflavones. Saponins support
healthy immune function and help to
reduce cholesterol absorption in the
body. Phytosterols also help to
maintain cholesterol levels, while
isoflavones are powerful
antioxidants.
The structure of a protein will
determine what role it has to play
in your body:
SOYS LINK WITH OESTROGEN
While there has been significant controversy around soy
and its effect on hormone production, specifically
increased oestrogen levels, most claims are completely
unsubstantiated. This largely unsupported myth was
recently debunked after a review of studies that used soy
protein in athletic situations. The review found no
evidence that oestrogen levels were increased as a result
of using soy protein. There are, however, still concerns
around the health risks associated with genetically
modified soy.
Another plant-based source of complete proteins is
hemp protein. Hemp seeds are a nutrient-dense
superfood that, in addition to its complete protein profile,
also contains essential fatty acids, fibre, carbohydrates
and other essential nutrients such as chlorophyll,
magnesium, potassium, sulphur, phytosterols, ascorbic
acid, beta-carotene, calcium, histidine, iron, potassium,
phosphorus, niacin and thiamine. Hemp seeds also
contain GLA, an important and rare fatty acid not often
found in plant sources.
Generally viewed as a complex carbohydrate, brown
rice has a near-complete amino acid profile, which
makes it easy to pair with complementary proteins. It also
contains a host of other beneficial essential nutrients like
thiamin, iron, phosphorus and potassium. It is also highly
bioavailable so your body is able to digest it effectively,
resulting in faster, more efficient assimilation.
Peas are often classed as a superfood because they are
cholesterol-free and contain a unique combination of
vitamins and minerals, including folate, phosphorus,
selenium, zinc, calcium, potassium, iron and vitamin B6.
For these reasons many supplement manufacturers
are starting to include these plant-based protein sources
in their protein-based products. Their varying degrees of
bioavailability also make them ideal constituents of
protein blends, which offer more sustained amino acid
delivery profiles than traditional standalone supplements
like whey and casein. For instance, soy protein is digested
and absorbed at a slightly slower rate than whey protein,
but faster than casein. This will help to prolong the amino
acid trickle to recovering muscles throughout the day.
Plant-based protein offers supplement users with
allergies an alternative to the more common dairy-based
and soy products that can cause adverse reactions. Brown
rice protein, for instance, is hypo-allergenic and
completely dairy-free. This makes it an ideal choice for
anyone who needs to avoid specific allergens such as
wheat, gluten, eggs, dairy and soy.
Even incomplete protein sources offer various health
benefits. Nuts, for example, contain healthy unsaturated
fatty acids, which help reduce harmful LDL cholesterol and
increase good HDL cholesterol.
A final important consideration in terms of protein variety
are the numerous health concerns and risks associated with
eating animal protein in excess, particularly red meat.
Animal protein is often accompanied by an increase in
saturated fat intake, even if you cut off all visible fat.
Different cuts of beef, lamb and pork also contain more
saturated fat than others and cooking methods seldom
remove all of it. For this reason it is best to consume lean
cuts of meat in moderation, but dont exclude them as they
contain important nutrients such as iron. However, you still
need to meet your daily protein requirements. Thats where
protein variety comes in. It is therefore important to combine
red and white meat, along with quality sources of plant-
based proteins, which can play an important supplemental
role, either in the form of whole food or supplements, in a
comprehensive healthy diet.
www.fitnessHE FITNESS HIS EDITION 39
40 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[COVER PROFILE]
fter almost five years in the competitive wilderness the
phenomenon that is the WBFF enticed Gavin Perry to
step back on stage, with his sights firmly set on a pro card.
Looking bigger and leaner than ever he certainly had a
shot, but he was under no illusions that the competition
was going to be intense at his comeback event. A week
before he stepped on stage Fitness His Edition caught up with
one of the WBFFs major contenders...
Youve been in the industry for a while. Tell us how you
got into it and what it is that keeps you coming back?
I originally started weight training to gain muscle
and strength for rugby. After a few months of gyming
I developed a keen interest in training, so I decided
to study at HFPA to gain more knowledge. Along the
way I met people who thought my aesthetics and
balance were really good, and suggested I compete.
While this was happening my interest had grown
beyond sport and self-achievement, to pursuing a
career and expanding my business interests in the
health and fitness industry. Since then Ive gone
from owning retails stores and personal training, to
handling large key accounts as a supplement agent
in Game and Makro retail stores. I then lost interest
in competing, due mainly to the calibre of the local
shows available to male fitness athletes, particularly
Gavin
P
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PERRY
A
The comeback kid
>> BY PEDRO VAN GAALEN, Editor >> PHOTOGRAPHY BY Richard Cook
What training tips do you think
are most relevant to guys?
Intensity, contraction, range
of motion and tempo. When building muscle its not always about sheer weight, but rather
good technique. And dont
forget to train your legs!
Born: 19 October 1984
Age: 29
Lives: Lonehill, Johannesburg
Qualifications: HFPA (Dip.Ex.Sc)
Diploma in muscle and exercise
science
Occupation: Director at
Formidable Brands
Height: 172cm
Weight: 85kg
Sponsors: Supashape, Trojan
Health, Rockets, Iron Fist Athletic,
Madform, Body Logix, Vibram
FiveFingers
Website: www.trojanhealth.co.za
Facebook fan page: gavinperryfitness
Competitive achievements:
2007 Exergise Fitness 2007 - 3rd
2008 Fame Regionals -1st
2008 Fame SA - 3rd
2010 Muscle Evolution Grand Prix - 3rd
Classic Bodybuilding division
www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 41
how we were treated and rewarded for all our
hard work. There were also few opportunities
to further my competitive career in any of the
federations at the time, so I stopped competing
for five years. Thankfully there have been some
much-needed changes since then with the intro-
duction of the WBFF to SA. The concept caught
my attention and I used last year to watch it
closely, and I like what Ive seen. This has been
a big factor in my decision to return, and I must
say that Im excited to be competing again and
am happy to be back.
What local shows did you cut your teeth on,
and what was your experience like?
Exergise and Fame, which were overwhelming
at first. The thing about competing is you realise
that there are other people out there who look
damn good, and that youre just not as special
as you thought. You soon realise that winning is
going to take more work, effort and knowledge
than initially expected. However, I wasnt that
impressed with certain aspects, like really poor
event organisation and dismal show atten-
dances. What was great was all the new friends
I made, many of whom Im still close with.
How do you feel that the time you
took off has helped you?
I was able to invest in myself and my family,
particularly as there were a few personal trag-
edies that happened. Through it all I have grown
and been blessed. So, while I may have missed a
few years on stage and the experience that comes
with it, it has all been for a reason. However, the
time is right to make a comeback. I have so much
to be grateful for right now, and so many people
who I value and respect as they had faith in me,
supported and motivated me, and have always
>> Favourite music to train to? Linkin Park, Deadmau5, Daft
Punk
>> Favourite exercise? Straight legged calf press
>> Favourite cheat meal? Only one? My wife makes a mean
peppermint tart, with a rack of ribs to start.
>> Whats in your gym bag? My pre-, intra- and post-workout
supplements, Skullcandy ear phones, Muscle Junkie weight
belt, lifting straps and hulk green shaker, biltong and corn thins
(just in case) and Madform warm up and recovery cream.
Q
U
I
C
K

F
A
C
T
S
What are your top
training tips?
Use the correct weight to maintain
proper form during an exercise, as
that is the most important aspect.
Analyse your weak points and
prioritise those muscles if you want
to be successful on stage.
been there, espe-
cially through the hard
times. I wont mention
names, but they know
who they are.
What is it about the
WBFF that appeals to you so much?
For the first time in my career Ive found a
federation and event that ticks off all the things
I value. For instance, the federation has a strong
following and it recognises and rewards hard
work. A pro card also
means something and
is attainable for anyone
who puts in the work.
Athletes are looked at
as people with hopes
and dreams, and are
respected, and arent
merely seen as a
source of revenue. I
also believe that the
judging is professional,
for a change, which is
important after experi-
encing some shocking
things in the past. Im
excited to finally bring
my best and be compared against the best. Win
or lose I know that it will be a real competition,
and if I win Ill get to take my best and show the
rest of the world what SA has to offer.
What does your supplement plan look like?
Im a big fan of supplements and Im blessed
to have Supashape as a sponsor, which gives
me access to brands like Supashape, SSN and
Muscle Junkies. My supplement plan includes:
Tell us how youve prepped for the WBFF this
year. What does a typical day of eating look
like for you?
Meal 1: Oats, whey and a banana
Meal 2: Smoked chicken/turkey, corn thins,
green beans
Meal 3: Chicken breasts, a cup of basmati rice
and green veg or salad
Meal 4: Strawberries, biltong, a tablespoon of
natural peanut butter, and green veg or salad
Meal 5: Fillet steak, green veg or salad, and fat-
free cottage cheese
Meal 6: Supashape casein and a tablespoon of
natural peanut butter
What type of training have you been doing?
I like to keep it basic and intense, working 1-2
muscle groups until failure at each session,
which normally lasts about 75 minutes. I spend
a lot of time focusing on weak points to maintain
balance.
SSN Muscle Vitamin Pack
EFA soft gels
CLA soft gels
ZMA, Test-frenzy, Test-Rx, Anabolic drive or
GH Test Rush
Vitamin C 1000mg
Complex digestive enzyme
Probiotic
Pre-workout - Amino
Charge or NO Rage and
Cytoguard
Intra-workout Cytoguard,
Vitargo Aftershock or Vitargo
Carbloader
Post-workout - Whey and
Cytoguard
How has your approach
changed from previous
competitive seasons?
I just train more and eat
more. I previously competed
at 69kg, but this year I will compete at 80kg.
Youre looking better than ever. What do you
attribute this to?
I want it more than ever Ive worked hard,
Im focused and dedicated. Ive also had
amazing guidance from Chris Fitzpatrick and
Gareth Israel, who are long-time friends and
mentors of mine.
Should you achieve your pro card, what are
your plans from there?
To join the other SA pros and go and school the
world. They must fear us South Africans and
the world must know that the best fitness and
muscle model bodies are grown here.
How else are you involved in the health and
fitness industry?
Im the male face and body for Trojan Health,
the leader in small and large home exercise
equipment, and Im one of the directors at
Formidable Brands, a company that acts as
an agent for many supplement brands in
Game and Makro. People can follow my work
and supplement deals available at Game on
www.facebook.com/pages/Underground-
Deals/192393480905381?ref_type=bookmark.
What would you say is your toughest workout?
The leg workout Chris Fitzpatrick makes
me do. Have you seen that guys wheels? Its
deadly, and Im in pain for days afterwards.
Whats your approach to getting so lean?
My diet following it to the letter and being
consistent.
Do you do any other sport or activi-
ties outside of the gym?
I race 1000cc superbikes. I love it more
than anything else actually. When I have
my helmet on, knee on the tar, turning a
corner at 220km, nothing else matters.
Its my favourite escape.
COMPLEXES
BARBELL
42 JULY - AUGUST 2014
re you tired of
following the same
powerlifting or
bodybuilding set
and rep structure in your
attempt to develop more
power or build more
muscle? Do you want to
mix things up, challenge
yourself, boost your
fitness, increase your
strength and enhance
your performance in
the gym, on the road or
on the field? Well then,
barbell complexes might
be the training protocol
youve been looking for.
THE COMPLEX EXPLAINED
T
he barbell complex consists of several
barbell exercises performed back to back
without resting, where each exercise flows
naturally into the next. This makes it an ideal
training modality to build muscle, burn fat, get
fit or boost your metabolism, or any combination
of the four. Everyone from CrossFitters and MMA
fighters to endurance athletes and bodybuilders
are including this form of training in their
programmes, and so should you.
Barbell complexes were the brainchild of
strength and conditioning coach Istvan Steve
Javorek. Javorek originally developed them
for Romanian athletes in order to find an
efficient and aggressive method of performance
enhancement that saves time and makes the
programme more enjoyable. He moved from
Romania to the United States in the early 1980s,
and his six barbell routines quickly became a
staple in many high-level training programmes for
all manner of athletes.
Also commonly termed combination lifts,
barbell complexes have gained renewed
popularity globally driven primarily by the boom
in strength and conditioning gyms and, more
recently, the meteoric rise in popularity of
CrossFit.
Mix up your
bar work to
incinerate
fat, build
more muscle,
improve ftness
and enhance
strength
A
>> BY PEDRO VAN GAALEN, Editor
>> COMPLEXES SUPPLIED BY Scott MacIntosh,
owner and head trainer at The Yard Athletic
>> PHOTOGRAPHY BY Cindy Ellis
>> PERFORMED BY Justin Landman
>> SHOT ON LOCATION AT The Yard Athletic
>> STARTING: Unrack a loaded Olympic bar from a cage
or squat rack, holding it with an overhand grip. Stand upright with
your feet positioned shoulder-width apart.
MOVE 1:
ALTERNATING REVERSE
LUNGES
THE MOVE: From the upright position step
backwards with one leg while bending the
supporting leg. Plant your forefoot far behind you
on the floor. Lower your body by flexing the knee
and hip of your supporting leg until the knee of
your rear leg is just above the floor. Return to the
upright position by extending the hip and knee
of your forward supporting leg. Place your rear
leg next to your supporting leg and repeat the
movement with the opposite leg. Perform eight (8)
reps on either side before moving on to the next
move...
MOVE 3:
SQUAT
THE MOVE: Bend your knees while
allowing your hips to push back behind
you. Keep your back straight and your
knees pointed in the same direction as
your feet. Descend until your thighs are
just past parallel. Extend your knees and
hips upward by driving through your heels
until your legs are straight again. Perform
12 squats to complete the complex.
1 2 3
MOVE 2:
GOOD MORNINGS
THE MOVE: With your back straight and
your knees slightly bent, bend your hips and
lower your torso forward. Raise your torso
back up again until your hips are extended.
Repeat eight (8) times.
LEG
COMPLEX
IT LOOKS LIKE: Perform all 3 movements to complete one
complex. The transition to each exercise should be smooth and fluid.
Ensure that you
are in the correct
position before
executing the next
move
THE MOVES EXPLAINED:
The key with this complex is to
go as heavy as possible.
Start with the weight in the
squat rack and re-rack it for
each complex. If this is all
youll be doing for your leg
training day then perform 4-5
rounds, resting 90-120 seconds
between rounds. Increase the
weight from session to session.
Otherwise try add it into your
existing leg training for a round
or two.
KEEP YOUR TORSO
UPRIGHT AND YOUR
CHEST UP
BENT KNEE
GOOD
MORNINGS
TARGET YOUR
GLUTES.
STRAIGHT
LEGS WILL
TARGET YOUR
HAMSTRINGS
DROP DOWN PAST
PARALLEL TO THE
FLOOR IF YOU HAVE
THE MOBILITY
AND FLEXIBILITY
REQUIRED
INCLUDING A CYCLE OF BARBELL COMPLEXES INTO YOUR ROUTINE COULD HELP YOU
BLAST THROUGH A TRAINING PLATEAU. JUST KEEP IT SIMPLE, MAKE SURE THE MOVES
FLOW AND DONT DO TOO MANY IN A WEEK AS THEY PLACE HUGE METABOLIC DEMANDS
ON YOUR BODY, WHICH REQUIRES GREATER RECOVERY TIME.
BREAK
THROUGH
A PLATEAU
MUSCLE
BUILDING
COMPLEX
MOVE 1:
BENT OVER ROW
From the starting position bend your
knees and flex your hips to tilt your
torso forward at 45-60 degree angle.
THE MOVE: Pull the bar from the fully
extended hanging position to your
upper waist/lower chest. Return your
arms to the fully extended position.
Stand upright again and move directly
into move 2 ...
MOVE 2:
FRONT SQUAT
THE MOVE: Clean the bar onto the front of
your shoulders. Keep your elbows up as you
bend your knees and push your hips back
behind you. Keep your back straight and
your knees pointed in the same direction as
your feet. Descend until your thighs are past
parallel. Extend your knees and hips upward
by driving through your heels until your legs
are straight again.
1 2
STARTING POSITION: Grab a loaded Olympic bar with an
overhand grip. Deadlift it off the ground and stand upright with your feet
positioned shoulder-width apart.
MOVE 3:
PUSH PRESS
THE MOVE: As you reach
the top of the front squat
use the momentum to
press the bar upward
until your arms are
extended overhead.
Lower the bar to the
back of your neck.
3
Perform this complex seven times without stopping
to complete one set. Aim for a total of five sets.
THE MOVES EXPLAINED:
1 SET
=
REPEAT
COMPLEX
7 TIMES
COMPLEXES
KEEP YOUR
ELBOWS UP
THROUGHOUT
THE
MOVEMENT
THE POWER TO PUSH
THE WEIGHT OVERHEAD
IS GENERATED
THROUGH THE HIPS
AND KNEES, NOT THE
SHOULDERS
WHY IT WORKS
B
arbell complexes combine various
compound movements to deliver a
complex exercise routine that targets
a number of different muscle groups
in a short period of time.
The combination of movements and
the fluid nature of the complex means
that it is also a great way to improve
neuromuscular coordination.
The duration of many of these
complexes also targets multiple energy
systems, some of which may not get a
workout during normal weight-training
routines. This delivers a weight-based
cardio routine that also helps to boost
your metabolism. This form of training
also increases the workload, volume
and intensity of a gym programme,
making it more dynamic and efficient.
MOVE 5:
ALTERNATING
REVERSE LUNGE
THE MOVE: Step backwards with one leg while
bending the supporting leg. Plant your forefoot
far behind you. Flex the knee and hip of your
supporting leg until the knee of your rear leg
is just above the floor. Return to the upright
position. Place your legs together and repeat
with the opposite leg.
MOVE 6:
SQUAT
THE MOVE: Bend your knees while
allowing your hips to push back behind
you. Keep your back straight and your
knees pointed in the same direction as
your feet. Descend until your thighs are
past parallel. Extend your knees and
hips upward by driving through your
heels until your legs are straight again
to complex one round of the complex.
MOVE 4:
GOOD MORNINGS
THE MOVE: With your back straight
and your knees slightly bent, bend your
hips and lower your torso forward.
Raise your torso back up again until
your hips are fully extended. >>
4 5 6
IT LOOKS LIKE: The transition to each exercise should be
smooth and fluid. Perform all 6 movements to complete one complex.
PACK ON MUSCLE WITH YOUR MEALS
Great bodies arent only built in the gym.
Your time in the kitchen is actually more
important. The key to adding
muscle is eating the right amount
of protein at the right time
each day to rebuild the tissue
that weight training breaks down.
Up to 2g of protein per kilogram
of lean bodyweight per day is
generally recommended for anyone
who wants to add more muscle.
Bodybuilders often double that, but
somewhere between 2-3g per kilo should
meet your requirements.
Tip: A whey
protein shake
directly after your
training session is
vital to kickstart
the rebuilding
process, and
always include
some protein at
breakfast.
KEEP YOUR
KNEES BENT
THROUGHOUT
THE MOVEMENT
THE KNEE OF
YOUR FRONT
LEG SHOULD
FORM A 90
ANGLE
ENSURE YOUR
KNEES TRACK
OVER YOUR
TOES
ENSURE YOUR
CORE IS TIGHT
THROUGHOUT
THE MOVEMENT
MOVE 5: ROMANIAN
DEADLIFT
THE MOVE: Press the bar overhead, drop it down
to your chest and then lower it to your hips. Lower
the bar down by bending your hips. Bend your
knees during the descent and keep your waist
straight. At the lowest position your back should
be just above parallel to the floor and the weights
should hang just above the floor. Lift the bar back
up by extending your hips and knees until you
reach the upright position. Repeat 10 times to
complete the complex.
MOVE 4: SQUAT
THE MOVE: Bend your knees while allowing
your hips to push back behind you. Keep your
back straight and your knees pointed in the
same direction as your feet. Descend until
your thighs are past parallel. Extend your
knees and hips upward by driving through
your heels until your legs are straight again.
Perform 10 squats.
IT LOOKS LIKE: As a standalone workout repeat the
complex 4-6 times, resting 2 minutes between rounds. The transition to
each exercise should be smooth and fluid.
4
5
YOUR TORSO
SHOULD
REMAIN AT A
45 DEGREE
ANGLE OR
SLIGHTLY
HIGHER
COMPLEX
HOW TO INCORPORATE THEM
Y
ou can use complexes either as a finisher at the end of your regular strength training workout or
as a fast-paced, separate conditioning workout. Bodybuilders, athletes and gym-goers will all use
them differently so experiment to see what works best for you.
The number of exercises you can use are not limited to bars and compound movements either, but they
offer the greatest return for your time in the gym. There are also hundreds of combinations you can create
based on your exercise knowledge, level of creativity and the equipment you have available.
MOVE 3: FRONT SQUAT
THE MOVE: From the upright position dip down
and drop the bar below your knees. Raise the
bar back up and as it passes your knees raise
your shoulders and extend your body while
shrugging your shoulders. Clean the bar and
catch it on your shoulders. Keep your elbows
high as you squat down by bending your hips
and pushing them back while allowing your
knees to bend. Keep your back straight and
knees pointed in the same direction as your
feet as you drop down. Descend until your
thighs are past parallel to the floor. Extend
your knees and hips until your legs are straight
to return to the starting position. Repeat six (6)
times before moving on to the next exercise...
>> STARTING: Grab a loaded Olympic bar with an
overhand grip. Deadlift the bar up and stand upright with your
feet positioned shoulder-width apart.
As a standalone workout perform
4-6 times resting two (2) minutes
between rounds. Aim to increase
load rather than rounds. As a
finisher perform 1-2 times.
INTERMEDIATE-
TO-ADVANCED
FAT LOSS
COMPLEX
MOVE 2: ROMANIAN
DEADLIFT
THE MOVE: Move into the upright position.
Lower the bar down by bending your hips.
Bend your knees during the descent and
keep your waist straight. At the lowest
position your back should be just above
parallel to the floor and the weights
should hang just above the floor. Lift the
bar back up by extending your hips and
knees until you reach the upright position.
Repeat six (6) times before moving on to
the next exercise... >>
MOVE 1: DEAD-STOP
ROWS
THE MOVE: From the starting position
bend your knees and flex your hips
forward. Lower your torso until it is
parallel to the floor and the weight
plates touch the ground. Pull the bar
from off the floor to your upper waist/
lower chest. Lower the weight under
control until the plates once again
rest on the floor. Perform six (6) reps
before moving on to the next exercise...
1 2 3
THE MOVES EXPLAINED:
ABOUT JUSTIN....
DONT
LET THE
WEIGHT
TOUCH
THE
FLOOR
ENSURE
YOUR HEELS
REMAIN ON
THE FLOOR
THROUGHOUT
THE ENTIRE
MOVEMENT
JUSTIN IS A COMPETITIVE CROSSFIT ATHLETE. HE TRAINS AND
COMPETES AT CROSSFIT PLATINUM IN THE TEAM COMPETITION
MOVE 4: PUSH
PRESS
THE MOVE: As you reach the
top of the front squat use the
momentum to press the bar
upward until your arms are
extended overhead. Lower the
bar down behind your neck and
repeat six (6) times. Keep the
bar positioned on your upper
back as you progress to the next
move...
MOVE 5:
GOOD
MORNINGS
THE MOVE: With your back
straight and your knees
slightly bent, bend your
hips and lower your torso
forward. Raise your torso
back up again until your hips
are extended. Repeat six (6)
times.
MOVE 6: SQUAT
THE MOVE: Bend your knees while
allowing your hips to bend back
behind you. Keep your back straight
and your knees pointed in the same
direction as your feet. Descend until
your thighs are just past parallel to
the floor. Extend your knees and hips
upward by driving through your heels
until your legs are straight again.
Perform six (6) squats.
MOVE 7: DEADLIFT
THE MOVE: Press the bar overhead,
drop it down to your chest and
then lower it to the floor. With your
feet positioned under the bar drop
your hips down. Lift the bar by fully
extending your hips and knees. Pull
your shoulders back at the top of
the lift. Drop down by flexing your
hips and knees and return to the
starting position. Repeat 12 times
to complete the complex.
4
5
6 7
IT LOOKS LIKE: The transition to each exercise should be
smooth and fluid. The complete complex is equal to one round.
BUILDING MORE MUSCLE AND IMPROVING YOUR CONDITIONING
DONT HAVE TO BE MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE. WITH THE RIGHT
COMPLEX, USED AS PART OF THE RIGHT MUSCLEBUILDING
PROGRAMME YOU CAN ADD MUSCLE TO YOUR FRAME AND SHED
UNWANTED BODY FAT AT THE SAME TIME.
THE DEADLIFT
PLACES
DEMANDS ON
THE ENTIRE
BODY. DO NOT
ROUND YOUR
BACK AT ANY
POINT.
B
Y

P
E
D
R
O

V
A
N

G
A
A
L
E
N
,

E
d
i
t
o
r
P
H
O
T
O
S

B
Y

A
n
t
o
n

G
e
y
s
e
r
FINDING
THE FITTEST
IN AFRICA
everyone can benchmark their performance
against the best in the world. The ultimate
goal though is a ticket to the CrossFit
Games, which are being held at the
StubHub Center in Carson, California
from 25-27 July. The Africa region is
only allocated one spot each for the top
male, female and team, which means
competition for the right to compete
alongside the Fittest on Earth is intense.
With the Regionals workouts
released Wednesday, 8 May we had lots of time
to prepare ourselves for the specific events. We
structured a specific plan that mimicked the
Regionals programme, and we stuck to it. This
ensured we were ready to take on every workout
and knew exactly what to expect, explains
Wilna Appel, head coach at CrossFit PBM, the
2014 CrossFit Africa Regionals team champions.
Everything we did had a purpose and we werent
doing WODs for the sake of it.
CrossFit PBM also enlisted
the help of specialised
strength and conditioning, and
Olympic weightlifting coaching
from the team at The Yard
Athletic. Scott MacIntosh
and Josh Capazorio helped
us to improve our Olympic
weightlifting technique, and
also periodised our training leading up to Regionals,
which ensured the team peaked at the right time. This
was essential due to the load and volume of training we
were doing. They also helped us plan our training taper
over the last two weeks, which ensured we reach the
Regionals event feeling fresh and sharp. In my mind this
specialised coaching was essential to our success.
THE REGIONALS EXPERIENCE
Having prepared better than ever before Appel
explains that the team, which
consisted of herself, Holly Myers,
Heike Kotze, Estian Ferreira,
Frederick Engelbrecht and
Gerhard van der Merwe, arrived
at Regionals on day 1 feeling
confident and ready to compete.
There were eight events
at Regionals this year. The
teams decide which members
competed in each event, with
the requirement that every team
CrossFit
Regionals
From left to right:
Nicole Seymour, Celeste
Engelbrecht, Anneke De Beer
Where to from here: The winners of the ladies, mens and team
categories will be competing internationally in Carson,
California from 25 - 27 July. Stay up to date with event news by
following @fitnesshe or visiting www.fitnessmag.co.za
[FITNESS EXPERIENCE]
50 JULY - AUGUST 2014
For most its part of the natural evolution that the
competitive culture within CrossFit instills in all who
choose to participate. For others it was their goal
from the start to stand atop the podium and be
crowned the Fittest in Africa and then, hopefully,
the Fittest on Earth.
However, to make it to the CrossFit Regionals event
you first need to get through the CrossFit Open. In 2014
more than 35 teams and nearly 2,000 local registered
CrossFit athletes participated in the Open, which meant
that the competition was tough from the start.
The Open is a five week programme, during which
time CrossFit athletes need to complete the Open
workout and have their scores verified and submitted
by a CrossFit-affiliate. The first Open workout was
released on 27 February, and five weeks later the
fittest 48 men, 48 women and 30 teams (made up of 3
men and 3 women) from each of the 17 regions around
the world were eligible to compete at a three-day
Regionals event.
COMPETITION FEVER
The 2014 Reebok CrossFit Games Africa
Regionals took place at the Coca Cola Dome in
Johannesburg from 30 May to 1 June. The head-
to-head competition format makes this stage of
the CrossFit season highly competitive, and is
really exciting to watch for spectators.
The workouts are the same for all regions
globally, which also adds an extra dynamic as
S
tep into just about
any CrossFit box
and youll soon be
able to distinguish
two types of CrossFitters
those who are there to get
fit, improve their health
and challenge themselves
in new ways, and the
CrossFit athletes.
[ E]
member must compete at least
once a day. Team performances are
ranked, with one point awarded per
place (1 for first, 2 for second, etc.)
and the team with the lowest overall
points are crowned the winners.
We got there early to check in by
07h00, with the event briefing following
soon after at 07h30. Having had our
usual breakfast of bacon and eggs and
a protein shake we put our feet up until
just before 09h00, which is when we
started our warm ups, she explains.
The format
followed in 2014
was also different
to previous years as
all the team events
would take place in
the morning, instead
of interspersed with
the individual mens
and womens events.
This meant that the
team generally had
about 30 minutes
between heats to
rest and recover.
While that posed a
new challenge it also
meant we werent
there all day. Our
approach would be
to go and sit down between heats
and drink a USN Enduro Carbs and
USN amino acid stack shake as the
events were too close together to
have a meal.
Event 1 consisted of a reps for
time workout with muscle ups and
clean and jerks. All our members
are well rounded so this start played
to our strengths. Finishing the
workout in 11m47s to win the event,
CrossFit PBM took an early lead that
they wouldnt relinquish again.
We were able to extend our lead
after Event 2 1 rep max hang squat
snatches with an accumulated
total of 1075 pounds, which was 200
pounds heavier than the second
placed team. This is where the
work wed been doing
on our strength and
weightlifting technique
began to shine through. What was
really impressive was that we were
all consistent. We didnt have one
massive lift that contributed to that
total. Rather the guys and girls who
lifted were on par, which increased
the average. Thats when we started
to drive home our advantage. Day
1 ended with Event 3 maximum
distance handstand walks. Again we
were all consistent
in this event, which
ensured we won
every event on
day 1.
Defending
team champions,
CrossFit Platinum
(this year
competing as
CrossFit Double
Platinum) started
day 2 with a plan
to wrestle back the
ascendancy. With
the venue filling up,
as families, friends,
supporters and box
members came
to cheer on their
teams, the atmosphere was certainly
heightened. And when CrossFit Double
Platinum won Event 4 thrusters and
foot rope ascents for time by the ladies
the tension began to rise even further.
Day 2 was definitely when we
were most stressed. While we were
already about four points ahead it
was moving day. This means that
while you might not win it on day 2
you can certainly lose it with a few
poor events. However, we had a plan.
We would work towards second in
the events where we knew we were
weaker, and things seemed to be going
to plan from the outset as we placed
second in Event 4.
Event 5 followed this same format,
but this time the guys were scored.
2014 Reebok CrossFit Games
Africa Regionals results
Ladies category:
1. Celestie Engelbrecht (unaffiliated)
- Fittest Woman in Africa
2. Nicole Seymour (CrossFit Iron
Angel)
3. Anneke De Beer (CrossFit
Wonderboom)
Mens category:
1. Quinton Z. Van Rooyen (CrossFit
PLUS264) - Fittest Man in Africa
2. Andre Gadney (CrossFit Jozi East)
3. Richard Smith (CrossFit Kyalami).
Team Category:
1. CrossFit PBM
2. CrossFit Double Platinum
3. CrossFit RTF
* PODCAST
We catch up with the Fittest Woman in Africa. In a previous podcast
we talk to Celestie Engelbrecht about her experience and goals
after winning the regionals. www.fitnessmag.co.za
CrossFit PBM took their first win of the day,
with CrossFit Double Platinum in second. It
became clear that it was going to be a two
horse race to the finish as these two teams
went head to head.
When CrossFit PBMs characteristic
consistency let them down during Event
6 a relay for time of handstand push-
ups, hang power cleans and burpees
the competition got that little bit closer.
During that event we knew we had to limit
our losses to keep the score difference the
same. Thankfully we were able to place
second again and achieved our goal.
With organisers erecting an additional
stand to accommodate the extra
spectators day 3 dawned with a great deal
of anticipation, with CrossFit PBM still
holding the lead they had established on
day 1. We knew exactly what we had to
do and our performances on day 2 had
ensured we had some breathing space. If
we came second and third in the final two
events we would still win, explains Appel.
And when the team won Event 7,
where the entire team had to work
through stations for time, the job was
almost done. It wasnt an easy win
though as we were behind going into the
final station. Fredrick and I were last and
we managed to overtake Double Platinum
at the death to record our fifth
win of the weekend. That meant that
only a sixth place or worse would
lose the competition for us in the
final event, which took the pressure
off us in the last heat.
Taking a more cautious approach
in Event 8 a relay for time of pull-
ups and overhead squats CrossFit
PBM secured the title of Fittest in
Africa, and a coveted spot at the 2014
Reebok CrossFit Games.
It was great to achieve our goal,
especially as our plan worked out
perfectly. We were consistent, never
finishing an event lower than second,
and are now ready to take on the
Fittest in the World at the Games.
Its a big task as the preparation
will be entirely different because
the workouts will only be released
before the Games, so we need
to be prepared for anything and
everything, concludes Appel.
Dave Levey, attempting to retain the title he won in 2013.
Dave Levey in action
during the rope
climb event.
In 2014 more than 35 teams and nearly
2,000 local registered CrossFit athletes
participated in the Open, which meant that
the competition was tough from the start.
All the winners on the podium.
Celeste Engelbrecht,Fittest
Woman in Africa 2014
54 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[TRAINING ]
Mastering
the
>> BY PEDRO VAN GAALEN, EDITOR
A
ccordingly, it pays to give as
much attention to the last two-
week period (in general) before a
big race as you did the preceding
six months of periodised training.
While the larger training blocks
aim to deliver you to the start line
in peak condition, an adequate
taper is what will ensure an
athlete is able to convert the
adaptations and conditioning
developed during that time into
a win or a new personal best on
race day.
To achieve this Ian Craig,
BSc MSc CSCS, an exercise
physiologist, nutritional therapist
and sports coach, explains that
athletes need to stimulate a
breakdown in a system through
training, be it the muscular,
endocrine, cardiovascular and/
or cardiorespiratory systems,
following which it is rebuilt
stronger than before.
This essentially means that
youre always on a knife edge trying
to balance this process, and its
easy for an athlete to fall over the
edge into illness, he explains. This
is a concept known as overtraining,
which we covered in a recent issue
of Fitness His Edition.
In addition, your aerobic and
anaerobic systems require enzymes
to function optimally, all of which
need cofactors to function properly.
However, these cofactors can
become severely depleted when
athletes continue to cook it every
day before a big race. Your body
needs time to replenish these
compounds, as well as stores of
other important substances depleted
during heavy training blocks. This
replenishment can only happen with
adequate rest and recovery, and the
correct intake of macronutrients and
enzymes. If it doesnt have this time
to recover and you continue to train
with high volumes before a major
event or race you wont have the
reserves or capacity to compete at
the highest level.
M
Dening the taper
B
en Capostagno from
Science2Sport, a collective
of sports scientists and coaches
who use scientifically-validated
methods and products to give
their athletes an advantage
during training and competition,
defines the training taper as a
strategy that allows athletes to
peak for major competitions.
Manipulating both the volume and
the intensity of the training during
the taper allows the athlete to
flush out fatigue without losing
training-induced adaptations.
There are an infinite number of
methods used to structure tapers.
In addition, there are both intra-
and inter-individual responses to
different tapering protocols. As
such, coaches and athletes often
use a trial and error approach to
determine which tapering protocol
is best suited to a specific athlete.
Craig echoes these sentiments,
and elaborates further by stating
that the type and length of a
taper also varies depending on the
distance or duration of a specific
event. What athletes need to bear
in mind is that it basically takes
three weeks from your hardest
training sessions for your body to
realise the full benefit. However,
this is highly individualised as this
adaptation may happen in two
weeks depending on an athletes
genetics. Regardless, your body
needs time to adapt and a properly
planned taper should therefore give
your body sufficient time to adapt to
your last training cycle.
In practical terms Craig says
the last major training session for
a marathoner should therefore
be 3-4 weeks before the race.
Conversely, a 10km race taper
would be no more than a week
and a taper for a 5km race could
conceivably be as little as one
day. In his coaching methodology
Craig believes that the peak of the
last training cycle should fall on
a specific day, which is basically
The art of
arriving at
an event
or race
fresh and
sharp
taper
[
ONTHS OF HARD WORK, SCIENTIFICALLY PROGRAMMED TRAINING AND METICULOUS PREPARATION CAN
ALL BE UNDONE IN THE FINAL WEEKS BEFORE A BIG EVENT OR RACE WITHOUT AN ADEQUATE TRAINING
TAPER. Getting the training taper wrong, or worse, not tapering at all, will result in sub-optimal race-day performance as your body
hasnt been given the time to adapt to the training stimuli you imposed on it in the lead up to the big day.
N
utritionally speaking,
Craig says athletes should
continue to eat normally. The
extra calories available due to
the drop in training volume will
allow you to store the glycogen
your body needs. I normally
shift macronutrient ratios to
include slightly more carbs,
while reducing fats and proteins
slightly. This is obviously based
on your genetics and ability to
metabolise carbs or fats. But
dont try anything new. Just
stick to what youre used to.
He also points out that any
endurance event under two
hours in duration wont require
an increase in carb intake.
This approach would obviously
differ when tapering for a multi-
day stage race. In this instance
I might advise an athlete to do
some training on limited carbs
to help them become more fat
efficient. Carb intake would
then be more critical during the
event and directly afterwards for
optimal recovery and glycogen
repletion.
Dietary
guidelines
S
o what happens
if you get it
wrong? Aside
from the threat
of overtraining,
you could line up
at the start in a
depleted state,
which means you
may feel tired or
flat.This means
youll lack that
all-important
race-day
sharpness. Its
therefore likely
that youll run a few
seconds per kilometre slower
than you expected. Worse still,
you may bomb at 75% of race
distance, according to Craig.
There is also the threat
of over-tapering resting
too much, with insufficient
stimulation to maintain the
levels of neuromuscular
function that are necessary for
optimal performance. Many
studies show that a period of
inactivity of about two weeks is
when de-training sets in. This
decrease in neuromuscular
function results in a loss
of speed and sharpness.
Technically an athletes
endurance should still be there,
and technique shouldnt
www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 55
calculated backwards from the
race date. For marathon runners
he includes one day of tapering for
every mile of the race. That would
mean almost a month of reduced
training volume for a 26.2-mile
marathon, he explains.
However, clearly defining
what reduced volume refers
to is important. A taper doesnt
mean no training, as many people
incorrectly believe, continues
Craig. Using the marathon taper as
a point of departure, Craig explains
that overall training volume starts
decreasing during the first two
weeks of a taper, but training
intensity may increase.
From week two there should
be a massive drop in volume
between 75-50% of peak training
volume. However, intervals at
slightly faster-than-race pace
should be included to ensure
the athletes neuromuscular
recruitment remains sharp. In
the week before the race there
should be another drop of 50-25%
in overall volume. However, during
these runs the athlete would need
to work at race-pace intensity for
at least one fast session, with a few
intervals or bursts during tempo
runs. The trick is to leave those fast
training session wanting more.
Two days before the event is
usually a complete rest day, with
a short 20-25 minute session that
includes 4-5 bursts to round out
the taper. However, rest days
shouldnt be devoid of activity.
Go for a walk and stay relatively
active, perhaps with some light
stretching.
suffer, but the body will become
de-conditioned and will therefore
be unable to reach and maintain
the physiological peak attained
through training. As such your
other systems will have to
work harder to make up the
difference, which is when early-
onset fatigue sets in. Thats why
it is essential to do some race-
pace and stride bursts in the
final week as it maintains that
sharpness, concludes Craig.
Capostagno adds that other
symptoms of getting the taper
wrong include sluggish or
sleepy legs at the start, with
athletes often saying that it took
their legs a while to wake up.
Getting it wrong
Carb intake would
then be more
critical during the
event and directly
afterwards for
optimal recovery
and glycogen
repletion.
Manipulate both the volume and the
intensity of the training during the taper.
56 JULY - AUGUST 2014
Master your taper
[TRAINING]
W
ith the clear benefits associated with getting a training taper
right, and the potentially devastating effects of getting it
wrong, fitness His Edition asked four of South Africas top coaches
to offer their guidelines for mastering the taper.
Running - John Hamlett, Nike running coach
Cycling - Ben Capostagno, Science2Sport
(www.sciencetosport.com)
Based on previous scientific
research examining the
effectiveness of tapering on
subsequent endurance sport
performances, the optimal
tapering period should be
between 8 14 days. Any cyclist,
be they an elite rider, age grouper
or weekend warrior, needs to
consider their preceding training
load when structuring their
taper. Elite endurance athletes
are generally exposed to larger
training loads than recreational
level athletes. Therefore, elite
athletes might begin their taper
two weeks before the event, while
most recreational athletes will
only require a taper of one week.
It is important to note that all
athletes, no matter what level
they compete at, will benefit from
the inclusion of a taper.
When we begin working with
a new athlete we firstly set up
an annual plan that allows us to
design their training programme.
The annual plan consists of all the
events that the athlete is planning
on competing in that year. This
allows us to structure how training
volume and intensity will change
over the year to ensure theyre in
the best possible shape for their
targeted events.
Most of the athletes that we
work with compete in more than
one event per year and we will
therefore include multiple tapers
throughout the season. This allows
us to experiment with different
lengths of tapers and ensures that
we have a sound strategy as we
approach a goal event. Depending
on the importance of the event to
the athlete and where it fits into
their training cycle, we might not
include a taper at all, but rather
use the race as a training session.
Other events will have short tapers
in order to flush out most of the
acute fatigue from the preceding
training weeks.
When the athlete is approaching
a target event we will generally
use a two-week taper where
we decrease the volume of the
training, but keep the intensity at a
moderate to high level. The high
intensity is required to ensure
that the athlete doesnt lose the
training-induced adaptations. A
typical pre-race taper week will
look like this:
Day 1: Rest no exercise.
Day 2: 1.52 hour easy ride at a
low intensity and high cadence
(>90 RPM)
Day 3: Rest no exercise.
Day 4: Warm up for 30 minutes
at a low intensity. Follow this
with 4 x 4 minute intervals at an
intensity corresponding to your
functional (lactate) threshold.
Rest (ride easy) for 10 minutes
between each of the four-minute
intervals. Cool down for 30
minutes.
Day 5: Rest no exercise.
Day 6: 1.52 hours easy ride
at a low intensity with 5 x 2
minute accelerations to bring
your heart rate up to your
functional threshold for the last
30 seconds of each acceleration
(use a relatively hard gear and
moderate cadence of 70-80 RPM).
Rest for 5 minutes between each
of the accelerations.
Day 7: Race day
In terms of nutrition, a
cyclist may need to adjust
their macronutrient intake in
accordance with the reduction
in training volume to prevent
weight gain. However, we dont
recommend that you avoid
any macronutrient groups
(carbohydrates, fat and protein)
during this period. Rather adjust
the quantities appropriately. A
few days before the race you
can increase your carbohydrate
intake, but dont over-eat.
The taper needs
to deliver an
athlete to the start
line feeling fresh,
without any loss of
conditioning.
It basically
takes three
weeks from
your hardest
training
sessions for
your body to
realise the full
benefit

The principles of a taper remain
the same for just about any
sport. Most importantly, the
taper is not a holiday or break
from training. Its a progressive
downscaling in overall load
(volume), with a commensurate
increase in speed (intensity).
The taper needs to deliver
an athlete to the start line
feeling fresh, without any loss
of conditioning, and adequate
glycogen stores to compete at
the highest intensity. The average
taper we use is two weeks long.
Working back from race day, our
normal strategy is as follows:
Race day -1: Light fartlek
session at varying intensities to
get the athlete moving.
Race day -2: Rest day.
Race day -3: A 30-40 minute
moderate tempo run, with a light
pick up at the end.
Race day -4: An hour-long run
for marathoners at a comfortable
pace. Its always wise to work
towards time rather than distance.
Weekend before: We wouldnt do
more than 50% of race distance at
a session. Will also include an easy
or gentle run.
In general we include lots of
unstructured speed work, such as
fartleks over the 2-3 week taper
period to ensure our athletes dont
become de-trained. With three weeks
or more to go its generally business
as usual for marathon distances and
lower as were still doing very long
runs during that period.
We also start tracking body
composition from eight weeks out,
which is when we look to drop body
fat and weight if athletes arent
at the right levels. Nutritionally
speaking, as we approach race
day we add some extra carbs,
but nutrition is generally geared
around the individual during the
final few days. Our main aim is to
manage blood sugar levels.
58 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[TRAINING]
58
Triathlon - Kent Horner,
head coach
www.mytrainingday.com.
An adequate
taper is what will
ensure an athlete
is able to convert
the adaptations
and conditioning
developed during
bigger training
blocks into a win or a
new personal best on
the day.
Bodybuilding or physique
competitions - Hennie
Kotze, IFBB pro bodybuilder,
coach and personal trainer
I have adopted an approach to tapering
I learnt from my coach, Neil Hill. For
the two weeks prior to a bodybuilding
contest I start training smarter - I
dont lift that heavy, preferring to
lift lighter weights and use different
techniques like giant setting to help
dial in my conditioning. This also limits
the possibility of injuries, which are
more prevalent during this time as were
training in a severe calorie-depleted
state. This is in stark contrast to tapering
for endurance events as youre basically
reducing the intensity of each workout
and increasing your training volume.
In the last few days leading up to a
show I will increase the volume even
further to help with glycogen depletion.
We then combine this with a re-carb
phase before a show to make the athlete
look fuller on stage. I also like to play
around with the types of carbs I eat. And
theres no need to cut out all carbs in my
opinion. This may work really well for
some guys, but most athletes can mess
up their conditioning with this approach. I
like to switch from lower GI carbs during
the week to medium and then high GI
carbs closer to the show as they help to
fill out the muscle quicker. During the
last three days I start increasing my carb
intake, but be weary of the spill-over
effect, which can leave you looking flat
on stage. It may also help to try different
protein sources as some athletes respond
better to fish and chicken than red meat.
Youll need to find what works best for
you, but overall protein intake stays
the same. Your diet is by far the most
important element during your taper
before a show. Unfortunately there is no
set plan as everyone responds differently,
so rather use your conditioning as the
gauge. And stick with foods you know.
Dont try new things.
In terms of water intake, from 8-9 days
out I start drinking an extra litre a day.
Then, from the Tuesday or Wednesday
before a show I start tapering my water
intake down, but I dont cut out water
completely. I will even sip on water on
the day of a show as the body will hold
on to any water it does get. To assist with
dropping excess water I will generally cut
sodium out 2-3 days before a show.
There is no set formula for the
perfect taper as this is totally
dependant on the individual
athlete and their current fitness
levels. The challenge is not to set
an exact date, but rather look at
your training history. The goal of
a taper is to take an athlete into
their targeted event feeling fresh
and well rested. This could take
anything from 2.5 weeks to one
day depending on the previous
efforts and consistency prior to
the event.
We use coaching software to
help guide us in structuring tapers
for our athletes. The tool we use to
monitor this is called your Training
Stress Balance, or TSB. This is
calculated from your Training
Stress Scores (TSS), a quantified
score given to any recorded
workout based on time and
intensity, and measured against an
athletes tested threshold limits.
We aim for the ideal balance to
be fresh without losing too much
fitness. Outside factors to consider
would be other life stresses that
cannot be measured but would also
need to be taken into account.
When it comes time to taper we
decrease volume and intensity in
small increments and we always
tell our athletes to listen to their
bodies. Resting for five days prior
to an event will make you fresh,
but youll lose a dramatic amount
of fitness and you will shock your
body when you ask it to suddenly
race. In a multi-disciplined event
like triathlon you have to fine tune
your approach more than other
athletes to ensure you balance all
the disciplines youre training for.
60 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[SPORT FOCUS]
ention the
Olympics and
it will, more
often than
not, conjure
up an image of
the mens 100m final, arguably
the grandest, most prestigious
event of the Games, albeit the
shortest. Thats because it is
widely considered to be the
pinnacle of mankinds physical
prowess as the eight fastest men
in the world do battle to win gold.
And this prestige carries through
to just about every other level of
track and field meet as the 100m
event is always the highlight, be it
at high school, club or provincial
championship level.
But sprinting shouldnt be the
sole preserve of the genetically
gifted. It is actually one of the
most effective forms of exercise
we can engage in as it has the
potential to help build muscle,
shed fat, boost our metabolism,
strengthen our bodies and improve
our performance in just about every
sporting code, even endurance
events.
Sprinting is the act of running
over a short distance at or near
top speed. Most formalised sprint
races happen over a distance of
60m (indoor), 100m and 200m. The
400m could also be considered an
all-out sprint, but very few athletes
have the physiology to excel at the
400m and the shorter distances,
with sprint great Michael Johnson
the most notable exception.
SPRINTING
>>
An all-conquering form of exercise
FACT: Michael Johnson is the only man in history who has won the 200m and the 400m gold medals at a single Olympics Games (1
But that's not to say you should stick to
the shorter distances when training. In fact,
research has shown that a 30 second full tilt
sprint has the potential to naturally boost human
growth hormone (hGH) production by 530% over
resting baseline values and 450% over shorter
duration sprints.
The study, titled The time course of the
human growth hormone response to a 6 s and
a 30 s cycle ergometer sprint conducted by
Stokes et al, and published in the June 2002
Journal of Sports Sciences, found that metabolic
responses were greater after the maximal 30s
sprint than after the 6s sprint used in the study.
Not only was the highest measured mean serum
hGH concentration after the 30s sprint more
than 450% greater than that after the 6s sprint,
but serum hGH levels also remained elevated for
90-120 minutes after the 30s sprint, compared
to just 60 minutes after the 6s sprint. In the
study's conclusion the researchers did state
that while the duration of a bout of maximal
sprint exercise determines the magnitude of the
hGH response ... the mechanism for this is still
unclear.
This ability to increase hGH through exercise
(known as the exercise-induced growth hormone
response or EIGR) is important because this
hormone plays a pivotal role in a number of
important metabolic processes, not least of
which is muscle growth. More specifically,
hGH promotes the turnover of muscle, bone
and collagen, and regulates selective aspects
of metabolic function, including increased fat
metabolism.
While the exact mechanisms that initiate EIGR
remain unclear, most studies point to processes
such as neural input, direct stimulation by
catecholamines, lactate and/or nitric oxide
production, and changes in acid-base balance as
possible contributors.
A study titled The exercise-induced growth
hormone response in athletes published in
the 2003 edition of the journal Sports Medicine,
conducted by Godfrey, Madgwick and Whyte,
sought to find the greatest contributors. The
researchers elaborate on the effects that the
intensity, duration, frequency and mode of
exercise have on EIGR: An exercise intensity
above lactate threshold and for a minimum of 10
minutes appears to elicit the greatest stimulus
to the secretion of hGH. Exercise training above
the lactate threshold may amplify the pulsatile
release of hGH at rest, increasing 24-hour hGH
secretion.
Another benefit of increased hGH production
often cited in articles extolling the virtues of
weight training or high intensity interval sprint
training is the effects this hormone has on
longevity and ageing. The study by Godfrey et al
shared the following insight: A growing body of
evidence suggests that higher intensity exercise
is effective in eliciting beneficial health, well-
being and training outcomes. In a great many
SPRINT BENEFITS
>>
M
>> PEDRO VAN GAALEN, Editor
F
rom what we currently understand about human physiology humans, in general, cannot
maintain maximal top speed for more than 3035 seconds as lactic acid accumulation exceeds
the rate of removal, which is a rate-limiting factor.
FACT: At the 2012 London Olympics seven runners ran a sub-10 second race.
Usain Bolt won gold with the second fastest time in history 9.63 seconds.
He also holds the fastet time in history.
www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 61
GETTING STARTED
Secondly, you need to learn
proper sprinting technique.
Heel striking during an all-out
sprint is not uncommon as
this is a movement pattern
that has become ingrained
in many runners due to the
slower, longer distance
mileage their bodies have
become accustomed to, and
the biomechanical imbalances
that plague so many of us
these days due to the amount
of sitting we do.
Accordingly a third key
element in enhanced mobility
and the correction of any
biomechanical imbalances.
Hip mobility and alignment is
particularly important, which
includes all the muscles and
structures around your hip
girdle.
You could also start
sprinting using equipment
that isnt load bearing, like a
bike. This will help to prepare
your cardiovascular system for
the onslaught that lays ahead
when you finally get onto the
track and a track is the most
advisable place to sprint as
it offers a softer, less jarring
surface than a road. If you
cant sprint on a track then
grass is the next best option.
When you finally step on a
track to start sprinting, start
conservatively. Always precede
sprints with a thorough
warm up that includes light
cardiovascular activity followed
by dynamic stretching. As you
build up the key is to run as
fast as possible, but at the
safest possible speed given
your physical limitations. Keep
your initial sprints brief yet
intense. As you progress work
up from shorter distances (40-
60m) at 100% intensity to the
longer runs (150-400m).
N
ow that youre sold on the benefits how should you get
started? Well, an all-out sprint is ill-advised for the
uninitiated or those who lack the conditioning to perform at this
intensity. You first need to build up to a sprint while working on
strengthening your sprinting muscles particularly your
glutes, core, hamstrings, calves and hip flexors.
cases, the impact of some of the deleterious
effects of ageing could be reduced if exercise
focused on promoting the EIGR.
In addition, a handful of studies also suggest
that sprinting could be more beneficial for
endurance than longer duration exercise. For
instance, studies published in the Journal of
Applied Physiology and Journal of Physiology,
conducted at the Exercise Metabolism Research
Group at McMaster University in Hamilton,
Ontario by Gibala et al, found that a total of 2-3
minutes of sprinting, done in 30-second bursts
during a 20-minute workout three times a week
produced the same results as three endurance
cycling sessions per week, each of which lasted
90-120 minutes. Stated more simply, just one
hour of interval training produced the
same effects on endurance capacity
that six hours of steady-state exercise
accomplished. In addition, after just
two weeks, or six workouts, tests
indicated that test subjects increased
their endurance by 100% on average
and their muscles began using
oxygen more efficiently to burn fuels.
And there are amazing fat
loss benefits too... A 1994 study
conducted by researchers at Laval
University in Quebec, Canada found
that participants who engaged in
15 weeks of intervals (15 sprints
for 30 seconds each) lost nine times more
body fat and 12% more visceral belly fat than
participants who engaged in 20 weeks of steady-
state aerobic training. And this was despite the
fact that steady-state participants burned about
15,000 calories more than those in the interval
group over the duration of the study.
Michael Johnson is the only man in history who has won the 200m and the 400m gold medals at a single Olympic Games (1996 Atlanta Games).
1. SPRINT REPEATS
From a standing, crouched or rolling
start, sprint over a set distance (40, 60,
100, 200 or 400m). Once you cross the line
decelerate and come to a complete stop.
Walk back to the starting position and
repeat.
NOTE: Sprinting over shorter
distances requires less recovery
time for the primary energy system
to replenish itself.
2. SPRINT INTERVALS
Run around a track at a comfortable pace
and sprint at regular intervals for a set
distance or time. For instance, on a 400m
track run the 100m bend section and
sprint on the straights.
3. SPRINT FARTLEKS
Sprint fartleks are generally defined
as unstructured interval sessions. Vary
the distance of each interval and sprint
accordingly. For instance a 1km fartlek
could consist of:
50m jog
50m sprint
100m jog
50m sprint
50m jog
150m sprint
100m jog
200m sprint
50m jog
150m sprint
50m jog
4. SPRINT 8 WORKOUT
Run 60 meters eight times, building up
the intensity of each consecutive sprint.
Each sprint is followed by 1.5-2 minutes
of active recovery as you walk back to the
start.
5. SPRINT TABATAS
Perform 60 cycles of all-out sprinting
for 20 seconds followed by 10 seconds of
active recovery (jogging).
ADDITIONAL PURPORTED BENEFITS OF
SPRINTING INCLUDE:
Improves insulin sensitivity
Increases the oxidative (fat burning)
potential of muscle
Improves movement efficiency
Improves speed
Enhanced energy production efficiency
and capacity for all three energy systems
SPRINTING TECHNIQUE TIPS:
Relax your arms and swing them backward and forward at
a 90 degree angle.
Run on the balls of your feet, not your toes.
Foot strike underneath your hips dont over-stride or
heel strike.
Run upright with your head high and in alignment with
your torso.
Maintain a slight body lean from the ground - not from the
waist during the acceleration phase.
SPRINT
WORKOUTS
A
t the 2012 London
Olympic Games
South Africans took
notice when a young
man lined up next to
Bolt. Jobodwana is no
doubt one of the names
for the future of South
African sprinting, which
is why we tracked him down to his base in Florida, in the
US, to introduce our readers to a young South African who
brushes shoulders with the best in the US collegiate circuit.
Quick facts
Age: 21
Height: 1.87m
Weight: 72kg
Lives: Bradenton, Florida,
United States
Best times: 100m: 10.10s
200m: 20.13s
When did you realise you were going to
pursue sprinting as a career?
In 2008 when I was in Grade 10 I realised that
sprinting is what I wanted to do.
Who is your favourite sprinter, and why?
Frankie Fredericks. He is the ultimate African
sprinter and I would like to accomplish as much
as he did. I am grateful that I had the honour of
meeting him and speaking to him.
What is your ultimate dream in the sport?
I want to win an Olympic medal and a World
Championship medal.
What is it like being in the US, and has it had a
positive effect on your running?
It's great being in the US, and it is particularly
wonderful being in Florida because of the
year-round warm weather. I have learned a lot
about sprinting, particularly the psychological
and physical aspects. Being able to travel to
different cities for different track meets has
really been beneficial to my development as an
athlete as well.
How good is running, and specifically
sprinting, for general fitness? Would you
recommend the average guy looks into
including sprints in his regimen?
Running is great for physical fitness. It allows
one to burn fat and also helps get the lungs
working harder to get more oxygen to the
cells of the body, which is great. I would highly
recommend it for a training regimen. (For
more info on the benefits of sprinting read our
sprinting review feature on pg 60.)
How often do you train?
Six days a week.
How often do you do skills training?
We work on our technique every day on the
track. It's a never-ending learning process.
Technique is very important.
How important is skill in sprinting?
It is critical. It enables you to be able to sprint
efficiently from the beginning to the end of a
race, and this makes you faster.
What kind of strength training do you do and
how often?
We do plyometrics and use medicine balls a lot.
We also strengthen key areas such as the hip
region by doing hurdle mobility drills. We also do
Olympic lifting in the weights room.
What kind of eating plan do you follow?
I have to make sure that I get the required
amount of carbs, proteins and minerals every
day before and after training. This is very
important, so I eat a balanced diet that I follow
closely.
Can you give us an example of what you eat
before and after a training session?
07:30-Breakfast: Oatmeal, and a strawberry,
banana and blueberry smoothie.
10:30: Pre-workout supplement before
training.
13:00-Lunch: Chicken, asparagus, some
potatoes or rice and two bananas.
How important is diet to your performance?
It is very important as it allows me to fuel the
body to perform optimally, and also repairs my
muscles after a strenuous workout.
How important is it to "get into the zone"
before a race?
I practise this every day.
How do you manage nerves and ensure
you perform?
I just listen to music in the warm-up area and I
shut everything out during the time leading up to
competition.
WHAT WAS IT LIKE LINING UP
AGAINST USAIN BOLT?
IT WAS GREAT, I ABSOLUTELY
LOVED IT. IT WAS SOMETHING I
HAD ALWAYS DREAMED ABOUT.
I
M
A
G
E
S

S
U
P
P
L
I
E
D

G
A
L
L
O

I
M
A
G
E
S
GEAR GUIDE
[ RUNNING GEAR ]
>> BY MELANIE HEYNS,
Features writer
64 JULY - AUGUST 2014
T
h
e
b
e
s
t o
p
tio
n
s
fo
r s
p
rin
tin
g
, w
ith
a
fe
w
w
in
te
r g
e
a
r o
p
tio
n
s
to
k
e
e
p
yo
u
w
a
rm
Tip: If its
really
cold, you
can cover
exposed
areas such
as your
face with
Vaseline to
reduce the
impact of
the cold.
N
N
I
N
G





G
E
A
R

G
U
I
D
E
Nike
Running Dri-
Fit Cushioned
Sock
R80
Puma
Phone Pocket
R289
Supremebeing
Trouble Bag Cell Olive
R1299
Puma
Nightcat Backpack
R1 149
Le Coq Sportif
Black cap
R499
Puma
Mobium Elite
SPEED NC
R1 999
Nike
Men's Zoom Vomero+ 8
Road Running Shoes
R1400
Puma
Faas 600 v2
R1 599
Reebok
DT SS Compress red tee
R649.95
Puma
Pure Tech SS Tee
R649
Le Coq Sportif
White tee
R599
Nike
Men's Racer
Short Sleeve Tee
R300
Le Coq Sportif
Blue tee
R399
Puma
Gym RCVR
Power Tight
R1 299
Puma Pure
NightCat Short
R649
Nike
Men's
Swoosh Tight
R700
LAYER IT UP
Wearing several thin layers of clothing when you go out
for a run helps trap warm air between each layer, which will
keep you warmer than if you were to wear one heavy layer. This
approach also allows you to shed layers as your body temperature
rises or the conditions improve to ensure comfort while training.
FUNCTIONAL FABRICS
Fabrics such as polypropylene, capilene and some wool/synthetic blends wick
moisture away from your body and keep you as warm and dry as possible.
Cotton, on the other hand, doesnt wick moisture and is a poor insulator. This
could leave you feeling wet, cold and uncomfortable.

Core Shorts
R529
Nike
Mens Air Alvord 10
Trail Running Shoes
R750
66 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[SUPPLEMENTS]
rom repairing and building
muscle and burning body fat,
to ramping up performance,
amino acids play a critical role in
almost every aspect of our physical
and sporting development. Some of
the major areas where amino acids can
support our efforts in and out of the gym
include:
Enhanced muscle repair and growth
Improved mood, concentration and sleep
Improved immune function
Maintenance of general health
Promotion of healthy digestion
It should come as no surprise then that
many athletes and physique-conscious
individuals incorporate amino acid
supplements into their nutritional plans,
in addition to their daily protein intake, to
assist them in their quest for more muscle,
less fat and enhanced performance. Here
are just a few amino acid combinations that
may give you that extra edge...
I
ncreased testosterone
production supports
increases in muscle mass,
strength and power, coupled
with decreases in body fat,
decreased levels of fatigue
and enhanced recovery.
To keep our bodies performing
at their peak while we subject
ourselves to the rigours of
regular intense weight training
or exercise its vitally important
that we ensure natural
testosterone production is
optimised.
There are also numerous
other benefits associated with
increased testosterone levels,
not least of which are higher
energy levels, a greater sense
of well-being, improved sexual
drive, enhanced endurance
and better muscle anabolism,
as well as optimised body fat
metabolism.
D-aspartic acid (DAA) is
an amino acid present in the
neuroendocrine tissues of
humans, which plays a role in
the synthesis of both leutinising
hormone (LH) and testosterone.
LH is secreted in a pulsatile
fashion and is responsible
for signalling the release of
testosterone from the testes.
Scientific research (Topo et
al. 2009) has shown that DAA
supplementation has the ability
to significantly elevate natural
testosterone levels, with the
study indicating that a daily
dose of 3g raised testosterone
by as much as 33% in as little
as 12 days.
ZMA (zinc monomethionine
and aspartate and
magnesium aspartate) is a
highly bioavailable anabolic
mineral support complex
that contains amino acid
chelated (chemically bound)
zinc and magnesium. Clinical
research has demonstrated
that rigorous exercise and
the associated stress results
in significant losses of zinc
and magnesium. Such losses
can have a catastrophic effect
on endogenous hormone
production and often results
in sub-optimal natural
testosterone levels in those
who regularly exercise at high
intensities.
Fortunately there is a
solution, as research conducted
by Brilla et al at Washington
University on NCAA football
players demonstrated that
ZMA supplementation was
able to significantly increase
free and total testosterone
levels. The research showed
that a 30% increase in free
and total testosterone levels
was experienced by those
supplementing with ZMA
compared to a more than 10%
decrease in the placebo group.
In addition, the NCAA football
players, who took ZMA nightly
during an eight-week spring
training programme, had 2.5
times greater muscle strength
gains than the placebo group
and the overall strength of the
ZMA group increased by 11.6%
compared to only 4.6% in the
placebo group.
POWERFUL
AMINO ACID
COMBOS
F
D-aspartic acid and ZMA
NOTE: A more recent study, conducted in 2013 by Darryn S.
Willoughby and Brian Leutholtz from the Exercise and Biochemical
Nutrition Lab, Human Performance and Recreation at Baylor
University, found that 28 days of DAA supplementation at a daily
dose of 3 g is ineffective in up-regulating the activity of the HPG
(hypothalamicpituitarygonadal) axis and has no preferential
effects in which to increase skeletal muscle mass and strength in
resistance-trained men. The results of the study by Topo et al were
attributed to the fact that participants had baseline testosterone
levels at the lower end of the normal spectrum, which were then
increased to normal levels during the course of the study due to
supplemental DAA. This may indicate that DAA supplements could
help to boost testosterone production in those who have below
normal levels, but it doesnt seem to be effective at increasing
testosterone levels above normal. Further studies are required to
make more conclusive assertions.
>> BY MARIO VAN BILJON, Nhdip: Microbiology and PEDRO VAN GAALEN, Editor
Enhance your performance with these five
powerhouse amino acid combos
www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 67
Creatine and beta-alanine
L-carnitine and L-tyrosine
C
reatine is one of the most popular
sports supplements in the world,
and for good reason. It is a natural
substance found in the body and
it plays an important role in the
production of energy for forceful
muscle contraction. There are also
countless studies available that back
up these statements and scientifically
demonstrate the safety and efficacy of
creatine supplementation.
Creatine supplementation boosts
intra-muscular levels of creatine
phosphate. This, in turn, yields other
important benefits such as increased
strength, lifting performance and
recovery as a result of optimised
ATP (energy) production, as well as
enhanced cellular hydration, which
provides a muscle cell volumising
effect that stimulates pathways to
turn on protein synthesis, thus further
supporting efforts to repair damaged
muscle and/or build more lean
muscle. Creatine therefore enables
an athlete to train harder for longer
and is particularly effective at boosting
performance during repeated bouts of
high intensity exercise such as weight
training or sprinting.
Beta-alanine, on the other hand,
serves as a building block of the lactic
acid buffering amino acid carnosine.
A build-up of metabolic waste during
exercise limits muscle contraction,
with lactic acid one of the biggest
contributors to muscle fatigue. If lactic
acid can be buffered, muscle strength
can be maintained for a longer period
while training, before fatigue sets in.
Carnosine is very effective at buffering
the lactic acid burn during intense
working sets.
Supplementing with beta-alanine
is clinically proven to boost muscle
carnosine levels, thereby delaying
muscular fatigue to improve workout
performance. This means that those
involved in exercise where lactic acid
build-up can be a limiting factor, such
as weight training, stand to benefit
from beta-alanine supplementation.
Combining creatine
supplementation with the intake of
beta-alanine provides the extremely
synergistic effect of enhancing workout
performance by supporting increased
muscle contractile strength and
power output, while simultaneously
increasing muscular endurance.
This enables you to do more reps
and increase your workload in each
subsequent session.
It is theorised that the amount of fat burned during exercise is directly
related to muscle L-carnitine levels and that a well-stocked reserve
allows us to efficiently convert stored fat into expendable energy.
Creatine
enables an
athlete to train
harder for
longer and is
particularly
effective at
boosting
performance
during
repeated
bouts of high
intensity
exercise such
as weight
training or
sprinting.
L-leucine,
L-valine and
L-isoleucine
T
he branched chain
amino acids (BCAAs)
leucine, valine and
isoleucine are vital
substrates for other
amino acids, which are
released in large quantities
during intense exercise.
Furthermore, BCAAs
are used directly for fuel
by muscles during both
anaerobic and aerobic
exercise, which spares
muscle tissue from
catabolism. In order
to minimise the risk of
muscle catabolism it is
therefore vital to ensure
an adequate daily intake of
BCAAs, especially in light
of the fact that they are
essential amino acids. This
means that they need to
be consumed in dietary or
supplemental form because
the body is unable to
manufacture them by itself.
Consider too that
research indicates that
BCAAs taken before
intense training spares
muscle, thereby enhancing
physical performance,
restricting cortisol
release during exercise
and reducing metabolic
recovery requirements after
exercise. Furthermore,
post-exercise consumption
of BCAAs has been shown
to have anabolic (tissue
building) benefits as it
enhances post-exercise
protein synthesis rates.
Of the three
aforementioned BCAAs,
leucine appears to be the
most important. A number
of recent scientific studies
have demonstrated that
this amino acid stimulates
protein synthesis more than
any other, and indicates
that it is very likely the
major BCAA responsible
for the anabolic effects of
protein. Supplementing with
L-leucine allows the muscle
to achieve maximum protein
synthesis for optimal
muscle repair and recovery.
For this reason it is
normally included in BCAA
formulations at a level 2-3
times that of L-valine and
L-isoleucine.
F
ats are burned for energy inside muscle cells at
structures called the mitochondria, and L-carnitine
is needed to transport these fatty acids into these
structures. From there theyre converted into energy
that can be used by working muscles during training.
It is therefore theorised that the amount of fat burned
during exercise is directly related to muscle L-carnitine
levels and that a well-stocked reserve allows us to
efficiently convert stored fat into expendable energy.
This should ultimately enable more intense workouts,
as well as more efficient fat metabolism. In other words,
taking L-carnitine (if macronutrient ratios and calorie
consumption is controlled) should prompt your body to
use more fat as an energy source, while also preventing
premature fatigue during workouts.
And clinical research backs this hypothesis. As an
example, in a three-month clinical trial, 18 test subjects
were given 2g of L-carnitine per day or a placebo, along
with a physical training and diet programme. The results
showed that the L-carnitine group lost an average of
5.1kg, while the placebo group lost an average of 0.518kg.
L-tyrosine is an amino acid that is synthesised from
phenylalanine and is a precursor of the neurotransmitter
dopamine. It is also a precursor to the adrenal hormones
norepinephrine (nor-adrenalin) and epinephrine
(adrenalin). As L-tyrosine is a precursor of dopamine,
supplementing with it can heighten mental alertness,
drive and focus, increase the feeling of well-being and
offset physical and mental fatigue. This is because
dopamine is associated with the reward centre in the
brain and when larger concentrations are present you
tend to experience feelings of positive reinforcement, as
well as happiness or joy.
For those on a calorie-restricted diet L-tyrosine
supplementation may therefore be a useful adjunct to
your fat loss strategy because, when stressed, you may
turn to food for comfort, which ultimately leads to weight
gain and fat storage. Accordingly, L-tyrosine has proven to
be successful in relieving stress and controlling appetite.
Due to L-tyrosines involvement in the production of stress
hormones your body may not produce enough of it from
phenylalanine while under stress. Scientific data thus
suggests that as a precursor to the neurotransmitters
dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, L-tyrosine
can help reduce stress, speed up your metabolism and
promote weight loss.
68 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[NUTRITION]
#LCHF
>> BY PEDRO VAN GAALEN AND DEVLIN BROWN
hile not a new concept, Prof. Tim Noakes revolution
against modern eating habits has people talking.
Whether its on social media, at the dinner table or
around the water cooler at gym, everyone seems to have
an opinion about the low-carb, high-fat (LCHF) approach
to eating that he now vociferously advocates.
However, his about-turn on the nutritional principles he promoted
for years as South Africas foremost sports scientist, which are
epitomised in his seminal work The Lore Of Running, hasnt been
met with widespread acceptance, particularly among the broader
medical and dietetics communities. The professor now says that he
was wrong and that he is facing up to that by advocating a diet that
he feels is the answer to insulin resistance, which he says is far more
prevalent than we generally accept.
Polarising opinion
N
oakes' positions seem to
have polarised opinion in the
medical and health and fitness
industries. It even prompted
the Health Professions Council
of South Africa to release the
following statement: Although
low carbohydrate diets containing
less energy may have short term
beneficial effects on weight control
and insulin resistance in some
individuals, a healthy diet remains
a balanced diet. A simple search
on social media platforms for
#LCHF also yields widely
differing public opinion.
Amidst all this noise what is
clear is that there's a great deal of
misinformation being perpetuated
in the public sphere: some that is
simply misguided due to a lack of
understanding around the concept
or the complete lack of perspective
and relativity when reporting on the
results (there is only so much info
one can share in 140 characters on
Twitter, for instance), and some that
is borne out of ignorance and a lack
of adequate education by those who
promote the diet.
The Banting diet
I
n 1863 William Banting, a then
obese English undertaker,
adopted a low-carbohydrate
approach to eating for weight
control, which he devised with
the assistance of his physician, Dr
William Harvey. For this reason
the diet is often referred to as the
Harvey-Banting diet, but most
people, including Noakes, simply
refer to it as the Banting diet.
Banting published his approach
in his Letter on corpulence,
which is what Noakes has largely
based his approach on, albeit in
an adapted form. For the sake of
w
people, including Noakes, simply
Dening LCHF
T
hroughout much of recorded
history some form of fasting
has been used to treat seizures
and convulsions, even when
deemed to be the result of
demonic possession. As early as
1797 low-carbohydrate diets were
used to treat diabetic patients,
and in 1911 starvation and carb
manipulation techniques were
used as tools to manage epilepsy.
Building on the observations
of Rollin Woodyatt, who found
that ketone bodies were produced
by the liver in otherwise healthy
people when starved or if
they consumed a very low-
carbohydrate diet a state now
known as ketosis, Russel Wilder
coined the term ketogenic for the
diet he proposed as a treatment
for epilepsy.
The diet aimed to provide
sufficient protein for growth,
but insufficient amounts of
carbohydrates to meet the
bodys metabolic needs. As such,
energy was largely derived from
stored or ingested fat that was
then converted to ketone bodies,
thereby providing an alternative
energy source to glucose.
The classic ketogenic diet
contained a 4:1 ratio (by weight)
of fat to combined protein and
carbohydrate intake, comprising
up to 90% fat, often with as little
as 50g of carbs per day.
Modern pharmaceuticals
then replaced the use of food
as medicine in modern society.
However, interest in the ketogenic
diet has increased in recent
years as mankind continues to
learn more about the purported
therapeutic and health benefits.
A growing body of new and
previously lost or forgotten
scientific evidence is also coming
to the fore to support many of
the claims that ketogenic diets
address a growing number of
modern-day maladies, including
many lifestyle-related conditions
such as obesity, type-II diabetes,
high cholesterol and high blood
pressure. The diet now also
comes in many guises, including
Atkins, Paleo, Caveman, LCHF or
Banting.
Is it just another diet
trend or a panacea for
modern man?
The Real Meal Revolution aims
to open peoples eyes to the
myth of low-fat eating. Its
packed full of LCHF recipes.
factual accuracy it should be noted
that Bantings approach was far
from carb-free, or even as low carb
as what Noakes suggests today.
He would eat up to 3-4 slices of dry
toast, a small amount of fruit and
consumed up to seven glasses of
wine, with spirits in the evening. As
an article on carbsanity.blogspot.
com so succinctly put it: Basically
he was on a low carb, moderate
fat, high alcohol diet. According
to the website, which based the
calculation on the information
available in his letter, Bantings
macronutrient ratios were roughly:
35% alcohol, 21% carbs, 23% fats
and 21% protein. However, Prof.
Noakes LCHF diet approach has a
much higher fat ratio, is devoid of
alcohol and is more nutrient dense.
W
hy is there so much
discussion around our
current approach to eating? Well,
Noakes and a growing number
of others, including doctors,
nutritionists and sporting coaches,
believe that the blame for obesity
and lifestyle disease sits squarely at
the door of our modern diet.
Since processed foods, which
are high in sugar, refined flour and
vegetable oils, have become our
modern-day staple the incidence of
chronic health conditions has risen.
Many also cite other factors in this
regard, such as our more sedentary
lifestyles, but what we eat seems
to be the most important factor
affecting our health and weight
today.
Sugar is one of the leading
causes of this trend, and mankind
has significantly increased its
total sugar consumption over the
last 150-odd years. Its estimated
that people in some Westernised
countries consume about 67kg of
sugar per year over 500 sugar-
derived calories per day. This
overconsumption has been shown to
lead to severe metabolic problems,
including insulin resistance,
metabolic syndrome and elevated
cholesterol, among others, and has
been linked to the rise in obesity and
type-II diabetes.
In addition, genetically modified
food production has led to modern
farming methods which tend to
produce crops with less nutritional
value. Modern dwarf wheat, for
instance, contains up to 28% fewer
minerals than older varieties.
And when modern medicine
started to blame saturated fat for
heart disease and high cholesterol
the war against high-fat foods
began. Interestingly, this occurred
in the late 1970s when the first
dietary guidelines for Americans
were published, which correlates
with the start of the countrys
obesity pandemic. Since then
people have chosen to abandon
more traditional forms of natural
fat in favour of products that
contain hydrogenated vegetable oils
like margarine.
Why switch to LCHF?
The need for a different approach
S
o why then do we need to
switch to a LCHF diet? Why
not simply cut out the processed
food and sugar, and start eating
food thats closer to its natural
form? Well, Noakes explains
that the LCHF diet works if
someone is insulin resistant.
There are many people who
arent insulin resistant and
theyll do fine on the diet that
they want to eat. As long as you
arent insulin resistant, and as
long as your insulin is acting
normally, then you can have
more carbohydrates.
However, Noakes adds that if
the carbohydrates youre eating
are nutrient poor, you wont get
the same amount of nutrients
as you would from a high-fat,
high-protein diet theres more
nutrients there, but were being
told the opposite, which is wrong,
The dieticians have said: it is
carbohydrates that give you
nutrients, (which is) nonsense. It
is the exact opposite eggs and
liver, for example, are the two
most nutritionally dense foods on
the planet. If youre eating them
youve got a very nutritious diet,
on just those two foods alone,
one thats more nutritious than
you get from carbohydrates -
rice, pasta, bread which are
nutrient poor and they spike
glucose.
And thats where much of
the rationale behind Noakes
approach lies in moderating
the insulin response to the
massive amounts of glucose we
dump into our bodies through
our modern-day diets. As
he explains, too much
insulin, through a
high-carbohydrate diet, leads
to the lifestyle diseases already
mentioned in this article.
Were all living with far
too much insulin thats the
key. As soon as you cut the
carbohydrates whether you go
ketogenic or not - you will cut
your insulin and then you start to
have a positive effect, Noakes
explains.
He says that many people
who follow this diet are insulin
resistant, but that doesnt
mean that all of the tissues
inside their bodies are insulin
resistant. When these people
eat carbohydrates their bodies
have to work hard to get rid
of the glucose from their
bloodstream. However, their
insulin resistant tissue doesnt
absorb all of this glucose, which
means more work for the insulin
sensitive tissues such as the
fat cells, kidneys and liver. So,
insulin sensitive fat cells will
store fat, the kidneys are insulin
sensitive and people get high
blood pressure because of this
insulin effect. The demands on
the liver to metabolise glucose,
which remains insulin sensitive,
also leads to abnormalities in
triglyceride levels. And it is all
insulin driving these processes.
So the only way we can cope is
to cut the carbohydrates and
reduce insulin that is the key
adaptation of this diet. Cutting
calories is what will cause you
to lose weight, and that may be
beneficial, but the key is getting
insulin down. dump int
www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 69
Its estimated that
people in some
Westernised
countries consume
about 67kg of sugar
per year over
500 sugar-derived
calories per day.
This has been shown
to lead to severe
metabolic problems,
including insulin
resistance, metabolic
syndrome and
elevated cholesterol,
among others, and
has been linked to
the rise in obesity and
type-II diabetes.
Eggs and liver, for example,
are the two most nutritionally
dense foods on the planet.
Since processed
foods, which are
high in sugar,
refined flour and
vegetable oils,
have become our
modern-day staple
the incidence of
chronic health
conditions has risen.
T
his is also proving to be one
of the more contentious
issues pertaining to Noakes'
new approach his position that
exercise doesn't lead to weight
loss. Putting aside the argument
that exercise improves health and
fitness, and increases lean muscle
mass (which increases your basal
metabolic rate), Noakes believes
that most people will generally
eat carbohydrates directly after
exercise, which further stimulates
hunger because of the high sugar
content, and this just compounds
the problem.
However, de Beer points out
that genomics shows that some
people respond more to exercise
for weight loss, while others benefit
more from dietary interventions.
Carriers of a variant of the FTO or
Exercise and LCHF
'fatso' gene, for instance, benefit
more from doing higher than
average levels of exercise.
You'll also find a lot of banter
on social media about endurance
athletes who have adopted LCHF
and gone on to smash personal
bests. Noakes himself believes he
would've had a more prolific career
as an amateur ultra-distance
runner had he followed an LCHF
diet in his formative years (Noakes
completed his first Comrades
Marathon in 6h49m), a view now
also held by Comrades legend
Bruce Fordyce.
However, the greatest marathon
runners in the world, Kalenjin
runners from Kenya, follow a
high-carb, low-fat diet, as noted
in numerous studies. One study
conducted by Onywera et al (Food
and macronutrient intake of
elite Kenyan distance runners)
showed that their diet was high in
carbohydrate (76.5%) and low in fat
(13.4 %). Protein comprised 10.1 %
of their diet.
In addition, South African
marathoner Lusapho April a two-
time Two Oceans marathon winner,
winner and record holder at the
Hannover marathon, and third-
placed athlete at last year's New
York marathon told South African
media in the build up to this year's
Boston marathon that he sticks
to the ritual of a pizza the night
before every race. Why then are
these athletes not overweight and/
or underperforming, and shouldn't
The greatest marathon
runners in the world,
Kalenjin runners
from Kenya, follow a
high-carb, low-fat diet.
As noted in numerous
studies, their diet is
high in carbohydrate
(76.5%) and low in
fat (13.4 %). Protein
comprised 10.1 % of
their diet.
Noakes himself believes he wouldve
had a more prolific career as an amateur
ultra-distance runner had he followed an
LCHF diet in his formative years (Noakes
completed his first Comrades Marathon
in 6h49m), a view now also held by
Comrades legend Bruce Fordyce.
they all be suffering from various
lifestyle diseases based on this way
of eating?
I think the Kenyans are always
used as a very good example,
says Noakes. What we need to
remember is that we're dealing
with the very elite of the Kenyans.
For example, if another Kenyan is
insulin resistant and is 2kg heavier
he is not going to win the marathon,
because he is carrying too much
weight, and that's what we don't
know: these may be highly selected
people who are so insulin sensitive
that they can cope with that high-
carbohydrate diet. The other point
is, we know that that diet will in no
way, in the long-term, be healthy
for people with insulin resistance,
In this regard, Noakes makes
reference to Olympic legend Steven
Redgrave. He won five Olympic
medals and now has type-11
diabetes. I would say there is a
high probability that the high-
carbohydrate diet he followed
throughout his career probably
contributed to this.
According to Noakes, some elite
athletes can eat anything because
their metabolism can adapt to
anything. De Beer echoes these
sentiments, stating that the energy
requirements of an elite endurance
athlete are huge. When burning
that amount of energy then higher
carb diets are suitable as that
readily available source of energy is,
more often than not, immediately
used. However, most members
of our modern industrialised
society hardly move, which
creates the issue when there's an
overconsumption of carbs.
It's therefore ludicrous to
use these athletes as an example
of what is normal, says Noakes.
The majority of us who develop
metabolic syndrome, hypertension
or diabetes do so due to the high-
carbohydrate effect, and most of
us cannot get away with high-carb
diets just by being highly active.
Having said that, Noakes states
that we're all individuals, so you
have to find out what is right for
you. Take Cameron Van der Burgh.
Everyone would tell you that it's
impossible to win an Olympic gold
medal on his LCHF diet, but look
at how he disproved it. However,
it's worth noting that Van der
Burgh is a short-course swimming
specialist, competing in the 50m
and 100m breaststroke.
Wolff offers a differing opinion
to Noakes on the matter of LCHF
eating for most endurance athletes.
In my experience many athletes
aren't carb intolerant, so they can
72 JULY - AUGUST 2014
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A fat efficient
athlete will derive
a much greater
benefit from carbs
consumed during
an event than
someone who
eats carbs all the
time. That is why I
generally advocate
a LCHF diet most
of the time, with
timed carb intakes
around intense
training or races.
The energy
requirements of
an elite endurance
athlete are huge.
[NUTRITION]
When burning that
amount of energy,
as with endurance
athletes, then
higher carb diets
are suitable as that
readily available
source of energy is,
more often than not,
immediately used.
benefit from strategically timed
carb intakes. The trick is to make
them more fat efficient through
their training and eating. For
example, a fat-efficient athlete will
derive a much greater benefit from
carbs consumed during an event
than someone who eats carbs all
the time. That is why I generally
advocate a LCHF diet most of
the time, with timed carb intakes
around intense training or races.
And that's another key aspect
often lost in the hype surrounding
LCHF eating and sporting
performance the intensity of
exercise. A runner who runs a
marathon in five or six hours
should be able to efficiently
derive energy from stored and/or
ingested fat as they can maintain
an intensity below the 75% of
maximum heart rate threshold
where fat metabolism is most
efficient. However, a runner who
runs a marathon at sub-three hour
pace will generally need a more
readily available source of energy
to remain efficient as they're
constantly working above that fat
burning threshold.
We also need to consider
how much of these reported
performance gains experienced by
those on LCHF can be attributed to
a lowered BMI and the subsequent
increase in their movement
efficiency, rather than a change in
their energy production pathways.
Regardless, Wolff believes
everyone can benefit from improved
fat efficiency. Accordingly, he works
out a glide path for his athletes
where they reduce their overall
carb intake incrementally over
a period of time. When they hit
a period of fatigue we see how
long it takes to come out of that
state. If they don't then we up their
intake to determine the minimal
level of carbs required for that
athlete to perform optimally as
everyone is different, he explains.
Interestingly, Wolff believes that
Most members
of our modern
industrialised
society hardly
move, which
creates the issue
when theres an
overconsumption
of carbs.
74 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[TRAINING]
B
y all accounts there is
definitely benefit to be
had by lowering your carb
intake and increasing your fat
intake, be it for weight loss,
improved health or enhanced
sporting performance. The
more cautious approach seems
to advocate finding the middle
ground somewhere between
the two polar ends of this great
diet debate. The focus of this
approach seems to be moderation
and balance, but Noakes has a
few choice words about this...
There are dieticians that say
eat balanced, and in moderation,
and it is complete rubbish. There
is no animal in the world that
eats a balanced diet. And in any
case, how can nutritionists say
that a diet comprised of 60%
carbohydrates is balanced? It is
twice as much as anything else.
If you talk about a balanced diet
it would be 33% carbohydrates,
33% fat and 33% protein, but
that would probably be too much
protein, and probably a little low
in fat. Maybe a 20:50:30 carb-
to-fat-to-protein ratio would be
better, says Noakes.
What we know for sure is
that low-carb is not no-carb,
something that often gets
distorted in the discussion
around LCHF. Low-carb is also a
relative term, with carb intakes
of between 20-200g per day not
uncommon, but that depends
largely on your levels of insulin
sensitivity, your cumulative daily
activity levels and/or the amount
and type of exercise a person
does.
Wolff also admits that he
personally worries about
constantly being in a state of
ketosis. There just isnt enough
long-term evidence to tell us
what ketosis does to the body.
However, its clear that low-carb
diets help improve health when
the right guidelines are followed.
If you can remain healthy, fit and
energetic in this state then go for
it. But if you find that you need
carbs stick with the natural kind
and eliminate processed foods as
far as possible, he concludes.
De Beer also believes that
the broader debate could use
a healthy dose of realism to
advance the discussion in the
minds of the public. Are people
losing weight because of the
LCHF diet or in spite of it? Is it
more about a concious approach
to eating? Either way, Noakes
The Real Meal Revolution is
getting people to re-think what
theyre putting into their mouths,
which is good. So go buy his book
and include some LCHF meals
in your diet, but find the right
balance for you.
And thats the unequivocal
message from everyone
interviewed for this feature
the value of experimentation
cannot be overstated. Dont take
everything you read and hear
at face value. Educate yourself,
consider all angles, experiment
and then make an informed
decision based on the intuition
gleaned from your experience. Its
not right for everyone, but LCHF is
not wrong. The results speak for
themselves.
In this regard, Prof. Noakes
states: When you get into it, the
answers are simple and the truth
is simple. There is an argument
because people arent being
given the facts or the full story.
Instead theyre often given false
interpretations. The take-home
point is that you dont have to
listen to anyone, you can just
try it and see if it works. If it
doesnt make a difference please
continue to eat the way you were.
But so many people are living a
sub-standard life because their
eating is rubbish as theyre being
told to eat a balanced diet, that
Dr Noakes is wrong, and that
carbohydrates are healthy, and
they may well be, but for most of
us they arent.
Some perspective
Kenyan runners have been unable
to make a successful transition
to ultra-distance running events
because they don't train and eat to
become more fat efficient.
In terms of nutrient timing,
before a very hard training session
of intervals, for example, Wolff
advocates a low GI meal with
protein and fat to keep the glucose
response low. Wolff then uses long,
easy sessions to develop a more
fat efficient state. My athletes will
go on water for at least the first
two hours to enhance their ability
to metabolise fat. After that they
can consume some carbs to assist
with energy production, especially
if they have another session later
that day.
Wolff also highlights the
importance of the recovery meal.
Some athletes on LCHF deplete
glycogen every day, which catches
up with them. It's also important
to eat immediately after exercise
as the insulin response is more
efficient. This meal should consist
of carbs and protein to improve
recovery (muscle re-synthesis),
and a well-formulated supplement
is often the easiest and most
convenient 'meal' to consume so
soon after exercise. The second
meal should aim to stabilise blood
glucose and replete glycogen
stores. However, a carb-only meal
will make you feel hungry soon
afterwards so it's essential that you
include some fats too.
Wolff also cautions against
being indiscriminate with the
types of fats you eat, as eating for
energy is different from eating for
weight loss or improved health. I
focus on eating unsaturated fats,
monounsaturated fats, and medium
chain triglycerides as they're not
easily stored as long as you aren't
spiking insulin.
Wolff also advises athletes
to avoid being too rigid in their
approach. The athletes I work with
tend to hop between days of higher
protein intakes, carb re-feeds and
higher fat intakes based on their
recovery requirements. However, I
always keep total calorie intake the
same to avoid weight gain.
Note: We spoke extensively to Noakes in order to understand his point of view without the noise that has
accompanied this debate since he switched to LCHF. It would be impossible to do justice to his views in one article.
For this reason we have largely separated what he says about lifestyle diseases and longevity from sports
performance and weight loss. The former will form the basis of an article in the next edition of this magazine.
However, it is pertinent to point out that claims he makes regarding sport and weight loss are substantiated in his
views on lifestyle, and, ultimately, for the fullest understanding both articles should be read together.
Low-carb is a relative term,
with carb intakes of between
20-200g per day not uncommon,
but that depends largely on your
levels of insulin sensitivity, your
cumulative daily activity levels
and/or the amount and type of
exercise a person does.
If you can
remain healthy,
fit and energetic in
in a state of ketosis
then go for it. But
if you find that you
need carbs stick
with the natural
kind and eliminate
processed foods as
far as possible.
76 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[FEATURE]
>> BY DEVLIN BROWN, Deputy Editor
V
Age is most certainly a
limiting factor in elite
sports, where athletes are
encouraged to always have
a back-up plan and to cash
in when they enter the final
years of their careers. For
most of us, however, age
slows us down, makes us
hurt a bit more, and makes
competing a little bit harder,
but we continue because it is
not our livelihoods. Fitness
His Edition decided to have
a look at some of the factors
associated with how ageing
affects physical performance.
Decline in
physiological
function
Shona Hendricks, head of the
High Performance Centre at
the University of Pretoria, sums
it up succinctly: Ageing is
associated with many declines
in physiological functions, not
just general atrophy. Bones,
over time, lose their calcium
content making them weaker.
ictor Matfield was
announced as the interim
Springbok captain before
the June internationals
this year, less than
a full year after he
made a comeback from
retirement. The 37-year-old had
already served as a SuperSport
pundit in neatly tailored suits
before making his comeback.
The jokes surrounding his return
were a dime a dozen: Victor
paves the way for a return to the
Springbok team for Francois
Pienaar was one of the more
comical comments made. Its
widely accepted that by a certain
age someones professional sports
career winds down and ends. In the
helter skelter of rugby the ripe old
age of 37 is a rare sight, particularly
among the forward pack. It must
be noted, and this is of massive
importance, that Matfield kept
himself in sublime shape while no
longer playing, and often tweeted
about his bike rides.
In football, people such as Ryan
Giggs and Teddy Sheringham broke
the rules around an honourable
age to retire. In fact, the author of
this article has a dog named Giggs
which was born two years after
Giggs ripped through Arsenals
entire team in the 1999 FA Cup
semifinal. Giggs the player only
retired this year. Giggs the Jack
Russell is now almost entirely deaf
a little analogy demonstrating
the Welshmans sporting longevity.
In cricket, Indias legend Sachin
Tendulkar made his Test debut
five years before South Africa had
its first democratic election. He
retired last year.
These famous names are the
exception, not the rule. Any age
from 33-34 seems to be a nice solid
number that suggests twilight
of a career in most professional
sports. Some sports, however,
such as endurance running, seem
to suit older people more. Its not
uncommon to see older men in the
worlds strongest man competition.
Just what is it that determines
longevity in the sports arena? By
this we mean elite, or at the very
least, competitive. Many people will
partake in sports socially well into
their retirement.
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Age is a limiting
factor in elite
sports, some
more so than
others. Here,
we look at the
effect of ageing
on physical
performance for
both elite and
social athletes.
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[FEATURE]
This concept of evolution is very
much prevalent within the training
fraternity, as athletes try and create
adaptation (strength, performance,
muscularity, proportions and
symmetry) within their bodies
to meet certain (environmental)
division requirements. Athletes
that are best able to adapt to this
process are the ones who come out
on top.
Evolution, by its nature, is a slow,
consistent process and adaptations
within species can take millions of
years. There are, however, many
similarities between evolution
as a process and what it takes
to make it in the world of sport
and bodybuilding. All successful
sportsmen and body builders
will tell you that it takes small,
consistent and patient changes to
your performance and physique to
be a really successful athlete.
However,
another, and
possibly
bigger
and at
least more
mainstream section of exercise
science is physique orientated.
Of course, a distinction like this
is actually a bit reductionist and
simple, because training for
function has physique spinoffs, and
training for physique has a myriad
performance benefits.
Nevertheless, when looking
at the body as a system there is
quite possibly a paradigm shift
waiting to happen in how people
train their physiques; how they
train their muscles to achieve a
particular look, while still enjoying
performance and health and
fitness spinoffs.
Body building caters to the needs
and wants of a very wide spectrum
of people from both sexes. From
beach-body guys you would
typically see in a fashion shoot
all the way to mass monster Mr.
Olympia competitors, or from bikini
competitors to female bodybuilders,
there are various body sizes, levels
of conditioning and types of looks.
And so, when we refer to body
building we refer to the endeavour
to achieve a particular type of look
through resistance training (and
diet). There are some constants
that run through the various
divisions and federations, and
these are condition, proportion and
symmetry.
THE STATUS QUO
CHALLENGING
EVOLUTION
A
large section of exercise science is dedicated
to performance and efficiency, a move that has
placed the emphasis of many training modalities
on function. This forms the basis of conditioning
and weight training for performance.
A theory on a possible new training
split that could change the game
E
volution is, ironically, the only constant phenomenon in the universe.
It is the striving of a species to constantly adapt to ensure its
continued survival. This survival is dependent on the species ability
to evolve to the best possible version of itself to overcome challenges
within its environment.
Even though this adaptive
process is slow and patient, there
is an exception to the rule (as with
all things in life). Our human brain,
for example, has tripled in size over
the last 200,000 years. Scientists
are still trying to figure out what
caused this to happen, but the
important thing here is the slow,
consistent process of evolution
was interrupted. Instead of making
small, incremental changes in
our brains, we as a species took
a quantum leap forward and so
developed rational thinking, the
capacity for language and self-
awareness. That quantum leap in
brain size forever altered us as a
species and changed the course of
our history.
The science of training is
constantly evolving and athletes
>> BY SEAN JOHNSON, Bowen Practitioner and Instructor (www.bowentechnique.co.za)
Bodybuilding by its very nature increases
tension throughout your body, but the traditional
training approach of training one body part a day
generally only hits one part of the chain.
78 JULY - AUGUST 2014
G
eorge Bernard Shaw, the famous
Irish author, said: All great truths
begin as blasphemies. My bodybuilding
blasphemy is a simple, deductive theory.
Theory being the word I stress. It is a
hopeful, evolutionary quantum leap into the
possible future of bodybuilding and exercise.
What if, in the pursuit of a physique with
both awesome size and sculpted symmetry,
we should no longer train traditional body
parts but rather myofascial chains?
Symmetry is achieved through any
structure by having equal tone and tension
throughout. What if we could understand and
know the muscular tension lines throughout
our bodies and by training in such a way that
tension is equal throughout these lines we
could achieve symmetry, equal proportions
and more flow and connectivity between
muscle groups?
There are different muscle chains that
distribute tone and tension throughout your
body. Without this tension we would not be
able to stand upright, move or lift anything at
all, never mind some serious weight in the
gym. Bodybuilding by its very nature increases
tension throughout your body, but the
traditional training approach of training one
body part a day generally only hits one part of
the chain. Granted, adjusting tone in one part
of the chain will definitely have an effect on the
rest of the chain (thats why squatting has an
overall anabolic effect on the entire body).
But what happens if we changed our
training split to look a little different? What
if we stopped speaking in terms of chest,
back and legs and started using jargon like
superficial back line, arm lines, lateral lines
or functional lines? Would we be considered
crazy or evolutionary?
If you are leaning more towards crazy have
a look at the following myofascial lines of
tension that hold your body together before
you make your judgement.
are competing at the highest level and still
breaking records or standing on stage, looking
bigger, leaner and with better symmetry
than ever before. Training methods, diets and
understanding hormones are constantly being
improved on. As such, athletes are achieving
adaptations within their bodies never seen before.
What if, though, we wanted to take a quantum
leap forward within training science and
bodybuilding, where the smallest adjustment
to our training or diet can make the difference
between being first or second? What if we made
a few small, unique and calculated changes
to our training and this in turn caused us to
quantum leap our performance and physique to
a new level?
ALL GREAT TRUTHS
BEGIN AS BLASPHEMIES
MYOFASCIAL LINES
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MYOFASCIAL LINES
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THE SPIRAL LINE doesnt include too many of
the traditional body building muscle groups, but
if we want balance and symmetry throughout
our body then it is important to understand its
function within the body. It starts in the splenius
capitus, a broad, strap-like muscle in the
back of the neck, and includes the rhomboids,
obliques, abdominal fascia, tibialis anterior,
peroneus, ITB, hamstrings and erector spinae.
You can see by the picture that it wraps itself
around the body and has a big function to play
in twists, rotations and lateral shifts in the
body. If, for example, there is uneven tension
between the tibialis anterior (too little tension)
and the peroneus longus, a superficial muscle
in the lateral compartment of the leg (too much
tension) this would cause a pronated foot and a
therefore a dropped arch. The tibialis connects
to the anterior superior iliac spine via the ITB
and the peroneus to the ischial tuberosity via the
hamstrings. The differing tension states would
cause an anterior (down and forward ) pelvic tilt,
which would cause a bodybuilder to present with
a belly as opposed to a flat stomach, making
that elusive x-frame even harder to achieve.
So having yourself assessed to see where and
how your body is asymmetric might be a good
idea if you want to stand on stage with balanced
proportions. Sometimes things need to be
released as opposed to tightened to create
balance in tone.
THE SUPERFICIAL FRONT LINE includes the
sternocleidomastoid (SCM), sternalis, rectus
abdominus, quads and tibialis anterior. It
attaches onto the dorsal aspect of each toe
and runs up along the front of the body to
the fascia of the scalp. A training split which
includes chest, stomach, quads and dorsiflexion
movement of the feet would help adjust tone
through this line. The Superficial Front Line
and Superficial Back Line have a reciprocal
relationship and work together in maintaining
balance and posture.
THE SUPERFICIAL BACK LINE incorporates
the erector spinae of the back, hamstrings, and
gastrocs of the calves. It attaches on the brow
ridge and runs along the back of our body right
into each of our toes. Deadlifts tend to hit most
of this chain all at once, but a training split can
be broken up to include back, hamstrings and
calves.
www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 79
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PURSUIT OF PROPORTION
E
very season South Africa produces a new
crop of performance athletes, sports people
and amazing muscle, fitness and bikini division
athletes. There are constantly new athletes
appearing on the scene, all of them trying their
best to force adaptation in their bodies through
diet, training and discipline. Some of them rely on
genetics while others rely on the sweat of hard work
to achieve their results. Either way, they achieve this
because their bodies have an amazing evolutionary
adaptability. Our bodies are incredible biofeedback
mechanisms, each one responding differently to
stimuli. Muscle athletes understand this amazing
process better than anyone else and harness this
power to make changes to their physique.
Standing on stage with a well-proportioned
physique is the evolutionary pinnacle of the process
of body building and what our bodies are capable
of. It is something most people will never know. So
if you fall into this very small competitive group of
people, next time you visualise what you want to
look like when you stand under the stage lights keep
in mind that if you do what youve always done, all
youll get is what youve always got.
Maybe the time has come to consider taking a
quantum leap into the unknown and we might just be
very surprised at the size and symmetry we are able
to achieve within our bodies.
[FEATURE]
Sean Johnson is a Bowen Practitioner and Instructor, with a practice based in Randburg, Johannesburg.
He has played provincial rugby at senior level in South Africa and in Australia. Following a herniated
disc Seans playing career was in jeopardy, but he then found Bowen Therapy and made a successful
return to the field. Bowen Therapy did what doctors said was impossible, which had an indelible impact
on Seans life. He therefore became a certified Bowen practitioner and later an instructor. Email sean@
bowentechnique.co.za for more info or visit him at The Yoga Republic in Gertrude Road, Fontainbleau.
The Deep Front Line is the base on
which a body with symmetry is built
THE ARM LINES are another interesting
combination of muscle chains. There
are front and back arm lines. The Front
Lines (there are superficial and deep
lines) include the pectoralis, biceps
and flexor group of forearm muscles,
while the Back Arm Lines (superficial
and deep) include the rhomboids,
rotator cuff muscles, triceps, trapezius,
deltoids and extensor group of the
forearm. The Arm Lines do not form part
of the structural column of the body,
but connect effortlessly with the other
muscle chains to enable us to push or
pull or hold something. A training split
for the Front Arm Lines can include the
following muscle groups: chest, biceps
and forearms. A split for the Back Arm
Lines can include shoulders, traps,
triceps and forearms.
THE DEEP FRONT LINE doesnt include the
traditional bodybuilding muscle groups, but has a
major influence on the bodys structural posture.
It includes the tibialis posterior, adductor magnus,
pelvic floor fascia, psoas, diaphragm, pericardium
of the heart and the jaw muscles. It lifts the inner
arch, stabilises each segment of the legs, stabilises
the chest to allow for breathing, supports the lower
back and balances the head on top of the neck.
Tension states through this muscle chain would
create shortening in the body and create imbalance
throughout the other muscle chains. It really is the
base on which a body with symmetry is built and
what you want through this chain is not tension, but
a nice even tone throughout the deep front lines
slow twitch, endurance muscle fibres.
THE FUNCTIONAL LINES (there are two of
them - a front and back line) have less to do
with core posture and stability and more to do
with everyday movements. The Front Lines
includes the lower edge of the pectoralis
major, rectus abdominis and adductors,
while the Back Lines incorporate the the lats,
glutes and vastus lateralis (the outer quad
muscle). The unique thing about them is if
you have a look at the accompanying diagram
they create tension lines in the shape of an X
across the body, and isnt the X-frame what
muscle athletes try and attain?
THEORETICAL
TRAINING SPLIT:
DAY 1 - Superficial Back Line: Back, hamstrings
and calves
DAY 2 - Superficial Front Line: Core/stomach,
quads and dorsiflexion calf training
DAY 3 - Front Arm Line: Chest, biceps and
forearms (flexor group)
DAY 4 - Back Arm Line: Shoulders, triceps and
forearms (extensor group)
DAY 5 - Functional Lines: Chest, stomach,
adductors, lats and quads. This day does not
need to be a heavy lifting day. You should have
done the work earlier on in the week. As such
these body parts can be trained together in a
single session. Slow, controlled lifting should be
used (allowing the fascia to slowly respond) with
a big emphasis on the mind/muscle connection.
DAY 6 - Spiral and Deep Front Line This is a non-
lifting day, but is still an important part of your
training. Find someone that understands these
chains so that they can do an assessment for you
on tension and tone through these two lines and
then create symmetry through them. It will make
a big difference to your overall stage presentation
and symmetry.
DAY 7 - Rest
80 JULY - AUGUST 2014
6
[TRAINING]
6
Shape and define muscle with
continuous tension cable training
WAYS
CABLES
BUILD
BETTER
MUSCLE
BENT OVER
TRICEP
EXTENSIONS
>> BY PEDRO VAN GAALEN, Editor
>> PHOTOGRAPHY BY James Patrick
- www.jamespatrick.com
82 JULY - AUGUST 2014
www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 83
BENEFITS OF
CONTINUOUS TENSION
CABLE EXERCISES
INCLUDE:
1. Help to fine-tune muscle definition and
chisel detail into muscles.
2. Places less stress on joints, ligaments, and
tendons as the movement is more controlled.
3. Increases blood flow, resulting in massive
pumps that promote the development of
larger capillary beds.
4. Saturates muscle with nutrient-rich blood to
start the recovery and rebuilding process.
5. The movement is more controlled which
allows you to isolate muscles more
effectively.
6. Choose from a variety of attachments such
as straight bars, ropes, cuffs, handles and
cambered bars to target muscles from
different angles.
Bring out the
detail in your
muscles and
achieve massive
pumps with
cable pulley
exercises
HOW TO INCORPORATE THEM:
Include one or more cable exercises at the end of
your workout as a finisher or as part of a superset to
flood the muscle with blood. Dedicated cable training
sessions can also act as a type of active recovery from
heavy weight training.
EXERCISE OPTIONS:
Back - Reverse flyes
Chest Cable crossover
Shoulders - Lateral raises
Trapezius - Low pulley cable upright row
Biceps - Double bicep curls
Triceps - Tricep pushdowns (pictured)
Bent over tricep extensions (pictured)
Abs - Cable kneeling crunch
TRICEP
PUSHDOWNS
84 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[FEATURE]
Now that it's winter many
of us are likely to pick up
something we don't want. It is
understandable why someone
might want to pretend they're
not sick, especially as the
hours and money invested
into training for an event puts
huge pressure on someone's
shoulders. A physique athlete
in pre-contest prep can
suffer a huge setback in their
conditioning progress by losing
just 10 days, for instance. What
if an endurance athlete pics up
the flu just as they start their
training taper? However, the
setback in training, prep or
performance can be a lot less
severe than a serious or life-
>> BY DEVLIN BROWN, Deputy Editor
when sick
ITS A MATTER OF RISK VERSUS REWARD
TRAINING
E
veryone knows what it feels like to hit a good rhythm
in the gym or a training programme, only to wake up
sick one day. It's frustrating as it puts the brakes on the
progress you've been enjoying. We've all heard that we
shouldn't train when sick, but how often do we heed this advice?
threatening health consequence
for being stubborn and training
when you shouldn't.
Sarah Hall, biokineticist at
Wellness In Motion in Sandton
summed up the argument
succinctly: There is no doubt
that training when you are
sick has negative connotations
with health and that training
during the time when your
body is under strain can have
long-term effects on the body.
What most of us dont realise
is what those long-term effects
are, and how being ignorant
or turning a blind eye is no
longer acceptable. The timing
of getting sick and participating
in an event has an uncanny
coincidence. This leads to a
moral dilemma - negotiating
your way through trying to
account for hundreds and
thousands of rands and hours
spent training for an event or
'throwing it all away' because
of a mild cold or virus.
So when do you train or
compete, and when do you put
on the brakes? There doesn't
seem to be a clear black
and white answer, however
many different people and
information sources such as
health or sport websites refer
the the neck check. If the
symptoms are above your neck
then proceed, but with caution.
If they're below your neck then
call time and have a break. In
other words, a mild head cold,
sore throat and sneezing may
not be a problem, but a chest
infection, cough or aches and
pains signal it's time to stop
training.
Training when you're sick
and should be resting is not
just a case of doing the right
thing. There are various things
that could result from training
in this state. Some of them are
discussed below:
What most of us dont realise is what
the long-term effects of training when sick
are, and how being ignorant or turning a
blind eye is no longer acceptable.
www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 85
Sarah Hall is the biokineticist at Wellness In Motion, an established brand of Corporate Wellness Management in Johannesburg. Upon booking an
appointment, she is able to do a full assessment, including heart and lung function, body indicators and tests for biomechanical dysfunction.
Email: sarahh@wellnessinmotion.co.za, Sarah Hall, SARAHHALLBIO, @sefromdurbs
BASHING THE
IMMUNE SYSTEM
A
fter a training session our
metabolisms are not at rest. A
whole host of metabolic processes
are taking place to bring the body
back to a state of homeostasis.
These processes require energy
and a decent level of health and
optimal function. Being sick means
that your body may well be trying
to fight off an infection, while also
trying to deal with stress hormones
and waste products produced
during exercise. But it goes further
than that. Training in itself weakens
your immune system, and it's the
immune system that needs to fight
off an infection. So, if you're sick to
start with, the inevitable result is
clear to see.
Let's face the facts, training
at high intensities can suppress
the immune system. Strenuous
exercise increases the production
of cortisol and other stress
hormones that decrease the
activity of your natural killer cells,
otherwise knows as T cells, that
fight the micro-organisms that
cause infections. Blood lymphocyte
levels drop, and therefore so does
your resistance to infection. As
such, the increased likelihood of
getting sick just as you finish your
peak training and start to taper
makes sense, says Hall. But what
if you take medications to treat the
infection?
TAKING A
CHANCE

W
hat is the usual pattern
of behaviour? We try
and hit the infection hard with
antibiotics and train through the
infection. This, of course, is after
trying numerous self-made home
and over-the-counter flu-busting
cocktails. The problem with this
is that the infection may clear,
however the suppressed virus or
infection may still linger on race
day. More so, the long-term effects
of training on antibiotics that we
don't see or feel will remain,
continues Hall.
There have been numerous
research studies into the link
between antibiotic use and tendon
rupture, cardiac arrhythmias,
decreased athletic performance,
diarrhea and photosensitivity -
increased risk of sunburn and
cancer. Certain strains of the
flu virus can lead to myocarditis
(inflammation of the heart wall)
and is the reason for sudden
cardiac death in 5-22% of athletes
under 35 years of age.
While it's not certain nor clear
that a viral infection will necessarily
lead to the mentioned outcomes
if accompanied by training, it is
reason enough to be conservative
and rather skirt with caution than
with disaster.
COURSE
OF ACTION
S
o what should be done? Where
to from here, and what can we
do if were afraid of losing out on
valuable training time?
Firstly, if you have not been
screened to ensure you have no
underlying heart condition, it is
imperative that you undergo a
stress and an exercise ECG under
supervised conditions. Knowing
that you have a congenital heart
condition lying in wait will go a
along way to making your decision
for you on how you train, what
supplements you use and whether
you risk training while sick, says
Hall.
Secondly, train with a heart-
rate monitor and know your resting
heart rate during each phase of
your training. This is so that, as you
taper, you can monitor your heart
rate as you wake up each morning
and pick up the signs of infection
early. These signs include a
resting heart rate that is 7-10 beats
per minute higher than your norm.
Thirdly, you should pay attention
to exercise volume, intensity
and rate of progression. In other
words, a properly researched and
periodised training programme
that allows for a slow and steady
increase and adaptation to
training load and intensity. Take
into account exercise and training
history, allergies and weather
during pre-season and in-season
training, as well as susceptibility to
injury and stress levels. A training
log book will help you to track not
only training volume, but fatigue
levels during training, food intake
and general well-being as well.
In other words, a smart,
scientific approach to your
training will go a long way in
getting to know your body and its
response to various stimuli. One
of the consequences of this is
that underlying or early detection
of health problems may well be
spotted before they become a more
serious problem. In addition to this,
be cognisant that training while
sick is not advised, and by sick we
mean anything more than a head
cold. But even then you should
monitor your heart rate, fatigue
levels and reaction to exercise.
Listen to your body and rather be
safe than sorry.
Certain strains of the u virus can
lead to myocarditis (inammation
of the heart wall) and is the reason
for sudden cardiac death in 5-22%
of athletes under 35 years of age.
T
raining at high intensities can
suppress the im
m
une system
.
Strenuous exercise increases the
production of cortisol and other
stress horm
ones that decrease
the activity of your natural
killer cells.
G
oing to the gym when sick is a lot like going into work when
youre contagious. Sure, it shows youre committed, but it infects
everyone else, having a far larger impact than would have otherwise
been the case. Its not just breathing in the air thats the problem.
The equipment, hand rails, handles, dumbbells it could very easily
become a marketplace for sneezed or coughed out bacteria and germs
that have been transferred from mouth to hand to lat pulldown bar.
Look, lets not be nave, we all ingest all sorts of bacteria and germs
daily, which is part of human existence, but we dont want the place
where we work out to be a hub for rampant flu infection. If the infectious
people stayed at home it would go a long way to keeping more people
healthy. Accordingly, more and more private gyms are now imploring its
sick members to stay home for the reasons stated above.
GERM MARKETPLACE
2014
FITNESS MODEL SEARCH
LAUNCH YOUR
CAREER AS A MALE
FITNESS MODEL!
The winner will receive an
Evox
sponsorship
contract, and will appear on the
Sept/Oct 2014 cover of fitness
His Edition magazine.
The inaugural fitness His
Edition Evox Fitness Model
Search sprang into life with
hopefuls passionate about
health, fitness and their
physiques jumping at the
chance to launch a career in
the fitness industry.
As with all competitions,
however, there can only be
one winner, but until then we
bring you the top 10 finalists
in the 2014 Evox Fitness
Model Search competition.
These guys rose to the top
of the pile in the first year
of this competition and one
of them will eventually be
crowned champion, and in the
process become a sponsored
brand ambassador for one
of South Africas leading
supplement manufacturers,
Evox Advanced Nutrition. Their
photos and personalities all
tell one story: they look good,
know about fitness and want
to be part of this industry, and
those are exactly the traits
that will land one of them the
first prize.
The winner will be selected
based on the strength of the
photos he submitted and
the answers he provided
with his entry. His physique,
personality, attitude, and
general knowledge around
health, fitness, nutrition and
supplementation are all key
considerations in the judges
final decision. With that in
mind, here are the top 10
entrants in the 2014 fitness
His Edition Evox Fitness
Model Search competition:
Alan Valentine Jacobs
Age: 27
Occupation: Personal trainer/
finance student
Hometown: Cape Town
Alan entered the competition as
he believes he has what it takes to
inspire others through fitness. He
feels it would be an honour to be
affiliated to such a dynamic brand.
Andre Voster
Age: 31
Occupation: Web developer
Hometown: Durban
Andre entered the Evox fitness Model
Search because he thinks its a
brilliant way to further his fitness
career and get his name out there.
Jacques Nel
Age: 26
Occupation: Personal trainer/sales
executive
Hometown: George
Jacques dreams of competing at
international shows where he can
represent South Africa.
Brandon Oberem
Age: 36
Occupation: Business owner
Hometown: East London
Brandon dreams of becoming a pro
athlete in the near future. He entered
the Evox fitness Model Search because
its always been his dream to land a
magazine cover.
Wesley Robertson
Age: 27
Occupation: Tech sales
Hometown: Durban
Wesley entered the competition
because he sees it as an opportunity
to grow within the fitness industry.
Brett Palframan
Age: 29
Occupation: Creative director
Hometown: Johannesburg
Bretts fitness goal is to place in the top
3 of at least two competitions in 2014.
Its always been a dream of his to be on
the cover of a mens fitness magazine.
INTRODUCING THE TOP 10...
Show your support by tweeting the name of your
favourite to @ftnesshe and @EvoxNutrition with
the tag #EvoxModel
RUDI
PRETORIUS
Evox sponsored
athlete
BECOME PART
OF TEAM EVOX!
RUDI
THE WINNER WILL JOIN A GROWING TEAM OF TOP ATHLETES AND MODELS WHO
REPRESENT THE EVOX BRAND. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE COMPETITION
AND TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THE BRAND VISIT WWW.EVOX.CO.ZA.
Jean Visser
Age: 30
Occupation: Personal trainer
Hometown: Cape Town
Jean feels motivated every day by his
desire to succeed and be successful.
He wants to reach his goals and
motivate others along the way.
Wiltord Nyaruviro
Age: 27
Occupation: Supervisor
Hometown: Cape Town
Wiltord values health and believes it
is our greatest form of wealth. Staying
healthy and fit is his number one
priority.
Robert Smith
Age: 31
Occupation: Director
Hometown: Cape Town
Robert entered the Evox fitness Model
Search because he has a passion for
fitness and wants to progress and
grow in this industry.
Sean Sander
Age: 22
Occupation: Honours finance student
Hometown: Cape Town
Seans fitness goal is to reach the top
of the fitness industry and become a
name and face that defines health and
aesthetics.
F
resh fish should
be a staple of
every health-
conscious diet
because
consuming two or
more servings a
week can help to
reduce your risk
of various diseases, and there are
numerous other benefits associated
with eating fish.
First and foremost, fish is one of the
most nutritious sources of animal
protein because it provides us with a
highly bioavailable source of protein
(higher than beef and chicken, but
lower than whey and eggs). It is also
packed full of micronutrients such as
selenium, zinc, iodine and vitamins A
and D. Its also an excellent source of
readily available long-chain omega-3
fatty acids. In fact, various long-term
studies show that the relative
bioavailability of the omega-3 fatty
>> BY MELANIE HEYNS, FEATURES WRITER

Highlighting the health benets


associated with eating sh
THE
FISHY
FACTS
acids docosahexaenoic acid
(DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid
(EPA) is higher when ingested
from fish than from
supplements.
A study by Visioli et al., titled
Dietary intake of fish vs.
formulations leads to higher
plasma concentrations of n-3
fatty acids, indicated a greater
net rise in human blood plasma
levels of DHA after six weeks
when DHA from salmon was
consumed daily, compared to
DHA intakes via supplementation
(in ethyl ester form), even when
the supplemental DHA intakes
were higher than those from fish.
A subsequent study by Harris
et al. published in the American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Dec
2007), compared the effects of
fish and fish-oil capsules on the
omega-3 fatty acid content of
blood cells and plasma
Fish is one of the
most nutritious
sources of animal
protein because it
provides us with a
highly bioavailable
source of protein.
[NUTRITION]
88 JULY - AUGUST 2014
phospholipids. The blood
levels of omega-3 fatty
acid levels in subjects
having similar intakes of
DHA and EPA from
salmon or supplements
were tested. EPA levels
in the red blood cells of
participants in the fish
group were found to rise
faster over a four week
period.
To take full advantage
of these health benefits
experts advise us to
consume at least 140g of
oily fish twice a week.
Oily fish are those that
contain a significant
amount of oil throughout
their body tissue,
Its all good and well to eat the required serving
of fish on a weekly basis but, as we all know,
how you prepare your food has a big impact on
its nutritional value as well. The way in which
fish is prepared can also have an impact on our
blood cholesterol levels.
SOME OF THE HEALTHIEST
WAYS TO COOK FISH INCLUDE:
Baking Make small cuts along the top of the
sh, then place it on a greased dish, cover with foil and
bake at around 180C.
Grilling Cut small slits into the skin of the sh
to help the heat penetrate the esh. Place the sh on a
pre-heated grill and cook.
Poaching Place the sh in gently simmering
stock. Whole sh should be placed in a pan of cold
stock, which is then slowly brought up to a gentle
simmer. Not suitable for more aky sh varieties.
Steaming Put sh in a steamer or on a plate
over a saucepan containing gently boiling water.
THE MANY CONDITIONS THAT
EATING SUFFICIENT OILY FISH
CAN BENEFIT INCLUDE:
Blindness: A study conducted by the Wilmer Eye
Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine,
found that eating omega-3-rich seafood could
help slow down macular degeneration, a
common cause of age-related blindness.
Healthy heart: The omega-3 found in oily fish is
good for your overall heart health, and improves
survival rates following heart attacks. This is
largely attributed to the anti-inflammatory
properties of omega-3, which keeps blood vessels
healthy. It also assists in protecting against the
build up of cholesterol on artery walls.
Arthritis: The omega-3 fatty acids found in oily
fish help mediate the impact of arthritis. Various
research studies have found that omega-3s
found in oily fish can help switch off the enzymes
that cause the breakdown of joint cartilage. This,
in turn, slows down degradation and reduces
inflammation and pain.
Mental health: An imbalance of omega-3 and
omega-6 in our diets may contribute to mental
health problems. A recent study authored by
James Pottala from the University of South
Dakota in Sioux Falls and Health Diagnostic
Laboratory Inc., published in the journal
Neurology found that omega-3s helped to
protect against conditions like dementia and
Alzheimers disease. Researchers also found
that smaller-sized brains were linked to lower
levels of omega-3 fatty acids.
Prostate cancer: A Swedish study conducted on
more than 6,000 men over the age of 30 found that
those who did not consume oily fish doubled their
risk of developing prostate cancer compared to
those who did. Oily fish also contains selenium,
which is thought to have cancer-fighting
properties.
A word of caution though: Some open water oily
fish can contain high levels of contaminants such
as mercury and pollutants like dioxin, which can
build up in our bodies. Its for this reason that
there are recommendations for the number and
size of portions (of oily fish) we should consume on
a weekly basis.
ANCHOVIES
CARP
EEL
HERRING
CANNED
SARDINES
CANNED OR
FRESH TUNA
TROUT
particularly in their
belly cavity. In white
fish this oil is mostly
contained in their
livers, which makes
them much less oily.
While oily fish may be
higher in calories and
fat they should always
be included in your
diet as the fat contains
healthy omega-3 oils.
The best source of
long-chain omega-3
fatty acids is sh, or
alternatively sh oil
capsules.
MACKEREL
SOME GREAT SOURCES OF OILY FISH INCLUDE:
KIPPER KIPPER
PILCHARDS
SALMON
injury and promoting recovery, with its
anti-inflammatory properties.
Salmon 500 mg
Canned salmon 500 1000 mg
Canned sardines 1,500 mg
Trout (fresh rainbow), flathead 300 400 mg
Canned tuna 300 500 mg
Rainbow trout, smoked cod 300 400 mg
A 150g serving of each of these types
of fish contain the following amounts
of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA)
approximately:
Omega-3 offers a range
of possible benefits to
athletes. Firstly there is
evidence that shows its
role in the prevention and
recovery from muscle
damage and for the
improvement and reduction
in mental fatigue. Some
evidence suggests omega-3
supplements can improve
body composition by
increasing lean muscle
mass and decreasing
fat mass and that it can
boost the lung function of
athletes during and after
exercise.
ATHLETES CHOICE
90 JULY - AUGUST 2014
[GYM REVIEW]
OFF
THE BEATEN
TRACK
>> PEDRO VAN GAALEN, Editor
GETFIT FITNESS
CENTRE
Owned by: DENVER
SUBRAMANY, NEIL DU
PLESSIS AND PAUL MARKS
Address: 20 Buckingham Terrace,
Westville, Durban
Website: www.gettchallenge.co.za
Contact details: (031) 266 0327
westville@gettchallenge.co.za
Interview with co-owners Denver
Subramany and Neil du Plessis
Tell us a bit about yourself and your
preferred form of training.
Denver: Ive always been passionate about
sport and fitness. I hold a fourth dan black
belt in karate and have competed for 24 years
at both provincial and international level. My
interest in sport led me to study sport and
the human body and, in 1999, I graduated
with an honours degree in
exercise science (UKZN). In
2004 I started my personal
training career at Virgin Active
in Westville where I met fellow
personal trainer Neil du
Plessis. Both of us had a lot of
success as personal trainers
and in 2008 we teamed up
to pioneer a 12-week group
personal training programme,
the original GetFit Challenge.
In 2010 we opened
our first GetFit
Fitness Centre in
Hillcrest, Durban
and the success of
the programme has
grown exponentially
ever since. We now
have six branches
in KwaZulu-Natal, as well as franchises in
Johannesburg and Port Elizabeth.
Neil: Following a successful first-class rugby
career in Wales, I returned to South Africa ten
years ago and have been in the fitness industry
ever since. We have been running the GetFit
brand for six years now. It incorporates circuit
training and combines cardio, weights and
the latest fitness trends. The programmes
are based on functional and
metabolic resistance training
which not only challenge ones
strength, but are also proven to
improve all aspects of fitness.
How would you describe your gym?
Our Westville Fitness Centre is a new, fresh
and funky gym. The large playground area gives
clients the space to train in comfort. The gym
includes a five-metre functional cage, astroturf
studio and a functional zone with state-of-the-
art cardio equipment such as Watt bikes and a
Queenex machine, which offers clients a new
and unique training experience.
In search of the
best alternative gym
s
in South Africa
About the gym:
GetFit Fitness Centre in Westville opened in February
2014. It includes a gym with the latest high-tech
equipment, a GetFit studio, changing facilities, a Kid
Zone and Luscious Wellness Caf. The fitness centre
is open from 5am to 8pm, Monday to Thursday, 5am
to 7pm on Friday, and from 7am to 2pm on Saturdays.
The gym is for the exclusive use of its members and
GetFit Challenge group sessions are offered in lieu
of other classes. The GetFit Challenge runs for a
12-week period, during which time participants attend
a one-hour group training session up to three times
a week. The sessions include a combination of cardio
and weight training exercises aimed at increasing
fitness levels and improving muscle strength or tone.
The sessions are run by qualified trainers who monitor
correct form and encourage participants to ensure
optimum results are achieved.
New gym members
are ofered a free
introductory session
with a personal trainer
when they frst join.
What is your training philosophy?
Consistency, dedication and sacrifice are the
keys to success. Balance is key.
What services do you provide and what
types of clients do you cater to?
We offer personal training for all ages and
levels of fitness, as well as the 12-week
GetFit Body Transformation Challenge, which
consists of group training sessions.

What facilities do you have?
We have the Luscious Caf, which serves
healthy and nutritious meals and drinks
(take away meals available). We also have
beauty treatment rooms that offer massages,
manicures, pedicures, facials and waxing,
as well as a fully equipped and constantly
supervised Kidz Zone play area for the
children of our gym members and GetFit
clients. Male and female showers and
changing rooms are also available.
Tell us a bit about your trainers
GetFit Challenge sessions are run by
qualified personal trainers and good client/
trainer relationships are key. Most of the
trainers are former clients who have come
through the system, and some of them also
offer private personal training sessions in the
gym. New gym members are offered a free
introductory session with a personal trainer
when they first join.
How does your training and facility differ
from other, more commercial, gyms?
We have more open space than other gyms,
and offer the latest functional training and
cardio equipment, including kettlebells,
ropes, tyres and prowlers. This allows our
clients to experience new forms of training.
What benefits would someone gain by
training at your facility as opposed to a
big commercial club?
Convenient parking, no queues for
equipment, large functional and free-weight
training areas, childrens play area and a
great, comfortable environment.
What is the atmosphere like at your
facility?
Our friendly staff know all our clients on a
personal level; clients love the vibe and the
funky, modern look. And we only play dance
and trance music - no commercial music.
URBAN WARRIOR
BOXING
Owned by: LESLEY FLAVELL AND
LEN GORDON
Address: 128 11th Street, Parkmore
Website: www.urbanwarriorboxing.co.za
Contact details: 011 784 7097 / 073 983 9609
Interview with owner Lesley Flavell:
Tell us a bit about yourself and your
preferred form of training.
I have always been involved in the fitness
industry. I have owned three gyms and enjoy the
fitness lifestyle. While I train with weights, my
workouts mainly consist of boxing in the form of
bag work, focus pads and sparring.
How would you describe your gym?
Our gym is geared towards people who are
looking for an intense and challenging workout,
but are bored with conventional gyms and
therefore want something different. It is a
comfortable, upmarket facility which provides
training of the highest calibre.
What is your training philosophy?
Consistency is key - clean eating and consistent
training will build the body you want. I believe
that boxing is an excellent form of conditioning
because it addresses all aspects of fitness and
core strength.
What services do you provide and what
types of clients do you cater to?
We provide an executive service backed by
professionalism. Training is by appointment only
so we are able to control the amount of clients
in the gym at any one time. We ensure that its
never full to the point of discomfort and that the
client receives 100% attention every time they
enter the facility. Our clients are executive men
and women with very high profile jobs that come
to our facility to de-stress.
About the gym:
Urban Warrior Boxing offers a fresh and vibrant
alternative to conventional training in the form of a 60
minute, one-on-one session with a professional boxer.
Workouts are intense and cater for all levels of fitness
and ability. Men, ladies and children are welcome.
92 JULY - AUGUST 2014
BRYANSTON
FIGHT CLUB
Owned by: RUDI VAN DER
WESTHUIZEN
Address: Basement level,
Bryan Park Shopping Centre
Contact details: (011) 463 5777
In
Westhuizen
1. Tell us a bit about yourself and your
preferred form of training.
I have no formal boxing training and my skill
level would rate quite low on the amateur scale,
but in terms of a lifestyle and form of training I
have become quite passionate about the sport.
The sport tends to be quite closed off and most
gyms are far from inviting. We therefore started
Bryanston Fight Club with some of the best
trainers available to take the sport of boxing back
to the normal Joe Soap on the street who has
become bored with conventional weight training
and gyms.
2. What services do you provide and what
types of clients do you cater to?
We focus on group and personal
training classes with a qualified
instructor walking each
client through the process.
The instructors teach clients
combinations and ensure that we
minimise injuries and maximise the
enjoyment of every training session.
2. What facilities do you have?
Our facilities include a complete
boxing gym setup, which includes
a ring and cage. We also have
free weights, combination weight
training machines, and cardio
and aerobic equipment, including
treadmills. We also have a USN
and Olimp stocked juice bar and
supplement shop, as well as a
tattoo shop because, as mentioned, there's ''a
little thug in everyone''.
3. Tell us a bit about your trainers.
Our trainers have professional fight cards and
have been involved in boxing for an
extensive period of time.
4. What benefits would
someone gain by training at
your facility as opposed to a big
commercial club?
In June we started our own
[GYM REVIEW]
About the gym:
Bryanston Fight Club is a new boxing gym for those
looking for a new way to stay fit or aspiring and
amateur boxers, because theres a little thug in
everyone. Bryanston Fight Club opened its doors in
May 2014, with over 70 clients joining in the first week.
fighting divisions for amateurs, with a unique
grading system. This means our clients who
want to partake in FightClub are ensured of fair
matches with proper facilitates and minimum
injuries. We're also currently in talks, with
plans to open
two Fight Clubs
in Cape Town,
one in Umhlanga
and another in
Soweto in the
near future.
Instructors teach clients
combinations to ensure
that we minimise injuries
and maximise the
enjoyment of the session.
What facilities do you offer?
We have treadmills, stationery bikes,
boxing bags, three boxing rings, a weights
section and conditioning equipment such as
weighted balls, elastic bands, stability balls
and skipping ropes. We also have excellent
bathroom and shower facilities.
Tell us a bit about your trainers.
All our trainers are or have been active
professional boxers. Some are current or
past SA or World Champions, or former
Olympians. They have all been selected
according to very strict criteria, and we
pride ourselves on the fact that they have
extensive knowledge of conditioning, weight
loss and fitness.
How does your training and facility
differ from other, more commercial,
gyms?
Our gym is completely different as training
is by appointment only. All sessions are
one-on-one so clients may not train alone.
Hands are wrapped with hand wraps, with
sponging done by the trainer. The workout is
challenging and intense regardless of your
fitness level.
What benefits would someone gain by
training at your facility as opposed to a
big commercial club?
We are able to provide high calibre trainers
who devote a full 60 minutes to your one-
on-one workout. Two sessions are never
the same, which ensures a diverse and
varied workout that continues to challenge
you. Trainers are able to work towards your
specific goal and provide the motivation
needed to get you where you want to be.
What is the atmosphere like at your
facility?
The atmosphere is electric - loud music,
lots of positive energy and the sound of
clients hitting bags and pads make it a very
engaging environment to train in. Clients
have told me repeatedly that its the perfect
way to get rid of stress after a hard day at
the office. They often say it feels good to hit
something.
94 JULY - AUGUST 2014
Tell us a bit about yourself.
I was born in Johannesburg, but grew up
in a small town called Selebi-Phikwe in
Botswana. Im a down-to-earth girl, with
a humble upbringing, not the stuck-up
Sandton high-maintenance doll I'm often
perceived to be. I'm a sports freak and will
fight anyone for the remote to watch the
sport channel. Boxing is my favourite, but
Im also addicted to rugby, racing or anything
extreme.
What first attracted you to the health and
fitness industry?
Ive always had a passion for fitness and
wellness, but I think attending a bodybuilding
show when I was young and seeing the
extreme hard work, time, effort, discipline,
passion and dedication that goes into living
that life is what instilled the respect and
admiration I have for the fitness industry and
the people who are part of it.
You live and work in one of South
Africa's most vibrant health and fitness
communities. Tell us about the vibe in
Umhlanga and why you chose to open a
S.W.E.A.T. 1000 studio there?
The vibe in Umhlanga is awesome, the
weather is incredible and the people even
more so. I love that people are so friendly in
Durban. It was the first thing I noticed when
I moved there. I chose to open a S.W.E.A.T.
1000 studio there as it would be the first
one in KZN, giving the brand a national
footprint. There is also a huge health and
fitness community in Durbs, so the market is
there. The only downside is that the gyms are
always busy, even if you're trying to sneak in a
cheeky lunchtime workout, which is definitely
not the case in Jo'burg.
What's the appeal of the health and fitness
phenomenon that is S.W.E.A.T. 1000?
I think the concept burning 1000 calories
in an hour - is the main appeal. The workout
is a HIIT-based routine, where specialised
equipment is used during the floor workouts
and cardio intervals. Our clients see
incredible results from this type of training
and have fun doing it.
T
his Joburg-born fitness fanatic has a fire-cracker personality, a
killer body, a sharp mind and an entrepreneurial spirit that has
led her to a new venture in Umhlanga. So watch out KwaZulu-
Natal, Annie Philippeos is setting the fitness scene alight there.
Annie
PHILIPPEOS
>> PHOTOGRAPHY BY Slade @ Pure Studios
MAKING UMHLANGA SWEAT,
IN MORE WAYS THAN ONE
Vital stats

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Im a
sports freak
and will ght
anyone for
the remote
to watch
the sport
channel.
Age: 32
Lives: Joburg and Durban, and on my
cellphone.
Occupation: Owner of S.W.E.A.T. 1000
Umhlanga, Pulse Salon Sandton and
Pulse Clinic London
Height: 160cm
Weight: 46kg
Qualifications: B.Com (Finance),
Diploma in Real Estate Shopping
Centre Management
Notable achievements: Completed
my B.Com degree in two years,
started working for Investec by the
age of 20, where I went on to run a
portfolio of approximately 10 shopping
centres for Investec Property Group
and Growthpoint Properties. I left
to manage and relaunch the new
Morningside Shopping Centre in
Sandton then launched my other
businesses.
[MALE FIXATION]
www.fitnessHE.co.za FITNESS HIS EDITION 95
What does a typical day in your life
consist of?
Eat, train, tan, try get enough sleep, and
there's a lot of cellphone use between all that.
The cellphone part is all work, I promise.
What does your training consist of?
I like to train each body part once a week. Ill
train with weights four days per week, with
a boxing session once a week. I also include
a few S.W.E.A.T. 1000 boxing classes when
we have them at the studio. I also fit in a few
S.W.E.A.T. 1000 classes during the week to
keep my fitness and endorphin levels up.
Who inspires you when it comes to the ideal
look of a physique?
Wow, quite a few people, but I would say
the ideal male physique would have to be
Sergi Constance (featured on our previous
cover). In terms of females, Bella Falconi (the
current Fitness magazine cover model) has an
amazing physique. There are also a lot of local
fitness girls who I think look better than many
of the international models and competitors.
My ultimate woman crush is Ellie Gonsalves
though, an Australian model. I think she has
the most incredible physique, even though
she isn't too muscular. I think shes incredibly
sexy!
What is your greatest motivation in life?
My late father, who made me the person I am.
He taught me the most important lessons in
life, particularly to always pursue greatness.
He is the reason behind my drive to succeed
and will always be my hero. The tattoos I have
are all in honour of him.
What is your philosophy in terms of health,
nutrition and training?
Consistency is key. People say the hardest
decision is to make a change and do
something. However, I say the hardest
decision is sticking to it. My other philosophies
are if it doesn't challenge you, it wont
change you, once you control your mind, you
can conquer your body and knowledge is
power. We live in a world where we have all
the information we need at our fingertips. The
more knowledge and information you have,
the more powerful you are in terms of training,
nutrition, business and even life.
What is it that makes you such a successful
businesswoman?
Hard work and good relationships. Business
is about people - be good and kind to others
and it will always be returned to you. As for
hard work, I have never seen anyone fail from
putting in the hours.
Do you get a lot of guys through your doors?
If not, tell them what they're missing out on
We do get a lot of guys through our doors, but
for the ones who havent tried S.W.E.A.T. 1000
yet, youre missing a lot. For starters, all the
fitness benefits it offers, but more importantly,
a lot of hot booties squatting and lunging in
hot pants there's lots of hot pants!
What do you like to do outside of the gym?
I love to socialise with my friends, which is
code for 'I like to party'! At the moment I dont
really have a lot of free time but when I do I
really enjoy a short holiday or break away from
work life.
Hard
and fast
Q&A...
Where can we find out more about you and your businesses?
@annie_phil | @sweat1000_dbn | @pulsesalonSA
annie_phil | sweat1000_dbn | pulse_salon
www.facebook.com/sweat1000umhlanga | www.facebook.com/pulsesalon
My late
father is
the reason
behind my
drive to
succeed and
will always
be my
hero.
Quick
facts:
Your guiltiest of pleasures? I'll
assume you mean in terms of food...
Im currently obsessed with Quest bars.
Lamest pick up line you've ever
heard? Recently, while travelling. I was
working on my laptop and talking on my
phone at the same time. Some guy said
I hear the iPhone and Macbook are
really compatible, how so?
Greatest pick up line ever? A guy
stopped me at a party and pointed
at the floor saying you dropped
something. In my panic I looked
down, then looked back up and asked
what!?. He replied my jaw.
What makes the ideal man? Muscles,
charm, intelligence, someone who's
well groomed, loves to laugh and
who I can have fun with. I also have a
weakness for a healthy set of traps.
Favourite
music: I enjoy
everything - the
latest dance music
or hip hop, even
some Greek music.
Favourite book:
Anything motivational.
Favourite
holiday destination:
Maldives or Mykonos.
Whats in your
gym bag: Quest bars,
sweat towel and a
bikini to hit the sauna
after a workout.
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itness (His Edition) magazine
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