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SUBMITTED BY: Qurat-ul-Ain (11-EE-21)
SUBJECT: Electric Power Transmission

Mirpur University of Science and Technology
MUST, Mirpur


An electric grid station is an interconnection point between two transmission ring
circuits, often between two geographic regions. Grid stations play a vital role in
the transmission of power from generation units to remote cities. National Grid
system of Pakistan contains an interconnected group of transmission lines in a ring
system. Main function of grid station is adjusting the voltage level as needed and
switching between connected line stations and load centers.
The visit to grid station was conducted by GSO, NTDC Islamabad.The
repot comprises the basics of grid station. It includes the functions and necessary
information about the elements of 220kV ISPR grid station, NTDC, Sangjani.
Sangjani grid station has been commissioned on 17/12/1998. It is being
fed from Rawat, Burhan, Tarbela and Mansehra. It converts the 220kV
electric power to 132kV having five power transformers. It has 11
outgoing lines which supply power to different regions of country.



NTDC, ISPR Grid Station has six incoming lines of 220kV.
i. New Rawat_I
ii. New Rawat_II
iii. Masehra_I
iv. Masehra_II
v. Burhan
vi. Tarbela


NTDC, ISPR Grid Station delivers power at a voltage level of 132kV to the following stations.
i. Burhan (E16Q1)
ii. Burhan (E11Q1)
iii. Burhan (AWC1)
iv. Margallah (MRG-1)
v. Islamabad (IGB-1)
vi. Islamabad E-8 (ISE-1)
vii. Islamabad F-11 (ISF-1)
viii. Pirwdhai (PWD-1)
ix. K.T.M (KTM-1)
x. Spare line


A power transformer is a device which is used to step-up or step-down the
voltage level while keeping power and frequency constant.

Parts of Power Transformer:
i) Core ii) Winding iii) Oil Indicator
iv) Conservator Tank v) Breather vi) Thermometer
vii) Bucholz Relay Viii) H.V& L.V Bushings
ix) Top Plate & Gaskets x) Cooling Fans/Tubes

The details of NTDC, ISPR grid station power transformers is as follows

Three Main Transformers:
2 x 160MVA, 220/132kV (A.E.G)
1 x 160MVA, 220/132kV (China)

Two Auxiliary Transformers:
1 x 10/13MVA, 132/11.5kV (ELECTROPEUTER)
1 x 10/13MVA, 132/11.5kV (ELPRDM)


Voltage Transformer (VT):
Used to step down voltages for measurement, control and protection.

Current Transformer (CT):
Used to step down currents for measurement, control and protection.

Capacitor Coupled Voltage Transformer (CCVT):
A CCVT is a transformer used in power systems to step down an extra high voltage signal for
measurement or to operate a protective relay.

A circuit braker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an
electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. C.B can be reset to resume
the normal operation. SF6 is used as quenching medium. Either Pneumatic or spring
phenomena is used for quenching.

4. Isolator:
An isolator is a switch used for disconnection under no-load condition for safety,
isolation and maintenance. High voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to
allow isolation of apparatus such as circuit brakers, transformers and transmission lines for
maintenance. Two isolators are connected across each circuit braker.

5. Busbar:
In electrical power distribution, a busbar is a strip or bar of copper, brass or aluminum
that conducts electricity within a switchboard, distribution board, substation or other electrical
equipment. All incoming and outgoing circuits of substation are connected with
busbar. At NTDC, ISPR grid station 1 and half busbar scheme is used for 220kV and double
bus single braker scheme is used for 132kV.

6. Earthing Switch:
An earthing switch is used to discharge the voltage on dead lines to earth. It is closed
after opening the isolator to discharge the trapped electrical charges to the earth.

7. Surge Arrester:
Surge arrester is used to discharge the lightning over voltages and switching over
voltages. When a lightning surge or switching surge travels down the power system to arrester,
the current from surge is directed around the protected insulation in most cases.

8. Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC):
PLCC is mainly used for telecommunication, tele-protection and tele-monitering
between electric substations through power lines at high voltage. Transmitting information
along high voltages lines is one of the main and most economic means of communication in
electrical power systems.

9. Tap Changer:
It is used to adjust the secondary voltage of auto transformer. It has different number of
pins usually 27. The voltage depends on the pin at which tap changer is set.

10. Protection Relays:
A relay is a device that detects the fault and directs the circuit braker to isolate the faulty
part or equipment from the system. It senses the fault, compares the current through it with the
designed rating and if the value is different, sends information to C.B for tripping.

Following types of relays are used at NTDC, ISPR grid station.

Distance relay
Differential relay
Over excitation relay
High voltage over current relay
Low voltage over current relay
Thermal overload relay
Synchronous check
Transformer tap changer relay
Bucholz relay

11. Control Room:
A control room is room serving as an operations center where a facility or service can be
monitored and controlled. The function of control room is to monitor, control switching of
electric power and to protect the whole system from any harmful problem with the help of
associated electrical equipment inside the control room.

Components of control panel:

Protection relay panel
Busbar Panel
Shunt reactor panel
Isolator control panel
Circuit braker control panel
Tap changer control panel
Auto Transformer Panel
Layout drawings

12. Battery Room:
Relays operate on D.C supply, rechargeable batteries are provided for this purpose. To recharge
batteries we need to convert AC to DC. So rectifiers are used. These batteries also serve as an
alternative electric supply source for protection system in case of failure of main supply.
NTDC, ISPR grid station has two battery sets having 52 batteries connected in series
each battery is of 2.2V, providing 110V. It has also a set of 24 series connected batteries,
supplying 48V.

13. Fire Extinguisher:
It is an important part of grid station control room. It is used in accidental case of fire at
grid station.

We can conclude as the grid station is an integral part of the power system. The visit to
NTDC, ISPR grid station was very knowledgeable and informative. It gave hands on
knowledge about components, working, protection and control of grid station. The knowledge
about different technical aspects of grid station was presented well. It will be quit helpful in
future for us.