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Mobile User calling a Land Line Subscriber.

MS after dialing a number & pressing SEND key, sends Channel Request(Chan_Re
q) message on RACH to ask for a signalingchannel (Radio Resources). [RACH - Rand
om Access channel]
The BSC allocates a Traffic Channel(TCH) using AGCH. TCH allocation assigns
a specific Frequency & a Timeslot on that frequency. [AGCH - Access Grant Channe
l]
The MS sends a call setup request through SDCCH, to the MSC/VLR. [SDCCH - sl
ow dedicated control channel]. Over SDCCH, all signaling takes place. This inclu
des: marking the MS status as active in the VLR
Then comes Authentication Procedure which includes Ciphering (The channel is
ciphered so as to protect the call), Equipment Identification, etc.
The MSC/VLR instructs the BSC to allocate an Idle TCH (this message contains
the dialed digits and other information needed for call establishment). The BTS
and MS are told to tune to the TCH.
The MSC allocates a voice circuit on one the digital trunks between the MSC
and the BSS.
MSC informs the BSS about the allocated voice circuit. The call is also swit
ched from signaling to voice.
The BSS notifies the Mobile about the changeover to voice mode.
The MSC routes the call and sends the call towards the called subscriber.
The PSTN indicates to the MSC that it has received all the digits and the ca
lled subscriber is being rung.
The MSC informs the mobile that the called subscriber is beingalerted via a
ring.
The called subscriber answers the call.
Invite a friend
My relationship is:
Friend
CoWorker
College mates
Ex-colleague
Manager
Recommend WhyTelecom to:
GSM Terminology
VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register
AUC Authentication center
EIR Equipment Identification
MSC Mobile Switching center
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BSC Base Station Controller
SCP Service control point
SDP Service Data Point
SSF Service Switching Functionality
SMSC Short Message Switching Center
MMSC Multimedia Messaging Service
USSD Unstructured Supplementary Service Data
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
HSCSD High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data
IVR Interactive voice response

Contents
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GSM MOBILE ORIGINATING CALL

The below Description is a mobile-originated call that terminates outside the PL
MN.
Request Access
The MS sends a Channel Request (CHAN_REQ) message on the RACH.
The BSS responds with a radio resource assignment (IMM_ASS_CMD) on the AGCH.
The MS sends a Service Request (CM_SERV_REQ) message to the BSS on the SDCCH.
Authentication
Before the network will provide any services to the MS, the network will require
the MS to authenticate itself. The BSS sends an Authentication Request (AUTH_RE
Q) message to the MS. The RAND serves as the "challenge" for authentication.
The MS calculates the proper SRES based on the RAND that was given and sends the
SRES to the BSS in an Authentication Response (AUTH_RESP) message.
The BSS verifies the SRES. If the SRES is correct then the MS is authenticated a
nd allowed access to the network. The BSS will send a Service Accept (CM_SERV_AC
C) message letting the MS know that the service request was received and process
ed.
Once authenticated, the BSS orders the MS to switch to cipher mode with the CIPH
_MOD_CMD message.
Initial Call Setup
The MS will immediately switch to cipher mode and send a Cipher Mode Complete (C
IPH_MOD_COM) message.
The MS then sends a Call Setup (SETUP) message to the BSS. The message includes
the address information (MSISDN) of the called party.
The BSS assigns a TCH to the MS by sending an Assignment Command (ASS_CMD) messa
ge. This message includes which Transceiver (TRX) and which Time Slot (TS) to us
e.
The BSS does not actually assign a TCH to the MS until the MSC sends a Call Proc
eeding (CALL_PROC) message to the BSS indicating that the IAM has been sent.
The MS immediately switches to the assigned TCH. The MS sends an Assignment Comp
lete (ASS_COM) message back to the BTS on the FACCH.
Remember that a FACCH is not a separate channel; it is simply a stolen time slot
from the TCH that is used for signaling data instead of voice traffic.

Call Setup
The MSC sends an Initial Address Message (IAM) to the GMSC. The IAM contains the
MSISDN of the called party as the MS dialed it.
The MSC will also send a Call Proceeding (CALL_PROC) message down to the BSS and
this is when the BSS would assign a TCH to the MS, as described in step 10 abov
e.
Based on the dialed number, the GMSC decides where to route the IAM within the
PSTN.
The PSTN will continue to route the IAM until it reaches the correct Switching C
enter and the call routing is complete. The PSTN will then establish the call ci
rcuit and send an Address Complete Message (ACM) back to the GMSC.
The GMSC then forwards the ACM back to the responsible MSC indicating that the c
all circuit has been established

Call Establishment
Once the MSC receives the ACM, it sends an ALERT message to the MS indicating th
at the call is going through. The BSS sends the ALERT message on the FACCH. Once
the MS receives the ALERT, it will generate the ringing sound in the earpiece.
The BSS sends an alerting message the subscriber will hear the line ringing.
Once the called party answers the phone, the PSTN will send an Answer message to
the MSC. The MSC forwards this to the MS in a Connection (CON) message.
Once the MS receives the CON message, it switches over to voice and begins the c
all. All voice traffic occurs on the assigned TCH.

Call Termination
When either the caller or the called party hangs up, the call will be disconnect
ed. Either party can initiate the disconnect. In this example, the MS initiates
the disconnect. The MS sends a Disconnect (DISC) message to the BTS on the FACCH
.
The BSS forwards the DISC to the MSC. Once the MSC receives the DISC message, it
sends a Release (REL) message through the GMSC to the PSTN as well as down thro
ugh the BSS to the MS.
The MS responds by sending a Release Complete (REL_COM) message to the BSS on th
e FACCH. The BSS forwards the REL_COM message up to the MSC. Once the MSC receiv
es the REL_COM message the call is considered ended from the call control perspe
ctive.
Although the call has ended, the BSS still has a TCH allocated to the MS. The MS
C sends a Channel Release (CHAN_REL) message to the BSS. The BSS forwards the CH
AN_REL message to the MS.
The MS responds with a DISC (LAPDm) message and returns to an idle mode. The BSS
reallocates the channel for other call or releases the TRX.
External Resource

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OA8qJzXon3g