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THE GENERAL versus THE PARTICULAR

The article is the tool that language and logic use in order to distinguish between generality and a specific instance.
The DEFINITION, or a GENERAL STATEMENT, concerns a class of beings/ things/ phenomena, i.e. of Countable Nouns,
or a concept in the case of Uncountable Nouns.
1. COUNTA!" NOUN#
a(n) + noun in the #ingular 0 article + noun in the $lural
e.g.% &'hat is a rose(/ A rose is but a name. e.g.% Roses have thorns.
)ore prosaically a rose is a flower.
A symbol is something used for or regarded Names are symbols, i.e. words by which
as representing something else. individual persons, animals, places, etc. are
spo*en of or to.
An object is something that is visible or Emblems, tokens, signs are symbols, i.e. material
tangible and is stable in form. objects representing something immaterial.
A hut, a tent, an igloo are all shelters. Birds build nests, people build houses.
A team is more than a group or a party. "ffective teams are not so difficult to build.
An eperiment is a procedure adopted for testing !ypotheses are suppositions. Eperiments are
a hypothesis. tests.
The only e+ception is the noun man, used with the , article for rendering the class of human beings, versus
a t!e man meaning a male individual,
e.g.% "an is a living being capable of abstract reasoning and articulated speech
".
-"."CT/0" NOUN# 1that are not A#T2ACT 3,
a3 NOUNS DEFECTIVE OF PLURAL
e.g.% "oney is a medium of e+change.
#urniture consists of the movable articles re4uired for use or ornament in a house.
$uggage is a traveller5s baggage6 it consists of trun*s, suits, portmanteaus, bo+es, etc.
b) NOUNS DEFECTIVE OF SINGULAR
e.g.% %cissors are instruments for cutting paper, cloth, etc.
&rousers, or pants, are articles of clothing.
7. UN/8U" NOUN#
a3 &he %un is a star, the Earth is a planet.
&he world is the entire system of created things, i.e. the macrocosm.
&he en'iroument is the aggregate of surrounding things, conditions and influences.
&he sky is the vault of heaven.
&he redeemer is Christ.
b3 (od is the superhuman being worshipped as leaving power over nature and human fortunes.
"ankind designates the human race, or the human beings collectively.
Nature is the physical power causing phenomena as a whole.
%ociety is a highly structured system of human organi9ation for large scale community living
that normally furnished protection, continuity, security and a national identity for it members.
the definition of #arent$ will be given using these nouns as countables,e.g.% A mother is the female parent.
%. UNCOUNTA!" NOUN#
a) ABSTRACT
e.g.% Unless man has pity, he is inhuman and not truly a man.
'hat is the status of ethics in management(
/n social sciences there is no such ob:ective standard of accuracy as in physics.
"+ponential growth is a dynamic phenomenon.
Education consists in systematic instruction.
)nflation starts when the volume of goods and of services no longer corresponds to the increase of money supply.
Although deflation means declining prices, it is no more attractive, as it also means large scale unemployment as a
conse4uence of falling business.
The current state of knowledge about casual relationships in a system generally falls in the middle ground of certainty.
/n nature everything is in a perpetual state of transformation, motion and change. 1see also UN/8U" NOUN#3.
"conomic forecasting is reliable provided that sufficient data are available.
$earning is a permanent process.
&) NOUNS OF MATERIAL
e.g.% (lass is a transparent material6 it is made of melted sand.
*ater turns into ice when it free9es, and into steam when it boils.
)ron is a metal6 unli*e wood, it does not float.
Bread is staple in most countries. /t is made from flour, which, in turn, is made from wheat.
There are boots made of /ndia rubber.
+oal and oil are raw materials.
A statement may be more specific, referring to a 'ARTI()LAR aspect of a class of persons/ ob:ects/ phenomena 1Countable
Nouns3, or of a concept 1Uncountable Nouns3. The definite article the and a pre; or post; modifier indicates the restriction of
the domain of reference.
COUNTA!" NOUN#
e.g.% &he migratory birds fly thousands of *ms per year.
/ almost don5t *now the people upstairs.
&he fruits of the potatoes are to+ic.
)acroeconomics involves the analysis of the aggregate markets for goods and services, for label, and for corporate
bonds.
/n order to understand how these mar*ets operate one must first understand the behavior of the economic units that
ma*e up these mar*ets.
&he leaders 1of society3 should be both responsible and responsive to the changing mentality of the people 1who
elected them3.
The modifier may be dropped 1particularly in conversation3 if the conte+t has made it clear what category
you are refferring to.
UNCOUNTA!" NOUN#
1) ABSTRACT NOUNS
e.g.% &he world economy is a global system.
'e5re studying the history of the )iddle Ages this year.
'hat / don5t li*e is the music she is playing.

&he modern industrial society offers all modern conveniences.
&he science of economics is a human science.
&he life of an ephemerid lasts no more than a day.
&he success he achieved so easily made him lose his head.
2) NOUNS OF MATERIAL
e.g.% <ave a loo* at the meat in the oven6 it smells as if it5s been burnt.
&he coffee she ma*es is seldom good.
&he iron they import from #outh America is very e+pensive because of the transport cost.
&he cotton obtained from the first harvest is the best.
&he leather your shoes are made of is called patent leather in "nglish.
The omission of modifiers would arouse confusion with Uncountable Nouns.

A statement may refer to a (ERTAIN* 'ARTI()LAR Countable Noun, which may be INDEFINITE 1first introduced in
conversation/ in the te+t3 or DEFINITE 1it has already been mentioned/ it is accompanied by a pre;/ post;modifier3. The difference
between the two categories is made by means of the article and sometimes also rendered by the Aspect of the 0erb 1 if in the $resent
Tense% the #imple $resent for the /ndefinite, the $resent Continuous for the -efinite3.
THE INDEFINITE a(n) + noun in the #g. THE DEFINITE t!e = noun in the #g./ $l.

e.g.% There is a new car in front of the house. e.g.% &/s the car ready(> &/5m afraid the car is out of order.>
&/s it a car that5s ma*ing such a noise (> &No, it5s the last train that5s :ust leaving the station.>
There is a train which leaves at seven. 'e5ll have to catch the train.
They made a plane that flies with ??,,,*ms per hour. &he plane 1they made3 will be tested ne+t wee*.
There is a man standing in front of the door. 'ho is the man that left his umbrella here(
A manager has to be a catalyst. &he manager will decide upon the change
in the firm policy.
&he cars made by )ercedes are by far better
than the others.
&he buildings in this town are all ali*e.
'hy do you let the children play in the street(


UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
are always used with the , article in order to e+press GENERALIT+ 1 a
notion in it5s most general sense3,
e.g.% %cience is a living organism.
+oncrete is a building material.

the article restricts the sphere of a notion 1Abstract Nouns, Nouns of )aterial3,
e.g.% !ogic is the science of reasoning.
A,STRA(T NO)NS &he concrete is still wet.

the article turns a notion into an ob:ect 1Nouns of )aterial3,
NO)NS OF MATERIAL e.g.% @ou5ve bought a new iron.1A a household ustensil, not a metal3
/5d li*e a tin of fish. 1A an ob:ect, not a a metal3.
- in. nouns, because of their abstract 4uality are never used with an
article however, a 4uantitative ad:ective is sometimes used in order
to render the 'ARTI()LAR,
e.g.% Rea/in. us not his favourite pastime. however
/5ll do some 0a$!in. today.
COUNTABLE NOUNS
preceded by the /ndefinite Article e+press GENERALIT+, i.e. the class of the respective
beings/ ob:ects/ phenomena,
e.g.% A tortoise lives 7,, years.
in the #/NBU!A2
preceded by the /ndefinite Article refer to an INDEFINITE noun,
e.g.% 'e have a new teacher of "nglish.
preceded by the -efinite Article refer to a 'ARTI()LAR group in the class of
beings/ ob:ects/ phenomena,
e.g.% &he students in the fourth year are already loo*ing for a :ob.
in the $!U2A!
preceded by the -efinite Article refer to a DEFINITE noun,
e.g.% &he building across the street is a hotel.

THE ARTICLE
a3 A#T2ACT NOUN# refer to the NOT/ON coresponding to each,
e.g.% a3 %tatistics is a science.
UNCOUNTA!" NOUN# b3 )ron is a metal.
b3 NOUN# O. )AT"2/A!
T<" , A2T/C!"
associated with
COUNTA!" NOUN# 1 in the $lural 3 refers to the C!A## 1of the corresponding noun3,
e.g.% +omputers are useful.
COUNTA!" NOUN# 1 in the #ingular3 e.g.% A house is a shelter.
T<" /N-"./N/T"
A2T/C!" a(n)
associated with COUNTA!" NOUN# in the #ingular
AN /N-"./N/T" OC"CT
NOUN# O. )AT"2/A!
A#T2ACT NOUN# refers to a 2"#T2/CT"- #$<"2"
of the NOT/ON6
UNCOUNTA!" NOUN# e.g.% the science of computers
the bread you5ve bought
NOUN# O. )AT"2/A!
T<" -"./N/T"
A2T/C!" t!e
associated with
COUNTA!" NOUN# 1 in the $lural 3 ; refers to 2"#T2/CT"- B2OU$ within the C!A##
e.g.% the people in your country
in the #ingular ; refers to a DEFINITE being/ ob:ect/ phenomenon
COUNTA!" NOUN#
in the $lural ; refers to a DEFINITE group of beings/ ob:ects/ phenomena