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Law on Local Government 1

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LAW ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Introduction
A. Constitutional Basis -- Article X, 1987 Constitution
B. Innovations in the law on local governments introduced b the !ocal
"overnment Code o# 1991
(1) Devolution of basic services (e.g. health, environment, etc.) to LGUs;
(2) Increase of financial resources available to LGUs;
(3) Devolution of resonsibilit! for enforcement of certain regulator! o"ers (e.g.
reclassification of agricultural lan#s);
($) Legal infrastructure for articiation of %G&s an# '&s in the rocess of
governance
C. $##ectivit % !"C &ecs. '(d), '*+
(var#one v. )&*(L()
+ecretar! of ,ealth v. )-
Book I: General Provisions
I !asic "rinciples
1. ,he Code% -olic and A..lication
(1) !ocal government, decentrali/ation, autonom
Local a#tonom$% power of LGUs to decide for themselves on certain
matters
without need for clearance or approval by the
national government
Decentrali&ation% devolution of national administration (not power)
from the
national government to the LGUs
Deconcentration%fow of autonomy from the national government
towards
regional agencies
Devol#tion% act by which the national government confers
power and
authority upon the various LGUs to perform specifc
functions and responsibilities (LGC Sec. 17)
the transfer of power and authority from the
National
Government to LGUs to enable them to perform
specifc functions and responsibilities (Art. 24, IRR
of the LGC)
Di'erentiate decentrali&ation of administration from
decentrali&ation of power
Decentralization of
Administration
Decentralization of Power
Delegation b! the central -b#ication of olitical o"er in
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government of a#ministrative
o"ers to olitical sub#ivisions
in or#er to broa#en the base of
government o"er. (Limbona
v. Mangelin)
favor of LGUs #eclare# to be
autonomous. In this case, the
autonomous government is free
to chart its o"n #estin! an#
shae its future "ith minimum
intervention from central
authorities. (Limbona v.
Mangelin)
Local government units -utonomous regions
(0) Consultations
!"C &ec. 0(c)% .It is li/e"ise the olic! of the +tate to re0uire all national
agencies an# offices to con#uct erio#ic consultations "ith
aroriate LGUs, %G&s an# '&s, an# other concerne#
sectors of the communit! before an! ro1ect or rogram is
imlemente# in their resective 1uris#ictions.
!"C &ec. 0+% Duty of National Government Agencies in the Maintenance
of Ecological alance.
It shall be the #ut! of ever! national agenc! or
G&)) authori2e# or involve# in the lanning an#
imlementation of an! ro1ect or rogram that ma! cause3
ollution;
climatic change;
#eletion of non4rene"able resources;
loss of cro lan#, rangelan#, or forest cover;
an#
e5tinction of animal or lant secies
to consult "ith the LGUs, %G&s, an# other sectors
concerne# an# e5lain3
the goals an# ob1ectives of the ro1ect or
rogram;
its imact uon the eole an# the communit!
in terms of environmental or ecological balance;
an#
the measures that "ill be un#erta/en to revent
or minimi2e the a#verse effects thereof.
!"C &ec. 07% %o ro1ect or rogram shall be imlemente# b!
government authorities unless3
(1) the consultations mentione# above are
comlie# "ith; an#
(2) rior aroval of the sanggunian concerne# is
obtaine#.
Note! "ccu#ants in areas where such #ro$ects are to be im#lemented
shall not be evicted unless a##ro#riate relocation sites have been
#rovided% in accordance with the &onstitution.
Comment !emorandum Circular No" #$ (%&&') provides that all
o(ces and employees of national government agencies
and o(ces including G)CCs must strictly comply with the
LGC provisions on consultation" *owever+ there are no
penalties for such breach" ,uestion is what are the
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remedies of the LGC if the consultation re-uirements are
not complied with.
(*) &co.e o# a..lication
6he LG) shall al! to all rovinces, cities, municialities, baranga!s, an# other
olitical sub#ivisions as ma! be create# b! la", an#, to the e5tent herein
rovi#e#, to officials, offices, or agencies of the national government.
(LG& 'ec. ()
(1) 2erger o# administrative regions
-#ministrative regions are mere grouings of contiguous rovinces for
a#ministrative uroses, not for olitical reresentation. (&hiongbian v.
"rbos)
7hile the o"er to merge a#ministrative regions is not e5ressl! rovi#e# for
in the )onstitution, it is a o"er "hich has tra#itionall! been lo#ge# "ith the
'resi#ent to facilitate the e5ercise of the o"er of general suervision of local
governments. (Abbas v. &"MELE&)
(') 3ules o# inter.retation
Provision on power of LGU: Liberall! interrete# in its favor. In case of
#oubt, an! 0uestion thereon shall be
resolve# in favor of #evolution of o"ers
an# of the LGU. -n! fair an# reasonable
#oubt as to the e5istence of the o"er shall
be interrete# in favor of the LGU
concerne#.
Tax ordinance / revenue measure: )onstrue# strictl! against the enacting LGU,
an# liberall! in favor of the ta5a!er.
Tax exemption, incentive, )onstrue# strictl! against the erson
relief granted pursuant to LGC: claiming it.
General welfare provisions: Liberall! interrete# to give more o"er to
LGUs in accelerating economic
#eveloment an# ugra#ing the 0ualit! of
life for eole in the communit!.
Where there is a controvers )ustoms an# tra#itions in the lace "here
arising under the LGC and the controvers! ta/es lace ma! be
there is no applica!le legal resorte# to.
provision or "urisprudence:
0. "eneral -ower and Attributes
(1) Creation o# !"4s
()o ma$ create* divide* merge* abolis)* or s#bstantiall$ alter
bo#ndaries of LG+s,
)ongress 3 rovince, cit! or municialit!
+angguniang 'anglungso# or
'anlala"igan 3 baranga!8
8Note! )ecommendation of sangguniang bayan
is necessary. (LG) 39:)
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In both instances, there must be a lebiscite calle# for the urose in the olitical
unit or units #irectl! affecte#. ;*his is to #revent gerrmandering +i.e.% the #ractice of
creating legislative districts to favor a #articular candidate or #arty, and the creation or
abolition of units for #urely #olitical #ur#oses.<
87here a lebiscite "as hel# "ith its rincial sub1ect being the
conversion of the municialit! of *an#alu!ong into a highl!4urbani2e# cit!
an# the matter of searate #istrict reresentation being merel! ancillar!
thereto, the +ureme )ourt hel# that the e5clusion of the inhabitants of
+an =uan (who belonged to the same congressional district as Mandaluyong)
from the lebiscite "as roer. (*obias v. Abalos)
Notes
In the creation of baranga!s, there is no minimum re0uirement for area an#
income. >ut for all the other LGU?s, there are stan#ar#s rescribe#.
6he creation of LGU?s is a urel! legislative act. ,&7(@(A, LGU?s create# b!
the e5ecutive shall continue to e5ist b! virtue of LG) $$2 (#). (cf. Munici#ality of
'an Narciso v. Mendez)
7hen the in0uir! is focuse# on the legal e5istence of a bo#! olitic, the action is
reserve# to the +tate in a rocee#ing for -uo warranto or an! other #irect
rocee#ing. It must be brought in the name of the Aeublic of the 'hiliines
an# commence# b! the +ol4Gen or the fiscal "hen #irecte# b! the 'resi#ent of
the 'hiliines, an# it must be timel! raise#. (Munici#ality of 'an Narciso v.
Mendez)
Can a statute lend color of validit to an attempted organi#ation of a municipalit
despite the fact that such statute is su!se$uentl declared unconstitutional%
In the absence of another vali# statute to give color of authorit! to its creation,
the organi2ation of the municialit! un#er such unconstitutional statute is invali#,
an# the municialit! cannot be consi#ere# as a de facto cororation.
In the case of Munici#ality of Malabang v. enito, the +ureme )ourt hel# that
(& 39B (creating the municialit! of >alabagan out of the barrios C sitios of
*alabang, Lanao #el +ur) "as unconstitutional. 6he mere fact that >alabagan
"as organ2ie# at a time "hen the statute ha# not been invali#ate# coul# not
ma/e it a de facto cororation, as, in#een#entl! of the alicable -#ministrative
)o#e rovisions, there "as no other vali# statute to give color of authorit! to its
creation.
,o"ever, even though the municialit! of >alabagan coul# not be consi#ere# a
de facto cororation, this #i# not mean that the acts #one b! it in the e5ercise of
its cororate o"er "ere a nullit!. 6he )ourt ointe# out that the e5istence of (&
39B "as an oerative fact "hich coul# not 1ustl! be ignore#. 6hus, the
invali#ation of the (& "oul# not unsettle the acts #one in reliance of the vali#it!
of the creation of the municialit!.
(0) -olitical and cor.orate nature o# !"45s
Di'erentiate t)e political nat#re and corporate nat#re of LG+s
P"L.*.&AL /
G"0E)NMEN*AL
&")P")A*E /
M1N.&.PAL
+ec. 1:, LG) 'olitical sub#ivision of
national government
)ororate entit!
reresenting inhabitants of
its territor!
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Li#asan v. )&*(L() Instrumentalit! of the
+tate in carr!ing out the
functions of government
-genc! of communit! in
a#ministration of local affairs
6orio v. Dontanilla -#ministering o"ers of
the state, an# romotion
of the ublic "elfare
(5ercising o"ers for the
secial benefit an#
a#vantage of the communit!
Liabilit! of LGU to 3
r#

ersons
N"*E! *his must be
related to Art. 2( of the
Local Government
&ode.
LGU cannot be hel# liable
E3ce#tions3
(1) If statute rovi#es
other"ise;
(2) %)) 219E
)an be hel# liable e3
contractu or e3 delicto
Liabilit! of LGU?s
agents F officers
%o liabilit! rovi#e# that
#uties "ere erforme#
honestl! an# in goo# faith,
an# the! #i# not act
"antonl! or maliciousl!
(*orio v. 4ontanilla)
)es#ondeat su#erior
E-amples of governmental activities%
Aegulations against fire, #isease;
'reservation of ublic eace;
*aintenance of municial risons;
(stablishment of schools, ost4offices, etc.
(*orio v. 4ontanilla% citing Mendoza v. de Leon)
E-amples of proprietar$ . corporate activities%
*unicial "ater"or/s;
+laughterhouses;
*ar/ets;
+tables;
>athing establishments;
7harves;
Derries;
Disheries;
*aintenance of ar/s, golf courses, cemeteries, airorts
(*orio v. 4ontanilla% citing Mendoza v. de Leon)
,ol#ing of a to"n fiesta (*orio v. 4ontanilla)
Notes
'ublic mar/ets are sub1ect to the LGU?s suervision an# control. 6heir closure or
conversion into rivate mar/ets must follo" the roce#ures lai# #o"n b! la". 6hus,
"here the o"er to establish an# maintain ublic mar/ets is grante# to the *unicial
>oar#, the local chief e5ecutive cannot unilaterall! "ith#ra" it from use as a ublic
mar/et "ithout the aroval of the >oar#. (&ruz v. &A)
(*) "eneral 6el#are
()at powers do LG+s )ave #nder t)e general welfare cla#se of t)e
LGC,
(1) 'o"ers e5ressl! grante# to the LGU;
(2) 6hose o"ers necessaril! imlie# therefrom;
(3) 'o"ers necessar!, aroriate, or inci#ental for its efficient an# effective
governance; an#
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($) 6hose o"ers "hich are essential to the romotion of the general "elfare.
(LG) +ec. 1B)
()at d#ties do LG+s )ave #nder t)e general welfare cla#se,
7ithin their resective territorial 1uris#ictions, LGUs shall ensure an# suort,
among other things3
'reservation an# enrichment of culture;
'romotion of health an# safet!;
(nhancement of the right of the eole to a balance# ecolog!;
Develoment of aroriate an# self4reliant scientific an#
technological caabilities;
Imrovement of ublic morals;
(nhancement of economic roserit! an# social 1ustice;
'romotion of full emlo!ment among their resi#ents;
*aintenance of eace an# or#er; an#
'reservation of the comfort an# convenience of their inhabitants.
()at are t)e / branc)es of t)e general welfare cla#se,
(1) 6hose or#inances F resolutions necessar! to carr! into effect an# #ischarge
o"ers an# #uties conferre# uon the municial council b! la"; an#
(2) 6hose or#inances F resolutions necessar! an# roer to rovi#e for the
health an# safet!, romote the roserit!, imrove the morals, eace, goo#
or#er, comfort, an# convenience of the municialit! an# the inhabitants
thereof, an# for the rotection of roert! therein.
(1.'. v. 'alaveria)
Ordinances . acts deemed #ltra vires and void%
-n or#inance imosing a ca#aver transfer fee "hich is a!able "henever a
ca#aver, reviousl! interre# in a burial lace, is remove# therefrom for
transfer to a rivate cemeter! in )aloocan )it!, an# "hich is #istinct from the
burial fee (0iray v. &ity of &aloocan)
-n or#inance re0uiring entities selling a#mission tic/ets to movies, ublic
e5hibitions, games, contests, or other erformances to charge onl! half4rice
for chil#ren bet"een G412 !ears ol# (alacuit v. &4. of Agusan del Norte)
Leasing of ublic la2a to ven#ors (0illanueva v. &astaneda)
Ordinances . acts deemed valid #nder t)e general welfare cla#se%
- municial or#inance rescribing the 2onification an# classification of
merchan#ise an# foo#stuff sol# in the ublic mar/et (Ebona v. Munici#ality of
Daet)
- roclamation reserving certain arcels of the ublic #omain situate# in
*alabon for street "i#ening an# ar/ing sace uroses ()e#ublic v.
Gonzales)
-n or#inance rohibiting the la!ing of games such as #anguingue% o/er%
#aris5#aris (an# other games of chance) on #a!s not +un#a!s or legal
holi#a!s (1.'. v. 'alaveria)
)on#emnation an# #emolition of buil#ings foun# to be in a #angerous or
ruinous con#ition "ithin the authorit! rovi#e# for b! municial or#inances
(&hua 6uat v. &A)
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- resolution confirming F ratif!ing a >urial -ssistance 'rogram e5ten#ing
financial assistance to bereave# families (inay v. Domingo)
- 2oning or#inance "hich #eclares an area as a commercial 2one an#
regulates the location of funeral homes therein (Patalinghug v. &A)
Notes
6o constitute ublic use, the ublic in general shoul# have e0ual or common rights to
use the lan# or facilit! involve# on the same terms, ho"ever limite# in number the
eole "ho can actuall! themselves of it at a given time. ()e#ublic v. Gonzales%
citing various cases)
6he number of users is not the !ar#stic/ in #etermining "hether roert! is roerl!
reserve# for ublic use or ublic benefit. ()e#ublic v. Gonzales,
0batement of n#isances
Comment /ecs" 001 and 0#2 of the LGC grant the /angguniang 3ayan and
/angguniang 4anlungsod+ respectively+ the power to 5declare+
prevent or abate any nuisance"6 7he provisions of the Code do
not ma8e a distinction between nuisance per se and nuisance
per accidens+ thus creating a presumption that LGUs can abate
all 8inds of nuisances without need of a 9udicial order"
*owever+ the 9urisprudence holds that LGUs can abate
e:tra9udicially only nuisances per se" *ow should this
discrepancy be reconciled.
Study carefully the followin!
7he Civil Code provisions regarding nuisances;
<state of Gregoria =rancisco v" C>
7echnology ?evelopers+ @nc" v" C> (parts % A $)
Laguna La8e ?evelopment >uthority v" C>
(1) Basic &ervices and 7acilities
()at are t)e basic services and facilities w)ic) LG+s m#st provide to
t)eir constit#ents,
&'(')G'* M1N.&.PAL.*7 P)"0.N&E &.*7
-gricultural suort
services
-griculture an#
fisher! e5tension an#
on4site research
services an# facilities
-gricultural e5tension
an# on4site research
services an# facilities;
organi2ation of farmers
an# fishermen?s
cooeratives
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
,ealth services +ame; health centers
an# clinics
,ealth services,
inclu#ing hositals an#
tertiar! health services
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
+ocial "elfare
services
+ame +ame, inclu#ing rebel
returnees an#
evacuees, relief
oerations, oulation
#ev?t services
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
General h!giene an#
sanitation
+ame +ee municialit! an#
rovince
+oli# "aste
collection
+oli# "aste #isosal
s!stem or
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
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environmental
management s!stem
Hatarungang
ambaranga!
%- +ee municialit! an#
rovince
*aintenance of
roa#s, bri#ges an#
"ater sul!
s!stems
Aoa#s, bri#ges,
communal irrigation,
artesian "ells,
#rainage, floo#
control
+imilar to those for
municialit!
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
Infrastructure
facilities (e.g. la2a
multi4urose hall)
*unicial buil#ings,
cultural centers,
ublic ar/s
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
Information an#
rea#ing center
Information services,
ta5 an# mar/eting
information s!stems,
an# ublic librar!
Ugra#ing an#
mo#erni2ation of ta5
information an#
collection services
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
+atellite or ublic
mar/et
'ublic mar/ets,
slaughterhouses
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
Imlementation of
communit!4base#
forestr! ro1ects
(nforcement of
forestr! la"s, limite# to
communit!4base#
forestr! ro1ects,
ollution control la",
small4scale mining la",
mini4h!#roelectric
ro1ects for local
uroses
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
+chool buil#ings +ee municialit! an#
rovince
'ublic cemeter! +ee municialit! an#
rovince
6ourism facilities 6ourism #eveloment
an# romotion
rograms
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
'olice, fire stations,
1ail
+ame +ee municialit! an#
rovince
In#ustrial research an#
#eveloment services
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
Lo"4cost housing an#
other mass #"ellings
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
Investment suort
services
+ee municialit! an#
rovince
Inter4municial
telecommunication
services
-#e0uate
communication an#
transortation
facilities
1ow s)all t)ese basic services and facilities be f#nded,
Drom the share of LGUs in the rocee#s of national ta5es an# other local
revenues an# fun#ing suort from the national government, its instrumentalities
an# G&))s "hich are tas/e# b! la" to establish an# maintain such services or
facilities. (LG& 'ec. 89 +g,,
(') -ower to "enerate 3evenue
()at are t)e powers granted to LG+s #nder 2ec 34 of t)e LGC,
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Un#er this rovision, LGUs have the o"er an# authorit! to3
(1) establish an organi2ation that shall be resonsible for the efficient an# effective
imlementation of their #eveloment lans, rogram ob1ectives an# riorities;
(2) create their o"n sources of revenue an# to lev! ta5es, fees, an# charges "hich
shall accrue e5clusivel! for their use an# #isosition an# "hich shall be retaine#
b! them;
(3) have a 1ust share in national ta5es "hich shall be automaticall! an# #irectl!
release# to them "ithout nee# of an! further action;
($) have an e0uitable share in the rocee#s from the utili2ation an# #eveloment of
the national "ealth an# resources "ithin their resective territorial 1uris#ictions
inclu#ing sharing the same "ith the inhabitants b! "a! of #irect benefits;
(:) ac0uire, #evelo, lease, encumber, alienate, or other"ise #isose of real or
ersonal roert! hel# b! them in their rorietar! caacit! an# to al! their
resources an# assets for ro#uctive, #evelomental, or "elfare uroses, in the
e5ercise or furtherance of their governmental or rorietar! o"ers an#
functions an# thereb! ensure their #eveloment into self4reliant communities
an# active articiants in the attainment of national goals.
(+) $minent 8omain
()at are t)e re5#isites for t)e e-ercise of eminent domain b$
LG+s,
(1) (5ercise# b! the chief e5ecutive;
(2) 'ursuant to an or#inance;
(3) Dor ublic use, or urose, or "elfare for the benefit of the oor an# the
lan#less;
($) Uon a!ment of 1ust comensation (base# on the fair mar/et value at the
time of the ta/ing, not at the time of a!ment);
(:) @ali# an# #efinite offer ha# reviousl! been ma#e to the o"ner, an# such
offer "as not accete#. (LG) +ec. 1E)
(7) 3eclassi#ication o# lands
()at are t)e re5#isites for valid reclassi6cation of lands b$ LG+s,
(1) 6he LGU must be either a cit! or municialit!;
(2) 'ublic hearings are con#ucte# for the urose;
(3) 6he sanggunian asses an or#inance authori2ing the reclassification of
agricultural lan#s an# rovi#es for the manner of their utili2ation an#
#isosition;
($) 6he urose for reclassification is either3
(a) 6he lan# has cease# to be economicall! feasible an# soun# for
agricultural uroses as #etermine# b! the D-; or
(b) 6he lan# shall have substantiall! greater economic value for
resi#ential, commercial, or in#ustrial uroses, as #etermine# b! the
sanggunian concerne#.
(:) 6he reclassification #oes not e5cee# the follo"ing limits at the time of the
assage of the or#inance3
6ighly urbanized and inde#endent 1:I of total agricultural
com#onent cities! lan# area
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&om#onent cities% 8
st
to :
rd
class 1JI
munici#alities!
(
th
to ;
th
class munici#alities! :I
E3ce#tion3 7hen the LGU is authori2e# b! the 'resi#ent "hen
ublic interest so re0uires an# uon
recommen#ation of the %(D-.
(B) )omliance "ith the re0uirements of national government agencies3
)omrehensive Lan# Use 'lan arove# b! the ,LUA> (in the case
of rovinces, highl! urbani2e# cities, in#een#ent comonent cities
an# the cities an# municialities of *.*.) or the +angguniang
'anlala"igan (in the case of comonent cities an# municialities);
)ertification from the local ,LUA> secif!ing the total area of 2one#
agricultural lan#s in the LGU concerne# base# on the arove#
)omrehensive Lan# Use 'lan or Koning &r#inance rior to the
alication for conversion;
)ertification from the %ational Irrigation -#ministration that the area to
be reclassifie# is not covere# un#er 'res. -.&. 2J, series of 1EE2;
)ertification from the D-A in#icating that such lan#s are not
#istribute# or covere# b! a %otice of @aluation un#er )-A'; an#
)ertification from D(%A that the area alie# for reclassification has
been classifie# as alienable an# #isosable, an# is not nee#e# for
forestr! uroses in case the area alie# for falls "ithin ublic lan#s.
(-& 3B3, +ec. 1> (:))
Di'erentiate reclassi6cation* land #se conversion* and &oning
)eclassification Land 1se
&onversion
<oning
Definition -ct of secif!ing ho"
agricultural lan# shall be
utili2e# for non4
agricultural uses such as
resi#ential, in#ustrial,
commercial as embo4
#ie# in the lan# use lan
sub1ect to the re0uire4
ments an# roce#ure for
conversion. It also
inclu#es the reversion of
non4agricultural lan#s to
agricultural use. (=oint
,LUA>, D-A, D-, DILG
*emo4)ircular, s. 1EE:)
-ct or rocess of
changing the current
use of a iece of
agricultural lan# into
some other use
(+ec. 2, -& 3B3)
Delineation of a cit! F
municialit! into
functional 2ones
"here onl! secifie#
lan# uses are allo"e#.
It #irects an# regulates
the use of all lan#s in
the communit! in
accor#ance "ith an
arove# or a#ote#
lan# use lan for the
cit! F municialit!.
'ocialized housing! refers to housing rograms an# ro1ects covering houses an# lots
or homelots onl! un#erta/en b! the government or the rivate
sector for the un#errivilege# an# homeless citi2ens "hich shall
inclu#e sites an# services #eveloments, long4term financing,
liberali2e# terms on interest a!ments, an# such other benefits in
accor#ance "ith A- G2GE.
()at are t)e priorities in t)e ac5#isition of lands for sociali&ed
)o#sing,
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Lambda Epsilon Xi DVOREF College of Law
(1) 6hose o"ne# b! the Government or an! of its sub#ivisions,
instrumentalities, or agencies, inclu#ing G&))s an# their
subsi#iaries;
(2) -lienable lan#s of the ublic #omain;
(3) Unregistere# or aban#one# an# i#le lan#s;
($) 6hose "ithin the #eclare# -reas for 'riorit! Develoment, Konal
imrovement sites, an# +lum Imrovement an# Aesettlement
'rogram sites "hich have not !et been ac0uire#;
(:) >LI++ sites "hich have not !et been ac0uire#; an#
(B) 'rivatel!4o"ne# lan#s. (A- G2GE, +ec. E)
6hus, in the case of 4ilstream .nternational v. &A "here rivate lan#s
"ere sub1ecte# to e5roriation rocee#ings for sociali2e# housing
"ithout rior resort to the ac0uisition of other lan#s, the +ureme )ourt
hel# that the roert! o"ner?s right to #ue rocess "as violate# an# set
asi#e the e5roriation or#er accor#ingl!.
(8) Closure and o.ening o# roads
()at are t)e re5#irements for a valid permanent clos#re,
()at are t)e re5#irements for valid temporar$ clos#re,
(9) Cor.orate .owers
()at are t)e re5#isites for entering into a contact b$ t)e LG+,
72ec //c8
Di'erentiate p#blic from private . patrimonial propert$
(19) Authorit to :egotiate and &ecure "rants
(11) !iabilit #or 8amages
Di'erentiate between s#abilit$ and liabilit$
Can t)e doctrine of estoppel be applied against m#nicipal
corporations,
Governmental v proprietar$ f#nctions
*. Intergovernmental relations between national
government and !"45s
(1) $;ecutive &u.ervision
()at is t)e power of t)e "resident over LG+9s,
General suervision, to ensure that the acts of LGUs are "ithin the scoe of their
rescribe# o"ers an# functions. (-rt. L, +ec. $, 1E9G )onstitution)
Direct suervisor! authorit! over rovinces, highl! urbani2e# cities,
an# in#een#ent comonent cities
+uervision over comonent cities an# municialities through
rovinces
+uervision over baranga!s through cit! an# municialit! (LG) +ec.
2:)
Law on Local Government 12
Lambda Epsilon Xi DVOREF College of Law
-lso, the 'resi#ent ma! #irect the aroriate national agenc! to rovi#e
financial, technical, or other forms of assistance to an LGU uon its (the LGU?s)
re0uest. (LG) +ec. 2:c)
Di'erentiate between control and s#pervision
&ontrol 'u#ervision
'o"er of an officer to alter or mo#if! or &verseeing or the o"er or
nullif! or set asi#e "hat a subor#inate authorit! of an officer to see that
officer ha# #one in the erformance of subor#inate officers erform their
his #uties an# to substitute the 1u#gment #uties. If the latter fail or neglect
of the former for that of the latter to fulfill them, the former ma! ta/e
(Mondano v. 'ilvosa, such action or ste as rescribe#
b! la" to ma/e them erform these
#uties. (Mondano v. 'ilvosa,
What is the nature of the power of the +ecretar of ,ustice to review the
constitutionalit or legalit of tax ordinances and revenue measures%
6he o"er grante# b! +ec. 19G of the Local Government )o#e to the +ecretar!
of =ustice to revie" the constitutionalit! or legalit! of ta5 or#inances an# revenue
measures is a mere act of suervision an# not of control. 6he +ecretar! of
=ustice is not ermitte# to submitte# his o"n 1u#gment for the 1u#gment of the
local government that enacte# the measure. (Drilon v. Lim)
()at is t)e doctrine of 5#ali6ed political agenc$,
-ll e5ecutive an# a#ministrative organi2ations are a#1uncts of the (5ecutive
Deartment, the hea#s of the various e5ecutive #eartments are assistants an#
agents of the )hief (5ecutive, an#, e5cet in cases "here the )hief (5ecutive is
re0uire# b! the )onstitution or la" to act in erson on the e5igencies of the
situation #eman# that he act ersonall!, the multifarious e5ecutive an#
a#ministrative functions of the )hief (5ecutive are erforme# b! an# through the
e5ecutive #eartments, an# the acts of the +ecretaries of such #eartments,
erforme# an# romulgate# in the regular course of business, are, unless,
#isarove# or rerobate# b! the )hief (5ecutive resumtivel! the acts of the
)hief (5ecutive. (De Leon v. &ar#io% as -uoted in &ar#io v. E3ecutive 'ecretary)
(0) 3elations with -hili..ine :ational -olice
()at is t)e e-tent of operational s#pervision and control of local
c)ief e-ec#tives over t)e ")ilippine :ational "olice,
'A&@I%)I-L G&@(A%&A3
+hall choose the rovincial #irector from a list of 3 eligibles
recommen#e# b! the '%' regional #irector;
)hairman of the rovincial eace an# or#er council; shall oversee the
imlementation of the rovincial ublic safet! lan (A- BEG:, +ec. :1
(a))
Deuti2e# agent of the %ational 'olice )ommission in his 1uris#iction.
-s such, he can insect olice forces an# units, con#uct au#it, an#
e5ercise other functions as authori2e# b! the )ommission. (A- 9::1,
+ec. B$)
=N"*E! 1nless reversed by the President% this de#utation may be
sus#ended or withdrawn by the National Police &ommission% u#on
consultation with the #rovincial governor and congressman concerned%
for any of the following grounds!
Law on Local Government 13
Lambda Epsilon Xi DVOREF College of Law
+a, 4re-uent unauthorized absences>
+b, Abuse of authority>
+c, Providing material su##ort to criminal elements> or
+d, Engaging in acts inimical to national security or which
negate the effectiveness of the #eace and order cam#aign.
1#on good cause shown% the President may% directly or through the
&ommission% motu #ro#rio restore such de#utation withdrawn. +)A ?@@8%
'ec. ;@,
)I6M -%D *U%I)I'-L *-M&A+3
+hall e5ercise oerational suervision an# control8 over '%' units in
their resective 1uris#ictions, e5cet #uring the 3J4#a! erio#
imme#iatel! rece#ing an# follo"ing an! national, local or baranga!
elections. (A- BEG: +ec. :1 (b), as amen#e# b! A- 9::1)
= the #ower to direct% su#erintend% and oversee the day5to5day functions
of #olice investigation of crime% crime #revention activities% and traffic
control in accordance with the rules and regulations #romulgated by the
National Police &ommission. .t liAewise includes the #ower to em#loy
and de#loy units or elements of the PNP.
)hairman of local eace an# or#er council; shall #evelo an#
establish an integrate# area F communit! ublic safet! lant
embracing riorities of action an# rogram thrusts for imlementation
b! the local '%' stations;
,ave the #ut! to sonsor erio#ic seminars for members of the '%'
assigne# to #etaile# in his LGU in or#er to u#ate them regar#ing
local or#inances an# legislations;
,ave the o"er to imose, after #ue notice an# summar! hearings,
#iscilinar! enalties for minor offenses8 committe# b! members of
the '%' assigne# to their resective 1uris#ictions

= "ffenses #unishable by withholding of #rivileges%
restriction to s#ecified limits% sus#ension or forfeiture
of salary% or any combination thereof for a #eriod of
8;5:B days. +)A ;C9@% 'ec. (8 +a, +2,,
,ave the authorit! to choose the )hief of 'olice from a list of :
eligibles recommen#e# b! the rovincial olice #irector;
*a! recommen# the recall or reassignment of the )hief of 'olice
"hen, in the ercetion of the local eace an# or#er council, such
)hief of 'olice has been ineffective in combating crime or maintaining
eace an# or#er in the cit! or municialit!
,ave the authorit! to recommen# to the rovincial #irector the
transfer, reassignment, or #etail of '%' members outsi#e of their
resective cit! or to"n resi#ences;
,ave the authorit! to recommen# the aointment of ne" members of
the '%' to be assigne# to their resective cities from a list of eligibles
reviousl! screene# b! the eace an# or#er council or municialities
,ave control an# suervision over anti4gambling oerations
(A- BEG:, +ec. :1 (b) ($), as amen#e# b! A- 9::1)
Deuti2e# agents of the %ational 'olice )ommission(%-'&L)&*) in
his 1uris#iction. -s such, the! can insect olice forces an# units,
Law on Local Government 14
Lambda Epsilon Xi DVOREF College of Law
con#uct au#it, an# e5ercise other functions as authori2e# b! the
)ommission. (A- 9::1, +ec. B$)
=1nless reversed by the President% this de#utation may be sus#ended or
withdrawn by the NAP"L&"M% u#on consultation with the #rovincial
governor and congressman concerned% for any of the following grounds!
+a, 4re-uent unauthorized absences>
+b, Abuse of authority>
+c, Providing material su##ort to criminal elements> or
+d, Engaging in acts inimical to national security or which
negate the effectiveness of the #eace and order cam#aign.
1#on good cause shown% the President may% directly or through the
&ommission% motu #ro#rio restore such de#utation withdrawn. +)A ?@@8%
'ec. ;@,
-s the deputi#ation of municipal and cit maors as agents of the
)'P.LC./ a usurpation of the power of control of the )'P.LC./ over
the P)P%
%o. 6here is no usuration of the o"er of control of the %-'&L)&* un#er
+ection :1 of A- BEG: because un#er this ver! same rovision, it is clear that the
local e5ecutives are onl! acting as reresentatives of the %-'&L)&*. -s such
#euties, the! are ans"erable to the %-'&L)&* for their actions in the e5ercise
of their functions un#er that section. 6hus, unless counterman#e# b! the
%-'&L)&*, their acts are vali# an# bin#ing as acts of the %-'&L)&*.
6he same hol#ing is true "ith resect to the contention on the oerational
suervision an# control e5ercise# b! the local officials. 6hese officials "oul#
siml! be acting as reresentatives. (&ar#io v. E3ecutive 'ecretary)
(*) Inter-!ocal "overnment 3elations
()at is t)e nat#re of t)e relations)ip of t)e province and t)e cities
and m#nicipalities wit)in its territorial ;#risdiction,
&om#onent cities / munici#alities! 'rovince, through the governor, shall
ensure that the cit! F municialit! acts "ithin
the scoe of its rescribe# o"ers an#
functions.
6ighly urbanized cities
.nde#endent com#onent cities! In#een#ent of the rovince.
Review of E-ec#tive Orders 7LGC 2ec <=8
Governor! (&s romulgate# b! comonent cit! or municial
ma!or "ithin his 1uris#iction
&ity / Munici#al Mayor! (&s romulgate# b! the unong baranga! "ithin
his 1uris#iction
Notes!
)oies of the (&s must be for"ar#e# to the roer revie"ing
authorit! "ithin 3 #a!s from their issuance.
In all instances of revie", the local chief e5ecutive concerne# shall
ensure that such (&s are "ithin the o"ers grante# b! la" an# in
conformit! "ith rovincial, cit! or municial or#inances.
Law on Local Government 15
Lambda Epsilon Xi DVOREF College of Law
If the revie"ing authorit! fails to act on sai# (&s "ithin 3J #a!s after
their submission, the! shall be #eeme# consistent "ith la" an#
therefore vali#.
(1) 3elations with -eo.les5 and :ongovernmental <rgani/ations
(') !ocal .re=uali#ication, bids and awards committee
II Elective O>cials
A. >uali#ications
()at are t)e 5#ali6cations for elective local o>cials,
(1) 'hiliine citi2en (Note! not necessarily natural5born);
(2) Aegistere# voter in the baranga!, municialit!, cit!, or rovince, or #istrict (in case of
member of sangguniang anlala"igan, anglungso# or ba!an);
(3) Aesi#ent of area for at least 1 !ear imme#iatel! rece#ing the #a! of the election;
($) -ble to rea# an# "rite Diliino or an! other local language or #ialect
(:) )omliance "ith age re0uirement3
+a, Governor N
0ice5governor N
Member of sangguniang #anlalawigan N
Mayor N -t least 23 !ears ol# on
0ice5mayor N election #a!
Member of sangguniang #anglungsod N
of highly urbanized cities N
+b, Mayor / 0ice5mayor of inde#endent com#onent N -t least 21 !ears ol# on
cities% com#onent cities or munici#alities N election #a!
+c, Member of sangguniang #anglungsod or bayan N -t least 19 !ears ol# on
Punong barangay% member of sangguniang N election #a!
barangay
+d, &andidates for sangguniang Aabataan -t least 1: !ears ol# but
not more than 21 !ears ol# on
election #a!
B. 8is=uali#ications
()at are t)e gro#nds for dis5#ali6cation #nder t)e Local Government
Code,
(1) ,hose sentenced b #inal ?udgment #or an o##ense involving moral tur.itude or #or
an o##ense .unishable b one (1) ear or more o# im.risonment, within two (0)
ears a#ter serving sentence (!"C &ec. 19 (a))@
-s a general rule, crimes mala in se involve moral turitu#e, "hile crimes mala
#rohibita #o not. In the final anal!sis, ho"ever, "hether or not a crime involves
moral turitu#e is ultimatel! a 0uestion of fact an# fre0uentl! #een#s on all the
circumstances surroun#ing the violation of a statute. (Dela *orre v. &"MELE&)
Dencing is a crime involving moral turitu#e3 actual /no"le#ge b! the OfenceO of
the fact that roert! receive# is stolen #isla!s the same #egree of malicious
#erivation of onePs rightful roert! as that "hich animate# the robber! or theft
"hich, b! their ver! nature, are crimes of moral turitu#e. (Dela *orre v.
&"MELE&)
'robation onl! susen#s the e5ecution of the sentence. It #oes not susen# the
alicabilit! of the #is0ualification. (Dela *orre v. &"MELE&)
Law on Local Government 16
Lambda Epsilon Xi DVOREF College of Law
(0) ,hose removed #rom o##ice as a result o# an administrative case (!"C &ec. 19(b))@
6o be vali#, a #ecision in a#ministrative cases involving local elective officials
ren#ere# b! the +anggunian must 3
(a) be in "riting;
(b) state the facts an# the la" on "hich it "as base#; an#
(c) be signe# b! the members ta/ing art in the #ecision. (Malinao v. )eyes)
7here an a#ministrative case file# against an elective local official is not #eci#e#
before the e5iration of his term of office, his subse0uent reelection oerates as
a con#onation of his revious miscon#uct an# he cannot be remove#.
(Aguinaldo v. 'antos)
7here a #eut! sheriff "as #ismisse# from the service uon conviction for
serious miscon#uct an# "as barre# from reinstatement to an! osition in national
or local government, it "as hel# that such bar onl! alie# to aointive
ositions. ,e "as not #is0ualifie# from running for an elective osition. (Grego
v. &"MELE&)
Comment /ee the case of Beyes v" C)!<L<C"
(*) ,hose convicted b #inal ?udgment #or violating the oath o# allegiance to the
3e.ublic (!"C &ec. 19 (c))@
(1) ,hose with dual citi/enshi. (!"C &ec. 19 (d))@
Dual citi2enshi as contemlate# un#er this rovision an# the )onstitution refers
to #ual allegiance. )onse0uentl!, ersons "ith mere #ual citi2enshi #o not fall
un#er the #is0ualification. (Mercado v. Manzano)
6he filing of a certificate of can#i#ac! suffices as a renunciation of -merican
(foreign) citi2enshi an# effectivel! removes an! #is0ualification a can#i#ate ma!
have as a #ual citi2en. (Mercado v. Manzano)
(') 7ugitives #rom ?ustice in criminal or non.olitical cases here or abroad (!"C &ec.
19 (e))@
-rt. G3 of the IAA of the LG) is an inor#inate an# un#ue circumscrition of the
la" to the e5tent that it confines the term Ofugitive from 1usticeO to refer onl! to a
erson (the fugitive) O"ho has been convicte# b! final 1u#gment.O (Mar-uez v.
&"MELE&)
6he term Ofugitive from 1usticeO inclu#es not onl! those "ho flee after conviction
to avoi# unishment, but li/e"ise those "ho, after being charge#, flee to avoi#
rosecution. ()odriguez v. &"MELE&)
6he intent to eva#e is the comelling factor that animates onePs flight from a
articular 1uris#iction. -n# obviousl!, there can onl! be an intent to eva#e
rosecution or unishment "here there is /no"le#ge b! the fleeing sub1ect of an
alrea#! institute# in#ictment, or of a romulgate# 1u#gment of conviction. Intent
to eva#e on the art of a can#i#ate must therefore be establishe# b! roof that
there has alrea#! been a conviction, or at least a charge ha# been file#, at the
time of flight. ()odriguez v. &"MELE&)
(+) -ermanent residents in a #oreign countr or those who have ac=uired the right to
reside abroad and continue to avail o# the same right a#ter the e##ectivit o# the
!ocal "overnment Code (!"C &ec. 19 (#))@
+ec. B9 of the &mnibus (lection )o#e (>' 991) rovi#es that Oany #erson who is
a #ermanent resident of or an immigrant to a foreign country shall not be
Law on Local Government 17
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-ualified to run for an elective office under such &ode unless said #erson has
waived his status as #ermanent resident or immigrant of a foreign country in
accordance with the residence re-uirement #rovided for in the election laws.D
(7) ,he insane or #eeble-minded (!"C &ec. 19 (g))@
(8) <ther grounds, e.g.
+a, 0ote5buying
@ote4bu!ing is a groun# for #is0ualification un#er +ec. B9 of the &mnibus
(lection )o#e (>' 991).
@ote4bu!ing has its criminal an# electoral asects. Its criminal asect to
#etermine the guilt or innocence of the accuse# cannot be the sub1ect of
summar! hearing. ,o"ever, its electoral asect to ascertain "hether the
offen#er shoul# be #is0ualifie# from office can be #etermine# in an
a#ministrative rocee#ing that is summar! in character. (Nolasco v.
&"MELE&)
+b, 0oluntary renunciation +Dima#oro v. Mitra,
+c, 'ervice for : consecutive terms in the same #osition
+LG& 'ec. (: +b,,
6he term limit for elective local officials must be ta/en to refer to the right to
be electe# as "ell as the right to serve in the same elective osition.
)onse0uentl!, it is not enough that an in#ivi#ual has serve# 3 consecutive
terms in an elective local office. ,e must also have been electe# to the same
osition for the same number of times before the #is0ualification can al!.
(or$a v. &"MELE&)
()at are t)e e'ects of t)e 6ling of a dis5#ali6cation case,
-n! can#i#ate "ho has been #eclare# b! final 1u#gment to be #is0ualifie# shall not be
vote# for, an# the votes cast for him shall not be counte#.
If for an! reason a can#i#ate is not #eclare# b! final 1u#gment before an election to be
#is0ualifie# an# he is vote# for an# receives the "inning number of votes in such
election, the )ourt or )&*(L() shall continue "ith the trial an# hearing of the action,
in0uir! or rotest an#, uon motion of the comlainant or an! intervenor, ma! #uring the
en#enc! thereof or#er the susension of the roclamation of such can#i#ate "henever
the evi#ence of his guilt is strong.
()A ;;(;% 'ec. ;)
C. $lection Cases involving local elective o##icials% .rocedures
Aeal o! decisions o! COMELEC
6he fact that #ecisions, final or#ers or rulings of the )&*(L() in contests involving elective
municial an# baranga! offices are final, e5ecutor! an# not aealable, #oes not reclu#e a
recourse to the +ureme )ourt b! "a! of a secial civil action of certiorari. (Galido v.
&"MELE&)
E"ecution endin# aeal in election cases
()at are t)e recogni&ed ?good reasons? for e-ec#tion pending appeal in
election cases,
(1) ublic interest involve# or the "ill of the electorate;
(2) shortness of the remaining ortion of the term of the conteste# office; an#
(3) length of time that the election contest has been en#ing.
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()amas v. &"MELE&)
- combination of t"o or more of these reasons "ill suffice to grant e5ecution en#ing
aeal.
Note! 6he filing of a bon# #oes not constitute a goo# reason. ,o"ever, the trial
court ma! re0uire the filing of a bon# as a con#ition for the issuance of a
correson#ing "rit of e5ecution to ans"er for the a!ment of #amages "hich the
aggrieve# art! ma! suffer b! reason of the e5ecution en#ing aeal.
$%ter& li&it !or elective o'cials
6he term limit for elective local officials must be ta/en to refer to the right to be electe# as "ell
as the right to serve in the same elective osition. )onse0uentl!, it is not enough that an
in#ivi#ual has serve# 3 consecutive terms in an elective local office. ,e must also have been
electe# to the same osition for the same number of times before the #is0ualification can al!.
(or$a v. &"MELE&)
8. Aacancies and successions
()en does a permanent vacanc$ arise,
2e5#ence for a#tomatic s#ccession
@emporar$ vacancies
Leaves of absence
$. !ocal legislation
()o e-ercises local legislative power,
LG+ Local legislative
power
"residing O>cerC
'rovince +angguniang 'anlala"igan @ice4Governor
)it! +angguniang 'anlungso# )it! @ice4*a!or
*unicialit! +angguniang >a!an *unicial @ice4*a!or
>aranga! +angguniang >aranga! 'unong >aranga!
8 6he resi#ing officer shall vote onl! to brea/ a tie. (LG& 'ec. (C +a,,
Veto power b$ local c)ief e-ec#tive
Dho may veto3 Governor, cit! ma!or or municial ma!or
(LG) +ec. :: (a));
Dhat may be vetoed3 -n! or#inance of the sangguniang anlala"igan,
anlungso#, or ba!an in its entiret!;
-n! articular item or items8 of an3
-roriations or#inance;
&r#inance or resolution a#oting a local
#eveloment lan an# ublic investment
rogram;
&r#inance #irecting the a!ment or mone! or
creating liabilit!.
8.n this case% the veto shall not affect the item /s not
ob$ected to.
Grounds 6he or#inance is ultra vires or re1u#icial to the ublic
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Lambda Epsilon Xi DVOREF College of Law
"elfare.
()at are t)e tests of a valid ordinance,
(1) It must not contravene the constitution or an! statute;
(2) It must not be unfair or oressive;
(3) It must not be artial or #iscriminator!;
($) It must not rohibit but ma! regulate tra#e;
(:) It must be general an# consistent "ith ublic olic!;
(B) It must not be unreasonable.
(Magta$as v. Pryce Pro#erties> *atel v. Munici#ality of 0irac,
Di'erentiate an ordinance from a resol#tion
"rdinance )esolution
%ature La" *erel! a #eclaration of the
sentiment or oinion of a
la"ma/ing bo#! on a
secific matter
'ermanence General an# ermanent 6emorar! in nature
%ee# for 3
r#
rea#ingQ Ae0uires a 3
r#
rea#ing Does not re0uire a 3
r#

rea#ing, unless #eci#e#
other"ise b! a ma1orit! of
all the +anggunian
members
(cf. Munici#ality of Parana-ue v. 0.M. )ealty &or#.)
7. Budicial intervention
". 8isci.linar actions
Di'erentiate preventive s#spension of elective local government
o>cials #nder t)e Local Government Code and #nder t)e Omb#dsman
0ct 7R0 ABB=8%
Local Government Code
0(' 12345
.m!udsman 'ct
0(' 31145
Groun#s 7hen evi#ence of guilt is strong,
an# given the gravit! of the offense,
there is great robabilit! that the
continuance in office of the
reson#ent coul# influence the
"itnesses or ose a threat to the
safet! an# integrit! of the recor#s
an# other evi#ence. ('ec. ;:)
7hen evi#ence of guilt is strong,
an# (a) the charge against such
officer or emlo!ee involves
#ishonest!, oression or grave
miscon#uct or neglect in the
erformance of #ut!; (b) the
charges "oul# "arrant removal
from the service; or (c) the
reson#entPs continue# sta! in
office ma! re1u#ice the case file#
against him. ('ec. 2()
7ho ma!
imose
'resi#ent, governor, or ma!or, as
the case ma! be
&mbu#sman or his Deut!
Length of
susension
*a5imum of BJ #a!s for an! single
reventive susension
If several a#ministrative cases are
file#, susension shall not be more
than EJ #a!s "ithin a single !ear on
the same groun# or groun#s
e5isting an# /no"n at the time of
Until case is terminate# b! &ffice of
&mbu#sman, but not more than B
months
E3ce#tion3 7hen the #ela! in
the #isosition of the case b! the
&mbu#sman is #ue to the fault,
negligence or etition of the
Law on Local Government 20
Lambda Epsilon Xi DVOREF College of Law
the first susension. reson#ent, in "hich case the
erio# of such #ela! shall not be
counte# in comuting the erio# of
susension.
Di'erentiate between preventive s#spension and s#spension as a
penalt$
Notes on sus#ension as a #enalty!
)annot e5cee# the une5ire# term of the reson#ent or a erio# of B months for
ever! a#ministrative offense;
+uch enalt! shall not be a bar to the can#i#ac! of the reson#ent so susen#e# as
long as he meets the 0ualifications re0uire# for the office
-n! a#ministrative #iscilinar! rocee#ing against reson#ent is abate# if in the meantime he is
reelecte#, because his reelection results in a con#onation of "hatever miscon#uct he might
have committe# #uring his revious terms. (Malinao v. )eyes)
()at are t)e gro#nds for disciplinar$ actions,
()at is t)e proced#re for administrative complaints,
()at are t)e re5#isites for t)e validit$ of decisions in administrative
complaints rendered b$ t)e pertinent 2angg#nian,
(1) 6he #ecision must be in "riting;
(2) It must state clearl! an# #istinctl! the facts an# the reasons for such #ecision;
(3) It must be signe# b! the members ta/ing art in the #ecision.
(Malinao v. )eyes)
Can t)e "resident remove an erring local government o>cial,
%o. +ec. BJ of the LG) rovi#es that removal can be #one onl! b! or#er of the roer
court.
C. 3ecall
De6nition
:at#re
!$ w)om e-ercised
Gro#nd
1ow initiated
Election on Recall
E'ectivit$
Limitations
I. Cuman 3esources 8evelo.ment
Resignations
"reventive s#spension of appointive local o>cials
()at are t)e penalties w)ic) a local c)ief e-ec#tive ma$ impose,
Law on Local Government 21
Lambda Epsilon Xi DVOREF College of Law
B. -ractice o# -ro#ession
"ractice of profession
()o is a#t)ori&ed b$ law to be co#nsel of LG+9s,
(1) 'rovincial fiscal;
(2) 'rovincial attorne!;
(3) *unicial attorne!
In w)at instances can a private law$er represent t)e LG+,
(1) 7hen the municialit! is an a#verse art! in a case involving the rovincial
government or another municialit! or cit! "ithin the rovince (De Guia v. Auditor5
General,
*est as to when a local government official can secure
the services of #rivate counsel! %ature of the action an# the relief that is sought
(-linsug v. A6) >ranch :9)
D. ,he !ocal Boards
@itle III Ot)er "rovisions applicable to LG+9s
A. &ettlement o# Boundar dis.utes
B. !ocal Initiative and 3e#erendum
Di'erentiate between initiative and referend#m
"roced#re
()at is t)e ;#risdiction of t)e COCELEC as regards initiative,
Referend#m,
Book II( Local Govern&ent Ta"ation
1ow is income de6ned #nder t)e Local Government Code,
A. ,a;ation in "eneral
()at is t)e doctrine of s#premac$ of t)e national government over
local governments in t)e conte-t of ta-ation,
()at is t)e r#le concerning ta-ing powers of LG+9s visDEDvis t)e
national government,
GENE)AL )1LE! 6he ta5ing o"ers of LGU?s cannot e5ten# to the lev! of
ta5es, fees an# charges of an! /in# on the %ational government, its
agencies an# instrumentalities an# LGU?s. (LG) 133)
E3ce#tion! Aeal roert! ta5es (LG) 232)
E3ce#tion to e3ce#tion! (LG) 23$)
()at are t)e ta- remedies available to t)e ta-pa$er,
A##eal to D"E
secretary
+LG& 8?9,
A##eal to oard of
Assessment
A##eals
+LG& 22;,
Payment under
#rotest% with a##eal
to AA
+LG& 2@2,
Law on Local Government 22
Lambda Epsilon Xi DVOREF College of Law
GA&U%D Ruestion on
constitutionalit! or
legalit!
%on4satisfaction
"ith action of
assessor
'(AI&D
7ithin 3J #a!s from
effectivit!
7ithin BJ #a!s
from #ate of receit
of "ritten notice of
assessment
B. 3eal -ro.ert ,a;ation
"ho #ay le$y real property ta%&
(1) 'rovinces;
(2) )ities;
(3) *unicialities "ithin the *etro *anila area (LG) 232)
C. !ocal 7iscal Administration
8. -ro.ert and &u..l 2anagement in the !"45s
$. Internal 3evenue Allocation
Part III( Local Govern&ent )nits
1. ,he Baranga
-. Hatarunga! 'ambaranga!
>. +angguniang Habataan
0. ,he 2unici.alit
*. ,he Cit
1. ,he -rovince
'. A..ointive !ocal <##icials common to all
munici.alities, cities, and .rovinces
+. !eagues o# !"4s and elective o##icials
Miscellaneous and *inal Provisions
I. -rovisions #or im.lementation
II. ,ransitor .rovisions
III. A..lication o# the code to !"4s in the autonomous regions
-. -A**
>. )-A
IA. ,he 2etro.olitan 2anila 8evelo.ment Authorit
"hat is the 'urisdiction of the (()A&
"hat are the duties of the (()A&