Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 57

IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21

This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Improvement through research in Inclusive schools
1. THE IRIS PROJECT
2. NCLUSON AND NCLUSVE EDUCATON
3. CONCEPTONS OF NCLUSVE EDUCATON N SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRES
3.1. ntroduction
3.2. School for all, inclusive school and educational organisation
3.3. nclusive classroom: practices of teaching, values, support for teachers, self-
efficacy beliefs and difficulties
3.4. nclusive classroom, school and community: Barriers, benefits and resources
3.5. Strategies/Actions to nclusive classrooms
3.6. Community and nclusion
4. SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR PUPLS WTH SEN
4.1. ntroduction
4.2. Assessment of disabilities in some European countries
4.3. nclusive Assessment practices in some European countries
4.4. ndividual educational plans
4.5. Curricular adaptations
5. NEW CONCEPTS ON TEACHER TRANNG, CLASSROOM CLMATE, TEAM WORK
5.1. Classroom climate in nclusive settings
5.2. ntroduction, defining the concept of classroom climate
5.3. Factors of influence and consequences on climate of classroom
5.4. Climate and language
5.5. Classroom climate impact on different levels
5.6. Creating and maintaining an nclusive Climate on classroom
5.7. Some ideas about teacher training
5.8. Team work in nclusive Classrooms
5.9. New concepts on teacher training: nclusive assessment
6. TEACHNG NCLUSVELY The Aide Memoire, a new proposal to support and evaluate
teachers' practices
6.1. ntroduction
6.2. Teaching inclusively
6.3. The Aide Memoire and the Fit to learn bookmark
6.4. Evaluation of the tool
6.5. Practical use and Case studies
7. GLOSSARY
8. REFERENCES
9. AUTHORS
10. CREDTS
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
1. The IRIS PROJECT
RS (mprovement through Research in the nclusive School) is a European Comenius
project with a focus on nclusion and School improvements) embracing all children in a
school for all. The RS-project started at the end of 2006 and ends October 1
st
, 2009. Austria
and Belgium are coordinating the project activities. The RS project team has consisted of
seven partners working in thematic groups, and the group membership has changed as the
systems evolved. The whole project team has met every sixth month to share information
about development as a collaborative whole.
The overall aim of the project is to develop, implement and disseminate materials for initial
and in-service training for teachers and other educational staff. The materials were
continuously piloted in each partner country and both the process of the project and the
materials were evaluated step by step. The purpose is to develop a multidimensional
approach to improve the teaching and learning of all pupils. However, in order to improve
teaching and learning new attitudes among teachers and other school staff need to be
developed (e.g. headmasters and other professionals such as psychologists, therapists,
nurses, assistants) based on research and with a focus on an understanding of all pupils'
strengths and weaknesses in everyday life situations. The tool will also assist the teachers in
improving their capacities for research, evaluation and assessment, i.e. teachers need tools
for their teaching tasks. The diversity of the pupils must in this context be regarded as a
resource, not a problem. This will support effective planning and intervention, including the
use of an ndividual Education Plan (EP), for all pupils in the inclusive classroom.
n the course of three years the RS project has collated and identified the CONCEPTONS
OF NCLUSVE EDUCATON AND PRACTCES in some European countries, and based on
this research has developed a training package, which can be used by teachers throughout
Europe and act as a catalyst for changing practice across the European community.
The teachers' training package contains modules on CLASSROOM CLMATE, TEAM WORK
N NCLUSVE CLASSROOMS, SUPPORT SYSTEMS N NCLUSVE SETTNGS,
NCLUSVE ASSESSMENT, NDVDUAL EDUCATONAL PLANS AND CURRCULAR
ADAPTATONS N NCLUSVE CLASSROOMS, STRATEGES AND PRACTCE N
NCLUSVE CLASSROOMS and the ADE MEMOR together with the "FT TO LEARN
BOOKMARK as a new tool to support and evaluate inclusive classroom practice.
The cultural variety of the partner countries influenced the design of the instruments and the
final documents are adapted to fit the different systems. For further information see the RS
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
homepage: www.irisproject.eu.
.
The target groups for the project will mainly be teachers and other professionals, who work
with children within the school community and also parents, who as equal partners, play a
vital role in the education of their children. The training modules will vary in their degree of
interest for each group.
This means that the professionals are the end-users of the designed tools and these tools
will successively improve the situation for the pupils in the inclusive classroom. The
instrument will thus affect both the end-users and the users.
The RS project is based on two key concepts: research and inclusion. Research is the
basis for decision-making in practical work, which means that theory and practical
experiences go hand-in-hand.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
2. INC!SION "N# INC!SI$E C"SSROO% PR"CTICE
Inclusion is a process& it respects an' values 'i((erence. Ever)one has a part to pla)
in societ).
Each grain of sand can become a diamond given the right environment. nclusive education
offers a multidimensional approach to the development of competencies and abilities,
reducing barriers to learning and participation for all pupils.
This process makes it possible for each person to achieve their full potential and live a
fulfilled life.
At the core of inclusive education is the human right to education. This right is pronounced in
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.
Equally important is the right of children not to be discriminated (Article 2, Convention on the
Rights of the Child, UN 1989).
Therefore all children have the right to receive the kind of education that does not
discriminate on grounds of disability, ethnicity, religion, language, gender, capabilities and so
on.
nclusive education involves all young people, with and without specific needs, learning
together in ordinary pre-school provision, schools, colleges and universities, with appropriate
networks of support.
nclusion has to be seen as a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs
of all learners. This is achieved through increasing participation in learning, cultures and
communities and reducing exclusion within and from education (Booth, 1996; Brodin &
Lindstrand, 2007; Ljusberg, 2009).
nclusion involves changes and modifications in content, approaches, structures and
strategies. The common vision has to cover all children of an age range and it is the
responsibility of the regular school system to educate all children (UNESCO, 1994)
nclusion means enabling all pupils to participate in the life and work of mainstream
institutions to the best of their abilities, whatever their needs.
The philosophy of education that encompasses the needs of all pupils can be said to rest on
3 base lines:
A holistic view of each pupil
The principle of non-segregating measures www.shapesofmind.ca
Specific needs as seen in relation to the demands from the environment
nclusive education is of uppermost importance because everyone - whatever his/her specific
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
learning needs - has a part to play in society. Education is part of the rest of pupil's lives.
Those in need of specific support can, and are, being educated in ordinary schools with
appropriate support. There are many different ways of achieving this.
Resolutions and legislation such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948),the
Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989),the United Nations Standard Rules on the
Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (1993),the Salamanca declaration
(1994), the Dakaar agreement (2000),the Convention on the Rights of Persons with
Disabilities (2008) demand development towards inclusive schools. Yet fifteen years after the
Salamanca declaration inclusive education is still a faraway concept for many schools,
teachers and pupils.
Effective inclusion demands a change of focus from the child to the school and its
community.
nclusive practice requires the teacher to become much broader in outlook and approach and
involves more collaboration and teamwork throughout the school.
*. CONCEPTIONS O+ INC!SI$E E#!C"TION IN SO%E E!ROPE"N CO!NTRIES
*.1 Intro'uction
Pupils attending school have different skills and they also come from different cultural and
social environments, family and language. Thus, the school must recognise these differences
and meet the diverse needs of their pupils. This requires internal changes of the school and
of society itself so that school becomes to some extent a reflection of society. (Grcio et al,
2009).
n several countries legislation has been drawn up in the sense that schools should
include all, regardless of its competences and limitations, taking the role of promoter of equal
opportunities.
Although the current schools serve a more diverse pupils' population, inclusive education
is still in the process of development. Firstly, because this concept is relatively new and still
requires definition and assessment. Secondly, because inclusion is one of the most complex
changes for schools to manage.
n the school context, inclusion is a challenge that needs a change of attitudes and
practices, especially when we want active participation of all pupils whilst ensuring an
effective integration of all children and young people in school.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Teachers and educational staff in general are guided by their values, beliefs and attitudes
to change itself, so they should not only be convinced that the change in question is
worthwhile, but also understand the reasons that justify and support it (Burstein, Sears,
Wilcoxen, Cabello & Spagna, 2004). Several researchers believe that more important than
implementing a general educational policy of nclusion, it is crucial that educators focus on
finding answers and services promoters of inclusion (Fennick & Liddy, 2001; Kavala &
Forness, 2000; King-Sears & Cummings, 1996). However, as in any educational reform,
inclusion implies a reform in the organisational structure of schools and on the roles and
responsibilities of teachers.
What teachers do depends on the conceptions that they have about inclusion. n this
regard, we start from the assumption that the practices of school teachers express their
conceptions of inclusion.
ndeed, research about teachers' thinking has allowed the understanding of the
relationship between the teacher's pedagogical activity and its representations,
interpretations and values (for the school, the pupils, the content of the programme, to their
teaching function and educational events). As Clark and Peterson state: teachers actions are
in a large part caused by teachers thought processes, which then in turn affect teachers
actions (1986, p. 259).
f we want to activate changes in inclusive education we must start from knowledge of
reality that allows us to know the thinking, practices, experiences and context in which it
occurs, and the real needs of those that are key elements of their promotion. Accordingly,
within the RS project we started by conducting an exploratory research aimed to access the
meanings and practices of inclusion in some European countries (Grcio et al, 2008;
Candeias et al, 2007, 2008). The empirical study was conducted in a phenomenographic
perspective using the descriptions of qualitatively different forms of understanding or
experiencing certain phenomena (Marton, 1986; Linder, & Marshall, 2003). The phenomenon
in focus relates to the inclusive school and the conceptions of the participants about it. The
participants of different European countries were considered as holders of good inclusive
practices.
We considered a minimum of two/three participants from each country/ partner of
RS project. All participants interviewed belonged to the world of school or educational
community in a given country (e.g., teachers, technicians, subjects related to the
administration and the educational community or belonging to associations or local
authorities). The first interviewed was always a teacher flagged as an example of good
practice in inclusion. Each of the interviewees should indicate a range of other people in
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
possession of good practice listing them in descending order of evaluation. Thus, the
subjects interviewed were successively indicated by the previous participant interviewed as
promoters of good practices for inclusion.
Globally we interviewed 19 participants. As there were two partners in Portugal (vora
and Porto), 31.5% of interviews are from the Portuguese participants and 68.5% belong to
the other countries (Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, UK).
n order to explore what inclusion means and how it can be developed, an interview
guide was built, which was structured with five major themes: conception of inclusive school
and educational policy; classroom inclusive conception; barriers, resources and benefits of
an inclusive school, classroom and community; strategies / actions to promote a school and
a classroom inclusive and role and contributions of the community for the implementation of
inclusive school.
1. The interviews were conducted individually and audio taped. They were fully
transcribed, translated into English and analysed. The content analysis led to the
development of a thematic analysis and categorical grid. This content analysis was
guided by considering all variations in the speech of the subjects. A quantitative
analysis was also carried out based on the occurrences registration.
This study and its results had clear implications for practices which have been the
starting point for the development of various products including the support systems for
pupils with disabilities, teacher training, assessment tools and aide memoir.
*.2 School (or all, inclusive school an' e'ucational organi,ation
Three conceptions of a school for all became strongly evident. This emerged primarily
as a school that accepts and integrates all, a school marked by equal opportunities for
learning and a school that satisfies different needs. The school for all is perceived as being
guided by values, individual action and acceptance of all pupils, as a promoter of
development, construction of goals and success, area of equal opportunities and answer to
varying needs. t is also marked by certain relational features and resources. (Grcio et al.
2009a).
n short, the school for all goes beyond the inclusion of pupils with specific
educational needs. t emerges both as a means to ensure equal opportunities, which is not
only for access to education, but also to promote the effective development and success of
everyone regardless of their characteristics and conditions of departure, while taking them
into account.
Among the concepts of an inclusive school the most focused ideas are that it accepts
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
and integrates all children regardless of their difficulties, it has adequate resources and it is
equal to a school for all. There are still more or less residual discourses which express the
ideas that the inclusive school is marked by certain practices of teaching and relational
aspects. t is a potential promoter of individuals and of an inclusive society, based on certain
values responding to different needs and geographically close to the population that it
serves.
The school for all and the inclusive school are not perceived in the same way,
although some participants consider them as synonymous. By comparison, the inclusive
school is sometimes conceptualised in a more restricted way, in that the focus is, above all,
the integration of children with disabilities.
As stated by Ainscow, Booth and Dyson "people may be happy to agree on values, say
those concerned with equity and participation, until they start to look in detail at their
implications for practice (2006, p.3). We will then progressively approach closer to the real
contexts in which the inclusion takes place and to the participants' visions about them.
Regarding the organisation of school education the following aspects were explored:
current educational policy; the advantages/disadvantages of a flexible and adapted
curriculum; school's educational project as well as the existent measures promoting the
inclusive school.
The most evident concepts are related to the idea that the educational policy does not
promote an inclusive school and that the reasons for this are due not only to school, but also
to government and legislative obstacles. Approximately 81% of the responses by the
participants about the relationship between educational policy and promoting inclusive school
are related to aspects that point to weaknesses and obstacles to the reality of a truly
inclusive school. On the other hand, the responses that expressed the idea that education
policy promoted inclusive schooling have few references relating to the existence of
legislation and curricular adaptations. This shows the perception of a social, political,
economic and educationally less developed context for inclusion in Austria, Belgium,
Catalonia/Spain, Portugal, Sweden and in the UK.
Participants clearly recognise, as beneficial to the pupils, that there are flexible and
adapted curricula. However, they also strongly list the increasing difficulties that those
curricula have to teachers referring to the rising of insecurity and stress. The conceptions that
the flexible and adapted curricula have advantages for pupils and present disadvantages for
teachers are most stated. This latter aspect directed us both for the construction of materials
to support teachers and to the conceptualisation of an initial and continuing training
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
programme that provides the conceptual and practical tools, which reduces the uncertainty
and helps to develop inclusive practice.
t appears that the educational project for schools is still seen as an incipient
instrument in promoting an inclusive school. Besides, it highlights the need to implement
concrete measures in schools that allow the existence of an inclusive school (e.g., space,
materials, human and material resources, cooperation of teachers and other practitioners) as
well as more general measures (such as those relating to teacher training or the overall
planning of the inclusion, in broad and social terms).
Existing measures in schools to promote a more inclusive school are related to
teachers` teamwork, technicians to support the teacher, practices of teaching/learning and
existence of specific equipment. The lack of practices and measures in school pointed out
are related to curriculum, identification and evaluation and with the cooperation of the school
community (Grcio et al. 2009a).
*.* Inclusive classroom& practices o( teaching, values, support (or teachers, sel(-
e((icac) .elie(s an' 'i((iculties
The practice of teaching seen by teachers as promoting inclusion are reported to two
contexts: one relating to the classroom in general and the other to teaching/learning
practices.
n the context of the classroom as a promoter of inclusion the most referred aspects
are the integration of pupils with learning difficulties in the regular curriculum, the respect for
difference and the promotion of integration.
Concerning the practice of teaching/learning offered in an inclusive classroom there
are references to a social learning and adaptation of lessons to the groups of pupils. All the
participants highlighted a strong respect for difference and tolerance as values that promote
inclusion.
Technicians for educational support to pupils with specific needs are the most
available as support for teachers working together inside the classroom.
These teachers consider themselves as effective in promoting an inclusive work
environment and as models of inclusion.
The participating teachers believe that the greatest difficulties were connected with
the absence or scarcity of skilled human resources, with the large number of pupils per class
and the need for a change of mentality. The other educational staff, besides teachers, list the
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
institutional barriers, lack of appropriate educational policies and specialist resources and
difficulties of managing the classroom.
*./ Inclusive classroom, school an' communit)& 0arriers, .ene(its an' resources
Material resources are seen as the biggest barrier or obstacle to the promotion of an
inclusive classroom followed by difficulties related to values, social attitudes and practices of
teaching. However, a meta analysis of the various categories identified can find four main
groups of meanings listed in descending order as follows: education (e.g., practices of
teaching, teacher's behaviour, organisational aspects of classroom, no personalised space),
lack of resources, values and social attitudes, pupils' background and relational aspects.
These findings summarise the central role of the teacher and its action in making a
classroom truly inclusive (Grcio et al., 2009b).
The main barriers for an inclusive school are mostly related to resources, the school
itself, the attitudes and beliefs and educational practices. Regarding an inclusive community,
the major obstacles are the social values and attitudes, acceptance, undeveloped
partnerships with the community and too little cooperation family/ school.
Although the participants were only asked about what are the main resources for the
promotion of a inclusive classroom, school or community were, their replies are organised
around two axes of meaning: one on the resources that exist in each context, and the other
on the resources they consider necessary to the existence or the promotion of inclusion in
these contexts.
n the inclusive classroom context the existence of various resources are mentioned:
materials, space, accessibility, different professionals, laws, attitudes, collaboration between
teachers, teaching practices and the existence of good practices. However, the existence of
specialised or support teachers that may assist the class teacher is the most mentioned
existing resource. The second most mentioned resource is internal, referring to attitudes
linked to willingness to include. The collaboration between teachers is the third resource
pointed out as a promoter of inclusion in the context of the classroom.
The resources considered necessary for the existence of inclusive classrooms are:
reducing the teacher/pupil ratio, teacher training, diverse resources and adequate classroom
environment. From all these, the resources in general and the teacher training are the most
mentioned.
The existing resources in the inclusive school are also related to spaces, teaching
practices, motivation and teachers' willingness for inclusion, teamwork, specialised and
support teachers and legislation. The most listed resources for the promotion of an inclusive
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
school related to the existence of: (a) resources in general and specialised teachers, (b)
teaching practice, motivation and willingness of teachers, (c) team work of teachers. Again
the subjects interviewed, in a completely spontaneous way, indicate the needs for a truly
inclusive school: (a) resources, (b) change of mentality and desire for inclusion, (c) teacher
training; (d) parents training and teachers dynamism.
n an inclusive community the resources indicated are: community participation and
social workers, law and the existence of various resources. Necessary resources are values,
behaviours and attitudes, resources in general, increase of information on inclusion and the
need for institutional support / education policies , effective planning as well as will and
motivation.
Briefly, for the European participants there are already some resources that contribute
to an inclusive classroom, school and community. However, from the data analysis is clear
that the needs are plenty and the resources scarce and incomplete.
The benefits of an inclusive classroom are listed in descending order of popularity, the
development of pupils' values, individualised learning, participation, pupils' own experience of
inclusion, reduction of differences and working interdisciplinary.
n what concerns the benefits of an inclusive school, the most prominent are the
development of values, attitudes and behaviour. The reference that school can become itself
for society and the educational success that it promotes is one of the benefits. Other
benefits, such as, the prevention of risks, the development of cooperation and solidarity
among teachers and the increase of their motivation are also seen.
The benefits of an inclusive community are understood, especially, as gains in the
development of values, attitudes and behaviour. n this context an inclusive community is
regarded as contributing to the creation of a new model of society. The reduction of violence
and marginalisation, and a more equitable school are also referred to as advantages of an
inclusive community.
n summary, the participants highlighted as the most important benefit of the inclusive
classroom, school and community the development of values, attitudes and behaviour by
giving them a crucial role.
*.1 Strategies2"ctions (or an Inclusive Classroom
The strategies/actions for an inclusive classroom were explored according to four
main aspects: tools, social strategies for inclusion, role/contribution of the team work and
role/contribution of teacher training.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Evaluation of pupils with disabilities should involve a multidisciplinary team
teachers, specialists and community agents - that uses methods/instruments that should be
holistic with a technical language adapted for everybody, but objective and rigorous to
improve diagnosis, evaluation and intervention. Likewise intervention should be based on
tools that should be simple and functional with a common language, easy accessibility and
ability to be rigorous in the evaluation, diagnosis and intervention, by a multidisciplinary
team, in order to plan and organise individualised plans and programs of intervention.
The most frequent social strategies of inclusion indicated were: (a) Promote
objectives from inclusion (equality, respect for potential and educating for difference); (b)
mprove values to encourage inclusion (acceptance, and the respect for the developmental
stage of the pupil through the project of learning for each pupil independently of the
differences);(c) Knowledge of the ability concept and potential about pupils with disabilities;
(d) Cooperation between school-family-community; (d) Educative practice
(Teaching/Learning) as cooperative learning, integration and reflexive practice; (e) Socio-
economics conditions to support families and to improve material conditions.
Team work should have specific characteristics to improve inclusive practices as with
regular interdisciplinary work, in order to improve communication, functioning and
cooperation and tolerance. The functions of team work should involve curricular adaptations
that support the teachers' practices and the cooperation with the families and community.
Training of families about the characteristics of the pupils is seen as important to
understand the differences between pupils, namely to give them information about their
difficulties and their potential, thereby encouraging inclusion within the school and the
community.
The teacher training is considered important at several stages: initial training, specific
training and continued professional development. The domains of that formation are
knowledge, personal and interpersonal abilities and practical competences (Pomar, et al,
2009).
*.3 Communit) an' inclusion
Regarding the community the analysed information was organised into two themes:
role/contribution of the community to inclusion and facilitating attitudes among the community
(Chaleta et al, 2009).
t is considered that the community can contribute to the promotion of an inclusive
school essentially by providing resources, adopting favourable educational and social
supporting measures, by changing values and providing appropriate training for educational
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
staff.
Positive attitudes and values towards inclusion and changing mainstream attitudes
were regarded as important to facilitating a change in community attitudes; to a lesser
degree, socio-professional integration. For these participants the community can contribute
and take an important role for a more inclusive education providing the necessary resources
to support inclusion and adopting specific measures at socio-political and educational levels.
n order to make this happen, it is necessary for the existence of favourable attitudes,
changing those that are obstacles and developing positive values regarding inclusion.
Generally we can conclude that participants recognise that the community has an
important role in building the inclusive school by providing resources, attitudes and values.
However, the need to establish partnerships and develop more widespread dialogues with
the various community agencies was not highlighted. This latter aspect is shown in several
studies as crucial to the deepening of the process of inclusion (nformation Exchange, 1995,
Turner, 1996).

IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
/. S!PPORT S4STE%S +OR P!PIS 5IT6 SPECI+IC NEE#S
/.1 Intro'uction
According to the United Nation's (UN) Convention on Human Rights (1948) the right to
education is stressed for children, adolescents and adults. Education in today's society
implies the need to keep up with the rapid technological development and demanding new
challenges. From official documents like the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC,
1989), the United Nation's Standard Rules on Equalisation of Opportunities for Persons with
Disabilities (1993), the Salamanca declaration (1994), the Convention on the Rights of
Persons with Disabilities (2008) and various national documents in different countries,
education is highlighted as a human right for all. The most essential documents in relation to
the RS project is the CRC (1989), the Salamanca declaration (1994) and the Convention on
the Rights for persons with Disabilities (2008).
The official standpoint in these documents is to avoid excluding solutions and promote an
inclusive school for all children in a society for all. Also national documents in the different
countries such as curricula and school acts influence the official attitudes to inclusion in a
society. However, it is evident that the view on inclusion still differs in various countries and
communities.
The concepts integration and normalisation were discussed already in the fifties and sixties
and the main reason was the normalisation principle brought up by Nirje (2003). The main
idea was that persons with disabilities should be able to live in the same living conditions as
other children, adolescents and adults. A consequence of this principle was that institutions
and special hospitals in many countries were abolished and that children and adolescents
who had lived at institutions moved back home to their parents and attended regular schools.
Research on inclusion is still a hot area and there is in many countries a backlash with regard
to inclusion of children with disabilities in regular schools and the light is at present often on
the teacher. What is a good teacher? Are there any criteria to describe what makes a good
teacher? Will the need for special teachers in the regular school increase in the regular
school because teachers in the regular school today have poor knowledge about disabilities?
Nilholm (2003) suggests that special educators in their professionalism may label pupils as
deviants in order to justify their own existence. This idea is also supported by other
researchers (e.g. Skrtic, 1991; Wilson, 2002). One critical point is thus in-service training of
teachers (Douglas, 2001; Hegarty, 2004), another to increase the use of nformation and
Communication Technologies (CT) in school. There are still many variations concerning
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
inclusion in Europe and these issues need to be discussed and highlighted both in research
and in practical work.
Support in school:
n all countries a special professional team consisting of specialists such as psychologists,
pedagogues, social workers, special education teachers and regular teachers are involved in
the decision-making of extra support. n some cases parents and pupils are involved.
Special education is in all partner countries mainly individualised, face-to-face education
(pupil and teacher) and is commonly used. Sometimes special education is also offered to
pupils without disabilities (with exception of Austria and Belgium) for longer or shorter periods
of time. Research in Sweden has shown that about 50 per cent of all pupils sometimes get
special educational support during the first nine school years (Ljusberg, 2005). The reason
for this extra support might be reading and writing difficulties, unhealthy conditions, illness,
speech therapy etc.
All technical aids (assistive devices) that a pupil needs to facilitate learning in school are free
of charge in most countries, but the Belgium representative points out something that is
essential viz. technical aids are free of charge in theory. This means that even if the devices
should be obtained free of charge if there is a need, they are not always free. Most schools
help the pupil to get an adapted immediate environment with adapted chairs, tables, benches
and special lights, hearing aids, computers and software.
The use of nformation and Communication Technology (CT) is necessary in school and for
children with disabilities, it is important to have access to CT. That CT is promoted by the
authorities does thus not mean that they support it with additional funding. All these types of
support given as statements by authorities are extremely frustrating for those working in
practice as teachers. Without extra money no real support is given.
/.2 "ssessment o( 'isa.ilities in some European Countries
n this work we assumed the definition of assessment proposed by the European Agency for
Development in Special Needs Education (Watkins, 2007, 14): Assessment refers to the
ways teachers and other people involved in a pupil's education systematically collect and
then use information about that pupil's level of achievement and/or development in different
areas of their educational experience (academic, behaviour and social).
Such definition covers all possible forms of initial and on-going assessment methods and
procedures. t also highlights the fact that there are different people involved in assessment.
Teachers, other school staff, external support staff, but parents and also pupils themselves
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
can potentially be involved in assessment procedures. All people can use assessment
information in different ways, and that assessment information is not only concerned with the
pupil, but also the learning environment (and sometimes the home environment).
These presuppose a new theoretical approach to assessment and considerable changes in
teacher education and training. Given that, it is a challenge to us think, rethink and renew the
practice of identifying and assessing pupils with disabilities based on the new assumptions
about inclusive assessment.
n pursuing this goal we present a description of the evaluation procedures applied in several
European countries.
Since the Declaration of Salamanca a significant group of countries in Europe (Lloyd, 2006;
Shevlin & Rose, 2007; Watkins, 2007) and America (Elliot, Braden & White, 2001; Luke et al.,
2004; Paula & Enumo, 2007) seem to have similar education policies that can be considered
as having a potential impact upon assessment in inclusive education. For instance there are
national level educational goals with standards that pupils are expected to reach and
assessment evidence regarding pupil performance is used as a measure of school
performance. But, and this is, in our opinion the most important factor, there are no separate
assessment systems for pupils with specific educational needs apart from measures related
to initial assessment and individual needs identification (Watkins, 2007). This means that
pupils with disabilities are entitled to access national assessments in a way that is
appropriate for them i.e. assessments that must be appropriately modified.
Synchronisation between assessment policy and assessment practices implies a continuum
that must include: instruction in classes and schools, and home instructions. Setting
decisions must be made by an EP team that includes parents, teachers, psychologists, and
other persons knowledgeable about the pupil (Candeias et al., 2008; Salvia & Ysseldyke &
Bolt, 2007). So, as these authors propose, inclusive assessment information should be used
to make decisions about the extent to which educational programs in school systems are
working for all students, including students with disabilities (2007, p. 17).
To improve inclusive assessment as practice in schools it will be necessary to change
assessment practices as well as the role of parents and teachers within assessment, as we
explain in the next points.
Assessment of pupils in inclusive settings is often concerned with diagnosis, as well as
associated with informing learning programmes. As, the European Agency for Development
in Special Needs Education EADSE - (Watkins, 2007), proposes, national authorities
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
should improves high stake assessments that are used for pupil, class or school evaluation,
as Madaus proposes in 1988: High stake assessments consists of tests and procedures that
provides information perceived by pupils, parents, teachers, policy makers, or the general
public as being used to make important decisions that immediately and directly impact upon
pupils' educational experiences and futures (apud Watkins, 2007, 26). EADSE proposes that
initial assessment of pupils who are thought to have disabilities can have two possible
purposes:
1. dentification linked to an official decision to 'recognise' a pupil as having educational
needs that require additional resources to support their learning;
2. nforming learning programmes, where assessment is focused upon highlighting strengths
and weaknesses the pupil may have in different areas of their educational experience. Such
information is often used in a formative way perhaps as the starting point for ndividual
Education Plans (EPs) or other target-setting approaches rather than as a one off,
baseline assessment.
Nowadays assessment evidence is very much placed within the public domain for purposes
of comparisons and this, linked to the national level pressures for greater accountability in
education, leads to an increasing emphasis on pupil performance as a factor in directing
educational policy making. Educators are calling for new assessment practices to be used to
support pupil learning, guide educational improvement and enhance equity for all pupils, a
social inclusion as Lloyd proposes (2006).
/.* Inclusive assessment practices in some European countries
Based in the work group of the RS project we collected narrative descriptions about school
and classroom implementation of assessment in different regions from different countries of
Europe (Portugal: Alentejo; Spain: Cataloia; Belgium: Bussels; Austria: Graz; United
Kingdom: Tiverton) (see Candeias et al., 2009). The implementation of school and classroom
assessment in this group of countries could be described under three main topics, namely:
. Concept and Process of nclusive Assessment
All the countries point out the access to assessment services (provided by teachers from
special education, psychologists and other staff). The procedures to improve the assessment
process have specific characteristics', in accordance with the legislation and the
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
administrative rules of the countries but also the intention to make inclusive assessment
based on a team work approach is apparent in the narratives, as well as the conception of
the process of inclusive assessment.
. Approach to assessment
n all the narratives we could identify that when a pupil presents specific needs teachers,
family or other professionals could alert the assessment team, from the preschool level. We
could conclude that in the countries involved in this work that there is a global network
between schools, within the community and families to identify and raise their concerns
about children's' specific needs. Once again, the type of procedures could have specific
characteristics', in accordance with legislation, the administrative rules and the cultural
values of the countries, but the main idea of global network to alert and identify suggest an
inclusive approach to assessment in such countries.
. Process, stages and strategies
We identify a variety of stages, methods and strategies which are used for identifying the
child as eligible for specific services, planning instruction, and measuring progress. That
presupposes that the initial assessment refers to procedures designed to locate those young
children and technical resources to a given assessment. Diagnosis and characterisation of
functionality is based on information obtained through observation, interviews, case history,
and informal and standardised tools. The examiner strives to determine the nature of the
child's difficulties, the severity of the problem, and becomes the basis for determining
eligibility for special education services. The diagnosis assists in planning intervention too.
The diagnosis is conducted by members of a multidisciplinary team in all the countries
involved in the study. f the previous stage of assessment indicates there is a need for
intervention, the next stage involves assessment for the planning of programs and
interventions (EP). EP interventions consider the areas of difficulties and potential in
accordance with the educational and developmental objectives for the pupils' level of
education and learning. n all the countries involved program monitoring (multiple checks
include multi methods and different kind of tools), and program evaluation with specific
criteria (in accordance with national policies of evaluation). The information collected in
Portugal, Spain, Austria, Belgium and United Kingdom is in accordance with the recent
proposals from the European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education EADSE
- (Watkins, 2007). nclusive Assessment, with all the national diversity in terms of resources,
administration rules, legislation and cultural values is an intention and a practice. As EADSE
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
proposes assessment of pupils, who are thought to have disabilities, can have two possible
purposes:
1. dentification linked to an official decision to 'recognise' a pupil as having educational
needs that require additional resources to support their learning;
2. nforming learning programmes, where assessment is focused upon highlighting strengths
and weaknesses the pupil may have, in different areas of their educational experience. Such
information is often used in a formative way perhaps as the starting point for ndividual
Education Plans (EP's) or other target-setting approaches rather than as a one off,
baseline assessment.
Nowadays educators are calling for new assessment practices to be used to support pupil
learning, guide educational improvement and enhance equity for all pupils, a social inclusion
as Lloyd proposes in 2006, and could argue that educators work on the improvement of such
new practices in 2009. However, because inclusive assessment implies collaborative work,
multidimensional assessment and an ecological approach to education based on family-
school-community, we need to continue to work in key areas for further development in the
use of inclusive assessment:
improved teacher training in conducting assessments;
linking alternative assessment to curricula and teaching programmes
linking assessment to ndividual Education Plans,
improved teacher competences in team work.
This 7or8 a.out inclusive assessment in European countries 9"ustria, 0elgium,
Portugal, Spain, S7e'en, !nite' :ing'om; coul' .e complete' 7ith the ta.les o(
'escription o( Technical "nal)sis o( Tools use' in such countries. 5e present these
ta.les 7ith Technical "nal)sis o( Tools use' .) Teachers 9$ali'ate'2not vali'ate'; an'
Technical "nal)sis o( Tools use' .) Others Pro(essionals 9$ali'ate'2not vali'ate';, in
the C#-Rom an' in the IRIS Pro<ect 5e.site.
/./ In'ivi'ual e'ucational plans
An EP is a written plan developed for a pupil who has been identified as having a problem
(physical, sensory, intellectual, emotional, social, or any combination of these problems)
which affects the learning and which leads to the need for a special or modified curriculum or
specially adapted learning. This working document is the main tool for collaborative planning
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
between the school team, the parents and the pupil.
n order to know, if a pupil needs an EP, a multidisciplinary team of professionals evaluates
him based on their observations, the pupil's performances on standardised tests and daily
work.
Afterwards, when the pupil has been identified as having special needs, another team should
be formed. The members of this team should be chosen on their ability to provide information
or support the pupil's programme.
The participants usually include: a regular teacher, a specialised teacher, other professionals
(a psychologist, different therapists), parents and sometimes, the pupil.
Parents should be encouraged to be actively involved in decisions regarding educational
services for their children. They provide a unique perspective about the pupil's personality,
development and learning. Open communication and cooperation between home and school
increases the opportunities for pupils with special needs to experience success.
When the EP team is formed, a member of the team should be assigned as the coordinator,
in order to lead its development and implementation.
This important document should contain:
= essential information about the pupil, including relevant medical, social and educational
background information;
= degree of participation in the regular programme;
= the areas in which the pupil needs programme adaptations and/or modification goals:
= required classroom accommodations;
= adjustments in the evaluation processes;
= individual plan considering transition into active life;
= EP evaluation (criteria, tools, timetable and review).
Usually the services and goals outlined in an EP can be provided in a standard school
environment. They can be done in the regular classroom or in a special resource room in the
regular school. The resource room can serve a group of pupils with similar needs who are
brought together for help.
n four of the six partner countries all pupils have the right to get an individual education plan
(EP). The exception is Austria and Belgium, where only pupils with disabilities or educational
difficulties can claim the right to get an EP. This means that all pupils (with and without
disabilities or difficulties) have the same right in four of the countries.
/.1 Curriculum a'aptations
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Roldo (1999) considers the curriculum as a process of construction, management and
reflexive training focused on school. The right of everyone, without exception, to a quality
education makes it necessary to reinvent the school so that it can offer and build a
differentiated and meaningful curriculum that allows the realisation of such an "nclusive
School, School for All.
According to Bertram, Fotheringham and Harley (2000), a curriculum could be understood in
the following two ways:
= first, . as a plan (which may be written as a document). This plan reflects the knowledge,
skills and attitudes that any society chooses to pass on their children.
= second, . as the learning and teaching experiences that happen in any site of education.
Therefore, a curriculum is a carefully planned and well written document which explicitly
reflects the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes of societies that are intended to be passed
to or mediated to the future generation, comprising both the old and the young.
As we believe that everybody has the right to attend school and develop different skills, we
have to pay the same attention to everybody. So, we need to adapt curricula according to the
special needs of all the pupils.
Curriculum adaptations are modifications related specifically to instruction or content of a
curriculum. They are not intended to lower the education standards. The curriculum is thus
adapted to make education accessible to everyone.
The scale and extent of curriculum adaptations and modifications will only be determined
after a thorough assessment of an individual pupil.
An individualised learning programme and work schedule with its related lesson plans should
be devised on the basis of the needs of visually impaired pupils. Adaptation at lesson plan
level will be required for all pupils in a class who need specific additional support because of
their disabilities. Those involved in this process must include the teachers, parents, school
team and relevant professionals.
There are different types of curriculum adaptations:
= Quantity: adapt the number of items or the number of activities;
= Time: individualise a timeline for completing a task;
= Level of support: increase the amount of personal assistance;
= nput: adapt the way instruction is delivered to the pupil;
= Difficulty: adapt the skill level, problem type or rules;
= Output: adapt the way the pupil can respond to instruction;
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
= Participation: adapt the extent to which a pupil is actively involved in the task;
= Alternative goals: adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the same materials;
= Functional curriculum: provide different instruction and materials to reach a pupil's individual
goals; this is only for pupils with moderate to severe disabilities.
Certainly curriculum adaptations are not intended the education standards. Curriculum is
adapted to make education more accessible and to ensure that pupils with special needs do
not face prejudices or are treated unfairly. Learning problems, working schedules and lesson
plans can be modified and adapted to respond to the individual needs of pupils.
The scale and scope of curriculum adaptations and modifications will only be determined
after an assessment of one individual pupil. An individualised learning programme and work
schedule with its related lesson plans should be devised on the basis of the needs of the
visually impaired pupil. Adaptation at lesson level plan will be required for all pupils in a class
who need specific additional support because of their disabilities. Those involved in this
process must include teachers, parents, school-based and district-based support teams
(when they exist). Other relevant professionals from the community can be consulted too.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
1. NE5 CONCEPTS ON TE"C6ER TR"ININ> - C"SSROO% CI%"TE, TE"% 5OR:,
INC!SI$E "SSESS%ENT
5.1 Introduction, defining the concept of classroom climate
Classroom clma!" co#c"r#s !$" a%%"c!&"-r"la!o#al ar"a' ! o(s"r&"s) %or "*am+l") %""l#, o%
m"a##,) r"s+"c!) +ar!c+a!o#) -"ll ("#,) s"l%-co#%."#c") +"rc"+!o#s %orm". # !$"
#!"rac!o# ("!-""# +/+ls a#. sc$ool0 T$" co#c"+! o% classroom clma!" -!$ m+ac! o#
l"ar##, +roc"ss"s # socal #!"rac!o#s $as (""# ."%#". as'
!$" ,ro/+ o% +s1c$olo,cal a#. socal c$arac!"rs!cs o% a classroom) ."!"rm#". (1 s!r/c!/ral)
+"rso#al a#. %/#c!o#al %ac!ors 234 T$" classroom clma!" $as !o .o -!$ c$arac!"rs!cs a#.
("$a&o/r o% !$" !"ac$"rs) o% !$" +/+ls) !$" #!"rac!o# amo#, !$"s" a#.) # co#s"5/"#c") !$"
class .1#amc s /#5/" a#. +ar!c/lar !o !$"s" "l"m"#!s 2Ro.r,/"6)0 20078140
The climate of the classroom is also described as a system comprising of four sets of
variables: the physical involvement, the organisational objectives, characteristics of teachers
and pupils (Schmidt & Cagran, 2006). t is seen as a strong mediator of values, beliefs and
standards (ibid, 2006) also called the discourse. With discourse is meant a normative
context, coherent systems of meaning in which meaning is created, enclosed, and excluded.
5.2 Factors of Influence and Consequences on Climate of Classroom
Research shows that pupils need to feel that school is for them; most pupils are
dependent on teachers who can offer them this opportunity (Hugo, 2009; Ljusberg, 2009).
The real possibility of access to participation in the classroom is one of the most important
indicators of classroom climate. Pupils achieve much better in classrooms with an academic
environment where they feel happy (Westling Allodi, 2002). The voluntary participation in the
classroom is much related to the climate of it (Okolo, 2007). Most important in the climate in
school are affective-relational factors with impact on learning processes in social interactions.
This social dimension is also most evident in the context of the classroom where
pupils/situations/teachers in need of extra support are particularly vulnerable and in need of
an environment which is respectful of the differences. The work on expectations, attitudes
and beliefs is particularly important for the impact each has, not only for academic learning,
but across the socio-emotional dynamics in the classroom. Teachers' attitudes are an
important factor in determining the success of pupils (Grosin, 2004; Groth, 2007; Hugo,
2007; Lundgren, 2007), and it is similar when it comes to inclusion (Ainscow, 1993; Baker &
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Gottlieb, 1980; Monsen & Frederickson, 2004; Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1996; Ward, Center &
Bochner, 1994). nterpersonal relationships are modified by the interactions between pupils
and between teacher and pupils in a context, the school/classroom, and in a national and
local discourse. These interactions are crucial, not only by their number, but essentially their
quality, that is also closely related to the multiple dimensional development of each person.
The individual development (pupil or teacher), which impacts on these interactions are in turn
influenced by many factors, including their self-satisfaction, self-image, process of learning
and social competence, among others (Chang, 2003; Wentzel, 2002). Several studies show
that although peer groups are important influences, the teacher has a vital role in changing
attitudes. Even i( language an' attitu'es are important research sho7s that in(ra-ver.al
signals un'erl)ing the ')namic in emotional climate is ever important. The discourse;
beliefs, expectations and attitudes of teachers and other adults in school, particularly in view
of the difference, have profound effects in various socio-emotional dimensions, including
level of self-concept, the process of acceptance and rejection among peers and the social
adjustment among the pupils (Chang, 2003; Wentzel, 2002). n the classes where the
teachers have a positive attitude to inclusion the pupils also expressed a higher degree of
satisfaction, and a distinctively lower level of disagreement or quarrelling (Monsen &
Frederickson, 2004).
Many pupils in need of special support have significant social problems, such as
establishing friendships and feelings of isolation or loneliness. Research shows that
problems with establishing friendship can be found in the context (Ljusberg, 2009). Since the
relationship between peers in childhood has a key role in structuring and subsequent social
adjustment throughout life, it is for an inclusive school teacher to create environments that
support and lead the promotion of acceptance and social competence. Some authors are
even considering this as fundamental in establishing an inclusive setting (Meadan, 2008;
Patton, & Gall, 2006). Similarly the relationship between peers, in that it promotes self-
knowledge and understanding of each other in a horizontal relationship with significant
others, is also a reflection of the skills brought into play by each individual, in the inclusive
classroom. Self -esteem and social rejection by peers are also well known not only as a
consequence but as determinants of relationships, social adjustment and the academic
success (Santos, 2007).
nclusion is not always seen positively in the classroom climate. Some studies (Katz &
Mirenda, 2002; Trump & Hang, 1996) indicate that inclusion has positive effects but also
negative and insignificant effects for the climate of the classroom. To contribute to the
positive effects the teacher must prepare well for inclusion have clear expectations, accept
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
the special education teacher as an equal partner, acknowledge the heterogeneity of
classes, be tolerant and use more diverse strategies. The negative effects arise in cases of
overloaded classes or when pupils in need of special support are not accepted.
Studies show that it is easier to change the classroom climate if people other than
teachers are involved (Schmidt & Cagran, 2006). Villa, Thousand, Myers, & Nevin (1996)
claim that head-teachers' support and staff collaboration are apparent as important factors in
the formation of positive attitudes although teachers perceive head-teachers as being
detached and ambivalent towards inclusion. Van Reusen, Shoho & Barker (2001) expand the
involvement to concern all staff around the pupils. Other researchers go further and mean
that the whole education system, as a single body, contributes to the learning process and if
a sector does not work or is weakened, the whole process may be affected (Sakarneh,
2004). Van Reusen et. al (2001) hypothesise that "the attitudes and beliefs that teachers,
administrators and other school personnel hold towards inclusion and the learning ability of
pupils with disabilities may influence school learning environments and the availability of
equal educational opportunities for all pupils (ibid, p. 8). To change from a mainstream
school to an inclusive school is about changing discourse; values, norms and attitudes
(Carrington & Robinson, 2004; Fullan, 1999; Hunt & Goetz, 1997; Riehl's, 2000; West-
Burnham, 1997). nclusion requires a deep acceptance of all individuals with variety in their
ethnicity, religion, language, gender, class, in their diversity of needs, opportunities and
difficulties. n this perspective it is indispensable to add the pupil's own experience of
participation, as well during classroom time and during breaks being able to take part in
and have access to the information that flows in and outside of the classroom (Ljusberg,
2009).
5.3 Climate, and language
The way we act, including the language we use, we are never free from values; in fact the
discourse is steering what we recognise and how we respond. For example; when it comes
to difficulties in the classroom, in the encounter between the pupil and the school, different
perspectives for example a compensatory perspective, or a critical, or a socio-cultural one
give different meaning to the situation, which adequately gives different solutions. From a
compensatory perspective the difficulties are attached to the pupil, from a critical perspective
in the organisation and from a socio-cultural perspective the difficulties are seen as social
constructs in a classroom situation. Nilholm (2006) states that the compensatory perspective
regards special needs:
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
. as an individual quality; such needs are demarcated and categorised. ... Special,
rather than inclusive support is advocated; what is seen as special education expertise
is supplied immediately, related to the diagnosed problems in the pupil. The reason for
the special education support is seen to depend on impairments that are either
congenital or in some other way attached to the individual (Nilholm, 2006, p. 17, our
translation).
n this perspective, the behaviour, including the language of teachers, has a strong role,
modelling the relationships within the group. t concerns the teachers' self-reflection upon
their norms and different perspectives on normality, diversity, identity and responsibility. Dror
(2006) points to the involvement of 6 factors in the general climate of school (not specifically
in the classroom), including: supportive leadership; teachers autonomy; prestige of the
teaching profession; renovations, teachers collaboration and workload. Teachers who
perceive their schools as having a supportive leadership encourage the innovation/updates
and collaboration between partners, leading to more positive attitudes towards inclusion. This
is important though human beings (re)construct meaning in interplay with other persons in
different social practices (Vygotsky, 1999). There is evidence to suggest (e.g. Sebba &
Ainscow, 1996) that an inclusive school is a school that has been subject to change and
improvement. There are strong facts showing that the school culture has to change. An issue
that should be considered regarding culture and inclusive culture is the fact that mainstream
and special education teachers often fail to collaborate (Henderson, 1994). This problem is
regarded by Bush (1995) as a co-existence of divergent cultures in organisations. Riel's
(2000) view of the change in the mind-set is that 'the development of inclusive structures and
practices must be accompanied by new understandings and values or they will not result in
lasting change'. Fullan (1999) has identified organisational culture as a key factor in leading
change because of the need to develop new values, norms and attitudes when change is
implemented. When teachers educate they use a special theoretical framework often hidden,
not reflected upon, but still there working - here called an interpretive background
(Hundeide, 2006). When educating, words are used, word which are created in the
encounter between their interpretive backgrounds and a special discourse in the classroom.
Words are action, the language is a powerful steering tool and works in at least to ways; it is
created and it creates. To understand something is creative. Hjrne (2004) identified this
phenomenon in relation to the diagnosis AD/HD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)
stating that in a study she conducted on a pupil welfare team once the AD/HD diagnosis has
been introduced and adopted as relevant, it seemed to be included in the staff pre-
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
understanding and became active in the creation of meaning. How teachers give meaning to
understand - a situation in school is dependent on their interpretive background and on the
discursive practice. How we look upon the world, situations and actions/interactions are then
coloured or shaped. Learning can be seen as participation in different discourses through
communication/interaction and the interaction is seen as a part of teaching and developing
(Vygotsky 1999; Slj 1999, 2000; Hundeide 2006). A key point is that discourses are built
into artefacts and even the language is seen as an artefact. 'We are learning . to notice,
describe and act in reality in the way the surroundings permit and encourage' (Slj 2000,
66, our translation). n the literature there are various indications of the influence exerted by
teachers' interpretive backgrounds and expectations. n a classroom study Davis, Watson
and Cunningham-Burley (2000) studied the interaction between pupils with intellectual
disabilities and between pupils and teachers. The staff associated with the studied group of
pupils gave various conditions of development to the pupils, depending on what meaning
they saw in the pupils' behaviour. The staff's perspective could also be linked to the staff's
own cultural background.
How teachers look upon the pupil are active ingredients in pupils' availability to be a
particular kind of pupil. n the case of teachers' interpretive backgrounds, they are crucial to
their approach, which makes up the framework within which the pupils have freedom to act.
Hellstrm (2004), for example, uses the term 'self-fulfilling prophecy', while Jenner (2004)
talks about the 'Pygmalion effect'. The creation and maintenance of this environmental and
socio-emotional climate in which all pupils can feel that they and their classmates are
psychologically safe, valued and accepted, ensure active involvement and sense of
belonging is therefore a sine qua non condition for the successful development of any
inclusive practice.
5.4 Classroom climate - impact on different levels
n an overview of 19 research investigations of inclusive programs, practices and outcomes,
Hunt & Goetz (1997) describe the characteristics of these programs such as a "morally
driven commitment to children and "a consensus on a set of values that can be understood
as components of school culture. According to Ballard (1996) the main shift in the mind-set
towards inclusive culture is the 'recognition of the value of diversity in schools and
communities' (ibid. p. 42). Zollers, Ramanathan, & Moonset (1999) conducted research that
explored the relationship between culture and inclusion. The research was a single-case
study and it identified three elements of culture that contribute to inclusive culture:
1) a democratic and empowering culture with collaborative decision-making,
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
2) a broad vision of school community with parental involvement,
3) and shared language and values (Zollers et al. !999).
A survey from various studies, found that classroom climate is often referred to as having
an impact, positive or negative, on several levels, including;
The regulation of movement and construction of knowledge i.e. an inclusive
environment facilitate the explanation from various perspectives that enrich the
discussion.
The impact of meta-curriculum e.g. one class allows inclusive and productive
learning between different groups of pupils, facilitating their development of expertise,
while a non inclusive learning context facilitates the perpetuation of stereotypes.
The emotional impact on learning i.e. a class where the learning experience is
characterised by positive emotions - excitement of discovery, joy, etc. - has increased
productivity by motivating pupils for future learning; contrary emotions such as fear,
boredom and other negative emotions are highly unmotivated consequences for pupil
and his academic success.
The dynamics of power in the classroom i.e. in productive classes teachers use their
authority to encourage all pupils in their own way of learning, and sometimes the
refusal to learn can be an ultimate form of resistance from those who feel helpless in
a hostile environment
The persistence of the pupil - pupils remain engaged when they feel included and not
made to feel less capable than others.
The self-esteem of both pupil and teacher has a direct impact on the classroom climate..
For a teacher, self-esteem is one of the must important variables in their perception of
self-efficacy. This is evident where there is a focus on collaborative work between
teachers and special education teachers. Studies by Lovey (2002) reported that special
education teachers often feel superfluous and even some sense of suspicion for their
presence in the classroom where there is a need for extra support. The way this
presence is received by the teacher, as well as the collaborative work that is developed
or not developed, has been reported in several cross-cultural studies as a determinant
factor in climate (Bartolo, Janik,, Janikova, & Hofsass, 2007).
5.5 Creating and aintaining an Inclusive Climate on Classroom
Research shows that nclusive Education is achieved in a classroom with particular
strategies and practices differing from those traditionally used (Westwood, 2004). According
to a report by the European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2003)
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
practice of inclusive education should be based, essentially, on a quality education that
promotes a truly inclusive educational differentiation, achieved through the use of
cooperative work, action in partnership, promotion of working groups gathered in the
classroom and the promotion of work with peers.
Several studies show an educational potential for interactions between peers, on the
development of social-cognitive skills at the level of the affective-emotional development for
both partners (Bond & Castagna, 2006; Terpstra & Tamura, 2008).
When developing strategies, interventions are more focused on a relational context
than on the individual to enable the emergence of a sense of belonging, facilitating
collaboration and friendship.
The development of a classroom climate which feels really secure, generates self-
confidence and acceptance is crucial for the growth of children and adolescents and the
success of any educational practice that is targeted. So it seems essential to organise some
guidance to contribute to the development of strategies for creating and maintaining an
inclusive classroom climate.
The recognition of this important relational dimension in many studies has stressed
the need for a conscious development of strategies that ensure respect for difference,
leaving not only the development of appropriate physical environments, but in order to create
a genuine and successful development of skills in all children. This goal, which involves long
and consistent work is based on a reflective process for the improvement on the part of
teachers regarding their attitudes towards the profound individual differences.
These positive attitudes and beliefs of teachers and pupils to inclusion are some of
the most important factors on the creation of classroom climate (Monsen & Frederickson,
2004).
Among the pedagogical strategies that may contribute to the development of a
inclusive classroom climate when it comes to teacher-pupil interaction, are: the use of an
inclusive language with the frequent use of male, female and first names; the avoidance of
generalisations; the avoidance of value judgements and prejudices with teachers using self-
reflection about their intervention; giving feedback focusing on controllable causes such as
effort; the avoidance of embarrassing exposure of pupils to others; being alert to body
language of the pupils; being as objective as possible in conversations; serving as a role
model interacting with everyone and respecting all opinions.
5.! "ome ideas a#out teacher training
The practice of these guidelines requires a deep involvement by the teacher, reflecting not
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
only on their professional skills but - as a professional who deals with the person - also
reflecting on their own personal and social skills. This means that training teachers for an
inclusive school probably cannot restrict us to a traditional academic education but must
propose a training model that involves new processes.
The teacher training (initial and continuing) is a key resource for the construction and
affirmation of the inclusive school, promoting the development of attitudes, knowledge and
personal skills and teaching to serve the interests and the aims of nclusive education.
Based on these considerations, we believe that the most important dimensions
(assuming a cross dimensions character) in the development of any program of teacher
education for nclusive Schools are the knowledge, analysis and reflection about the
importance of creating and maintaining an inclusive climate in the classroom and their
conditioning factors and strategies considered most effective for its implementation. t seems
essential for the strategies to be put into practice as part of an experiential process, reflected
upon, and then for the teacher to respond to how he/she experiences difference and what
impact it has on him/her.
Reviewing the research on classroom climate and classroom climate in inclusive
settings offers the following suggestions about how to create and maintain a positive climate.
Classroom climate is seen as a strong mediator of values, norms beliefs and standards and
these are reflected in both how the classroom and teaching is physically and psychologically
organised and how the pupils are approached. Basically it is about widening the thinking
about normality not just focusing on similarities but respecting and appreciating difference as
a variation of pupils ethnicity, religion, language, gender, class, needs, opportunities and
difficulties. These positive attitudes and beliefs of teachers and pupils to inclusion are some
of the most determinant factors on creation of a positive classroom climate
We can develop a school that can meet the diversity of pupils as a reality. Pupils have
different backgrounds in terms of class, ethnicity, gender, and disability, and thus different
ways of interacting and giving meaning. t is important to develop a school that is based on
diversity and that focuses on a situated learning. To support this change we have constructed
this material and the Aide Memoir. Most of the different headings in the Aide Memoir play a
vital role in establishing a positive classroom climate. f we have to select a few we choose
these: Welcome; Communication; Level of work and Motivation; Value and Respect; Positive
experience; Friendships; Ambience; Rules and routines and Safety / security.
1.? Team7or8 in Inclusive Classrooms
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Teamwork is essential for the development of interaction in an inclusive classroom. The
results have been positive when the work in the classroom is based on teamwork.
Developing fundamental communication competences, developing cognitive capacities,
developing emotional well-being and promoting a constructive interaction are some of the
elements which can favour teamwork. Studies have shown that progress has been made at
the levels of sociability and communication as a result of the dynamics of teamwork.
A team is a group of people who work together to accomplish a common goal. The concept
of teamwork is defined as "the work done by a group of pupils which has a shared
awareness of identity and rules, the same aims and commitment to help the others (Arnaiz,
1988)
Teamwork is a challenge both for pupils and for teachers who work with the same class-
group or work in the same inclusive school.
There are some advantages of teamwork in inclusive classrooms, it:
Provides a valuable opportunity to achieve high quality learning outcomes;
Stimulates collaboration and develops pupils' confidence and active participation in
learning;
Brings together pupils with different experiences and perspectives, so it leads to
creative and innovative solutions;
Encourages pupils to challenge assumptions;
Gives pupils a chance to perform a number of different roles;
Develops different skills such as: project management, problem solving, conflict
resolution and negotiation;
Prepares pupils for the workplace.
Sometimes some problems might be found:
Some pupils prefer to work and be assessed independently,
Not all the pupils learn everything about the topic,
Some pupils tend to dominate others in the team.
The most important thing is to be aware and attentive to all pupils and give them equal
opportunities for success. Teachers can convert possible problems into challenges for
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
inclusion.
Therefore the qualities of a team must include the following items in order to contribute to an
inclusive environment, that:
Team members share their goals
Team members understand their roles and scopes for contribution
Team members work together and independently to complete tasks
Team members give each other emotional support
Teachers must learn some basic competences to develop teamwork in their classes:
lanning for each stage of group work. Thinking about how they will introduce and
organise pupils in teamwork.
!"plaining to their classes how the groups will operate and how pupils will be
graded. Explaining the objectives of the group task and defining any relevant
concepts and tasks.
#iving pupils the skills they need to succeed in groups. (skills like active and tolerant
listening, helping one another in mastering content, giving and receiving constructive
criticism, managing disagreements and so on).
!valuating the effectiveness of teamwork. Evaluating goals and objectives, trust and
conflict, expression of differences, leadership, control and procedures, utilisation of
resources, interpersonal communication, problem solving /decision making)
The construction of these competences implies that the teachers must be well-grounded
in some aspects like:
$ecide how the groups will be formed
Some teachers prefer randomly assigning pupils to groups to maximise their
heterogeneity: a mix of males and females, verbal and quiet pupils, the
pessimistic and the optimistic.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Some teachers let pupils choose with whom they want to work, although this
runs the risk that groups will socialise too much and that pupils will self-
segregate.
Still other teachers prefer to form the groups themselves, taking into account
pupils' prior achievement, levels of preparation, work habits, ethnicity, and
gender. They try to sprinkle the more able pupils evenly among the groups
A middle ground, is to ask pupils to express a preference.

Learning teams work best when they are balanced in terms of their abilities and have
members with varied characteristics. deally, group members have:
various levels of prior achievement
various levels of prior experience
a gender mix
an ethnic and linguistic mix
various learning styles
%e conscious of group si&e. n general, teams of four or five pupils work best. Larger
groups decrease each member's opportunity to participate actively.
'eep teams together. When a team is not working well, avoid breaking it up, even if
the group requests it. t's important to learn solving problems together.
(elp groups plan how to proceed. Ask each group to devise a plan of action: who will
be doing what and when. Review the groups' written plans or meet with each group to
discuss its plan.
)egularly check in with the teams. Teachers can establish checkpoints with the
team.
rovide mechanisms for groups to deal with problems (uncooperative members,
conflicts among members etc.)
There are many types of teams composed through complexity criteria that teachers and
educators should differentiate in order to promote inclusion in their classroom:
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
*ormal learning teams are teams established to complete a specific task, such as
perform an experiment, write a report, carry out a project and so on. These groups
may complete their work in a single class session or over several sessions. Typically,
pupils work together until the task is finished, and their project is graded.
+nformal learning teams are ad hoc temporary groups of pupils within a single class
session. nformal learning groups can be initiated, for example, by asking pupils to
turn to a neighbour and spend two minutes discussing a question you have posed.
You can also form groups of three to five to solve a problem or other class task.
,ong-term teams (usually existing over a long period of the course) with stable
membership whose primary responsibility is to provide members with support,
encouragement, and assistance in completing course requirements and assignments.
n most European countries the aim of compulsory education is that of providing pupils
with quality education that enables them to acquire basic cultural skills as well as
fostering their own personal development (social skills, study and work habits, creativity
and affectivity.) Some examples of teamwork in inclusive schools are the following:
#roup dynamics
Some schools use group dynamics to increase good relationships among pupils and the
best contribution of every pupil to the work group. Group dynamic activities develop some
skills referring to communication, confidence among group members, decision-making,
problem solving, conflict resolution and cohesiveness. Also group dynamic activities
encourage collaboration and creativity.
Effective group dynamics require respect for one another, clearly articulated shared
goals, frequent interaction, equitably divided tasks, and shared responsibility for mistakes
and successes and free expression of opinions and perspectives.
-ollaborative learning
Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves
groups of pupils working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a
product. n the school, groups provide support, an academic framework to learn, a
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
conduit for encouragement, and in many ways, a buffer that can prevent academic
failure. n a group setting, the pupil has the opportunity to rehearse his understanding
with others and to be exposed to other conceptual constructs.
eer mentoring
Peer mentors are trained to work with other pupils in school to develop positive
relationships and help special needs pupils or immigrant pupils with their worries,
problems and difficulties.
eer mediation
A pair of pupils helps others to solve a conflict. Peer mediation is a service that the pupils,
themselves, can use to manage conflicts that they are having with other pupils. t gives
the pupils an opportunity to be more independent and solve conflicts in a mature
responsible manner.
Teamwork among professionals is another challenge for inclusive schools. Educators are
being asked to collaborate with each other, with administrators and district officials, with
pupils, with parents, and with community members. Teamwork is a form of collective work
where educators and school professionals come together to share ideas, strategies, even
possible solutions. Each member has their own individual task, but these separate tasks can
benefit from hearing what colleagues are doing or have done with similar tasks.
Some special skills are required for teamwork like skills for planning work, communication,
responsibility, supportive diversity and feedback and evaluation. Therefore working in a team
is a question of skills but it also presupposes the conviction that cooperation is a positive
professional value. These two aspects (skills and the conviction of the value of teamwork)
are more closely related than is thought: what people haven't mastered is normally
undervalued.
Training needs detected in the area of development of teamwork tend to be related to similar
aspects of teamwork among pupils, its organisation, or basic skills necessary for carrying it
out.

1.@ Ne7 concepts on teacher training& Inclusive "ssessment
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Assessment of pupils in inclusive settings should be, progressively, a responsibility shared
jointly by practitioners of different research communities and useful collaborative work could
be undertaken to develop diagnostic assessment tools for use in formative assessment. But,
some times, as Goodrum, Hackling and Rennie (2001) found, diagnostic evidence is rarely
employed for informing teachers how to plan learning.
That assumption presupposes the synchronisation between assessment policy and
assessment practices with a continuum that includes: instruction in class, school, and home.
Setting decisions must be made by an EP team that includes parents, teachers,
psychologists, and other persons knowledgeable about the pupil (Candeias et al., 2008;
Salvia, Ysseldyke & Bolt, 2007). So, as these authors propose inclusive assessment
information should be used to make decisions about the extent to which educational
programs in school systems are working for all pupils, including pupils with disabilities
(2007, p. 17).
n this context, improving inclusive assessment as practice in schools it will be necessary to
change assessment practices as well as the role of parents and teachers within assessment,
as we explain in the next points.
Kleinert et al. (2002) suggests a set of key questions that remains in relation to inclusive
assessment:
How do teachers meet the responsibilities of assessing pupils with specific needs
in programmes aligned with 'standards' and the assessment requirements of
official legislation?
How do teachers ensure that all pupils with disabilities achieve in the general
education curriculum to the best extent possible?
How do teachers decide which pupils need alternative assessments?
How do teachers design effective alternative assessments?
Earl and LeMahieu (1997) had already called for more emphasis upon the concept of
assessment for learning if the desired educational reforms and improvements are to be
realised. Assessment as (or for) learning allows teachers to use their judgment about a
pupil's understanding to inform the teaching process and to determine what to do for
individual pupils. These aims and purposes of assessment are exactly what can be identified
as being best practice assessment within primary inclusive settings. Stanford and Reeves
(2005) also state that a fundamental truth in effective teaching is that assessment strategies
must help the teacher determine the most appropriate instruction, in addition to assessing
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
progress.
Pugach and Warger (2001) suggest attention should be focused on the performance and
progress of all learners and that assessment linked to programmes of instruction can
enhance teaching as, this way, teachers are better informed about the learning progress and
difficulties of their pupils and, therefore, they can make better decisions about what a pupil
needs to learn next and how to teach that material in a manner that will maximise pupils'
learning.
Nowadays teachers and other educational professionals are calling for new assessment
practices to be used to support pupil learning, guide educational improvement and enhance
equity for all pupils, a social inclusion as Lloyd proposes in 2006. As we stated before
(Candeias et al., 2009), inclusive assessment implies collaborative work, multidimensional
assessment and an ecological approach to education based on family-school-community. For
this we need to improve teacher training in conducting assessments, linking alternative
assessment to curricula and teaching programmes and linking assessment to ndividual
Education Plans.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
3. TE"C6IN> INC!SI$E4
The "i'e %emoir& - a ne7 proposal to support an' assess teachersA inclusive
classroom practice.
3.1. Intro'uction
The drive towards inclusive teaching has been underpinned by legislation and policies in
many of the European partner's countries. The research, carried out in recognised inclusive
schools by the teams in the project, showed that the countries were at different stages of
developing this concept. Through interviews with teachers it became apparent that teachers
and assistants would welcome a tool to support their practice in the classroom. For some it
would be a new way of working, for others a reminder of useful ideas and strategies an
Aide Memoir.
3.2 Teaching inclusivel) is about creating an ethos and environment where pupils can
enjoy learning, reflect, improve and grow in confidence. This is fundamental to all learning,
yet it is not without its challenges. Each child is unique: teaching requires a holistic approach
and is not just about addressing the academic needs in school (Brodin and Lindstrand 2007).
Knowledge of child development is essential, as is an understanding of what makes the child
an individual. t is a very complex brief. Effective inclusive practice requires the teacher to
have good relationships with pupils and adults, a breadth of knowledge and understanding to
actively support and extend the pupil's learning, an appropriate learning environment and
high quality teaching, including the ability to meet all pupils needs, learning styles and
interests (DFES 2005, Ljusberg 2009).
3.* The "i'e %emoir and the B+it to learn .oo8mar8C are intended to help teachers:
o To evaluate the level of their inclusive practice regarding suitable conditions for
learning, the learning community, the learning environment and positive instruction
o To increase the level of their inclusive practice in those areas
o To raise awareness that good practice can meet the needs of ALL pupils, despite their
individual needs
o To identify their individual needs for in - service training.
o To use as a checklist for assessing the quality of inclusion or assessment.
The Aide Memoir is organised into five main sections, namely:
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
1. "m I inclu'ingD looking at inclusion from a wide perspective, including everyone in the
classroom.
2. The Environment - Is m) classroom inclusiveD using resources, including technology
and the ambience of the classroom.
*. " Colla.orative approach E 6ave I involve'D building relationships with and between
pupils, staff, parents, other professionals and the community.
/. 6o7 can I a'<ust m) teachingD - meeting all the needs of each individual using a variety
of strategies.
1. +it to earnD - using positive assessment to facilitate learning
The tool is in two parts a bookmark and a booklet which can be downloaded from the
website. www.irisproject.eu Both the bookmark and the booklet have the same sections. n
each section there is a number of headings relating to the same theme. The bookmark is a
practical tool designed to be readily accessible, possibly in the diary, and used as a prompt in
the classroom. The booklet goes into greater depth. n this, under each heading there is a
series of questions designed to be stimulating to help in reflection or in the resolution of an
event that has occurred.
3./ Evaluation o( the tool
The Aide memoir was successfully trialled in a variety of schools in the partner countries.
While the main comment received was that the document was too long, the teachers could
not conclude which aspects could be omitted. t needed to be a large document in order to
be fully comprehensive. With more regular use they became more familiar with the Aide
Memoir which made it easier to use. Their initial understanding, and a weakness in the
introduction to the tools, was that the document had to be used in its entirety, answering all
the questions, which was too much to expect of busy practitioners. The questions were
designed to be thought provoking rather than as a yes/no exercise. However, using the stand
alone sections as and when required meant teachers could reflect on their daily practice,
revising their teaching methods accordingly.
A critical appraisal of the document said that the wording of certain sections needed greater
clarity which has been addressed. Similarly a comments box has been added for teachers to
make their own suggestions for future work.
The overall aim of the document is to aid teacher reflection, stimulate thinking, help to focus
on aspects of practice, and importantly to promote inclusive practice. Thinking in this way can
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
then help with the whole school approach to inclusion, through its appraisal system,
understanding teachers' needs for training and support and improving the current response
to inclusion within the school.
3.1 Practical use an' case stu'ies
deally the Aide Memoir should be read through to become familiarised with the contents
before its use. The sections are designed to be used as stand alone units that can be used
singly or together with others. t can also be used as a complete document. Therefore there
will be repetitions in ideas, though not always identical statements, in different sections. The
questions are to prompt thoughtful reflections for individual personal development, with a
space for comments if required.
Essentially it is a tool to be used as a reminder while teaching or working with the
whole class or with an individual pupil.
For an individual, the RS Aide Memoir bookmark can be used as a prompt when
situations arise.
+or eFample&
A pupil, unexpectedly, completes a different piece of work from the rest of the class.
Use the bookmark to think positively how the situation could have been avoided.
Any of the following sections could be a starting point.
n "m I Inclu'ingD Communication,
Barriers to Learning and
Participation
Or 6o7 Can I a'<ust m) TeachingD Clarity of Approach,
Clear Expectations,
Clear Explanations,
Barriers to Learning
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
By using these headings from the bookmark sufficient ideas may be generated to resolve the
problem. As a follow up, the questions in each of the sections, of the Aide Memoir, may
stimulate further thinking and create alternative solutions.
The RS Aide Memoir can be used as ideas for peer mentoring / staff discussions.
For example the main headings of inclusion, collaboration, environment and teaching
strategies, may be used for a general discussion or individual titles such as
communication to be more focussed.
The full Aide Memoir document, or specific sections, can be used as a personal
checklist for appraisal.
By collating the results of appraisals, using the Aide Memoir, it can be a window on
the whole school approach to inclusion, identifying the positive and negative aspects
of practice and seeing where training would be valuable for a whole school or at an
individual level.
Section (ive o( the "i'e %emoir addresses the individual needs of the pupil by looking at
assessment. The teacher can choose whether to look at a specific area of learning for the
pupil or to have a more global assessment, beginning in the classroom or requesting support
from outside professionals, for example, an educational psychologist, speech therapist,
hearing/sight advisor. t is important to work from known information from parents and from
direct observation, hence the sections on 'what needs are known?' and 'observations'. All
assessments focus on the understanding of the pupil to facilitate his/her learning. n the
booklet there is a series of questions to support the teacher to address the pupil's needs.
There follows two case studies to show how the Aide Memoir could be used in these
situations.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Case Stu') 1 E Olivia , 4ear 2
Presenting #i((iculties
n the classroom Olivia was sullen and often passively uncooperative
On occasions she would lie under the table.
n the playground she would often lash out with her fists and feet.
Teacher thoughts2response
Very little do makes any difference. 'm at my wits end. She never seems to join in or enjoy
being in school. worry about the other children getting hurt too.
Intervention using the hea'ings o( the "i'e %emoir
Parental Involvement
Olivia's Mum was encouraged to talk to her daughter at a level which she could
understand, and provide some reassurance that she was not going to leave too.
evel o( 5or8 an' %otivation 9especiall) emotional 7ell .eing;
Many efforts were made in school to give positive messages to Olivia about herself.
She actually became more tearful for a while, but her very angry behaviour
diminished considerably.
+urther investigation an' G+it to earnA assessment (ollo7ing Parental Involvement
Sensitive discussions with Olivia's mother uncovered the fact that her father had left the
family a year earlier and, although Olivia had been quite close to him, no one had talked to
her about what was happening for fear of upsetting her. n an interview with the educational
psychologist Olivia admitted that she cried every night but didn't want her Mum to hear
because her Mum had been crying too. must be a very bad person, very bad for my Daddy
not to want me any more.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Case Stu') 2 E 0en<amin , 4ear 1
Presenting 'i((iculties
During physical education, Benjamin would run from group to group at apparatus time
apparently ignoring instructions from the class teacher. He would make little attempt
to dress himself afterwards.
During class instruction and carpet times he would begin to ramble on about
irrelevant issues. Chatting about familiar topics was no problem.
He often became distressed.
TeacherAs thoughts2response
He's attention seeking and manipulative.
Intervention using the hea'ings o( the "i'e %emoir
Communication
Teacher gave simple instructions and Benjamin was expected to complete only one
thing at a time. He managed this successfully.
The teacher modified the content and duration of carpet time sessions. This was also
of benefit to other pupils.
Participation an' Sharing
One or two other pupils in the class were encouraged to befriend Benjamin and help
him with dressing after Physical Education.
Parental Involvement
Following discussion with his mother, Benjamin was provided with clothes which were
easier to get on and off.
Benjamin's confidence grew as a result of greater understanding by all concerned.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
+urther investigation using G+it to earnA assessment (ollo7ing parental involvement
Benjamin was found to have a receptive language difficulty and a delay in the acquisition of
fine motor skills.
n summary the Aide memoir headings on the bookmark can be used as prompts for ideas.
The questions in the booklet can stimulate thinking particularly when reflecting on the day's
work, if the day has gone well, if the results are not as expected in a classroom situation or
when a problem arises. ndividual sections can be used for personal development and as a
whole school approach to inclusion, through appraisal, mentoring and staff discussion.
The RS Aide Memoir helps to support inclusive practice in a variety of ways for the
individual or as a whole school approach. t is a tool to encourage good practice and to give
helpful and practical advice.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
?. >OSS"R4
"ssessment - refers to the ways teachers and other people involved in a pupil's education
systematically collect and then use information about that pupil's level of achievement and/or
development in different areas of their educational experience (academic, behaviour and
social) (Watkins, 2007).
Colla.oration& Collaboration is an interactive process where a number of people with
particular expertise come together as equals to generate an appropriate programme or
process or find solutions to problems.
E"#SNE - European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education.
IEP - ndividual Education Plans
An ndividual Education Plan (EP) is a written document prepared for a named pupil which
specifies the learning goals that are to be achieved by the pupil over a set period of time and
the teaching strategies, resources and supports necessary to achieve those goals.
Inclusion& The value system which holds that all pupils are entitled to equal access to
learning, achievement and the pursuit of excellence in all aspects of their education. The
practice of inclusion transcends the idea of physical location and incorporates basic values
that promote participation, friendship and interaction.
nclusion (Ainscow et al, 2006, p.15):
1. nclusion concern with disable students and others categorized as "having special
educational needs.
2. nclusion as a response to disciplinary exclusion.
3. nclusion in relation to all groups seen as being vulnerable to exclusion.
4. nclusion as developing the school for all.
5. nclusion as Education for all.
6. nclusion as a principled approach to education and society.
Special E'ucational Nee's 9SEN;& means in relation to a person, "a restriction in the
capacity of the person to participate in and benefit from education on account of an enduring
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
physical, sensory, mental health, or learning disability, or any other condition which results in
a person learning differently from a person without that condition.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
@. RE+ERENCES
Re(erences - C Conceptions o( Inclusive E'ucation in some European CountriesC
Ainscow, M., Booth, T. & Dyson, A. (2006). mproving Schools, Developing nclusion. London
and New York: Routledge.
Burstein, N., Sears, S., Wilcoxen, A., Cabello, B. & Spagna, M. (2004) Moving Toward
nclusive Practices. )emedial and .pecial !ducation 25; 104 116
Candeias, A., Grcio, L. Borralho, A., Pomar, C.,. Chaleta, E. ,Pires,H., Dias, C. & Rodrigues,
J. (2008). Repport from -ontent /nalisys of +nterviews 0artners1, n:
http://www.ciep.uevora.pt/projectos/doc/iris/Repportfromnterviews-PartnersRS-final.pdf
Candeias, A., Grcio, L., Borralho, A., Pomar, C. , Chaleta, E., Pires, H., Dias, C. &
Rodrigues, J. (2007). Repport from -ontent /nalisys of +nterviews 02vora1, n:
http://www.ciep.uevora.pt/projectos/doc/iris/Repportfromnterviews-Evora-final.pdf
Chaleta
,
E., Grcio, L., Borralho, A.; Candeias, A.A., Pires
,
H; Pomar
,
C.; Vreese,
J., Bernat, E., Evans, J; Negrillo, C.;J.; Brodin, J.; Ljusberg, A-L.,& Cabral, N.
(2009). Contributions from the Community to the nclusive School. n,
roceedings from +nternational -onference3 -hanging ractices in +nclusive
Schools: University of vora. CD-Rom.
Clark, C. & Peterson, P. (1986). Teachers' thought process. n Merlin C. Wittrock
(Ed.), (andbook of research on teaching (3
rd
ed.; pp.255-296). New York:
Macmillan.
Fennick, E., & Liddy, D. (2001). Responsibilities and preparation for collaborative teaching:
Co-teachers' perspectives. 4eacher !ducation and .pecial !ducation, 56, 229240.
Grcio, L., Borralho, A.; Candeias, A.A., Chaleta
,
E., Pires
,
H, Pomar
,
C; Vreese, J., Bernat,
E., Evans, J; Negrillo, C.;J.; Brodin, J.; Ljusberg, A-L.,& Cabral, N. (2009a). Concepes
de Escola nclusiva em alguns Pases Europeus. n, roceedings from 7st +nternational
-onference of sychology and !ducation. Covilh (Portugal): University of Beira nterior
(SBN: 978-989-654-012-8). CD-Rom.
Grcio, L., Borralho, A.; Candeias, A.A., Chaleta
,
E., Pires
,
H; Pomar
,
C.; Chaleta, Vreese, J.,
Bernat, E., Evans, J; Negrillo, C.;J.; Brodin, J.; Ljusberg, A-L.,& Cabral, N. (2009b). nclusive
Schools: Barriers and Benefits in Some European Countries, n, roceedings from
+nternational -onference3 -hanging ractices in +nclusive Schools: University of vora. CD-
Rom.
Grcio, L., Pomar, A., Candeias, A., Chaleta,E., Boralho, A. & Pires, H. (2008). Analysis of
nterviews Consequences fot Teacher Training. n http://www.ciep.uevora.pt/projectos/doc/iris
nformation Exchange (1995). Two way communication. +nformation !"change, 4, 6-17.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Linder, C. & Marshall, D. (2003). Reflection and phenomenography: Towards theoretical and
educational development possibilities. ,earning and +nstruction, 78, 271-284.
Marton, F. (1986). Phenomenography - A research approach investigating different
understandings of reality. 9ournal of 4hought, 57, 28-49.
Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (2000). History, rhetoric, and reality: Analysis of the inclusion
debate. )emedial and .pecial !ducation, 57, 279 296.
King-Sears, M. E., & Cummings, C. S. (1996). nclusive practices of classroom teachers.
)emedial and .pecial !ducation, 7:, 217225.
Pomar, C.; Grcio, L.; Candeias, A.A.; Santos, G. ; Trindade, M.N.; Pires,H.; Chaleta,E.
(2009). Formao de Professores para a Escola nclusiva: Fundamentos para uma proposta
de formao. n, roceedings from 7st +nternational -onference of sychology and
!ducation. Covilh (Portugal): University of Beira nterior (SBN: 978-989-654-012-8). CD-
Rom
Turner, A. (1996). Cromwell and two trees: An integration project involving secondary aged
students with severe learning difficulties and mainstream peers. .,$ !"perience, 14, 11.
Glossrio
Re(erences E Support s)stems (or pupils 7ith speci(ic nee's
Candeias, A.A., Trindade, M. N., Santos, G, Rosrio, A.C., Rebocho, M., Cortes, M. J.;
Saragoa, M. J., Vreese, J., Bernat, E., Evans; Negrillo, C.;J.; Brodin, J.; Ljusberg, A-
L.,& Cabral, N. (2009). +nclusive /ssessment ; *rom theory to practice in some
!uropean countries. +n, roceedings from +nternational -onference3 -hanging
ractices in +nclusive .chools3 University of vora. CD-Rom.
Candeias, A.A., Santo, M.J., Rebocho, M., Cortes, M.J., Santos, G., Chaleta, E., Grcio, L.,
Pires, H., Dias, C. & Rodrigues, J. (2008). Reflections about assessment and
intervention with students with special educational needs. +nternational 9ournal of
$evelopment and !ducational sychology, 7 061. (pp.405-416).
Elliot, S., Braden, J. & White, J. (2001). /ssessing one and all3 !ducational accountability for
childrens with disabilities. Arlington: Council for Exceptional Children.
Elliott, S. & Marquar, A. (2004) Extended time as a testing: Accommodation, its effects and
perceived consequences. !"ceptional children, :<, 8,349-367
Lloyd, Ch. (2006). Removing barriers to achievement: A strategy for inclusion or exclusion?.
+nternational 9ournal of +nclusive !ducation, 75, 5 (221 236)
Luke,A.; Woods, A.; Land, R.; Bahr, M. & McFarland, M. (2004). /ccountability3 +nclusive
/ssessment, Monitoring And Reporting Queensland: The University of Queensland.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Paula, K. & Enumo. S. (2007). Avaliao assistida e comunicao alternativa: procedimentos
para a educao inclusiva. )evista %rasileira de !duca=>o !special, 78,7, 3-26.
Salvia, J., Ysseldyke, J. & Bolt, S. (2007). /ssessment in special and inclusive education.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Shevlin, Michael and Rose, Richard (2008). Pupils as partners in education decision-making:
responding to the legislation in England and reland. !uropean 9ournal of .pecial
?eeds !ducation, 58, 6, 423 430.
Watkins, A. (Editor) (2007) /ssessment in +nclusive .ettings3 'ey +ssues for olicy and
ractice. Odense, Denmark: European Agency for Development in Special Needs
Education.
$eferences % &e' concepts on teacher training, classroom climate, team 'or(
Ainscow, M. (1993), Teacher education as a strategy for developing inclusive schools. in Slee,
R. (Ed), +s there a desk with my name on it@ 4he politics of integration, London, Falmer
Press.
Baker, J. & Gottlieb, J. (1980). /ttitudes of teachers towards mainstreamed retarded children.
Educating mentally retarded persons in the mainstream. Baltimore : University Park
Press.
Bartolo, P., Janik, ., Janikova, V., Hofsass, T. (2007). )esponding to .tudent $iversity 4eacher-
s (andbook, Malta, University of Malta Pub.
Bond, R., & Castagnera, E. (2006). Peer supports and nclusive Education: an underutilized
resource. 4heory into ractice, 45 (3), 224-229.
Bush, T. (1995) 4heories of educational management, 2nd Edn (London, Paul Chapman).
Carrington, S. & Robinson, R. (2004) A case study of inclusive school development: a journey of
learning, nternational Journal of nclusive Education, 8(2), 141153.
Chang, L. (2003). Variable Effects of Children's Aggression, Social Withdrawal, and Prosocial
Leadership as Functions of Teacher Beliefs and Behaviours Child Development, 74(2),
535-548.
Davis, J., Watson, N., & Cunningham-Burley, S. (2000). Learning the Lives of Disabled Children.
Developing a Reflexive Approach. n P. Christensen, & A. James (Eds.), )esearch with
-hildren erspectives and ractice (pp. 201-224). New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
Dror, O. (2006). School climate, sense of efficacy and sraeli teachers' attitudes toward inclusion
of students with special needs. !ducation, -iti&enship and .ocial 9ustice, 1(2), 157-174.
European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2003). Summary Report:
nclusive Education and Classroom Practices.
Fullan, M. (1999) -hange forces3 the sequel. London, Falmer.
Grosin, L. (2004). Skolklimat, prestation och anpassning i 21 mellan- och 20 hgstadieskolor
[School climate, achievement and adaptation in 21 intermediate- and 20 upper level
compulsory schools]. Forskningsrapport 71 Pedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms
universitet.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Groth, D. (2007). Uppfattningar om specialpedagogiska insatser aspekter ur elevers och
speciallrares perspektiv [Understanding special educational efforts aspects from
pupils and special teachers' perspective]. Diss. Lule: Lule tekniska universitet.
Haug, P. (1998). Pedagogiskt dilemma: specialundervisning [A Pedagogic dilemma: special
education]. Stockholm: Skolverket.
Hjrne, E. (2004). Excluding for inclusion? Negotiating school careers and identities in pupil
welfare settings in the Swedish school Diss. (Gteborg Studies in Educational Sciences,
213). Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
Hunt & Goetz, 1997; Hjrne, E. (2004). Excluding for inclusion? Negotiating school careers and
identities in pupil welfare settings in the Swedish school Diss. Gteborg Studies in
Educational Sciences, 213. Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
Hugo, M. (2007). Liv och lrande i gymnasieskolan. En studie om elevers och lrares
erfarenheter i en liten grupp p gymnasieskolans individuella program [Life and learning
in upper secondary school. A study about pupils and teachers experiences in a remedial
group in a secondary upper school individual program]. School of Education and
Communication Jnkping University. Diss.
Hundeide, K. (2006). Sociokulturella ramar fr barns utveckling: barns livsvrldar. [Socio cultural
frames for child development]. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
Jenner, H. (2004). Aotivation och motivationsarbete3 i skola och behandling [Motivation and
motivation works in School and treatment]. Stockholm: Myndigheten fr skolutveckling.
Katz, J. & Mirenda, P. (2002). ncluding students with developmental disabilities in general
educational classrooms: social benefits. nternational Journal of Special Education.
17(2), 25-35.
Lovey, J. (2002). Supporting Special Educational Needs in Secondary School Classrooms,
London, Davis Fulton pub.
Ljusberg, A-L. (2009). Pupils in remedial classes. Department of youth and child studies.
Stockholm University. Diss.
Lundgren, M. (2006). Frn barn till elev i riskzon. En analys av skolan som kategoriseringsarena
[From Child to pupil at risk. An analysis of school as an arena for categorisation]. Acta
Wexionensia nr 98/2006. Diss..
Meadan, H. (2008). Collaboration to Promote Social Competence for Students With Mild
Disabilities in the General Classroom - A Structure for Providing Social Support.
ntervention in School and Clinic, 43(3), 158-167.
Monsen, J. & Frederikson, N. (2004). Teacher's attitudes towards mainstreaming and their
pupils' perceptions of their classroom learning environment. Learning Environments
Research 7, 129-142.
Nilholm, C. (2006). nkludering av elever "i behov av srskilt std" vad betyder det och vad vet
vi? [nclusion of pupils "in need of special support what does it mean and what do we
know?]. Stockholm: Myndigheten fr skolutveckling.
Okolo, C. (2007). Talking about History- Discussions in a Middle School nclusive Classroom,
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(2), 154-165.
Patton G., Bond, L., Carlin, J., Thomas, L., Butler, H., Glover, S., Catalano, R. & Bowes, G.
(2006). Promoting Social nclusion in Schools: A Group-Randomized Trial of Effects on
Student Health Risk Behaviour and Well-Being. American Journal of Public Health,
96(9), 1582-1587.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Riehl, C. J. (2000) The principal's role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: a
review of normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational
administration, )eview of !ducational )esearch, 70(1), 5581.
Rodrguez Garran, N. (2004). El clima escolar. Revista Digital nnovacin e nvestigacin. Num.
7 Volumen 3 Found November; 7, 2008 from http://www.csi-
csif.es/andalucia/modules/mod_sevilla/archivos/revistaense/n7v3/clima.PDF
Rose, R. (2002). ncluding Pupils with Special Educational Needs: beyond rhetoric and towards
an understanding of effective classroom practice, Westminster Studies in Education,
25(1), 67-76.
Santos, G. D. (2007). Danoterapia ntegrativa - uma metodologia na interveno com
Comportamentos Agressivos. Tese de Doutoramento, Universidad de vora.
Sakarneh, M. (2004). in http://www.aare.edu.au/04pap/sak04009.pdf acedido a 10-11-2008
Schmidt, M., & Cagran, B. (2006). Classroom climate in regular primary school settings with
children with special needs. Educational Studies, 32(4), 361 372.
Scruggs, T., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1996). Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming/inclusion 1958-
1995: A research synthesis. Exceptional Children, 63, 59-74.
Sebba, J. & Ainscow, M. (1996) nternational developments in inclusive schooling: mapping the
issues, Cambridge Journal of Education, 26(1), 518.Skidmore, D. (2004). nclusion the
dynamic of school development. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Slj, R. (1999). Kommunikation som arena fr handling lrande i ett diskursivt perspektiv
[Communication as an arena for action learning in a discourse perspective]. n C.A.
Sfstrm, & L. stman (Eds.), Textanalys [Analysis of texts]. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
Slj, R. (2000). Lrande i praktiken. Ett sociokulturellt perspektiv [Learning in practice. A
sociocultural perspective]. Stockholm: Prisma.
Terpstra, J. E., & Tamura, R. (2008). Effective social interaction strategies for inclusive settings.
Early childhood Educational Journal, 35, 405-411.
Van Reusen, A. K., Shoho, A. R., & Barker, K. S. (2001). High school teacher attitudes toward
inclusion. The High School Journal, 7-20.
Ward, J. Center, Y. & Bochner, S. (1994). A question of attitudes: integrating children with
disabilities into regular classrooms? British Journal of Special Education. 21(1). 34-39.
Wentzel, K. R. (2002). Are effective teachers like good parents? Teaching styles and student
adjustment in early adolescence. Child Development, 73, 287-301.
West-Burnham, J. (1997) Managing quality in schools, 2nd Edn (London, Pitman).Westling
Allodi, M. (2002). A two-level analysis of classroom climate in relation to social context,
grup composition and organization of special support. Learning Environments Research
5, 253-274.
Westwood, P. (2004). Commonsense Methods for children with special educational needs,
London
Villa, R. A., Thousand, J. S., Myers, H., & Nevin, A. (1996). Teacher and administrator
perceptions of heterogeneous education. Exceptional Children, 63, 2945.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1999). Tnkande och sprk. [Thought and Language]. Stockholm: Daidalos.
Zollers, N. J., Ramanathan, A. K. & Moonset, Y. (1999) The relationship between school culture
and inclusion: how an inclusive culture supports inclusive education, Qualitative Studies
in Education, 12(2), 157174.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Candeias, A.A., Trindade, M. N., Santos, G, Rosrio, A.C., Rebocho, M., Cortes, M. J.;
Saragoa, M. J., Vreese, J., Bernat, E., Evans, J; Negrillo, C.;J.; Brodin, J.; Ljusberg, A-
L.,& Cabral, N. (2009). +nclusive /ssessment ; *rom theory to practice in some
!uropean countries. +n, roceedings from +nternational -onference3 -hanging
ractices in +nclusive .chools3 University of vora. CD-Rom.
Candeias, A.A., Santo, M.J., Rebocho, M., Cortes, M.J., Santos, G., Chaleta, E., Grcio, L.,
Pires, H., Dias, C. & Rodrigues, J. (2008). Reflections about assessment and
intervention with students with special educational needs. +nternational 9ournal of
$evelopment and !ducational sychology, 7 061. (pp.405-416).
Earl L. & LeMahieu, P. (1997) Rethinking assessment and accountability. n A. Hargraves
(Ed.) )ethinking !ducational -hanges of (eart and Aind. ACSD Yearbook. Alexandria.
VA.
Goodrum, D. Hackling, M. and Rennie, L. (2001) 4he status and quality of teaching and
learning in /ustralian schools. Canberra Dep.of Ed. and Train.
Kleinert H., Green, P.Hurtle, M., Cleiton J. and Oetinger, C. (2002) Creating and using
Meaningful alternate assessment. 4eaching !"ceptional children, 86,6,6<- 6:
Lloyd, Ch. (2006). Removing barriers to achievement: A strategy for inclusion or exclusion?.
+nternational 9ournal of +nclusive !ducation, 75, 5 (221 236)
Pugach M.C. & Warger C.L. (2001). Curriculum matters: Raising expectations for students
with disabilities. )emedial and .pecial !ducation, 55 194-200.
Salvia, J., Ysseldyke, J. & Bolt, S. (2007). /ssessment in special and inclusive education.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Stanford, P. & Reeves, S. (2005). Assessment that drives instruction. 4eaching !"ceptional
-hildren, 8: 06) 18-22.
Watkins, A. (Editor) (2007) /ssessment in +nclusive .ettings3 'ey +ssues for olicy and
ractice. Odense, Denmark: European Agency for Development in Special Needs
Education.
%ibliography3
Arnaiz, P (1988): Bui Cs qui. ,es relacions humanes al grup-classe. Barcelona: Ed. Gra
Bonals, J. (1996): !l trabajo en equipo del profesorado. Barcelona: Ed. Gra
Boqu, M. C. (2002). #uia de mediaciD escolar. rograma comprensiu dactivitats.
!ducaciD primEria i secundEria obligatFria. Barcelona: Associaci de Mestres Rosa
Sensat.
Diez de Ulzurrun, A. Masegosa, A. (1996): ,a dinEmica de grups en lacciD tutorial.
Barcelona: Ed. Gra.
Huguet, T (2006): /prendre junts a laula. Gna proposta inclusiva. Barcelona: Ed. Gra
Mullins, L. J. (2007): Aanagement and organisational behaviour.New Jersey: Prentice
Hall. 8th edition.
Perrenoud, P. (1999): Dix nouvelles competences pour enseigner. Paris: ESF diteur.
Pujols, P. (2003): /prendre junts alumnes diferents. Vic: Edit Eumo.
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Re(erences E Teaching inclusivel) E "i'e %emoire a ne7 proposal to assess teachers
practices
DFES 2005, Primary National Strategy, KEEP Key Elements of Effective Practice, Acorn
Press.
Brodin,J and Lindstrand,P (2007), CT and nclusive education in Primary schools pupils
with motor disabilities. Perspectives of a school for all. nternational Journal of nclusive
Education 11 (2) 133-145
Ljusberg, A-L (2009) Pupils in remedial classes Doctoral Thesis in Child and Youth Studies at
Stockholm University, Sweden
@. "!T6ORS
INTRO#!CTION
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Authors
Eva 0ERN"T 9Coor'inator;, Jean-Clau'e #e$reese H Carme Negrillo; Jenny Evans ;
Natalia Cabral ; Adelinda Candeias ;Jane Brodin & Ana-Lena Ljusberg
CONCEPTIONS O+ INC!SI$E E#!C"TION 5IT6 SEN
Authors:
%. uIsa >rJcio 9Coor'inator); Adelinda A. Candeias; Clarinda Pomar; Antnio Borralho;
M. Elisa Chaleta; Heldemerina Pires; Jean-Claude DeVreese; Eva Bernat ; Carme Mnegril
Falc; Jenny Evans; Natalia Cabral; Jane Brodin; Ana-Lena Ljusberg
S!PPORT S4STE%S +OR P!PIS 5IT6 SPECI+IC NEE#S
Authors:
"'elin'a ". Can'eias 9Co-or'inator;, M. N. Trindade, G. Santos, A.C. Rosrio, M.
Rebocho, M.J. Saragoa,M.Joo Cortes, Jean-Claude DeVreese, Eva Bernart, Carme Negril
Falc,Jenny Evans, Natalia Cabral, Jane Brodin, Ana-Lena Ljusberg
CONCEPTIONS ON TE"C6ER TR"ININ>, C"SSROO% CI%"TE, TE"% 5OR:
Authors
"nna-ena <us.ergH >raKa #uarte Santos ; Negrillo, CH "'elin'a ". Can'eias 9Co-
or'inators;
Jean-Claude DeVreese, Eva Bernart , Jenny Evans, Natalia Cabral, Jane Brodin, Cort, N;
Domingo, M; Pont, M.N; Salvador, N; Sebasti, J. LL; Valls, J. LL; Valverde, F; Vargas,
J.D. ; C. Pomar; M. N. Trindade, G. Santos, A.C. Rosrio, M. Rebocho, M.J.
Saragoa,M.Joo Cortes

TE"C6IN> INC!SI$E4
Authors:
Jenn) Evans 9co-or'inator; H Eva BERNAT, Jean-Claude DeVreese ; Carme Negrillo;
Natalia Cabral ; Adelinda Candeias; Graa Santos, Luisa Gracio, Clarinda Pomar, Nazaret
Trindade e Maria Jos Saragoa. ; Jane Brodin & Ana-Lena Ljusberg
1L.CRE#ITS
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
"!STRI"
Team SPZ-Graz Sprachheilschule :
FABAN-PLTL Angelika; Diplompdagogin
REBOL Susanne, Diplompdagogin
SAN Brigitte; Magistra
SCHOLZ Sylvia; Diplompdagogin
SCHN ngrid; Diplompdagogin
STRAUSS Ursula; MA
STROHMAER Heidrun; Diplompdagogin
0est practice schools in St)ria E cooperation in the intervie7s an' trials o( "%
Volksschule Kronesgasse
Volksschule Murfeld
Volksschule Viktor Kaplan
SPZ Graz Sprachheilschule
+or the support to the pro<ect
Landesschulrat fr Steiermark LS Herbert Buchebner
Bezirksschulrat Graz - BS Josef Lang, BS Johannes Lickl, BS Wolfgang Schnelzer
Stadtschulamt Graz SR Herbert Just
0E>I!%
All the team of the nspectorate
And particularly
M. Andr Caussin, nspecteur coordonnateur
Mme Claudine Debaty, Secretary
0est practice schools in 0elgium E cooperation in the intervie7s an' trials o( "%
and particularly
the Centre Enseignement et Traitements Diffrencis 2CET94 of Brussels and
l'Escalpade of Louvain-la-Neuve.
+or the support to the pro<ect
M. Dupont, Ministre de l'enseignement
M. H. ngberg, Secrtaire gnral de la Communaut franaise
M. Delcor frdric, Secrtaire gnral de la Communaut franaise
M. J-P Hubin, Administrateur gnral de la Communaut franaise
M. Beaufort, Charg de mission auprs du Ministre pour l'enseignement spcialis
Mme Simon, Charge de mission auprs de l'Administration gnrale de l'enseignement et
de la recherche scientifique pour l'enseignement spcialis
C"T"!NI"2SP"IN
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
Team
(Coordinator) Negrillo,
C; Cort, N; Domingo, M; Pont, M.N; Salvador, N; Sebasti, J. LL; Valls, J. LL; Valverde, F;
Vargas, J.D
0est practice schools
CEP Torroja i Miret. Vila-seca (Tarragons)
CEP Baltasar Seg. Valls (Alt Camp)
ES Serra de Miramar. Valls (Alt Camp)
CEP Sant Ramon. El Pla de Santa Maria (Alt Camp)
!NITE# :IN>#O%
0est practice schools in #evon E cooperation in the intervie7s an' trials o( "%
Heathcoat Primary School, Tiverton
Two Moors Primary School, Tiverton
Tiverton High School, Tiverton
South West Teacher Training, West Exe Technology College, Exeter
PORT!>"2E$OR"
Team (rom !niversit) o( Mvora - Portugal
Adelinda Candeias
Antnio Borralho
Maria Lusa Grcio
Clarinda Pomar
Graa Santos
Heldemerina Pires
Maria Elisa Chaleta
Jos Verdasca
Team (rom partner institutions
Direco Regional de Educao do Alentejo Jos Verdasca e Maria Jos Saragoa
Agrupamento de Escolas de Estremoz Maria Joo Cortes
Agrupamento de Escolas de Arraiolos Mnica Rebocho e Jlio Coincas
Agrupamento de Escolas n 4 de vora Ana Cristina Rosrio e Gertrudes Pastor
0est practice schools in "lente<o E cooperation in the intervie7s an' trials o( "%
Agrupamento de Escolas de Estremoz
Agrupamento de Escolas de Arraiolos
Agrupamento de Escolas n 4 de vora
+or the support to the pro<ect
Adega Cooperativa de Redondo;
Associao APPACDM;
IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
ASCTE Associao scio-cultural teraputica de vora;
Borqueijos Sociedade de Queijos de Borba, Lda.;
Cmara Municipal de vora;
Cmara Municipal de Arraiolos;
Casa do Porco Preto;
CERC Diana Cooperativa para a educao, reabilitao e insero de cidados
inadaptados de vora, CRL;
Companhia de Seguros AXA Portugal;
Delta Cafs,
Direco regional de Educao do Alentejo
Fundao para a Cincia e a Tecnologia;
Fundao Eugnio de Almeida;
nstituto do Emprego e Formao Profissional vora
Joaquim M. Charrito Cachopas
Papelaria a Borrachinha, Lda
Queijos Fialho & Valverde, Lda.
Soparlim - Soc. Panificadora Arraiolense, Lda
S5E#EN
Mrs. Jane Brodin, Phd
Mrs. Ana-Lena Ljuisberg, Phd